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The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence in Hungary

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The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence in Hungary

Abstract

In this paper we survey the system of academic degrees and important academic titles used in Hungary in the mirror of their historical development - as appropriate from the aspect of jurisprudence, omitting scientific titles that fall outside this field. First, we examine the requirements and statutory conditions of becoming a university professor (ordinary and extraordinary university professor) and university private professor (Privatdozent) in the period from Maria Theresa's Ratio educationis, i.e., 1777 to 1950. After that, we present the introduction, regulations of the academic degrees introduced in 1950 and 1951 following Soviet patterns: the candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences degrees and the rules of obtaining them as well as the system of scientific and researcher classification still used today. After the historical survey, we analyse the regulation of academic degrees and titles after the change of regime on the basis of statutory and institutional regulations. As part of that, we survey the system of requirements of obtaining the doctoral (PhD) degree, the requirements of habilitation as scientific qualification, the rules of winning the doctor of the Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (MTA) [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS)] title replacing the doctor of sciences degree and the conditions of becoming an ordinary and corresponding member of the Academy.
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Прегледни чланак 378.2:34(439)
doi:10.5937/zrpfns50-12688
Tamás Nótári, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Sapientia University, Cluj-Napoca
Department of Law
tamasnotari@yahoo.de
THE HISTORY OF ACADEMIC DEGREES AND
TITLES IN JURISPRUDENCE IN HUNGARY
Abstract:In this paper we survey the system of academic degrees and important
academic titles used in Hungary in the mirror of their historical development – as
appropriate from the aspect of jurisprudence, omitting scientific titles that fall outside
this field. First, we examine the requirements and statutory conditions of becoming
a university professor (ordinary and extraordinary university professor) and
university private professor (Privatdozent) in the period from Maria Theresa’s Ratio
educationis, i.e., 1777 to 1950. After that, we present the introduction, regulations of
the academic degrees introduced in 1950 and 1951 following Soviet patterns: the
candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences degrees and the rules of obtaining them
as well as the system of scientific and researcher classification still used today. After
the historical survey, we analyse the regulation of academic degrees and titles after
the change of regime on the basis of statutory and institutional regulations. As part
of that, we survey the system of requirements of obtaining the doctoral (PhD) degree,
the requirements of habilitation as scientific qualification, the rules of winning the
doctor of the Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (MTA) [Hungarian Academy of Sciences
(HAS)] title replacing the doctor of sciences degree and the conditions of becoming
an ordinary and corresponding member of the Academy.
Keywords: academic degrees, Hungarian jurisprudence, CSc, DSc, PhD,
habilitation, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
1. FROM RATIO EDUCATIONIS TO 1950
1.1. University professorship
Regarding the appointment of university professors and the requirements
they are to meet, Article 21 of the 1777 Ratio educationis issued by Maria Theresa
reveal the following. Becoming a university professor is conditional upon having
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documented scientific activity. The council of the university can put three nomi-
nees forward for the given department through the Governor’s Council to the
ruler; this wording makes it clear that (using later terminology) it applies to pub-
lic ordinary university professors. The nominees were invited from academies
and grammar schools on the basis of their scientific activity or could be men
“living anywhere and known of their excellent erudition”. The nominees’ curric-
ulum vitae and description of their scientific activity and personality, character
were attached to the recommendation, and the ruler selecting from them appoint-
ed the given person university professor. The fact that the decree speaks about
“providing university lectures” makes it clear that in those days – as we shall see,
up to the second half of the 19th c. – only so-called ordinary university professors
were allowed to teach at the university.1 Consequently, public ordinary university
professors obtained their chair through application, their order of priority at the
faculty was determined by the date of their appointment, and by public extraor-
dinary university professors they meant professors who did not have their own
independent department, in other words, in rank they were placed by all means
behind ordinary university professors.2
Among the criteria of selecting the above-mentioned nominees for professor
Article 102. § of the Decree underlines the importance of professional knowledge
and lecturer’s competence, their certification by public opinion and published
works and, as a criteria outside science, engaging an irreproachable religious and
moral conduct. The decree obligatorily stipulates that – in order to decrease “the
risk of error” – the professors of the given faculty have the right to express an
opinion on the nominees. The need to prove and document lecturer’s and teaching
competence is determined also as a requirement by the decree.
3
The option of
open invitation was provided by Article 116. § of the Ratio educationis; to use a
modern term, it made it possible for foreign citizens to be employed as university
professors, by referring to the point that it is unlawful to consider that ”only natives
should arrange for studies without damage to public education”. Therefore, the
possibility to invite persons to a chair must extend not only to the citizens of
Hungary and the hereditary provinces but also to “foreign persons famous for
their education and scientific lectures”.4
1
Friml, Aladár: Az 1777-iki Ratio educationis [Ratio educationis from 1777], Kath.
Középiskolai Tanáregyesület, Budapest, 1913, p. 54–55.
2
Mezey, Barna: Nagyszombattól Budapestig. Az Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem Állam- és
Jogtudományi Kara (1667–2002) [From Nagyszombat to Budapest. Faculty of State and Law of
Eötvös Loránd University (1667–2002)], in Takács, Péter (ed.): A jogászképzés múltja, jelene és
jövője [Past, Present and Future of Legal Education], ELTE ÁJK, Budapest, 2003, p. 148.
3 Friml: op. cit. p. 199.
4 Friml: op. cit. p. 208.
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Act 19 of 1848 on Hungarian University determines the principle with respect
to university professors that students can freely elect “what subject from what
professor they intend to study” and that other “excellent individuals” could teach
at the university in addition to ordinary university professors.5 On the one hand,
the Act subordinated the university to the authority of the Minister of Public
Education,
6
thereby creating and statutorily guaranteeing the autonomy of the
university. On the other hand, during the Revolution and War of Independence no
further reforms affecting universities and scientific sphere in a wider sense were
adopted: the university organisational regulation based on academic freedom was
enacted by the Imperial and Royal Ministerial Decree No. 6798 of 1849, which
can be linked with the name of Leo von Thun-Hohenstein Minister of Religion
and Public Education.7
1.2. University private professorship
It was the quoted 1848 Act that introduced the institution of private professors
– or, using the term applied in the Act: “other excellent individuals” – in addition
to ordinary and extraordinary university professors, which existed up to 1952. In
ranking university private professors were placed between professional university
professors and the university support staff.
