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Eco-label credibility and retailer effects on green product purchasing intentions

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Abstract

Eco-labels offer an identifiable marketing tool to convey a product's environmentally friendly and socially desirable characteristics to final consumers. Furniture offers a prime example of the opportunities and challenges to the expansion of green products. This study examined how eco-label credibility and retailer type affect green purchasing intentions (GPIs). Data from a sample of final consumers collected across 124 cities in China were analyzed using a Bayesian approach. Consumers who purchase furniture at supermarkets exhibited a lower GPI compared with consumers at other furniture retailers, ceteris paribus. Consumer perceived credibility of eco-labels, past green purchase, awareness of green furniture, level of education, and whether there is an elder family member in household were all found to positively affect consumers' GPI. Eco-labels may bring market opportunities for green furniture manufacturers but these are limited by effective communication and product outlets. It is intrinsic for green furniture manufacturers to choose retailers with a positive reputation among final consumers to improve credibility and potentially expand market share.

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... This controversial condition brings out the crucial role of ecolabel credibility in green marketing and consumer research. Even though a number of academic studies has highlighted the critical role of ecolabel credibility on green consumer behavior, mainly theoretically (e.g., [10][11][12][13]), there is a gap in the marketing literature about the effectiveness of ecolabel credibility from an empirical point of view. The present study tries to fill this gap. ...
... In addition, there is evidence that individual factors like demographics and lifestyle increase the inconsistency gap between attitude and behavior [43]. In this context, it is worth noting that green product purchase behavior is impacted by demographic factors [10]. Age, gender, educational level, occupation, and marital status significantly affect buying behavior towards green products [44]. ...
... Policy actions and regulations are also considered effective mechanisms to firms in order to adopt eco-friendly innovation generally and ecolabels specifically, due to the public grants and the favorable taxation provided to them [56]. In this vein, there is an increasing skepticism at the global level towards the claims of ecolabels [6,10]. Sometimes ecolabels are used inappropriately by companies. ...
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Ecolabels are regarded as an exceptional marketing and advertising tool that informs contemporary consumers about the green traits of a product. They provide information that motivates consumers to exhibit a positive attitude and actual behavior towards a green product purchase. Despite the growing interest in the relationship between green attitude and the corresponding green purchase behavior, studies that investigate the influence of ecolabel features on this relationship are rather scarce. In the present study, a survey carried out in Greece with a sample of 571 participants, examined the direct and indirect effects of ecolabel credibility and ecolabel involvement on attitude and actual behavior about green product purchase. A multiple mediation model about green purchase behavior was developed. Results highlighted the crucial role of ecolabel credibility that positively influences attitude towards green product purchase as well as ecolabel involvement. Moreover , emphasis was given on the concepts of attitude towards green product purchase and ecolabel involvement that proved to be significant mediators of this model. Findings can provide useful guidance to green marketers so that they can generate effective strategies based of ecolabels and favor a positive attitude towards green product purchase that ultimately will enhance green product purchase behavior.
... Most of them explained green consumption behavior from the perspective of consumers themselves [4][5][6][7][8]. Besides, some researchers have found that consumers' green product purchase intentions can be affected by environmental factors, such as product eco-labels [9] and carbon label placement [10]. However, promotion mode, an extremely important factor in product sales, has been largely ignored in previous studies. ...
... First, the current research advances our understanding of how to increase consumer purchase intention of green products. Although past research on green products has found some drivers of green product purchases [4,5,9,10,[15][16][17], there is limited research on how to promote green products from the perspective of promotion mode. In addition, recent research has only explored the match between promotion mode and consumers' self-construal tendency [12]. ...
... In recent years, increasing research on consumer behavior has been focused on how environmental factors, instead of consumer perception or characteristics, affect green consumption intent or behavior. When consumers perceive eco-labels as credible, they would prefer products with an eco-label [9]. Similarly, consumer green advertising receptivity also positively affects their intention [15]. ...
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Environmental issues are still challenging and of global concern. To improve the environmental consumption behavior of consumers, this study investigates whether the match between the promotion mode and product type can improve the conceptual fluency of consumers, so as to increase their purchase intention for green products. The results of three experiments reveal that the interaction between promotion mode and product type has a certain impact on the conceptual fluency of consumers, which can, in turn, promote their purchase intention. This research theoretically contributes to the research on green consumption by introducing promotion mode and revealing the mediation effect of conceptual fluency, it also provides some practical implications for alleviating environmental problems.
... Resources efficiency [3,[17][18][19][20][21] Size and weight reduction [2,[22][23][24] Using harmless material [25][26][27][28][29] Using recyclable material [5,[30][31][32][33][34] Easy to reuse [35][36][37][38] Using recycled material [39][40][41] Easy to maintain [42][43][44][45] Providing product service [46][47][48][49] Eco-labelling [50][51][52][53] Using biodegradable material [54][55][56] Easy to upgrade [57][58][59] It is suggested that designers should relate suitable green characteristics to customer preferences in order to develop successful green products in the market. Ulrich and Eppinger [60] explained that consideration of customer preferences is very important and should be evaluated at an early stage of product design before continuing to the next phase of product development. ...
... [92][93][94] − Use a certified eco-label from legislation (government) rather than self-declaration. [52,95,96] − The eco-label symbols used can be easily understood by consumers. [89,92,97] Consider resources efficiency − Maximize efficiency of water consumption [98,99] − Minimize material used [1,99,100] − Maximize efficiency of energy used in consumption phase [1,101] − Reduce emission and waste produced during usage. ...
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The increasing customer awareness of environmental sustainability during the last decade has had an influence on many manufacturers to produce green products. However, issues arise regarding the actual preferences of customers for green products, which often differ depending on cultural influences. Cultural values can affect the decisions of designers to determine detailed design specifications that relate to customer preferences. Currently, few guidelines consider cultural values as an aspect of green product design. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a guideline that incorporates the influence of cultural values on green product design. Malaysia was selected as the location of this study. The sources of data to establish a guideline were obtained from customer perspectives on green products. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to identify cultural influences and preferences on green product characteristics as the input strategies for the proposed guideline. Professional designers from different profiles were asked to identify the applicability of the guideline. Based on the results, the designers agreed that the influence of cultural values is an important aspect that should be considered in the development of green products. The implication of the guideline is discussed in this paper to accelerate decisions of designers in developing green products.
