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About the Use of Recycled or Biodegradable Filaments for Sustainability of 3D Printing


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Additive Manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing are drivers for material savings in manufacturing. Owing to the continuous diffusion of 3D printing driven by low-cost entry-level material extrusion printers, sustainability of a so popular AM technology is of paramount importance. Therefore, recycling 3D printed wastes and 3D parts again at the end of their life is an important issue to be addressed. Research efforts are directed towards the improvement of the biodegradability of 3D printing filaments and the replacement of oil based feedstock with bio-based compostable plastics. The aim of this work is to describe the state of the art about development and use of recycled or biodegradable filaments in 3D printing. Beyond a critical review of the literature, open issues and research opportunities are presented.
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About the Use of Recycled or Biodegradable Filaments
for Sustainability of 3D Printing
State of the Art and Research Opportunities
Jukka Pakkanen
, Diego Manfredi
, Paolo Minetola
, and Luca Iuliano
1Department of Management and Production Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy
2Center for Sustainable Future Technologies CSFT@PoliTo, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia,
Turin, Italy
Abstract. Additive Manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing are drivers for material
savings in manufact uring. Owing to the continuou s diffusion of 3D printing dri ven
by low-cost entry-level material extrusion printers, sustainability of a so popular
AM technology is of paramount importance. Therefore, recycling 3D printed
wastes and 3D parts again at the end of their life is an important issue to be
addressed. Research efforts are directed towards the improvement of the biode‐
gradability of 3D printing filaments and the replacement of oil based feedstock
with bio-based compostable plastics. The aim of this work is to describe the state
of the art about development and use of recycled or biodegradable filaments in
3D printing. Beyond a critical review of the literature, open issues and research
opportunities are presented.
Keywords: Additive manufacturing · 3D printing · Fused Deposition Modelling
(FDM) · Biodegradability · Recycling · Bio-based filaments · Sustainability
1 Introduction
Recycling is an important topic brought up by the European Union this year with the
circular economy initiative, wherein “the proposed actions will contribute to close the
loop of product lifecycles through greater recycling and re-use, and bring benefits for
both the environment and the economy” [1]. Unlike in subtractive manufacturing
processes, parts are fabricated layer by layer in Additive Manufacturing (AM) with a
minimum allowance for finishing operations. Since AM allows for greater material
savings than traditional processes, 3D printing can be considered a distributed manu‐
facturing technology for improving sustainability and circular economy worldwide [2].
Most of polymeric materials are produced from exhaustible resources. Around 4% of
worldwide production of oil and gas is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is
used to supply energy for the transformation of polymeric materials [3]. On the other hand,
unlike oil-based polymers, bio-plastics are derived from renewable sources i.e. sugars and
natural fibres.
Among AM technologies, Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is a low-cost tech‐
nique that uses a thermoplastic filament to build parts layer after layer [4]. The popularity
of FDM started with expiration of the patent of Sir Scott Crump by Stratasys and the
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017
G. Campana et al. (eds.), Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2017, Smart Innovation,
Systems and Technologies 68, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-57078-5_73
subsequent open-source Reprap project [5], that ever since has become the preferred
choice of makers. The FDM process is more popularly known as 3D printing and belongs
to the material extrusion category according to the ISO/ASTM terminology [6]. FDM
systems or 3D printers have a simple design consisting of a Cartesian structure with
three controlled axes, up to three hot extrusion heads and a building platform. The price
of consumer-end 3D printers starts from 100 USD and makes these machines affordable
and appealing to many people. It can be forecasted that more and more people will adopt
this technology in the near future. People will 3D print amazing pieces, but also generate
a lot of waste if material is not correctly disposed or recycled at the end of its life.
In terms of AM sustainability, environmental impact of 3D printing should consider
the usage of resources, energy, emitted emissions and waste. Among these energetic
demand is especially critical with industrial FDM machines that use a hot sealed working
volume [7].
Gebler et al. used a two-step model for calculating the possible environmental impact
of all 3D printing technologies globally by 2025 [8]. They estimated that, in the best
case in which improvements are applied to 3D printing and production efficiency
increases, the use of AM for creating new parts can lead to savings of about 5% in energy
and CO
emissions in the manufacturing industry worldwide.
Apart from the energetic footprint, the material management of FDM waste needs
to be addressed. The waste and excess material from 3D printed parts (e.g. support
structures, filament ends and scraps) is the second important environmental aspect of
FDM. Waste management can be directly dealt by makers or final users by means of
material recycling and production of recycled filaments.
As concerns to material sustainability in 3D printing, the aim of this paper is to review
the state of the art about the use of recycled or biodegradable filaments, discussing open
issues and related research opportunities. The organization of this work is the following:
the different types of materials available as 3D printing filaments are presented in
Sect. 2, the main properties of recycled and biocompatible materials are summarized in
Sect. 3, Sect. 4 deals with the material sustainability and finally research opportunities
from open questions are discussed in the conclusions.
2 Filaments for 3D Printing
Many polymeric materials are available for 3D printing, even though the choice is very
limited when compared to that of injection moulding polymers. There are few similar‐
ities in the properties of all FDM materials: the material needs to have a low melting
point and a reduced viscosity in order to flow out of the nozzle for deposition and adhe‐
sion to the previous layer under the low pressure applied by the extrusion mechanism.