8
University private professors were
not full-time employees of the university; in other words, they were not paid
salaries but shared the tuition fee according to the classes held by them.9 They
obtained their private professor’s qualification through habilitation, which vested
them – on the grounds of the decision of the public ordinary and extraordinary
university professors of the given faculty – with the right to teach the given subject,
venia legendi. This qualification procedure was regulated, after numerous former
proposals and legal sources – such as, for example, the 1848 draft university reg-
ulations made by Baron József Eötvös, the private professors’ regulations no. 412
issued by the Studien Hof-Commission of Vienna on 19 December 1848, promul-
gated at the university of Pest in 1853 and entered into effect in 1858 and the Bill
of 1870 made also by Eötvös “On the Repeated Organisation of the Royal Hun-
garian University of Pest”10 – by the private professors’ qualification regulation
5 Section 2 of Act 19 of 1848.
6 Section 1 of Act 19 of 1848.
7 Bíró, Judit: Magántanárok a pesti tudományegyetemen 1848–1952 [Private Professor at
the University of Pest from 1848 to 1952], ELTE, Budapest, 1990, p. 7.
8 Bíró: op. cit. p. 12.
9 Mezey: op. cit. p. 148.
10
Eötvös, Károly: A pesti királyi magyar egyetem újbóli szervezése tárgyában [On the
Repeated Organisation of the Royal Hungarian University of Pest], in: Képviselőházi Irományok,
IV., Pest, 1869–1871, p. 262–268.
of 1871 made by Tivadar Pauler
11
and then by the Ministerial Decree No. 45.
520/1892 of the Hungarian Royal Minister of Religion and Public Education made
by Count Albin Csáky.12
It is worth noting why the term private professor became generally accepted
in Hungarian university terminology. The phrase is the translation of the German
Privatdozent, which remained unchanged during the more than one hundred years
of the existence of the institution, however, it drew fierce criticism and numerous
unsuccessful attempts at modifications. Due to failure of the motions for modifi-
cation, the term ’docens’ /associate professor/ was generally used in common talk
only, and in 1923 a decree officially prohibited the use of the term;13 accordingly,
the professor’s title was not ”enacted” either.14
Private professor’s habilitation could be carried out the earliest three years
after obtaining doctorate,
15
and the procedure could be commenced if the body
consisting of ordinary and extraordinary professors deemed the applicant eligible
by secret ballot on the basis of his ”personal qualification”.16 The latter criterion,
i.e., personal qualification, allowed several extra-scientific – religious, origin
related, political, etc. – aspects to play a part in commencing the habilitation
procedure, which might have been all the more injurious since no legal remedy
lay against the result of the secret ballot on this subject, requiring simple majori-
ty of the votes cast (but dismissing the applicant in case of equality of votes).17 In
the further phases of the procedure, the applicant’s “independent, strictly scien-
tific” habilitation paper ”published in printing”18 was reviewed by two experts,
within six months’ deadline set by the regulations.19 If the two opinions were
unanimously positive – in case of difference of opinion a third evaluator was
appointed
20
– the faculty council decided whether the applicant could be admitted
to oral exam21 and trial lecture22. When these were successfully performed, the
applicant was appointed private professor by the Minister of Religion and Public
Education – contrary to public ordinary and extraordinary professors who were
11
Pauler, Tivadar: Magántanári képesítő szabályzat [Regulation of the Qualification of
Private Professors], Budapesti Közlöny 1871/6, p. 157–158.
12 ró: op. cit. p. 14.
13 Ministerial Decree No. 77.893/1923.
14 ró: op. cit. p. 16.
15 Section 6 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
16 Section 8 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
17 ró: op. cit. p. 22.
18 Section 4 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
19 Sections 8–10 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
20 Section 11 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
21 Section 13 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
22 Sections 14–16 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
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installed into their office by the king, later on by the governor or the president of
the republic.23 After that, private professors were granted the decretum habilita-
tionis signed by the rector.
24
If the applicant was refused in any short listing
except for a resolution to dismiss adopted with regard to “personal qualification” – he
could lodge an appeal to the Minister,25 however, if this failed to bring any result,
he could try again to obtain private professor’s title the earliest two years later.26
Some of private professors could become titular public extraordinary uni-
versity professors pursuant to Decree No. 20.162/1891 of the Minister of Religion
and Public Education. The difference between holders of this title – granted by
the university on the basis of literary works, but almost entirely not being under
the control of the ministry – and private professors was merely that the former
could use their title outside the university as well, while they belonged to the same
category as private professors within the university system.27 The title of titular
public extraordinary professor was granted in the following process: two experts
expressed an opinion on the documentation analysing the scientific activity of the
nominee having worked as a private professor for at least three years, on the basis
thereof a body consisting of three persons set up by the faculty made a proposal,
which formed the basis of the decision to be usually approved by the Minister of
Religion and Public Education.28 It should be noted that this rise in title did not
make the holder expectant of becoming a public ordinary or extraordinary uni-
versity professor;29 therefore, persons belonging to this category were placed
between private professors and ordinary or extraordinary university professors in
the “order of protocol”.30
The title of titular ordinary university professor introduced in 1910 could be
given (i) to retired public ordinary university professors and (ii) to private professors
vested with public extraordinary title who had outstanding academic achievement.31
This category did not mean any extra right compared to titular extraordinary
university professorship, in other words, its introduction served only a kind of
seeming rise in title.32
23 Bíró: op. cit. p. 34.
24 Section 18 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
25 Section 19 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
26 Section 21 of Ministerial Decree No. 45. 520/1892.
27 Bíró: op. cit. p. 48.
28 Ministerial Decree No. 11.041/1868.
29 Ministerial Decree No. 24/114/1876.
30 Bíró: op. cit. p. 49.
31 Ministerial Decree No. 85.107/1910.
32 ró: op. cit. p. 50.
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2. THE SYSTEM OF ACADEMIC DEGREES INTRODUCED
FOLLOWING THE SOVIET PATTERN
By 1952 the former scientific qualification system was definitively termi-
nated pursuant to the provisions of Law-decrees 44 of 1950 and 26 of 1951 and
was replaced by the centralised pattern adopted from the Soviet Union, where it
was introduced in 193433, which contained the candidate of sciences and doctor
of sciences degrees conferred by the HAS and the university doctor title and later
degree conferred by universities.