... It usually has a longer shelf life because it does not use hazardous chemicals [1]. Green products use attributes that differentiate them from conventional products, like eco-labels [2]. Marketers on products perceive the attributes as more valuable than those products because the products are environmentally-friendly [3]. ...
... Marketers on products perceive the attributes as more valuable than those products because the products are environmentally-friendly [3]. Nowadays, marketers use marketing strategies through the attributes of eco-labels to attract customers' attention [2]. Customers are increasingly selective in choosing products to consume, and customer awareness of environmentally-friendly products has also increased [4]. ...
Article
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An Eco-label is an attribute associated with environmentally friendly products. The marketers use it widely in providing the value of products offered. Based on the phenomenon, this study aims to review the impact of eco-labels on customer behavior that relates to green awareness, green trust, environmental knowledge, and perceived quality. This study is conducted in Indonesia, particularly in West Java, with 100 supermarket customers as research respondents. Data from the respondents is obtained through questionnaires quantitatively, and data is analyzed through SmartPLS in examining the correlation values. The research result shows that an eco-label is an attribute to a green product, and it has a correlation and positive impact on green awareness, green trust, environmental knowledge, and perceived quality from customers. The attribute of an eco-label provides a more significant impact on the green value of green awareness and green trust compared to natural values. Research findings can provide input to the marketer in taking green marketing policies through the attribute of an eco-label. For the government, it is as essential information in understanding a customer's knowledge for the attribute of eco-labels.
... Green products can be seen from the use of raw materials without chemicals, packaging materials used that are environmentally friendly, and finished products that can be recycled, reused, and biodegradable. Overall it has a low impact on environmental damage [6] , has social and environmental responsibilities from the raw material to the production process throughout the product life cycle [9]. Meanwhile, [19] see the understanding of green products from different sides, namely consumer perception. ...
... [16]. The results showed that ecolabels influence purchase intentions [9,10,12]. This study proves that eco-friendly labels (ecolabels) often help consumers be environmentally friendly when they buy products [4] because packaging is the most interesting factor that initially affects consumers in the purchasing decision process [31]. ...
... Higher consumers' credibility of eco-labels led to higher green product purchasing intention [44]. Schuhwerk and Lefkoff-Hagius [45] present the important role of detailed information on every aspect of the product we buy. ...
... One other important factor to measure may be, how Albanian consumers perceive the role of government in the process of passing to a circular system. Parikka-Alhola [52] and Cai et al. [44] state that buying a green product is tightly related to the government roles and mandatory regulations. However, Kokthi et al. [53] show that Albanian consumers do not trust in the institutions that issue certification on organic products. ...
Article
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Diminishing resources, climate change, and environmental challenges emphasize the need for sustainable development. The circular economy is considered a concept that faces and contributes to overcoming such challenges. This research aims to identify circular pathway influential factors in Albania by exploring green product consumption patterns. Primary quantitative research was carried out in an online survey in Albania. Exploratory factor analysis and multiple logistic regression are performed. The main influential factor on green products purchase behaviour that can serve as an influential factor to shift into the circular economy in Albania is product labelling. This evokes and supports environmental sensitivity that contributes to favouring green products. Further supportive factors are product recycling, instruction manual, and details about the ingredients, while hindering factors are the absence of interest and time pressure. However, consumption of green products depends on education level: graduates and postgraduates should have been targeted to attract novel target groups. © 2021, Budapest Tech Polytechnical Institution. All rights reserved.
... Eco-labels could increase the level of transparency with its environmental friendliness claim (McKenzie- Mohr, 2002;Thøgersen & Ölander, 2002) as consumers often find it difficult to recognize green products. By reducing such information asymmetry between producers and consumers, eco-labels help consumers to get a better understanding of products' intangible attributes, including the manufacturing process and the value of selecting this product (Cai et al., 2017;Prieto-Sandoval et al., 2016;Rex & Baumann, 2007). ...
... First, our result reveals the crucial intermediator of product attributes in the eco-label-informed product purchase within the Gen Z consumers. As the mediators within the constructive process from eco-labeling to green purchase remain limited (Cai et al., 2017;Taufique et al., 2017;Teisl et al., 2002), our results reveal the significant mediator of the product attributes. It further contributes to the current understanding of how eco-labels can effectively communicate the environmentally friendly product appeal to the young adult Chinese consumer, and why they are different with other advertising media because Chinese Gen Z consumers are likely to perceive the eco-labels as the specific appeal related to how the product is processed and manufactured with the consideration of environmental development. ...
Article
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Although China has enjoyed great economic growth in the past several years, environmental problems have not attracted enough attention, especially for the young Chinese population (Generation Z consumers). Based on the theory of planned behavior, this work aims to analyze the mediation role of product attributes, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), and environmental awareness in eco-label–informed purchase for Gen Z consumers in China. According to the result, it shows (a) eco-label–informed purchase could significantly increase two threads of PCE and product attributes, (b) those two threads intermediate the eco-labeling and environmental awareness positively, and (c) eventually lead to purchase behavior for Chinese Generation Z. For theoretical contribution, this article tries to have a more comprehensive investigation on green consumption, and to explore the theoretical relationship among product attributes, PCE, and environmental awareness in the context of Chinese Gen Z. Relevant managerial implications and practical guides are also discussed in this article.
... The eco-label, in turn, is a tool adopted by organizations to certify that a labeled product was prepared in an environmentally correct way (Song et al., 2019;Cai et al., 2017;Choshaly and Tih, 2017). According to Song et al. (2019), eco-labeling has become an influencing factor in consumer behavior and purchasing decisions. ...
... The proposal for future studies on "ecological label" is based on research such as Song et al. (2019), Cai et al. (2017) and Choshaly and Tih (2017), who argue that eco-labeling has become an aspect that directly influences consumer behavior when purchasing a product. Thus, it is important to verify how the development of a sense of environmental responsibility changed the consumption profile, seeking to corroborate or refute the study developed by Göçer and Oflaç (2017). ...