The key point for base plastics is to set the proper extrusion temperature to achieve the
right viscosity for a good flowability, whereas rheological behavior of composite fila‐
ments is more complex. The main issues of composites are related to the type of filler
and the amount of water content [9].
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is one of the most common materials in 3D
printing. Good mechanical properties and extrudability make it the preferred choice of
About the Use of Recycled or Biodegradable Filaments 777
makers. It is usually not biodegradable, but the company Enviro ABS claims to have
produced a biodegradable ABS [10]. The downside of ABS is the lack of UV resistance.
To overcome this limitation, acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA) has been developed.
The second most popular material is polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is made from poly‐
merization of sugars and starches, so it is biodegradable and recyclable. Other commonly
used polymers are polycarbonate (PC), polyamide (PA) family plastics, high density
polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and flexible thermoplastic
polyurethane (TPU).
There are studies about the emission of fumes to close proximity while 3D printing
ABS and PLA [11, 12]. The fumes are ultra-fine aerosol (UFA) or volatile organic
compounds (VOC) particles that might be harmful for humans. In the order to reduce
the unpleasant smells and related health risks, a closed printer design and good venti‐
lation of the room is generally recommended. Bio-plastic filaments like PLA produce
less fumes and smells than oil-based ones, e.g. ABS.
2.1 Bio-degradable FDM Filaments
Apart from PLA, other biodegradable plastics used for FDM filaments are polyhydroxy-
alkanoates (PHA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and High
impact polystyrene (HIPS). The properties of these materials are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. Bio-degradable materials for 3D printing
Material Produced
Properties Extrusion
Pros Cons
PLA Plants starch Tough, strong 160 ÷ 222 °C Bio-plastic, non-
toxic, odorless,
Low heat
PVA Petroleum Water-
soluble, good
190 ÷ 210 °C Biodegradable,
recyclable, non-
with moisture,
special storage
PHA Sugars with
brittle and stiff
~160 °C UV-stable,
HIPS Petroleum High impact
soluble in
190 ÷ 210 °C Biodegradable,
low cost, similar
to ABS
printing bed
PET Petroleum Strong and
210 ÷ 230 °C FDA approved,
PHA can be used as it is or as a mixture with PLA. PVA is a water-soluble and
biodegradable material used for support structures. Duran et al. [13] printed PVA as
support structure for ABS. They found that PVA is printable at dried condition until
45 min before it absorbs moisture from the air and it turns impossible to print.
778 J. Pakkanen et al.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a common plastic used for food containers and
tools. It is fully recyclable and safe to use with foods. Recycled filament from PET is
sold commercially by B-PET Company since 2015 [14].
High impact polystyrene (HIPS) is similar to ABS with good mechanical properties
and extrusion temperature. It is used as a support material for ABS as it dissolves in
limonene, but ABS does not.
In biocompatible and medical applications, 3D printing filaments are made of poly‐
mers with low melting temperatures. These materials can be used in FDM to create parts
that integrate within the human tissues, such as scaffolds for example. Chia et al. [15]
and Serra et al. [16] list some of these materials.
Biodegradable 3D printed hollow capsules made of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)
for drug delivery systems have been presented by Melocchi et al. [17] and Pietrzak et al.
[18]. These capsules are orally consumed and the degrading of the capsule in stomach
releases the drugs concealed inside.
2.2 Bio-composite FDM Filaments
Bio-composites filaments available on the market consist of a biodegradable polymeric
matrix and bio-based fillers. Fillers can be fibres or particles. Filler contents starts from
few % up to 40% in volume. The most used thermoplastic is PLA and the filler can be
sawdust, cellulose fibres or other natural fibres. Filament manufacturers have developed
many wood like filaments for FDM [9] using different types of fibres: Bamboo, Birch,
Cedar, Cherry, Coconut, Cork, Ebony, Olive, Pine, Willow. These are used to provide
a wood-like tactile feeling to aesthetic parts. Seppänen et al. [19] have printed thermo‐
plastic cellulose derivatives on an FDM machine.
An example of filament modification is given by Kuo et al. [20] who prepared a
biomass mixture of thermoplastic starches and ABS (TPS/ABS). Plastic pellets of ABS
were first created and infiltrated with a compatibilizer for joining the two polymers
together. These pellets were then molten and filtrated with TPS and TiO
particles into
new pellets that were extruded into a new 3D printing filament.
At MIT self-assembly lab, David et al. [21] used a multi-material approach to apply
wood-inspired design to 3D printing. By exploiting the hydrophilic nature of wood-
based filaments as base layer and non-hydrophilic ABS or PA as reinforcement for top
layers, they produced hydro-induced actuation. A similar work in fibre actuation was
done by Duigou et al. [22], but with one deposited material only.
Xhang et al. [23] have created high conductive PLA filaments by mixing graphite
flakes into filaments by melt extrusion. Graphene mixed well with PLA and conductive
PLA filament was successfully printed in 2D and 3D.