2.1. The candidate’s degree
The candidate of sciences (Candidatus Scientiarum, C.Sc.) degree was in-
troduced by Law-decree 44 of 1950 on “the introduction of a new academic degree
and regulations of obtaining it” promulgated on 26 November 1950 – as the Pre-
amble of the Law-decree puts it – “…in order to ensure planned scientific and
professional recruitment, following the example of the Soviet Union’s leading
scientific cadre training program…”.34
The Law-decree entrusted the Hungarian Academy of Sciences with con-
trolling the training that served the basis of the candidate’s degree, which exercised
this duty through the National Scientific Qualification Committee, from 1951
through the Scientific Classification Committee35 replacing the former36. Ob-
taining the degree was conditional upon aspirantship, i.e., candidate training, a
dissertation proving capability of independent scientific research and defending
it before the committee designated by the National Scientific Qualification Com-
mittee.37 The maximum duration of aspirantship was three years as stipulated by
law, however, in certain cases this duration was determined by the National Sci-
entific Qualification Committee, taking account of the character of the branch of
science and the preparedness of the aspirant.
38
For the period of training, i.e.,
aspirantship, the nominee had to be assigned to the scientific institute determined
by the National Scientific Qualification Committee39 and his professional activity
was controlled by the aspirant supervisor.40 During the period of candidate train-
ing the aspirant obtained a state scholarship and the aspirant supervisor was paid
33 Волков, М. Н.: Кандидаֳ наук, in: Больֵая совеֳская энциклоֲедия XX., Государ-
ствзнное Hayчное Издательство, Москва, 1953, p. 3.
34 Preamble of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
35 Section 4 of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
36 Section 1 (1) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
37 Section 2 (1) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
38 Section 3 (1) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
39 Section 5 (1) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
40 Section 5 (2) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
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a fee depending on the number of aspirants controlled by him
41
to the debit of the
budget of the HAS.
42
The latest until the end of the first academic year, the aspirant
took a preliminary examination in the subjects of the candidate’s exam before the
designated board of examiners43 and at the end of the training period he took the
candidate’s exam, where he gave account of his professional and ideological (as
the law puts it “Marxist-Leninist”) expertise and foreign language skills.44 It was
possible to obtain the candidate’s degree also without completing the aspirant
training, on condition that the nominee had taken his candidates exam, made his
dissertation and defended it with the special authorisation of the National Scien-
tific Qualification Committee,45 in other words, ”individual preparation” was an
option in case of the candidate’s degree as well. The candidate’s degree could be
obtained also when it was conferred by the National Scientific Qualification Com-
mittee ”on the basis of formerly achieved scientific merits serving the benefit of
the people” without taking any aspirant’s exam, writing any dissertation or de-
fending it
46
– this solution was used in several cases regarding scientists who were
appointed university professors earlier.
With respect to the persons holding a candidate’s degree in all branches of
science, it is worth mentioning three records: while in 1961 2266 persons holding
a candidate’s degree were registered, this number rose to 9885 in 1990; in the
period of the existence of the candidate’s degree a total of 17434 candidate’s cer-
tificates were issued.47 For the last time applications for obtaining a candidate’s
degree could be submitted in 1997, the matters in progress were concluded in the
following one or two years. Contrary to PhD, as we shall see, it was usually rare
for a scientist to obtain the candidate’s degree under the age of forty.48
2.2. The doctor of sciences degree
In the year following the introduction of the candidate’s degree Law-decree
26 of 1951 on the introduction of the academic degree doctor of sciences and
regulation of university lecturer’s and research institute positions and degrees
arranged for setting up the degree doctor of sciences (Doctor Scientiarum, D.Sc.).
The Preamble of the Law-decree referred to the earlier Law-decree 44 of 1950 and
41 Section 6 (1) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
42 Section 6 (2) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
43 Section 7 of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
44 Section 8 (1) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
45 Section 9 (1) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
46 Section 9 (2) of Law-decree 44 of 1950.
47
Nagy, Péter Tibor: A tudományos továbbképzés Kádár-korszakbeli társadalomtörténe-
téhez [Postgraduate Education in the Kádár-Era], Kultúra és közösség 2011/2., p. 26.
48 Pálinkó, Éva: Fiatal kutatók életútja és szakmai identitása [Course of Life and Professional
Identity of Young Researchers], PhD-Thesis, BCE, Budapest, 2009, p. 22.
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pointed out that “on the basis of the experience of the Soviet Union it is necessary
to introduce […] the academic degree doctor of sciences” as the former (old system
doctoral and private professor’s) ”degrees do not sufficiently help enhancement
of the general standard of our scientific life” and “do not sufficiently urge our
researchers to carry out increased scientific work and to widen their knowledge”.
49
The Preamble of the legal rule also underlined that it is necessary to regulate the
system of university lecturer’s and research institute positions as well, noting that
for the time being filling these positions is not conditional upon holding either the
candidate of sciences or the doctor of sciences degree, however, for the future
“persons who fill the highest positions are expected to be possibly candidates or
doctors as soon and in as many number as possible”.50
The doctor of sciences degree – i.e., emphatically not a title but the highest
grade of the scientific qualification system – “is the sign of acknowledgement of
high-level scientific achievement”,
51
which can be won by those who have already
obtained the candidate of sciences degree, have in-depth and overall knowledge
in the given field of their branch of science, have showed new results based on
their independent researches and defended their doctor’s thesis”.