Article
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There is an increase in the consumption of products across the globe and with it, the damage and environmental impacts also grow in significant proportions. Therefore, there is a need to propose methods, techniques and procedures capable of minimizing environmental impacts, which, consequently, has inspired the academic community to develop research that addresses sustainable alternatives for the production, use and disposal of products. Due to society's growing interest in this subject, this research aims to present the state of the art on sustainable products and analyze how this content impacts organizations. Methodologically, the research was supported by a Systematic Literature Review based on 161 papers from the Web of Science database, published from 01/01/2011 to 12/31/2020. As main results, it was observed the historical evolution, the adopted methodological procedures, the innovations and trends of future research that are still open. In addition, it was noticed that a large part of the studies sought to address how the producer's extended responsibility has been configured, the process of developing eco-designed products and, finally, the consumer's behavior regarding products with eco-labels.
... For instance, future research might explore if a safety label certified by third parties might reduce perceived physical risk. Past research reported that labels certified by third parties (e.g., the government) are associated with higher credibility and that a lack of credibility negatively impacts purchase intentions (Teisl et al., 2008;Cai et al., 2017). ...
Article
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One sector that severely suffers from the outbreak of the coronavirus is carsharing (i.e., short-term car access). The downswing of the carsharing industry may not only experience negative economic consequences but also ecological ones. Carsharing has the potential to reduce emissions, occupied space, and congestion and hence can actively contribute to mitigating climate change. As Bill Gates strikingly states: “Covid-19 is awful. Climate change could be worse.” For this reason, it is important to understand which underlying mechanisms drive carsharing usage during the Covid-19 pandemic. The current research has the overall objective to provide deeper insights into the mediating mechanisms that explain carsharing usage intention during the Covid-19 pandemic. In particular, we draw on signaling theory to explore how different claims (environmental claims, safety claims) that prompt two different opposing underlying processes (perceived ecological benefits, perceived physical risk) influence carsharing usage intention. An online experiment employing a 3 (environmental claim vs. safety claim vs. no claim) × 2 (high information diagnosticity vs. low information diagnosticity) between-subjects design with participants acquired by the online panel platform Clickworker was conducted in April 2020. Fictitious labels and fictitious advertisements served as stimulus material and constituted the five experimental conditions. The data were analyzed by a multicategorial moderated mediation analysis and a multivariate analysis of covariance. Results reveal that environmental claims can stimulate perceived ecological benefits, which, in turn, positively affect carsharing usage intention. Interestingly, our research demonstrates that safety claims cannot decrease perceived physical risk in the context of Covid-19 and carsharing. Nevertheless, perceived physical risk has a (marginal) negative influence on carsharing usage intention and hence should not be discarded altogether. The findings of this article offer new insights into the mental processes that guide consumer decision-making during the coronavirus crisis and also offer important policy implications by highlighting the relevance of environmental claims during the Covid-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the negative influence of perceived physical risk on carsharing usage intention points to the need for alternative measures to reduce users' risk perceptions.
... Although there is still a portion of the population that views ecolabels and ecocertificates with some mistrust, these tools can become increasingly known and used. Cai, Xie and Aguilar (2017) reported on the impact of consumers' perceived credibility regarding eco-labels on buying preference. Consumer confidence in certification and ecolabeling systems significantly affects their preferences for sustainable products. ...
... In recent decades, scientists in various fields related to environmental research have focused on issues of ecological credibility in the context of a product, especially the direct and indirect environmental impact of the product (Chairy and Alam, 2019;Rosli and Ahmad, 2019). Extant research has focused, inter alia, on determining the credibility of environmental labelling as regarded by consumers (Cai et al., 2017). There is an agreement in the literature to use life cycle assessment LCA as a tool for more reliable environmental labelling (Baldo et al., 2002). ...
Article
The implementation and use of environmental management systems (EMSs) depend on the perceived credibility of their certificates. This study aims to identify and describe factors influencing the importance of certification credibility of EMSs. This study discusses the significance of such systems to enterprise credibility by administering and analysing focus group interviews with 20 representatives from the production industry, education sector, certification bodies, and non-profit associations for environmental protection. The paper concludes that credibility of EMSs' certification depends on the certifying companies, and poor-quality audits facilitate the possession of certification as well as the universality of using certified systems. The positive reception of certified EMSs in companies induces the widespread use of certificates, fashion, and credibility, which can be increased by publication of audit reports. These conclusions emphasise the importance of strict auditing and control systems for certifications.
... Socialization related to environmentally friendly products originating from a clean industrial production process is essential. The market for green products usually faces limitations in effective communication and products issued [26]. So it is necessary to formulate regulations that are synergized with market needs. ...
Article
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To reduce deforestation and illegal logging several international initiatives have been carried out. Recognition of SVLK existence, among others, is through Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and TradeVoluntary Partnership Agreement (FLEGT-VPA) and Illegal Logging Prohibition Act (ILPA), which are proof of Indonesian Government’s commitment to improving forest governance. Sistem Verifikasi Legalitas Kayu (SVLK) regulates compliance from forest management and timber trade aspect. Scope of SVLK audit covers from upstream to downstream forest governance, one of which is sawmill industry. Fulfilling the legality aspect of sawmill industry is mandatory in SVLK. SVLK also analyses wood traceability and sawmill activities in the industry. One of indicators used is sawn timber recovery of sawmills. The research was conducted using literature studies, descriptive analysis and comparative analysis of secondary data and regulations related to SVLK. Case study used as research object was Penggergajian Kayu (PK) Rimba Sari sawmill industry with production capacity of <6,000 m ³ /year in Banyumas. PK Rimba Sari generates of 59.34% sawn timber recovery. The study shows that there is potential for utilization of wood waste amounting to 40.66%. So far, wood waste is only used for direct sales but no processing has been carried out yet. The objective of research is to analyze the optimization of sawn timber recovery concerning legality aspect of company as a form of compliance with SVLK scheme. This study concludes that researchers recommend an alternative use of wood waste as part of a sustainable industry and clean production.
... It means that eco-label is an attribute that has credibility as a better product to consume. This study is in line with previous research studies that explain the credibility of a product judged by its superior label (Cai et al., 2017). The credibility of eco-labels on environmentally friendly products is assessed from several essential things, including recognition, use, understanding, and trust of consumers. ...