A binder made of potato-starch was used by Marina Ceccolini, who graduated at the
University of Design of San Marino, to fabricate AgriDust. This is a material composed
of food waste for 64.5% and of the potato binder for the rest. AgriDust requires a cold
technology and can be 3D printed by replacing the classic extruder with a syringe.
Because of its constituents, the material is biodegradable and non-toxic [24].
A soy-based filament named FilaSoy was developed by students of the Purdue
University in Indiana, USA [25]. The 20–25% soy additive improves PLA performances
About the Use of Recycled or Biodegradable Filaments 779
by providing anti-microbial properties and reducing the brittleness without inhibiting
compostability and recycling.
3 Tensile Properties of 3D Printed Materials
A limited selection of materials is available for 3D printing and 3D printed parts usually
have a worse mechanical behavior than the same materials processed by extrusion,
compression or injection moulding. However, 3D printing empowers engineers and
designer with more design freedom than other traditional processes [9, 22]. Tensile
properties of FDM tensile test specimens manufactured from plastics, composites and
recycled filaments are reported in Table 2 when available from the literature (NA = Not
Table 2. Properties of tensile test specimens made from different filament materials
Material Ultimate tensile
strength (MPa)
Elongation (%) Young modulus (MPa)
ABS [26] 19.9–29.1 1.5–8.9 1910–2050
PC [26] 29.5–36.9 3–6.7 1620–2000
PLA [27] 49.1–65.5 1.7–5.0 2800–3600
PLA recycled once [28] 51 1.88 3093 ± 194
PLA recycled 5 times [28] 48.8 1.68 3491 ± 98
PLA/PHA+10–20% fibre [22] 20–30 0.9–1.1 3500–4000
PLA/PHA+10–20% fibre water
saturated [22]
15–20 0.5–0.7 3100–3600
PLA+5% pine lignin [29] 40.2–43.6 2.31–2.83 2160–2200
TPS/ABS biomass [20] 34.8–46.8 NA NA
PLA+graphite 2% [23]50 8.1 NA
PLA+graphite 8% [23]62 6.1 NA
HDPE virgin [30] 25.5 16.1 463.4
HDPE recycled once [30] 25.6 16.1 428.4
Mechanical properties of 3D printed biodegradable plastics or composites are not as
good as pure matrix materials. Fillers usually increase the melt viscosity, and therefore
flowability problems arise. Lack of fusion between layers, porosity and swelling induced
by natural fibres are also problematic [22]. Filler content in biodegradable filaments is
usually below 40% in volume; layer adhesion and extrudability are reduced increasing
this content, as well as mechanical properties [22].
Gkartzou et al. [29] investigated the processability and the mechanical properties of
a PLA filament containing 5 wt.% of craft pine lignin. The addition of lignin makes PLA
more brittle and reduces the elongation at break. Moreover, the filler causes a remarkable
increase of the superficial roughness of the PLA filament.
Some strengths and weaknesses in bio-composites with different cellulose fibres are
reported by Li et al. [9]. These are, for example, strength, hardness, flexibility and mois‐
ture sensitivity. Some of these issues might be altered through mixing differently refined
780 J. Pakkanen et al.
cellulose fibres. Markstedt et al. have printed pure cellulose with a modified 3D printer,
but the process was liquid-based instead of filament based [31].
4 Material Sustainability
Sustainability of 3D printing materials is of utmost importance for the future, since the
3D printing market is projected to grow at an annual rate of about 26% till 2020 [32].
Recycling the excess and unwanted material primarily into new feedstock or finding
new methods for the material to degenerate or compost into harmless building blocks
in nature is imperative. The same issues faced in general plastic recycling should be
dealt with while recycling FDM wastes.
Recycling by transforming the waste material into new filaments is a good primary
recycling method, especially for thermoplastics with similar resin properties and homo‐
genous source. Thermoplastic materials have been recycled since 1970’s and today there
is more knowledge and expertise about the recycling process [3335].
Nevertheless, material transformation implies also degradation. Degradation is an
irreversible process leading to a significant change in the structure of the filament mate‐
rial resulting in loss of properties. Cruz et al. [28] investigated the degradation of a 3D
printing PLA filament along 5 complete recycling cycles. They observed a trend of a
slight reduction of mechanical performances through the cycles as in conventional recy‐
cling [36, 37]. Their results show a decrease of the polymer molecular weight of about
47% after 5 recycling cycles increasing crystallinity of the plastic. The loss in molecular
weight caused a lower tensile strength, but did not affect the yield stress. In particular,
the strain at break reduced from 1.88% to 1.68%. On the contrary, the reduction of
molecular weight improved the material flowability and processability with a viscosity
reduction of 80% after 5 recycling cycles.
Within the communities of makers, Kreiger [38] and Baecher [39] have created their
own filament extruder and using a commercial manufacturing extruder Hamod [30]
demonstrated that whoever owns a shredder and an extruder can directly turn waste
plastics into new feedstock.