52
The Law-decree
made it possible to win the doctor of sciences degree exceptionally without holding
a candidate’s degree and writing a dissertation for those who deserved it by their
scientific achievements of especially great significance.53 According to this reg-
ulation, the ordinary and corresponding members of the HAS were entitled to the
doctor of sciences degree,
54
which was obviously aimed at conferring a degree upon
scientists who were elected academicians earlier before introduction of the new
type of degrees. The legal rule ordered that both candidates and doctors of sciences
should use the specification of their branch of science with their name
55
and should
be provided with emolument supplement.56 With respect to conferring both the
candidate’s and the doctor of sciences degree – in order to replace the National
Scientific Qualification Committee set up earlier regarding the candidate’s degree
– the above cited Law-decree ordered to set up the Scientific Classification Com-
mittee within the HAS, whose members were to be appointed upon the proposal
of the HAS by the Council of Ministers.57
With regard to winning the doctor of sciences degree, the Law-decree set the
following order of procedure. Applications for obtaining the degree could be
49 Preamble of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
50 Preamble of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
51 Section 1 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
52 Section 1 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
53 Section 1 (3) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
54 Section 2 of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
55 Section 3 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
56 Section 3 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
57 Section 4 of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
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submitted the earliest three years after winning the candidate’s degree – the Sci-
entific Classification Committee could exempt applicants from compliance with
this period exceptionally – 58 the application had to be lodged with the dean of the
given university faculty addressed to the Scientific Classification Committee.59
The applicant marked one of his dissertations and monographs as doctor’s thesis
and attached it to his application – as an exception the legal rule made it possible
for nominees presenting exceptional scientific achievement who had only one
dissertation to win the doctor of sciences degree.
60
The submitted dissertation was
delivered by the dean of the university faculty to the scientists of the given field
for review and the so developed opinion was submitted by him to the Scientific
Classification Committee.
61
In view of the fact that the candidate’s dissertation
and the application for winning the degree had to be forwarded to the Scientific
Classification Committee through the dean of the faculty and that the preliminary
opinion expressed on the dissertation was made by two experts designated by the
dean, it was unavoidable that the evaluation should be influenced by ideological,
political and personal criteria outside academic considerations as well.62
The Scientific Classification Committee designated three evaluators to re-
view the dissertation and when the opinion of two of them was favourable, the
dissertation was put to public debate before the designated special committee of
the Academy.63 On the basis of the judgements, the debate and the special com-
mittee’s proposal, the Scientific Classification Committee adopted decision on
conferring the doctor of sciences degree by secret ballot; in case of favourable
decision, the certificate was issued, which was delivered by the council of the
university the application was submitted to.64 The regulations do not contain any
reference to whether the decision of the Scientific Classification Committee had
to be adopted by a simple or qualified majority of the votes cast, which allows to
presume that conferring the degree was decided by simple majority.
With respect to formerly issued titles, the Law-decree made the following
decision. The holders of these titles could submit an application based on which
the Scientific Classification Committee examined until 30 September 1952 whether
they could get the doctor of sciences or candidate of sciences degree.
65
In this
interim period the Scientific Classification Committee (i) could confer any of the
new degrees upon the applicant without submitting any dissertation or (ii) could
58 Section 5 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
59 Section 5 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
60 Section 5 (3) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
61 Section 6 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
62 Nagy: op. cit. p. 23.
63 Section 6 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
64 Section 6 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
65 Section 7 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
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dismiss the application or (iii) could set the conditions that the applicant had to
satisfy in order to win the appropriate degree.66 By entering into effect, the
Law-decree cancelled the option of conferring the doctoral title (dr. jur.) as part
of granting the diploma – similarly, as from 1 January 1952 it terminated issuance
of doctoral titles in such a form at medical universities – instead of it, it ordered
to use the specification ’qualified’ (qualified jurist),67 however, it made it possible
for “old system doctors” to continue to use this title.68 (This regulation was in effect
only for a short period; from 1953 lawyers and physicians were given doctoral title
again together with their diploma.)
3. THE SYSTEM OF ACADEMIC DEGREES AND TITLES
AFTER THE CHANGE OF REGIME
The need for transforming the scientific qualification system developed in
1950/51, primarily the necessity to return the right to confer the doctoral degree
to universities became apparent shortly after the change of regime. This was made
emphatically necessary by two circumstances: on the one hand, the Conference
of European Universities (CRE) admitted as its members only universities that
– in accordance with ancient university privileges – had the right to confer doc-
toral degrees; on the other hand, the candidate of sciences degree did not appear to
be compatible in the international scene; it was a subject of dispute, for example,
whether, taking the West German system as basis, the candidate’s degree could
be considered equal to promotion or habilitation.69
Below we shall discuss the doctoral, i.e., PhD degree, now the only degree
in Hungary’s scientific life, habilitation that represents a prerequisite for taking
certain positions in the scientific qualification system (associate professor, uni-
versity professor, senior research fellow, research advisor) and the doctor of the
HAS title replacing D.Sc. After that we shall dwell on the rules of becoming a
member of the Academy.
3.1. The doctoral degree (PhD)
As a result of the above outlined attempt, by Act LXXX of 1993 on Higher
Education the currently effective scientific qualification system was developed
that now defines only a single uniform academic degree, PhD and under which
66 Section 7 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
67 Section 8 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
68 Section 8 (3) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
69
Róna-Tas, András: A magyar doktori iskolák helyzete és jövője [Status and Future of
Postgradual Schools in Hungary], Magyar Tudomány 2003, p. 1298.
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the doctor of the HAS title replacing the doctor of sciences degree is now consid-
ered a title rather than a degree. (It should be noted that the titles dr. jur. of jurists
and dr. med. of physicians – just as the titles dr. med. dent. of dentists, dr. pharm.
of pharmacists and dr. vet. of veterinarians – are not academic degrees but titles,
part of their diploma.
70
) PhD is nothing else then the abbreviation of the Latin
philosophiae doctor. The official abbreviations of the term in Anglo-Saxon countries
is also PhD – sometimes Dphil; in German language areas dr. phil. (Promotion,
Doktor der Wissenschaften); the equivalent of PhD in the science of the arts is DLA
(Doctor of Liberal Arts, Doctor Liberalium Artium).71
Act LXXX of 1993 on Higher Education already refers to the PhD degree and
habilitation and mentions the relation of the candidate’s degree to PhD. As a con-
dition of founding and operating universities the Act, among others, defines doc-
toral training and suitability for conferring the doctoral (PhD) and master’s (DLA)
degree and conducting the habilitation procedure as a required condition.72 Re-
garding the doctoral degree, in 1993 the Act formulated as follows: “Whenever
this Act refers to doctoral degree as requirement for employment, engagement,
qualification or other legal rule refers to academic degree as requirement for
employment, engagement, qualification, then it shall be interpreted as the doctor-
al degree as set out in this Act, the candidate of sciences, doctor of sciences degree
or an academic degree obtained abroad and registered or acknowledged inland.