... The environmental certification carried out by firms for themselves, such as the widely used Environmental Management System (ISO 14001; Boiral et al., 2018;Jabbour et al., 2010), can help firms to manage environmental issues (Qi et al., 2011), and simultaneously signal to the society about their dedication to environmental management (Darnall, 2006). The environmental certification conducted by firms for their products, such as the eco-label based on ISO 14024, informs consumers that the products meet green requirements (Cai et al., 2017), which can be acted as a supplement to ISO 14001 certification. In this regard, environmental certification has been gradually recognized by the society, and has brought various benefits to firms. ...
Article
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The environmental certification acts as a sustainable practice for firms to improve their competitive advantage and its motivation has been widely discussed. However, existing researches ignore the important market driving force of green public procurement (GPP) as a policy tool. To fill this gap, this study, focusing on manufacturing firms in China and three typical environmental certifications, explores the relationship between GPP market pressure and firm's environmental certification practice based on institutional theory. Additionally, from a strategic perspective of green human resource management, this study unveils the influence mechanism of top management support in this relationship by using upper echelons theory. According to the empirical results, we find that GPP market pressure is positively associated with environmental certification practice, and top management support partially mediates this relationship. This study provides new insights into the explanation of firm's environmental certification practice, and provides practical implications for firm managers and government administrator.
... An eco-friendly product could be defined as "one constituted of materials and associated with production practices along its entire life cycle recognized for being socially and environmentally responsible" ( [10], p. 203). For example, products include "household items manufactured with post-consumer plastics or paper, recyclable or reusable packaging, energy-efficient light bulbs, and detergent containing ingredients that are biodegradable, non-polluting and free of synthetic dyes or perfumes" ( [11], p. 220). ...
Article
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Environmental deterioration brought about by consumers’ non-feasible utilization pattern is putting a pressure on the environment and is obstructing sustainable development. To hinder this impact and stimulate a more sustainable economic growth, one solution is to lessen or move utilization patterns from conventional products to eco-friendly products. The authors conducted a review study of green purchase behavioral research across the 6-year period from 2015 to 2021, identifying 108 studies that met our inclusion criteria. The current review distinguishes different pervasive facilitators, motives, and obstacles influencing consumers’ decision-making process towards environmentally friendly products, and it gives potential clarifications for contradictions found in green purchase behavior (GPB). The paper reveals the main determinants of consumer’s GPB, and as a result of the review, 212 variables that affect green purchase intention (GPI) were identified. Moreover, 135 determinants that influence GPB were recorded. In this way, besides contributing to the literature, it will assist policymakers in formulating and employing strategies to persuade eco-friendly purchasing, and it will give an opportunity for marketers to generate proper marketing strategies for drawing in clients and guaranteeing ideal sales.
... There is no unified conclusion about the education level and consumers' purchase behavior towards green products. Some studies show that the higher the education level, the more willing consumers are to buy green products [12,82]. However, Fleith et al. [31] found that there was no relationship between the education level and the social benefits of environmentally sustainable products. ...
Article
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In order to achieve sustainable development to protect the environment and society, an increasing number of scholars have conducted in-depth research on green marketing and green purchases. Although great achievements have been made in this field, there still is room for further progress. This study reviews 97 papers providing empirical research on green purchase behavior from 2015 to 2020. First, we review the widely used consumer theory and its extended application in recent years. Second, we divide the influencing factors of green purchase behavior into the following three categories and discuss them in detail: individual factors, product attributes and marketing, and social factors. Finally, we put forward the following possible directions for future research. (1) The authors can consider adjustment to the survey objects to weaken the subjectivity of the data. (2) Longitudinal research can be used to assess the impact of education and policies with a lagging effect on consumers. (3) The authors can broaden the research direction towards a cross-cultural background. (4) The behavior of various green products (such as recyclable tires, recycled glass containers, recycled paper) could be explored to enrich the research content. (5) It will be beneficial to combine a variety of consumer theories to explore the green purchase behavior of consumers and break through the existing linear hypothesis path to explore new research methods.
... These products are known as ecofriendly products (Vazifehdoust et al., 2013), and are described as products that do not pollute the environment, use few resources, and are recyclable. Similarly, a 'green' product might be defined as one which is constituted of materials and is also associated with production practices along its entire life cycle which are recognized for being socially and environmentally responsible (Cai, Xie, & Aguilar, 2017). Green products are generally costlier and available at a premium in the market (Kirmani & Khan, 2018). ...
Article
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The green products industry is continuously growing worldwide. The increase in public concern and awareness of health, knowledge of the environment, as well as protecting the environment have led consumers to consider environmental issues and to purchase environmentally friendly products. This increase has given rise to research in the field of green products, especially when marketers seek the consumers’ motivation for purchasing green products. This study aims to examine the factors influencing the consumers’ attitudes toward green products regarding the citizenship behavior. A survey was conducted among 208 green products consumers. The data were collected by a questionnaire and analyzed through SEM. The results of the study revealed that health consciousness, knowledge environment, and attitude toward the environment had a significant effect on consumers’ attitudes toward green products. Moreover, citizenship behavior was found to function as a moderating variable in this relationship. Green products were perceived to be more expensive and healthier than conventionally produced alternatives. A major obstacle to the purchase of green products was reported to be premium prices. The volunteers would decrease the consumption of green products when the price was high and would increase their consumption when their ecological values encouraged them to do so. Abbreviation: Green products (GP); citizenship behavior (CB); consumer attitude (CA); health consciousness (HC)
... Environmental friendliness can be achieved by the reduced use of energy and resources, recycling and waste reduction, and by following the principles of sustainable development (Huang et al., 2012). However, main attributes in the choice of furniture are still elsewhere, including: comfort, design, (de Medeiros et al., 2016;Holopainen et al., 2014), brand, price (Caia et al., 2017), and durability (Holopainen et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Furniture market is shifting towards green and innovative products. The use of bio-based methods in wooden furniture industry presents a big potential for the development of materials with new characteristics, of unique furniture items, and can reduce the environmental impact. Bio-based methods can be used for wood protection and decoration, fibre board production, and development of new wooden materials, such as wood hybrids and functionalised wood. The bio-based methods, investigated for their potentials in wood industry, include the use of living organisms, natural products, and biomimicry. Despite ongoing developments there are still major drawbacks associated with many of these technologies: unreliability and inadequate efficiency of the methods, inadequate mechanical properties or dimensional stability of the final products, and high costs. Thus, further developments are needed. In this review, we present the existing and arising bio-based methods with potential in wooden furniture production. Furthermore, we shortly present their marketing potential.