Kreiger et al. [38] have studied HDPE plastic collection in the USA. The study
compared the environmental effect of centralized and decentralized filament making
with recycled material available from the makers’ community. Baechler et al. [39]
calculated that the cost of producing recycled HDPE filament is between 2 and 3 USD
per kilogram with homemade extruder, while the commercial filament is sold at an
average price of 38 USD per kilogram. After calculating the environmental impact from
both recycling cases of HDPE, Kreiger et al. [38] concluded that it would be better to
centralize the plastic recycle into industrially made recycled filament as the scale would
be larger and more viable. In their research, Baechler et al. [39] found out that more
automation and product control for the extruder is needed to produce homogeneous
filament. The properties of parts printed with recycled HDPE were lower than those of
the same pieces made of virgin material. However, different results were reported by
Hamod [30], whose study achieved similar mechanical properties for both virgin HDPE
and recycled HDPE. The HDPE was only produced and recycled once and both virgin
About the Use of Recycled or Biodegradable Filaments 781
and recycled filaments were made using the same equipment. Further recycling and
production cycles as well as impurities introduced into the material by recycling make
the filament properties decay as described for PLA by Cruz et al. [28] or reported in the
case of injection moulding [40].
To help identifying the thermoplastic resins after 3D printing, recycling material
dependent coding is proposed and investigated by Hunt et al. [41]. Codes like those of
conventional plastic industry could be added on the surface of 3D printed parts to make
recycling straight forward by easy identification of the plastic blends. In industrial
sorting, since plastics are sorted out by means of density and other properties, these
markings are not relevant as in visual sorting.
Unlike injection moulding materials, not all thermoplastics are available or suitable for 3D
printing. Moreover, 3D printed materials usually have worse properties than injection
moulded ones. So far, the efforts of many researchers were directed to improve the 3D
printing feasibility for new bio-based or compostable filaments, but there is a lack of
performance testing for these filaments in the literature. The degradation of filaments
during repeated recycling needs to be studied more in detail like Cruz et al. [28] did for PLA.
Contamination of extruded filament should be prevented. On one side, contamination
can negatively affect material properties and mechanical performances. On the other
side, contaminants can be the source for the development of UFA and VOC emissions
and thus cause health hazards and risks.
Further development and testing of 3D printing filaments is needed to better char‐
acterize their properties in terms of mechanical behaviour and compostability. Because
biodegradable plastics have lower mechanical properties and restricted life cycles, user
should find short life-cycle applications. These applications for biodegradable filaments
need to consider the environmental conditions (e.g. moistness, exposure to UV radia‐
tions, etc.) that can negatively affect the filament extrusion or the part swelling when
part is in use. However, in some cases, swelling might also be a desired effect for part
functionality as shown by David et al. [21]. On the contrary, the advantage of these
biodegradable plastics is that printed components can be disposed at the end of their life
in a more environmental-friendly manner by recycling them to make new filament or
by composting. The characteristic of recyclability is fundamental for the sustainability
of 3D printing, since the adoption and popularity of this AM process has been constantly
increasing in recent years.
Filament recycling should be aimed at preserving interesting material properties
from the engineering point of view allowing for a noble use of the recycled polymer. It
might not be possible to use fully recycled filament as the mechanical properties
decrease, but with a blend of virgin and recycled material may allow finding an accept‐
able trade-off. If additives are used for this purpose, they should not jeopardize the
opportunity for further recycling cycles. Great losses in mechanical properties do not
restrain the use of the recycled filament for models, visual prints, packaging and other
short life-cycle products without structural demands or durability requirements. In
782 J. Pakkanen et al.
addition to this, recycled filaments will need a retuning of 3D printing parameters to
cope with the increase of flowability and reduced viscosity resulting from material recy‐
Up to date, research efforts about the development of bio-degradable or compostable
3D printing filaments have been primarily focused toward achieving material printa‐
bility, whereas material recycling and the whole product life cycle has not been fully
considered. In the circular economy framework, at least one or two recycling cycles for
material re-use should be ensured as an alternative to direct eco-friendly disposal.
Since correct and successful filament recycling is a much more complex operation
than 3D printing, the use of low-cost or crowdfunded extruders for makers appears
restrictive. As a matter of fact, such kind of recycling devices are not optimized because
of constrained development costs and production costs savings. Thus, their suitability
is limited to the recycling of a few materials through control of a limited set of processing
As for the success of any other recycling process, the correct consumer behaviour
and attitude towards waste management is not questioned, but specific policies or incen
tives might be proposed for material disposal in the 3D printing sector. Material trace‐
ability and the possibility of including specific marking into the design of 3D printed
parts is still an open question. The best way to impose it could be by including an auto‐
matic marking function in the 3D printer software. The software should automatically
add the mark to the part during the computation of the printing path, i.e. during the slicing
operation. The selection of the area for marking should be left up to the user in order
not to affect the aesthetics of the part significantly. Nonetheless, in open 3D printers the
identification of the right material is not error free, because the software cannot auto‐
matically identify the filament material as with chipped filament spools.
In order to solve some of these issues, Chong et al. conceived a distributed recycling
platform for 3D printed products to achieve the goal of zero waste production [42].
Beyond improvement of filament recyclability, recycled FDM material certification and
other regulations about 3D printing waste management should be implemented to reach
such a noble objective.