As from entry into force of this Act, the persons who hold the candidate of sciences
degree can use the specification ’doctoral degree’.”73 The latter sentence makes it
clear that candidate’s degrees were automatically re-qualified as PhD. In spite of
this formal identity, András Róna-Tas declared with regard to degrees that PhD,
i.e., the doctoral degree conferred by the university”…did not replace the candidate’s
degree but indicated transfer to a new system simultaneously with termination of
the latter.”74
Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education formulates the following
with regard to the doctoral degree. After obtaining the master’s degree – regarding
jurists, as appropriate, in view of undivided lawyer’s training, after obtaining the
diploma – doctoral training prepares PhD students for the doctoral degree. The
Act declares that the university obtains the right to perform doctoral training and
confer doctoral degree in the field of science – more specifically within the branch
of science – to which its operation licence extends; the doctor’s certificate is signed
by the rector and the chairman of the council of doctors. Furthermore, the Act
determines that it is the right of the council of doctors of the university to organise
70 Section 52 (7) of Act CCIV of 2011.
71 Section 87/F (4) of Act LXXX of 1993 and Section 16 (4) of Act CCIV of 2011.
72 Section 3 (1) of Act LXXX of 1993.
73 Section 119 (1)–(2) of Act LXXX of 1993.
74 na-Tas: op. cit. p. 1298.
1038
the doctoral training and confer the doctoral degree and that the council of doctors
of the university can set up a council of doctors for each field of science and that
each member of the council of doctors, except for would-be doctor representatives,
must have an academic degree.75
Furthermore, the Act defines doctoral training, which can be individual or
group training, research and reporting activity in line with its peculiarities and
the would-be doctor’s needs. After the doctoral training, the procedure of obtain-
ing doctoral degree begins; the name of the former PhD student applying for
degree is: candidate for doctor; the legal relation of the candidate for doctor is
established through application for the procedure of obtaining a degree and its
acceptance the university cannot dismiss the application of those who have
successfully completed the doctoral training at the given university. However, it
is possible to obtain doctoral degree, subject to satisfying certain conditions, even
without participating in the doctoral training preceding it as a so-called individual
preparer. The legal relation of the candidate for doctor can terminate, as appro-
priate, by conclusion of the procedure of obtaining a degree and in the event that
the candidate for doctor failed to submit his doctor’s thesis within two years from
establishing the legal relation. The Act determines the conditions of obtaining a
degree in highly great details as follows: in addition to fulfilling the requirements
set out in the doctoral regulations, completing the doctoral examination before (at
least) a three-member board of examiners; certifying knowledge of two foreign
languages at a level defined in the doctoral regulations; documenting independent
scientific activity by articles and studies (or “otherwise”, which is difficult to
interpret within the frameworks of obtaining a degree in jurisprudence); presenting
the dissertation and defending it in a public debate.76 According to the interpre-
tation of the Act, the dissertation “is a piece of writing, creation or work made by
the candidate for doctor, by which the candidate for doctor proves during the
procedure of obtaining doctoral degree that he is able to solve scientific tasks set
in accordance with the requirements of the decree independently”.77 The Act re-
quires maintenance of a central register of doctoral degrees accessible for anybody
and that it should be made public electronically78 – this is served currently by the
web site www.doktori.hu. As appropriate the Act entrusts the doctoral regulations
of the given university with regulating several issues.
79
Pursuant to the Act, holders
of PhD degree can use the abbreviation PhD or Dr. with their names.80
75 Section 16 (1)–(5) of Act CCIV of 2011.
76 Section 53 (1)–(5) of Act CCIV of 2011.
77 Section 108 (1) of Act CCIV of 2011.
78 Section 53 (6) of Act CCIV of 2011.
79 Section 53 (6) of Act CCIV of 2011.
80 Section 53 (7) of Act CCIV of 2011.
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The Act regulates publicity of doctor’s dissertations and the theses of doctor’s
dissertations as well. It is the university that shall arrange for registering them
electronically and in printed form and making them public in their full volume;
in other words, for placing a printed copy and a copy recorded on electronic data
carrier of the dissertations and the theses at the central library of the university.
Also, publicity is to be ensured by the provision that requires that the doctor’s
dissertation and its theses in electronic form shall be made accessible to anybody
in the Database of Hungarian Scientific Publications (MTMT)81 with a DOI
identity code attached to them.82
Government Decree No. 387/2012. (XII. 19.) on Doctoral Schools, the Order
of Doctoral Procedures and Habilitation sets forth, among others, the following
with regard to the procedure of obtaining a degree. The board of examiners for
the doctoral examination (whose chairman can be only a university professor,
professor emeritus or habilitated professor) must consist of at least three members,
where one of them – if the number of the board members does not amount to five
persons – shall not maintain any legal relation aimed at employment with the
given university.
83
Regarding the thesis booklet the Decree determines that it
shall present the results of independent scientific activity in a summary form.84
The doctor’s dissertation shall be submitted simultaneously with submitting the
application for commencing the procedure of obtaining a degree or within two
years from accepting the application.85 With regard to deadlines, the Decree sets
forth that the procedure of obtaining a degree shall be concluded within one year
from submitting the dissertation,86 and as an incompatibility rule it declares that
next of kin of the person concerned and any person who cannot be expected to
judge the matter objectively shall not act as evaluator or a board member in the
procedure.87
3.2. Habilitation
According to the definition of the effective Higher Education Act, habilitation
”is judging academic’s and lecturer’s competence and scientific achievement by
the institution”.
88
The term itself comes from the Latin word habilis, meaning
suitable and accordingly in time it denoted suitability for independently announcing,
registering main courses of lectures, university subjects. However, this meaning
81 www.mtmt.hu
82 Section 53/A (1)–(2) of Act CCIV of 2011.
83 Section 12 (3) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
84 Section 14 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
85 Section 14 (2) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
86 Section 16 (9) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
87 Section 17 of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
88 Section 108 (7) of Act CCIV of 2011.
1040
developed as the result of a longer process. It was at the end of the 18th century,
in the world of German universities that they formulated the need for the first time
that lecturers should prove their academic and lecturer’s competence as Privat-
dozent at the university. At regulations level, the requirement of habilitation was
recorded for the first time at the Reformuniversität of Berlin founded in 1810 in
the statute adopted in 1812 and entered into effect in 1816 – at the same time, it
should be noted that in those days habilitation was not to mean some kind of
second doctoral degree (Promotion) and did not contain any habilitation paper
(Habilitationsschrift) as requirement for creating some kind of great summary
work.89 No uniform regulation was developed on this matter in the 19th century,
however, customary law set that usually two years must pass between promotion,
i.e., doctoral degree and habilitation, although this depended on the age and uni-
versity and was highly changing. The requirement of writing a habilitation paper,
which definitely exceeded the doctor’s dissertation in terms of both its volume
and standard, became a general requirement at the beginning of the 20
th
century.