... By contrast, less economically developed regions (e.g., Gemer-Malohont) predominate in clusters of consumers that do not buy these foods. Regional differences in eco-label products were also observed in [27]. ...
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Slovakia, as part of the European Union, participates in all forms of regional development and sustainability. A transparent form of regional development and sustainability is regional labeling, which has a 10-year tradition. Our regions represent excellent potential for the development of domestic products. Acceptance of essential requirements for regional products (domestic raw materials, manual work share, respect for the environment) opens up opportunities for the labor market, promotes tourism, and increases citizens’ purchase ability, none of which are clearly demonstrable in Slovak regions. Residents of individual regions have specific approaches in relation to regional brands depending on the region studied. For the purpose of the survey, four regions of southern Slovakia (with common environmental morphology and different industrial development) were selected. Indicators of age, gender, education, monthly income, and location relative to regional product preferences were studied. The results obtained were processed by cluster analysis (as a way of segmenting consumers). An average conscious purchaser of regional products is a local productive middle-aged person with a secondary or tertiary education, either male or female, and from a more economically advanced region. The results show regional branding as a mobilizing function for connecting inhabitants and the subsequent joint presentation of regional activities.
... One of the most common is the China Energy Label, which requires certain products listed by the government to carry information about that product's ranking on an energy efficiency index. Most studies find that consumers in Chi na are willing to pay more for products that score high enough on the index to be consid ered "energy efficient" or "environmentally friendly" (Cai, Xie, & Aguilar, 2017;Shen, 2012); however, Wang and Zhang (2018) found that people did not want to pay extra for plastic bags that were certified to be 100% degradable. ...
Article
China’s environmental challenges are unprecedented in terms of their size and severity. The country’s constantly evolving regulatory systems are a blend of lessons learned from Western market- and information-based regulations, China’s own unique political and administrative context as an authoritarian country, the complex relationship between its central and local governments, and the balance between the needs for environmental protection and economic growth. A close look at China’s environmental regulatory system may offer useful insights to those working toward a more sustainable future. In the 21st century, the environmental regulatory system in China is entering a new era. Over the last three decades, efforts have focused on developing regulatory standards for air, water, and solid waste, among many other pollutants. This regulatory system primarily follows a command-and-control approach and is often criticized for its failure to curb China’s increasingly severe environmental degradation. In the future, the Chinese government may pursue two routes. The first is to increase the use of market mechanisms and information tools to enable and incentivize more stakeholders, such as consumers, nongovernmental organizations, and communities, to engage in the development and enforcement of environmental regulations, for instance, through cap-and-trade systems, information-disclosure programs, and environmental insurance. However, existing evidence shows that the usefulness of these new instruments is limited. Another route is to develop new mechanisms to strengthen the enforcement of traditional command-and-control regulations. Examples include making environmental performance a key performance indicator (KPI) in the performance appraisals of government officials or leveraging the power of financial sectors. These approaches are a footnote to the new argument in favor of environmental authoritarianism, which suggests that authoritarian regimes, setting authoritarian rules, may be more capable of handling complex environmental pressures. More studies need to be conducted on the effectiveness of these new approaches and the mechanisms by which they may insurance. However, existing evidence shows that the usefulness of these new instruments is limited.
... biodiversity, climate impacts) through international and domestic law is an option for reinvigorating the primacy of politics. This may include redesigning forest-related fiscal and taxation policies (Kilgore et al., 2018;Nurfatriani et al., 2015), green procurement policies (Cai et al., 2017), as well as incentive programmes of international and domestic organisations with strong sustainability standards. Additionally, existing fiscal incentives in support of non-sustainable sourcing could be reviewed and voluntary schemes such as certification might flank this by creating a green lane for certified products and granting priority access to markets. ...
Article
Deforestation and forest degradation remain huge global environmental challenges. Over the last decades, various forest governance initiatives and institutions have evolved in global response to interlinked topics such as climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, indigenous rights, and trade impacts – accompanied by various levels of academic attention. Using a Delphi methodology that draws on both policy and academic insights, we assess the currently perceived state of play in global forest governance and identify possible future directions. Results indicate that state actors are seen to be key in providing supportive regulatory frameworks, yet interviewees do not believe these will be established at the global scale. Rather, respondents point to issue-specific, regional and inter-regional coalitions of the willing, involving the private sector, to innovate global forest governance. Linking forest issues with high politics may hold promise, as demonstrated by initiatives regarding illegal logging and timber trade. Confident rule-setting in support of the public good as well as responsible investments are seen as further avenues. New forest governance “hypes”, if used strategically, can provide leverage points and resources to ensure sustainability effects on the ground. At the same time, informal markets are often crucial for governance outcomes and need consideration. As such, clarifying tenure in sovereignty-sensitive ways is important, as are innovative ways for inclusive “glocal” decision-making. Lastly, new technologies, big data and citizens’ capacities are identified as potent innovation opportunities, for making global dependencies between consumption, production and deforestation visible and holding players accountable across the value chains.
... In addition, it should be noted that the consistency of the accounting boundary is the premise of the comparability of the environmental performance quantification and evaluation results of RDL, and any change in the boundary will lead to the fluctuation of the results. In addition to LCA information, eco-labeling also deserves the attention of green furniture manufacturers (Cai et al. 2017). Furthermore, it is necessary to focus on the construction of a green brand communication strategy. ...
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In response to global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Chinese government has pledged to curtail increased carbon dioxide emissions beyond 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, thus achieving a status of an ecological civilization. Reconstituted decorative lumber, with rotary-cut (or planed) veneer from plantation or common species timber as the main raw material, has beneficial development opportunities for forestry from the perspective of an ecological civilization. This paper first discusses China’s current state of ecological civilization, then researches the various life cycles of reconstituted decorative lumber using the life cycle theory and provides a reference for the Chinese reconstituted decorative lumber industry’s development by analyzing progress in related fields. The eco-friendliness of reconstituted decorative lumber is explained via systematic combing, and proposals for the use and promotion of reconstituted decorative lumber in the new period are presented. Research and analysis findings show that it is necessary to comprehensively regulate the production chain of reconstituted decorative lumber based on life cycle. Research on the development and utilization of reconstituted decorative lumber needs to be strengthened. The promotion and marketing of reconstituted decorative lumber can be promoted by emphasizing its ecological significance.