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About the Use of Recycled or Biodegradable Filaments 785
... As ABS material is non-biodegradable which makes the plastic wastage more prominent, it has further led to necessitated advancements in recycling of ABS material; therefore, with reference to its effect on the environment, recycling of this material is a better approach [20][21][22]. ...
... If the points deviated from a straight line, the normalcy assumption might have been considered invalid. Thus, normally distributed data demonstrate the usefulness of the Taguchi technique in creating strong designs with few errors while running fewer experiments, as discovered by earlier researchers [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. It is clear that when the pressure rose from three to four bars, the SN ratio declined noticeably; further, pressure increase resulted in a significant decrease in the SN ratio. ...
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Ever since the introduction of 3D printing, industries have seen an exponential growth in production and efficiency. Three-dimensional printing is the process of additive manufacturing (AM) in which the conventional method of material removal is challenged. Layer-on-layer deposition is the basic principle of the AM. Additive manufacturing technologies are used to create 3D-printed objects. An object is built in an additive technique by laying down successive layers of material until the object is complete. Each of these layers can be viewed as a cross-section of the item that has been lightly cut. When compared to traditional production methods, 3D printing allows the creation of complicated shapes with less material. In conventional methods, the materials go through several damages due to the tool–workpiece contact creating friction between them and the dissipated heat that damages the material. Overcoming the conventional method of machining with the help of 3D printing is a new advancement in the industries. The process involves using non-conventional methods for the machining of the parts. This research was oriented towards the chemical vapor jet drilling of the acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) materials. ABS materials are highly machinable and can be recycled for further usage. This paper focused on the usage of acetone as the chemical for drilling. The surface roughness and circularity of the drilled hole was taken into account for this research paper. We set up a manual experiment to run tests and get results. A vapor jet machine was designed with acetone as the core for the vapor. Various analyses were also formulated and conducted during experimentations. Surface roughness analysis provided the insight of roughness after the machining with the help of acetone vapor jet spray. SEM and micro-image parameters were also considered for more clear and advanced reports. In this research paper, DSC and FTIR analysis were performed to understand changes in the internal structure and the material properties of the ABS. Moreover, the research aimed to investigate the effect of various inputs processing parameters such as pressure, flow rate, and stand-off distance on the surface roughness and circularity of ABS workpiece material. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array design was utilized to conduct tests by chemical vapor jet drilling using acetone and to evaluate the performance of the set-up while reducing the influence of interfering factors in order to provide reliable surface finish and circularity results. The results and conclusion of the research paper aimed to determine the most suitable parameters for thenon-conventional acetone vapor jet drilling of the ABS material. The theoretical calculations predicted 1.64432 and 0.3289080 values of surface roughness and circularity, respectively. On the other hand, the experimental values were recorded as 1.598 for surface roughness and 0.322 for circularity. Therefore, a negligible error of 0.046 for surface roughness and 0.0031 for circularity, respectively, was noted which validate the statistical equations and the consistency of the combined vapor jet drilling process.
... A review by Pakkanen et al. [20] found that while relevant, the field of recycling PLA for additive manufacturing purposes is still insufficiently studied. The authors suggest the use of a blend of virgin and recycled material to find an acceptable tradeoff between mechanical properties and environmental concerns. ...
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Polylactide acid (PLA) is one of the most used plastics in extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM). Although it is bio-based and in theory biodegradable, its recyclability for fused filament fabrication (FFF) is limited due to material degradation. To better understand the material’s recyclability, blends with different contents of recycled PLA (rPLA) are investigated alongside a coextruded filament comprised of a core layer with high rPLA content and a skin layer from virgin PLA. The goal was to determine whether this coextrusion approach is more efficient than blending rPLA with virgin PLA. Different filaments were extruded and subsequently used to manufacture samples using FFF. While the strength of the individual strands did not decrease significantly, layer adhesion decreased by up to 67%. The coextruded filament was found to be more brittle than its monoextruded counterparts. Additionally, no continuous weld line could be formed between the layers of coextruded material, leading to a decreased tensile strength. However, the coextruded filament proved to be able to save on master batch and colorants, as the outer layer of the filament has the most impact on the part’s coloring. Therefore, switching to a coextruded filament could provide economical savings on master batch material.
... Among various modalities of PET recycling, the production of filament for 3D printing-also valorized in the case of other thermoplastics [10,11]-has gained increasing interest, especially after the start of its commercialization in 2015 [12]. Thus, comprehensive studies were performed to ascertain the suitability of recycled PET (R-PET) for the production of powders [13] and filaments for 3D printing [14]. ...
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Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used worldwide for packing, and for this reason, it is the main material in plastic waste. The paper uses granules of recycled PET (R-PET) as raw material for producing filaments for 3D printing, subsequently used for printing the test specimens in different ways: longitudinally and at angles between 10° and 40° in this direction. Both the filaments and the printed specimens experience thermally driven shape memory effect (SME) since they have been able to recover their straight shape during heating, after being bent to a certain angle, at room temperature (RT). SME could be reproduced three times, in the case of printed specimens, and was investigated by cinematographic analysis. Then, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used, in R-PET granules, filaments and 3D printed specimens, to emphasize the existence of glass transition, which represents the governing mechanism of SME occurrence in thermoplastic polymers, as well as a recrystallization reaction. Subsequently, the paper investigated the 3D printed specimens by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) using a dual cantilever specimen holder. Temperature (DMA-TS) and isothermal scans (DMA-Izo) were performed, with the aim to discuss the variations of storage modulus and loss modulus with temperature and time, respectively.