90
As we have seen, habilitation was defined in the Hungarian university system
before the changes that occurred in 1950/51 since it was a prerequisite for private
professor’s qualification. The two analysed law-decrees (Law-decree 44 of 1950
and Law-decree 26 of 1951) terminated habilitation as a scientific qualification
procedure since conducting them and conferring the degree fell within the powers
of universities and as such did not fit in with the centralised system of academic
degrees developed following the Soviet pattern.
Habilitation was brought back into the Hungarian university system by Act
LXXX of 1993, which set the following provisions in this respect. The prerequisite
for habilitation is that the applicant should have a doctor’s degree and should prove
his scientific, professional results and the achievements attained by him as lectur-
er, research fellow in practical and creative activities after obtaining the doctor’s
degree, in the form determined in adherence to the habilitation regulations of the
university. The applicant had to give account of his lecturer’s competence in
public, free lectures in Hungarian and a foreign language.91 Development of the
detailed rules of the habilitation procedure was assigned by the Act to the powers
of universities.
92
Furthermore, the Act stipulated that university professors ap-
pointed before the Act entered into effect shall be considered habilitated;
93
in
89
vom Bruch, Rüdiger: Qualifikation und Spezialisierung. Zur Geschichte der Habilitation,
Forschung und Lehre 2000, p. 69.
90
Schubert, Ernst: Die Geschichte der Habilitation, in: Koessler, Henning (Hrsg.): 250
Jahre Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nürnberg, Universtätsbund Erlangen, Erlangen,
1993, p. 125., 134., 151.
91 Section 25 (1)–(4) of Act LXXX of 1993.
92 Section 26 (5) of Act LXXX of 1993.
93 Section 123 (1) of Act LXXX of 1993.
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other words, it did not instruct universities to conduct the habilitation procedure
with regard to university professors holding the doctor of sciences degree or, in
certain cases, the candidate of sciences degree since university professors were
appointed on the basis of the candidate’s degree as well.
The effective law, i.e., Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education as-
signs regulation of the rules of habilitation to the level of Government Decree,94
which authorisation was performed – just as in the case of the doctoral procedure
– also by Government Decree No. 387/2012. (XII. 19.) on Doctoral Schools, the
Order of Doctoral Procedures and Habilitation. Pursuant to it – considering only
provisions applying to jurisprudence and omitting provisions regarding technical
and arts activities – commencement of the habilitation procedure can be applied
for when the nominee has pursued high level, independent scientific activity since
obtaining his doctoral (PhD) degree (for at least five years); has delivered lectures
at some higher education institution either in Hungary or abroad for at least eight
semesters; his scientific works have been published in noted international, author
-
itative periodicals edited by consultant editors and references to his works were
made in such periodicals (as certified by the MTMT database); and has regularly
attended international and inland scientific conferences as a lecturer.95 The nom-
inee sums up the results of his scientific activities performed since obtaining the
doctor’s degree in theses; yet, the habilitation committee or regulations of the
given university can require submission of a habilitation dissertation as well.96
As part of the habilitation procedure, a so-called habitus investigation is
carried out to establish how the nominee has satisfied the set conditions; this is
followed by the evaluation of the habilitation theses. If both evaluations are pos-
itive, the nominee will hold a habilitation lecture in Hungarian and a foreign
language, which is followed by public debate.
97
The theses and the dissertation
as well as the lecture and the public debate are evaluated by the jury – with respect
to its composition the criteria determined in the procedure of obtaining doctor’s
degree shall be applied appropriately.98 As the closing act of the procedure – in
the case that the lecture and the public debate is evaluated positively – on the
basis of the report of the jury, the habilitation committee of the university confers
the habilitated doctor’s degree upon the nominee and issues a habilitation certif-
icate thereon (decretum habilitationis),99 which entitles its holder to bear the title
habilitated doctor (in abbreviated form: dr. habil.).10 0
94 Section 110 (25) of Act CCIV of 2011.
95 Section 21 (2) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
96 Section 21 (3) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
97 Section 22 (5) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
98 Section 23 (3) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
99 Section 24 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
100 Section 21 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012.
1042
3.3. The doctor of the HAS (MTA) title
As we have referred to it already, in 1994 Act XL of 1994 on the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences “changed” the doctor of sciences (D.Sc.) degree introduced in
1951 into the doctor of the HAS title, thereby the degree became a title – a title not
lower at all in prestige, although not precisely defined in the system of scientific
qualification and professional progress. At present the HAS has 55 doctors (except
for the ordinary and corresponding members of the Academy) in legal and political
sciences, including those who had obtained the doctor of sciences degree earlier.
The Act sets forth that the doctor of the HAS degree can be conferred by the
Council of Doctors of the Academy upon persons “who have attained outstanding
scientific achievements” – which is, as a matter of fact, conditional upon holding
an academic degree and complying with other conditions of obtaining the degree
set by the doctoral regulations of the Academy.
101
The Act reasonably declares
that the formerly obtained doctor of sciences degree is equal to the doctor of the
HAS title.
102
Also, the Act on the HAS sets forth that the doctors of the HAS who
live in Hungary can be provided with monthly honorarium by the Academy until
the end of their life and that the annual amount of the honorarium of all the doctors of
the HAS cannot exceed 1.8 times the annual honorarium of all the academicians.103
Pursuant to the Statutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences the doctor
of the HAS title can be conferred upon persons holding an academic degree who
have enriched their science subject with original results after obtaining the degree,
pursue outstanding scientific activity known to and acknowledged by the author-
itative inland and international circles of the relevant field and sum up their find-
ings in a doctor’s dissertation.
104
The Statutes empowered the Council of Doctors
of the Academy to work out the Doctoral Regulations of the HAS and the Rules
of Procedure of the Council of Doctors, which can stipulate further requirements
in addition to the above.