... So that corporate social and environmental responsibility can be fulfilled indirectly. In assessing eco-label can be known through several indicators including how customer recognizes products, how companies use labels, (Cai et al., 2017). Based on the essence of eco-labels study with green customer behavior, the current research hypothesis is presented as follows. ...
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This study aims to review the correlation of eco-label on customer behavior, which is green awareness, green trust, and green purchase intention. The study is conducted in Bandung City with a research experimental method to 100 customers of Supermarket Retail who know about a green product. The study is performed by using SmartPLS and path analysis techniques to find the research model. The research result is knownthat eco-label has a direct correlation to green awareness and green trust, but it does not relate significantly to green purchase intention. It is the same with green awareness that is insignificant can change green purchase intention. It is different from a green trust that can switch directly to green purchase intention. The research finding is stated that customer's green awareness and green trust can genuinely be the correlation mediation of eco-label with green purchase intention. Information from research results provides a positive impact for the company is considering to green customer behavior and government in giving policy to green product development.
... The study revealed that multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) methods are used for analyzing the barriers, challenges, drivers, enablers, performance and practices of SSCM [23]. In addition to these aspects of the supply chain, the researchers also conducted many studies on environmental themes and intentional consumption behavior, e.g., natural airborne TiO2 [27]; ecology [28]; corporate social responsibility [29]; attitude [30]; sustainable consumption [31]; sustainable production characteristics [32]; premium price [33]; psychographic factors [34]; green brands [35]; knowledge [36]; energy efficient home appliances [37]; consumers attitude [38]; psychological climate [39]; eco-label credibility [40]; culture [41]; eco-friendly food behavior [42]; green advertising [43]; emotional factors [44]; lifestyle [45]; greenness exposure [46]. However, rare research studies are found on green supply chain management, strategic green market orientation, corporate social responsibility, green image, and green consumption intention. ...
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Globally, green consumption behavior has radically changed green product lifecycles as well as green product branding to eliminate the environmental impact of global tourism. The purpose of the current study is to examine green consumption intention in the hospitality and tourism industry as an outcome of green supply chain management and strategic green marketing orientation. It also aims to investigate the green brand image and green social responsibility in a mediated-moderation mechanism to induce green consumption. Based on the deductive approach, and cross-sectional quantitative data of 317 hotel visitors/guests in the northern tourism hotspots in Pakistan, the hypothesized relationships were tested through the structural equation modeling technique with partial least squares. The findings empirically establish that green supply chain management and strategic green marketing orientation have positive and significant effects on green consumption intention. Further, environmental concern (i.e., green image) partially mediates the relationship between strategic green marketing orientation, green supply chain management, and green consumption behavior. The results also revealed that brand social responsibility does not moderate green image and green consumption behavior. These stimulating new findings guided by the signaling theory, provide strategic insights that help to upgrade the tourism supply chains and enabling them to become green.
... For example, ecologically conscious consumers are more likely to be willing to buy green products. Healthy nutrition is also one of the individual factors that affect consumers' preference for green products (Cai et al., 2017). It is defined as the purchasing tendency of consumers for any product (Yoo et al., 2000). ...
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Environmental concerns have been on the agenda of both companies and consumers for a long time and have been the subject of scientific studies. The increase in environmental problems has caused consumers to behave ecologically consciously. Ecologically conscious consumer behavior is expressed as "individuals' postponement of certain requests and needs for the protection of the environment or giving up these requests and needs, sacrificing some costs." This study was carried out to examine the underlying reasons of environmentally conscious consumer behavior and whether ecologically conscious consumer behavior leads to green purchasing intention or not. In this study, an online questionnaire was applied to 440 consumers living in Turkey by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire was applied between 01.05.2021 and 20.05.2021. "The Ethics Committee Approval Certificate" with the number of 195 has been taken on 27.04.2021 from the Ethics Committee of Erciyes University. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. The findings of the study show that general environmental knowledge and eco-label knowledge have statistically significant effect on attitude towards environment; the attitude towards environment has a meaningful effect on ecologically conscious consumer behavior and ecologically conscious consumer behavior has an effect on green purchase intention
... In addition, it should be noted that the consistency of the accounting boundary is the premise of the comparability of the environmental performance quantification and evaluation results of RDL, and any change in the boundary will lead to the fluctuation of the results. In addition to LCA information, eco-labeling also deserves the attention of green furniture manufacturers (Cai et al. 2017). Zhou et al. (2022). ...
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In response to global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Chinese government has pledged to curtail increased carbon dioxide emissions beyond 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, thus achieving a status of an ecological civilization. Reconstituted decorative lumber, with rotary-cut (or planed) veneer from plantation or common species timber as the main raw material, has beneficial development opportunities for forestry from the perspective of an ecological civilization. This paper first discusses China's current state of ecological civilization, then researches the various life cycles of reconstituted decorative lumber using the life cycle theory and provides a reference for the Chinese reconstituted decorative lumber industry's development by analyzing progress in related fields. The eco-friendliness of reconstituted decorative lumber is explained via systematic combing, and proposals for the use and promotion of reconstituted decorative lumber in the new period are presented. Research and analysis findings show that it is necessary to comprehensively regulate the production chain of reconstituted decorative lumber based on life cycle. Research on the development and utilization of reconstituted decorative lumber needs to be strengthened. The promotion and marketing of reconstituted decorative lumber can be promoted by emphasizing its ecological significance.
... Mlecnik et al. (2008) suggest that one way of initiating an increased market demand for energy efficient houses has been to use labels as a communicative instrument. Similarly, Cai et al.(2017) examined how eco-label credibility and retailer type affect green purchasing intentions (GPI). The authors (ibid) found that consumer perceived credibility of eco labels positively affect consumers' GPI. ...