... Additive manufacturing (AM), unlike traditional subtractive manufacturing, enables more automated fabrication of products or functional components with complex shapes at low manufacturing costs and low residues. However, the materials still need to be improved to widen the available materials and develop more environmentally friendly materials, since many are petroleum based [3,4]. ...
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Polymers filled with natural-based fillers have shown growing demand/interest in recent years, including in additive manufacturing. Like most natural fillers in 3D printing, wood particles serve mainly as a filler that lowers the cost of the printing material due to their low price. However, could wood be used as a main ingredient to affect/improve the properties of 3D-printed parts? Several advantages, such as its reinforcing ability, biodegradability, availability as waste material from other industries, ability to be used in different forms or only in partial components, recycling options or even the use of its undesirable hydromorph-induced dimensional instability for 4D printing, indicate the importance of exploring its use in 3D printing. A review of publications on 3D printing with wood biomass and technologies involving the use of wood particles and components was conducted to identify the possibilities of using wood in additive technologies and their potential.
... As concerns 3d printing materials, Polylactic Acid (PLA) is often used by hobbyists and in the communities, such as the ones of the Makers movement or Fablab. PLA is a cheap and sustainable 3d printing material because it is a biobased and biodegradable plastic [11]. However, the amount of 3d printed to PLA to be recycled can be reduced by preventing undesired part failures resulting from inadequate product design and insufficient mechanical strength. ...
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), also known as 3d printing, is one of the most widespread Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies based on the extrusion of a thermoplastic filament. This layerwise technology allows lightweight products to be built using different infill strategies and percentages. Furthermore, by varying other parameters, such as temperature, printing speed or layer thickness, it is possible to obtain components with different characteristics. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is one of the cheapest and most sustainable materials for 3d printing because it is a biobased and biodegradable plastic. Its use in 3D printing is widely spread among hobbyists and in the communities, such as the ones of Fablabs or the Makers movement. Nevertheless, to reduce the number of uncompliant parts that may fail into operation since they do not meet the expectations of the user, it is important to know in advance the mechanical performance that different 3d printing strategies can ensure for PLA parts. In this paper, Design of Experiment (DOE) is applied to investigate how main 3D printing parameters influence the tensile strength of PLA products. For this purpose, a 3x3 factorial plane with one replication was constructed and used for 3d printing tensile specimens of PLA Tough material using a Makerbot Replicator machine. The tensile test results show that the layer thickness is more significant than the infill percentage for the resistance of PLA products. A regression model is also proposed to allow the user to predict the ultimate tensile strength of PLA products depending on the values of those two parameters.
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The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW) generation per capita in developing countries is generally said to grow in proportion to the gross national product. Composting and waste to energy have a brief history as management strategies for MSW in India and as alternatives to landfilling. Analysis of Energy generation and compost potential from waste can minimize the impact of MSW on the environment with the added advantage of providing a local source of energy. The study has been carried out to develop a system dynamic (SD) model to predict the energy generation, treatment, and cost analysis for MSW up to 2030. The predictive model developed in this study showed the generation rate of electrical energy potential augmented from 0 in 2001 to 58,380 MWh in 2007 and 3,198,75 MWh in 2030. Whereas, the production rate of compost reduced from 77,000 tonnes in 2001 to 45,000 tonnes in 2006 and then improved to 39,00,00 tonnes in 2030. In addition, the predicted revenue generated from different treatment facilities increased from 0 in 2001 to Rs.335 million (4.36 million USD) in 2007 and Rs.2569 million (33.4 32 million USD) in 2030. As a result, revenue generated could cover the budgets required for MSW treatment and disposal services in 2030, where the required budget is negative because revenue exceeds expenditures. The developed SD model can improve a municipal solid waste management system for any City.
In this study, the Taguchi methodology was used to investigate the effects of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) production parameters tensile strength, three-point bending strength, and impact strength of three-dimensional (3D) printed polylactic acid (PLA) and recycled polylactic acid (Re-PLA) test parts. As FDM process parameters, filaments (PLA, Re-PLA), three different layer thicknesses (0.15–0.20–0.25 mm), occupancy rates (30%, 50% and 70%), and filling structure (Rectilinear) were determined in the experimental design. The FDM technique was used to print the test parts. The tensile, three-point bending, and impact strength of the test parts were determined using the ISO 527, ISO 180, and ISO 178 test standards, respectively. The results showed that layer thickness is the most efficient factor for improving tensile strength, three point bending strength, and impact strength rather than occupancy rate or filament materials. The optimum results were obtained in layer thickness (0.25 mm), occupancy rate (70%), and filament material (PLA), respectively. They were calculated to be as 60.006 MPa at tensile strength, 125.423 MPa at three-point bending strength, 16.961 kJ/m2 at izod impact strength. Also, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been utilized to investigate the morphology and topography alterations in the fractured surface of test parts. The study demonstrates the possibility of 3DP with Re-PLA filament and environmental awareness was noted by using recycled filament. The study demonstrates the possibility of 3DP with Re-PLA filament and environmental awareness was noted by using recycled filament. The research shows that 3D printing with Re-PLA is feasible.