105
The special procedural and requirement system of
Section IX of the Academy, i.e., Section of Economics and Law, applicable to
doctoral matters entered into effect in September 2013.106
The rules of procedure of Section IX and the special requirements set by the
Committee on Legal and Political Sciences distinguish three forms of the doctor’s
dissertation: a dissertation made in order to obtain the title, based on scientific
results attained after obtaining the previous degree, in the volume of minimum
12, maximum 16 author’s sheets without appendices and bibliography; a mono-
101 Section 8 (1) of Act XL of 1994.
102 Section 8 (5) of Act XL of 1994.
103 Section 8 (3) of Act XL of 1994.
104 Section 24 (1) of Statutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences http://mta.hu/cikkek/
akademiai-szabalyozasok-119791
105 Section 24 (2)–(3) of Statutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
106 http://mta.hu/ix_osztaly_cikkei/doktori-ugyek-121451
Tamás Nótári, Ph.D., The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence... (стр. 1027–1046)
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1043
graph published maximum three years earlier, based mostly on the results attained
in the period after obtaining the previous degree; and a so-called short dissertation,
in which the applicant sums up his independent scientific theorems.107 Summary
theses must be attached to the doctor’s dissertation, which (i) can follow the usu-
al structure of dissertations (objective, method, results, utilisation, bibliography),
or (ii) can contain only the main points of thesis, including an introduction and a
list of publications certifying originality of the theses.10 8
The Statutes separate seven phases of the doctoral procedure: submission of
the application; habitus investigation (i.e., qualification of the applicant’s scien-
tific activity, personal suitability, where the scientific committee expresses an
opinion on the applicant and in case of positive opinion the scientific section drafts
a proposal towards the Council of Doctors, which makes the decision); putting up
for judgement and defending procedure, carried out on the basis of the decision
of the Council of Doctors; review of the doctor’s dissertation by three external
examiners; putting to debate by the Council of Doctors on the basis of the pro-
posal of the three adjudicators; public debate (as a result of which, on the basis of
the three external examiners’ opinion, the jury makes a proposal to the scientific
section on conferring the title); and conferring the title on the basis of the proposal
of the scientific section by the Council of Doctors.109
3.4. Membership in the Academy
Act XL of 1994 amended in 2011 provides that the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences is made up by (inland) ordinary and corresponding and (foreign) exter-
nal and honorary members. With regard to being elected an academician, the Act
sets forth no more than that academicians are elected by inland members and that
the number of inland academicians younger than 70 cannot be more than two
hundred, and the total number of inland academicians can be maximum 365 persons;
also it stipulates that inland academicians living in Hungary are provided with
monthly honorarium.
110
At present Section IX of the Academy has 30 (25 ordinary
and 5 corresponding) members, including 11 (9 ordinary and 2 corresponding)
members in the field of legal and political sciences.
By its Resolution No. 5/2012 the HAS’s General Assembly regulated the
detailed procedural rules of electing academicians.
111
Academicians are elected
107
Section (1) of Doctoral Regulations of the HAS, Rules of Procedure of the Council of
Doctors
108 Section (3)–(4) of Doctoral Regulations of the HAS, Rules of Procedure of the Council
of Doctors
109 Section 24 (4) of Statutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
110 Section 6 (1)–(4) of Act XL of 1994.
111
http://mta.hu/data/cikk/13/10/17/cikk_131017/2013_evi_akademikusvalasztas_eljarasi_sza-
balyzata.pdf
104 4
in every three years in May, when members are elected by the Assembly of Acad-
emicians.
112
Recommendations for membership in the Academy can be submitted
by members of the Academy to the competent section, evaluating therein the
scientific activity of the proposed person, his outstanding scientific results and
their acknowledgement at home and abroad. The recommendations examined and
forwarded by the Presidium are published in the periodical Hungarian Science.113
Being a candidate for membership, no matter whether being nominated as
an ordinary, corresponding, external or honorary member, requires at least three
recommendations. Minimum three ordinary members’ recommendation is re-
quired for ordinary membership; minimum three inland members’ recommenda-
tion is required for corresponding membership; at least three inland or two inland
and one external members’ recommendation is required for external membership;
at least three inland members’ recommendation is required for honorary member-
ship. The Resolution regulates the number of recommendations that one member
can put forward: each ordinary, corresponding and external member can recommend
two persons, ordinary members can make two recommendations in each of the four
categories; corresponding and external members can make two recommendations
in each of the three categories (reasonably they cannot make recommendations
on ordinary members); honorary members cannot make recommendations.114
The earliest four weeks after the recommendations are published in the Hun-
garian Science, the scientific section holds a so-called member nomination section
meeting, attended by inland academicians with right to vote – as a matter of fact,
external and honorary members have right of consultation only. The member
nomination section meeting adopts resolution on the nomination of the proposed
persons by secret ballot and simple majority of the votes cast, and those who have
won this share of the votes will be put on the common list of nominees for acad-
emicians. The result of the voting of the member nomination section meeting ranks
the voted nominees as well. The order is determined by the decreasing number of
“yes” votes or, in case of identical number of “yes” votes, by the increasing num-
ber of “no” votes. The president of the section informs the Presidium on the result
of voting, and the Presidium unites the lists of nominees into a common list of
nominees where it is bound by the order set by the section. The number of eligible
new members and their distribution among sections are determined by the member
election meeting of the Assembly of Academicians.115
112 Section 2 (1)–(4) of Procedural Rules of Electing Academicians of the HAS
113 Section 3 (1)–(5) of Procedural Rules of Electing Academicians of the HAS
114 Section 4 (1)–(3) of Procedural Rules of Electing Academicians of the HAS
115 Section 5 (3)–(7) of Procedural Rules of Electing Academicians of the HAS
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SUMMARY
The prime aim of this study was to survey the system of academic degrees
and titles used in Hungary and the related university lecturer and research fellow
classing – as appropriate, setting out primarily from the field of legal and political
sciences. However, in view of the fact that currently used degrees and titles can
be traced back to longer or shorter historical precedents, a historical analysis
seemed to be necessary as well. For example, habilitation as a condition of private
professor’s qualification appeared in Hungarian scientific life as early as in the
19
th
century, and although the candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences degrees
introduced following Soviet patterns are no longer conferred, it is possible to con-
tinue to hold them and they have been included in the scientific qualification system.