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Purpose The key to green building (GB) success is to have GB expansion driven by consumer demand rather than enforced rules and regulations. Yet, only a few studies have focused on the market impediments to GB development. This study systematically identified and evaluated the critical impediments to the demand for green and sustainable architecture by construction clients in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a two-stage data gathering approach. Qualitative data was collected first through an interview administered to 18 construction clients in Ghana. Based on the early findings, a survey instrument was subsequently developed to seek the views of 120 GB experts and professionals with 96 valid responses-returned. Findings The study discovered that – ineffective advertisement of GB, the perceived cost of implementation, lack of expertise, lack of financial incentives, illiterate construction market and risk and uncertainties were the top six reasons for the low demand for GB by construction clients in Ghana Practical implications Findings from this research would guide industry practitioners and stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding how to stimulate demand for GBs among construction clients. Originality/value The paper models and presents contextual realities on barriers to GB demand in Ghana. The study has added to previous studies by unearthing what constitutes the lack of demand for sustainable architecture. The findings of this study are expected to provide valuable information and insight to policymakers to catalyze green construction by actively involving construction clients.
... International Journal of Food Science their purchase [65]. This has led to creating an ecological label so that the consumer is clearly made aware if a product has a reduced environmental impact throughout its life cycle and provides consumers with accurate, nonmisleading, and scientifically based information on its environmental impact [66]. The relevancy of creating an eco-label has been empowered as consumers demand environmentally friendly products from the market that often incorporate the words "ecological," "green," "natural," or "recycled" into their products [67]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected and afflicted human lives and been a transformative catalyst leading to closure of many companies, disrupting mental health, and reducing access to food and exacerbating food insecurity. This presents an opportunity to reflect on and examine genetically modified (GM) foods and their effective legislative regulation for the benefit of consumers. This review presents a detailed analysis of GM foods’ regulation in Peru and the analysis of certain specific cases that show the need for greater regulation of the industry.
... For instance, over half of end-consumers in the United States (USA) expressed their lack of trust in the ecological features of a product, which was confirmed by its ecolabeling [58]. Similarly, consumers also doubt the credibility of ecolabeling in some developing countries, such as Romania and the Czech Republic [33,70]. The Polish ecolabel research presented in the literature analysis was conducted on smaller samples [67,68]. ...
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In the modern retail system, labels may be defined as silent-sellers which, if recognized and understood by consumers, may allow them to make conscious choices. This simple concern is particularly important considering e-commerce: it ensures customers to find nearly everything they demand without the need to exit from home; however, as shoppers are not in direct contact with sales-clerks, labels play even more a crucial role in the purchasing decision. Online shopping is increasing, notably among young people, and ecolabels represent for producers a tool to distinguish their goods and to provide consumers reliable and credible information about the environmental characteristics of their products. Despite the growing interest in the above-mentioned topics, research which investigate the recognition of ecolabels in online shopping by young consumers lack. To this purpose, the authors conducted an online questionnaire that was distributed to a sample of 559 young consumers who shop online in the most popular Polish retailing chains. Results reveal that online shopping is becoming increasingly popular in Poland, but only some ecolabels were recognized by more than 50% of respondents. This result is not correlated to the frequency of online purchases nor to gender. The recognition of ecolabels among consumers is fundamental.
... Their method employed direct and indirect questioning techniques, which have been known to show a difference in attitudes to eco-friendly products, which is often attributed to social desirability bias (Klaiman et al., 2016). Despite this supposed confirmation, social desirability bias is still a concern for researchers in this area (Testa et al., 2015;Harms et al., 2016;Cai et al., 2017;Taufique et al., 2017;Slapø & Karevold, 2019), and is still being offered as an explanation for results (Vecchio et al., 2017;Barker et al., 2019) or acknowledged as a limitation for studies of WTP for eco-labelled products (Vecchio & Annunziata, 2015;Sogari et al., 2016). ...
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It is often assumed that consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for eco-labeled products in research settings is not because of a desire for environmental protection, but rather that they are socially compelled to make decisions that reflects favorably on them, limiting the validity of findings. Using a second-price Vickrey experimental auction, this study found higher WTP for an eco-labeled product than a comparable good, but that social desirability bias, measured by the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale, was not a significant predictor of WTP. Instead, environmental consciousness, environmental knowledge, education, and available information were stronger predictors of WTP for eco-labeled goods.
... Therefore, some people are willing to pay more for products carrying a label identifying specific credence features [5,6]. If a proper credence system has been clearly established, it was found that consumers would likely pay a premium price for eco-labelled or certified forest products [7][8][9] or even ecolabelled household products [10]. Figure 1. ...
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Credence or believability are paramount values in trade. The role of products' credence attributes has been well-analysed in the agricultural and food sector. This study examined the application of credence attributes to forest management and forest products marketing for the first time. We describe specific credence attributes of forest products and highlight their values, benefits, and importance in international trade. We used Delphi interviews of experts and surveyed forest and trade experts to assess the perceived merits of credence attributes in the forestry sector. We also compared certification schemes and sustainable forest management (SFM) indicators against credence values. We found that credence attributes play an important role in the forestry sector for both timber forest products and non-timber forest products (NTFP). While some credence attributes, such as the legality of forest products, already form the basis for trade and certification and are standard practice, other credence attributes are rising in awareness and could potentially create new markets. This study revealed the potential value of health aspects of forest products, particularly regarding NTFP and recreational services. Certification schemes and SFM provide credence at a collective level, and must encompass the rising importance of individual credence attributes of these newer important values. Last, we summarized the emerging environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investment practices to assess how credence factors may help affect such investments. Awareness of credence attributes can inform ESG criteria, certification schemes, and sustainable forest management frameworks about present or potentially future market expectations. Sustaining and enhancing natural capital and the flow of ecosystem services they provide, as well as social and human capital, will play an increasingly important role for forestry companies in the next decade. A better understanding of forestry credence attributes can inform the management of ESG of forestry industries and markets more effectively.
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Eco-labelling scheme is viewed as an effective way to prompt the development of green consumption. However, the conflicting interests among different stakeholders have impeded its application to a great extent. To prompt a better development of the eco-labelling scheme, in this paper, in terms of the Chinese Environmental Labeling scheme which is one of the most influential and authoritative eco-labelling schemes in China, we use the evolutionary game theory to describe the interactions among the government agency, the eco-labelled enterprise and the consumer which are three major participants in the eco-labelling scheme. Next, we apply system dynamics simulation to analyze the stability of equilibrium strategy solutions of the game. The simulation results show that no stable equilibrium strategy solution exists in the current interactions among three players. Motivated by the development of mobile consumption and application of new information technologies like real-time location and mobile payment, we propose a dynamic incentive-penalty mechanism and verify its effectiveness to achieve the evolution stable state in which with less supervisions from the government side, the eco-labelled enterprises implement the standards strictly and consumers choose to buy eco-labelled products. Our results are helpful for the further development of eco-labelling schemes as well as the government environmental policymaking.