Conference Paper
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Polymer recycling is a way to reduce environmental impacts of accumulation of polymeric waste materials. However, low recycling rates are often observed in conventional centralized recycling plants mainly to the challenge of collection and transportation for high-volume low-weight-polymers in conventional centralized recycling plants. As the democratization of open-source 3D printers is going forward thanks to initiatives such as FabLab environments, there is a growing interest on how to use this technology to improve the efficiency of use of raw materials. Studies have been proposed in order to recycle waste polymer into open-source 3D printer feedstock. The recycling of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) issued from bottles of used milk jugs through use of an open-source filament fabricator system called RecycleBot has been evaluated. In this study, we propose an evaluation of the mechanical recyclability of Polylactic Acid (PLA), material widely used in the open-source 3D printing context, in order to establish the viability of this recycled material to be used in the open-source 3D printers. The degradation of the material's mechanical and rheological properties after a number of cycles of multiple extrusion and printing processes is evaluated. The characterization of recycled raw materials for open-source 3D printing has implications not only to reduce the environmental impact of polymers waste, but also it will allow us to understand the technical requirements and challenges for development of open-source filament recycle machine/process. The coupling of open-source 3D printers and filament extruders can offer the bases of a new distributed polymer recycling paradigm, which reverses the traditional paradigm of centralizing recycling of polymers where is often uneconomic and energy intensive due to transportation embodied energy. Moreover, this characterization also will allow the exploration of new source of materials and new composite materials for open-source 3D printing, in order to improve the quality of products made by this technology.
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In this work, an extrusion-based 3D printing technique was employed for processing of biobased blends of Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) with low-cost kraft lignin. In Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printing process, objects are built in a layer-by-layer fashion by melting, extruding and selectively depositing thermoplastic fibers on a platform. These fibers are used as building blocks for more complex structures with defined microarchitecture, in an automated, cost-effective process, with minimum material waste. A sustainable material consisting of lignin biopolymer blended with poly(lactic acid) was examined for its physical properties and for its melt processability during the FFF process. Samples with different PLA/lignin weight ratios were prepared and their mechanical (tensile testing), thermal (Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis) and morphological (optical and scanning electron microscopy, SEM) properties were studied. The composition with optimum properties was selected for the production of 3D-printing filament. Three process parameters, which contribute to shear rate and stress imposed on the melt, were examined: extrusion temperature, printing speed and fiber’s width varied and their effect on extrudates’ morphology was evaluated. The mechanical properties of 3D printed specimens were assessed with tensile testing and SEM fractography.
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The traditional 3Rs-" Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle " provide an effective measure to reduce consumption rates of natural resources. This process is however considered as " down-cycling ". The quality of recycled materials degrades over time with waste accumulation. To minimize or even eliminate waste accumulation, a Cradle to Cradle ® design framework for 3D-printed products interconnecting five elements – plastic recycling, pre-treatment, extrusion to filaments, 3D printing and users, is hereby proposed. The ultimate goal is to essentially prevent any generation of wastes via healthy, regenerative and cost-effective manufacturing cycles that consider materials as assets. A distributed recycling platform for 3D printed products with an international recycling code system is recommended to help the recirculation of regenerated materials. Utilisation of renewable energy and water stewardship are also suggested to reduce both carbon and water footprints. Finally, a standard certification system for 3D printing filaments is also crucial to improve extrusion and 3D printing processes using shredded recycled plastics.
Purpose This paper aims to present the methodology and results of the experimental characterization of three-dimensional (3D) printed ABS and polycarbonate (PC) parts utilizing digital image correlation (DIC). Design/methodology/approach Tensile and shear characterization of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) 3D-printed parts was performed to determine the extent of anisotropy present in 3D-printed materials. Specimens were printed with varying raster ([+45/-45], [+30/-60], [+15/-75], and [0/90]) and build orientations (flat, on-edge, and up-right) to determine the directional properties of the materials. Tensile and Isopescu shear specimens were printed and loaded in a universal testing machine utilizing 2D digital image correlation (DIC) to measure strain. The Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus, offset yield strength, tensile strength at yield, elongation at break, tensile stress at break, and strain energy density were gathered for each tensile orientation combination. Shear modulus, offset yield strength, and shear strength at yield values were collected for each shear combination. Findings Results indicated that raster and build orientation had a negligible effect on the Young’s modulus or Poisson’s ratio in ABS tensile specimens. Shear modulus and shear offset yield strength varied by up to 33% in ABS specimens signifying that tensile properties are not indicative of shear properties. Raster orientation in the flat build samples reveals anisotropic behavior in PC specimens as the moduli and strengths varied by up to 20%. Similar variations were also observed in shear for PC. Changing the build orientation of PC specimens appeared to reveal a similar magnitude of variation in material properties. Originality/value This article tests tensile and shear specimens utilizing DIC, which has not been employed previously with 3D-printed specimens. The extensive shear testing conducted in this paper has not been previously attempted, and the results indicate the need for shear testing to understand the 3D-printed material behavior fully.