We set out from the year 1777 when Ratio educationis was issued by Maria
Theresa, which marks the starting point of a long period of development up to
1950. It was in this period when the system of qualification and required conditions
of ordinary and extraordinary university professorship and, from the second half
of the 19th century, of university private professorship evolved. This organic sys-
tem complying with Western European patterns was ended by two law-decrees
issued in 1950 and 1951. This step, on the one hand, terminated the former scientific
qualification and classification system and introduced the Soviet type candidate
of sciences and doctor of sciences degrees as well as the university classification
system that is used up to this day (which defines assistant lecturer’s, senior lec-
turer’s, associate professor’s and university professor’s scopes of work); and, on
the other hand, centralised Hungarian scientific life by depriving universities of
their powers of scientific qualification.
The bases of effective regulations were created in 1993 when the transforma-
tion of the scientific qualification system introduced following Soviet patterns began.
It was at that time when the PhD, i.e, doctor’s degree was introduced following
western examples, which has now become the only conferable academic degree in
Hungary – all other qualifications are considered “merely” a title. Regarding the
PhD degree, we have analysed not only statutory provisions and requirements but
also the possibilities of institutional regulations. Partly according to former Hun-
garian traditions, partly following Western European (primarily German) patterns,
habilitation as a step of scientific career following PhD has been reinstated among
academic titles. The issuance and conferment of both the PhD (doctor’s) degree and
dr. habil. title have been assigned to the powers of universities. The doctor of scienc-
es degree has been replaced by the doctor of the HAS title; as a matter of fact,
conferring this title has stayed within the powers of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, however, the conditions of obtaining it have become stricter. As the high-
est academic title, membership (primarily corresponding and ordinary membership)
in the Academy has been preserved – at present Section IX of the HAS (Section of
Economics and Law) enumerates 11 legal scientist members.
1046
Др Тамаш Нотари, ванредни професор
Универзитет „Sapientia“, Клуж-Напока
Департман за право
tamasnotari@yahoo.de
Историјат академских степена и звања у области
правне науке у Мађарској
Сажетак: У овом раду аутор у светлу историјског развоја истражује
систем академских степена и значајних академских звања (имајући у виду
правну науку, изостављајући академска звања ван ове области) коришћених
у Мађарској. Прво анализира захтеве и законске услове који су били неопходни
да би неко постао универзитетски професор (редовни и ванредни универ-
зи тетски професор) и приватни универзитетски професор (Privatdozent)
у периоду почев од Ratio educationis Марије Терезије из 1777. године, све до
1950. године. После тога излаже увођење и регулисање академских степена
уве дених 1950. и 1951. године на основу совјетског модела: степене канди-
да та наука и доктора наука, правила стицања ових степена као и систем
на учних и истраживачких класификација, коришћених још и дан данас.
По сле историјског прегледа, на основу законских и институционалних пра-
ви ла, анализира регулисање академских степена и звања, у периоду после про-
мене режима. Посебну пажњу посвећује истраживању система неоп ход них
услова за стицање степена доктора (PhD), захтеве за хабилитацију као
на учну квалификацију, правила за стицање звања доктора Мађарске ака-
демије наука, као замену степена доктора наука, као и услове неопходне да
би неко постао редовни и дописни члан Академије.
Кључнеречи: академски степени; мађарска правна наука; CSc; DSc; PhD;
хабилитација; Мађарска академија наука.
Датум пријема рада: 12.12.2016.
Tamás Nótári, Ph.D., The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence... (стр. 1027–1046)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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  • Tamás Nótári
Tamás Nótári, Ph.D., The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence... (стр. 1027–1046) 58 Section 5 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951. 59 Section 5 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951. 60 Section 5 (3) of Law-decree 26 of 1951. 61 Section 6 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951. 62 Nagy: op. cit. p. 23. 63 Section 6 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951. 64 Section 6 (2) of Law-decree 26 of 1951. 65 Section 7 (1) of Law-decree 26 of 1951.
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Rüdiger: Qualifikation und Spezialisierung. Zur Geschichte der Habilitation, Forschung und Lehre
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Jahre Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nürnberg, Universtätsbund Erlangen, Erlangen, 1993, p. 125., 134., 151. 91 Section 25 (1)-(4) of Act LXXX of 1993. 92 Section 26 (5) of Act LXXX of 1993. 93 Section 123 (1) of Act LXXX of 1993.
96 Section 21 (3) of Government Decree 97 Section 22 (5) of Government Decree No 98 Section 23 (3) of Government Decree No 99 Section 24 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 100 Section 21 (1) of Government Decree No) of Act XL of 1994. 102 Section 8 (5) of Act XL of 1994) of Act XL of 1994
95 Section 21 (2) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 96 Section 21 (3) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 97 Section 22 (5) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 98 Section 23 (3) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 99 Section 24 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 100 Section 21 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 101 Section 8 (1) of Act XL of 1994. 102 Section 8 (5) of Act XL of 1994. 103 Section 8 (3) of Act XL of 1994. 104 Section 24 (1) of Statutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences http://mta.hu/cikkek/ akademiai-szabalyozasok-119791 105 Section 24 (2)–(3) of Statutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 106 http://mta.hu/ix_osztaly_cikkei/doktori-ugyek-121451
Government Decree No. 387/2012. 84 Section 14 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 85 Section 14 (2) of Government Decree No
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Tamás Nótári, Ph.D., The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence... (стр. 1027-1046) 81 www.mtmt.hu 82 Section 53/A (1)-(2) of Act CCIV of 2011. 83 Section 12 (3) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 84 Section 14 (1) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 85 Section 14 (2) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 86 Section 16 (9) of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 87 Section 17 of Government Decree No. 387/2012. 88 Section 108 (7) of Act CCIV of 2011.
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Act XL of 1994. 102 Section 8 (5) of Act XL of 1994. 103 Section 8 (3) of Act XL of
Section 8 (1) of Act XL of 1994. 102 Section 8 (5) of Act XL of 1994. 103 Section 8 (3) of Act XL of 1994.
The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence... (стр. 1027-1046) Зборник радова Правног факултета у Новом Саду
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Tamás Nótári, Ph.D., The history of academic degrees and titles in jurisprudence... (стр. 1027-1046) Зборник радова Правног факултета у Новом Саду, 3/2016