This paper provides an overview on the main additive manufacturing/3D printing technologies suitable for many satellite applications and, in particular, radio-frequency components. In fact, nowadays they have become capable of producing complex net-shaped or nearly net-shaped parts in materials that can be directly used as functional parts, including polymers, metals, ceramics, and composites. These technologies represent the solution for low-volume, high-value, and highly complex parts and products.
Abstract Natural fibres are increasingly used as reinforcements for thermoplastic composites. Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is a common material extrusion process using (bio)polymers reinforced with natural fibres. However, there is a lack of understanding of the effect of printing parameters on the mechanical properties involved in this new process, and more particularly in the case of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Hygromorphic biocomposites represent a novel use of natural fibres for the production of original self-bending devices that actuate in a moisture gradient. By mimicking natural actuators and their bilayer microstructure adapted for seed dispersal, hygromorphic biocomposites take advantage of the hygro-elastic behaviour of natural fibres. The FDM of wood fibre reinforced biocomposites leads to mechanical properties that are strongly dependent on printing orientation (0 or 90°) due to fibre anisotropy. Mechanical properties depend also on printing width (overlapping of filaments), with a lower Young's modulus than in the compressed samples. Indeed, printed biocomposites have a microstructure with relatively high porosity (around 20%) that conjointly leads to damage mechanisms but also water absorption and swelling. The FDM of hygromorphic biocomposites enables a shift towards 4D printing since the material is able to evolve over time in response to an external stimulus. Typical microstructures achieved by printing could be used advantageously to produce biocomposites with a faster moisture-induced bending response compared to compressed samples.
Rapid advances in digital fabrication technologies and new materials development allow for direct control and programmability of physical material transformations. By utilizing multimaterial 3D printing technologies and anisotropic material compositions, we can physically program hygroscopic materials such as wood to precisely sense and self-transform based on fluctuations in the environment. While wood remains one of the most common building materials in use today, it is still predominantly designed to be industrially standardized rather than taking advantage of its inherent anisotropic properties. This research aims to enhance wood's anisotropic and hygroscopic properties by designing and 3D printing custom wood grain structures to promote tunable self-transformation. In this article we present new methods for designing hygroscopic wood transformations and custom techniques for energy activation. A differentiated printing method promotes wood transformation solely through the design of custom-printed wood fibers. Alternatively, a multimaterial printing method allows for greater control and intensified wood transformations through the precise design of multimaterial prints composed of both synthetic wood and polymers. The presented methods, techniques, and material tests demonstrate the first successful results of differentiated printed wood for self-transforming behavior, suggesting a new approach for programmable material and responsive architectures.
With debranching and plasticization of starches, we have successfully prepared thermoplastic starches (TPS) with high processibility by a twin-screw extruder. Afterwards, the TPS have blended with appropriate amounts of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers (ABS), compatibilizers, impact modifiers, and pigments to compound in a twin-screw extruder, manufacturing TPS/ABS biomass alloys. Finally, we have prepared white and black filaments, whose diameters of 1.75 mm, for additive manufacturing (AM) with TPS/ABS biomass alloys by a single-screw extruder as well as proper mold and also executed their measurement of physical properties. In addition, their feasible evaluation for 3D printing applications has also been made. Experimental results reveal that physical properties of lab-made white and black filaments (i.e. mechanical properties, thermal resistance, flowability, and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) are superior to those of commercial ABS filaments and the shaping samples for 3D printing have also been successfully fabricated, preliminarily demonstrating that they are potential biomass polymeric materials with excellent physical performances and high processibility for 3D printing utilizations.
Emissions from a desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology were measured in a test chamber and indoor air was monitored in office settings. Ultrafine aerosol (UFA) emissions were higher while printing a standard object with polylactic acid (PLA) than with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer (2.1 × 10⁹ vs. 2.4 × 10⁸ particles/min). Prolonged use of the printer led to higher emission rates (factor 2 with PLA and 4 with ABS, measured after seven months of occasional use). UFA consisted mainly of volatile droplets, and some small (100–300 nm diameter) iron containing and soot-like particles were found. Emissions of inhalable and respirable dust were below the limit of detection (LOD) when measured gravimetrically, and only slightly higher than background when measured with an aerosol spectrometer. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were in the range of 10 µg/min. Styrene accounted for more than 50% of total VOC emitted when printing with ABS; for PLA, methyl methacrylate (MMA, 37% of TVOC) was detected as the predominant compound. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fluoranthene and pyrene, were observed in very low amounts. All other analyzed PAH, as well as inorganic gases and metal emissions except iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), were below the LOD or did not differ from background without printing. A single 3D print (165 min) in a large, well-ventilated office did not significantly increase the UFA and VOC concentrations, whereas these were readily detectable in a small, unventilated room, with UFA concentrations increasing by 2,000 particles/cm³ and MMA reaching a peak of 21 µg/m³ and still being detectable in the room even 20 hr after printing.