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Green manufacturing is an advanced manufacturing approach, which comprehensively considers environmental impact and resource efficiency and is considered as the future direction of modern manufacturing industry. However, the current situation, technologies, and development strategies of China's green furniture manufacturing have not been comprehensively analyzed and a complete furniture industry green manufacturing technology system is lacking. Here, to fill such knowledge gap, through an extensive review of literatures on manufacturing process and implications of green furniture, which consists of data identification, initial screening, eligibility determination, and final inclusion, this study (1) analyzed the current situation and existing challenges of green furniture manufacturing in China, (2) proposed and discussed a systemic green manufacturing concept for China's furniture based on the current situation, and (3) suggested strategies corresponding to the challenges. The results show that although China has determined that the implementation of green manufacturing is the only sensible way for the development of its furniture industry, many aspects of it, such as public awareness, manufacturing technology, and legal regulations are lacking. The proposed comprehensive green manufacturing concept regarding green manufacturing includes green design, green materials selection, green processes, green packaging, green recycling, etc. The proposed strategies include developing a green manufacturing strategy for furniture enterprises, strengthening the development of green furniture products, improving the production mode of green furniture, and promoting the coordinated development of green production in furniture industry. This study will play a guiding role in promoting the implementation of green manufacturing and achieving a sustainable development of the Chinese furniture industry. Additionally, it also provides a reference for the world furniture enterprises.
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In recent years, discussions on green purchasing have increased; most studies were concentrated in developed countries, with limited studies conducted in developing countries. This study aims to systematically analyze studies that have discussed green purchasing. Using the Scopus database, 142 studies from 61 journals published during the period 1998 to 2021 were analyzed. Our analysis focused on three fundamental aspects: the determinants, the effect of green purchasing, and exploring the theoretical foundations and the most common theories that the studies relied on. The analysis results focused on researchers’ demographic and physiological determinants based on the theory of planned behavior. There has been a development in discussing the determinants related to products and marketing and social and environmental determinants in recent years. The analysis results of the studies that addressed green purchasing show that green purchasing contributes to sustainable development. This study contributes to decision-makers by identifying the mechanisms of persuasion that motivate consumers to buy green products and provides a clear picture of the contribution of green purchasing to improving company performance and thus achieving sustainability, which encourages stakeholders to devise policies, promotional, and marketing strategies through which they can attract consumers.
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Decreasing natural resources and deteriorating environmental conditions have started to encourage consumers to be conscious at some point. The most fundamental factor for consumers to take responsibility in order to correct these negative conditions are undoubtedly products. The fact that these products cause the least harm to the environment, are more sensitive about consuming resources and are recyclable is the change in the product as a "green product". Consumers who have a positive attitude towards green products are more sensitive to recycling. For this purpose, the effect of green product attitude of consumers on green purchasing intention, recycling and lean consumption behaviors was investigated in this study. In line with the purpose, data were collected from consumers residing in Ankara between May 2020 and December 2020 using a survey method. 572 consumers participated in the study. As a result of the structural equation model analysis used in the analysis of the scales, it was determined that the green product attitude positively affected the green purchase intention, recycling and lean consumption. Supporting the H1, H2 and H3 hypotheses examined in the study, the analysis results of other studies were compared and it was observed that the results were parallel.
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this study on survey data focuses on the individual preference to environmental protection increasing the potential demand of all labeled green food that having significantly substitution effects on energy saving in daily expenditure scheme of Beijinger in China. The results indicate the higher net relative incomes have larger globally effects on alternative preferences with distinct differences in social classes. Increases of urban middle-lower income effects enlarge a probability of green food price premium prone to lowering the false positive Giffen hypothesis, while urban higher income effects and peri-urban lower income effects enlarge the probability of price premium prone to proving the ordinary demand law. With considering the representativeness of capital city in China, we use macroeconomic statistics to test our results fitting an increasing trend of CPI during Covid-19 pandemics from year 2020 to 2021. Our findings by micro-level survey analysis about net income effects differ from the macro-level studies on ex-2008 statistics analysis on a decreasing gap between food price and energy price, but similar to showing an increasing gap of post-2008 price premium. Hence, in order to narrow down the difference in net income effects across social classes for buying green food at a fair price, we suggest seven aspects of policy implications on community affordability for green food: 1) target the community affordable price premium lower than the 30% of nominal price; 2) promote household energy saving scheme as a priority of globally necessity; 3) reconsider the food stamp scheme for urban poor affordable green food; 4) educate middle-upper class to enhance the awareness of environmental protection at community level; 5) lower the uncertainty of food market channels; and 6) enhance the capability of community administration for increasing public facilities and services because 7) the ecological compensation to neighborhoods has inconsistent effects across urban borders. JEL: H43; Q11; P28
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The recent years have witnessed a phenomenal change in quantum and pattern of consumption all over the world. Ever increasing consumption leads to the increasing pressure on the environment. Forests are considered to be renewable natural resource capable of providing several major and minor forest products. Using wood-based items rather than non-wood alternatives reduce an environmental footprint. This study investigates into understanding the relationship between the environmental concerns and consumer choice behaviour. The aim of the research is to evaluate the consumer shopping preferences in terms of the principles of the green economy. The survey was carried out using an online questionnaire. The first part focused on examination how demographic data, such as income and education, determine the impact on purchasing decisions. Results identified that young people are more willing to pay more when buying environmentally friendly products. Finally, it can be concluded that the principles of the green economy as a tool for sustainable development are increasingly influencing the shopping behaviour of final consumers.
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Purpose Consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about ecological degradation and are getting conscious of the potential advantages that environmental sustainability can offer, which is also driving them towards the consumption of green products. In view of this, the purpose of this study is to operationalize and test the conceptual model of green purchasing behaviour by incorporating consumers’ perception towards green marketing stimuli including eco-label, eco-brand and environmental advertisements with perceived environmental knowledge in an emerging sustainable market. Design/methodology/approach The proposed model is based on an integrative and cognitive approach to consumers’ environmental beliefs-behaviour relationship. The 549 valid responses were received from selected metropolitan regions of India and analysed by direct path coefficients along with a bootstrapping method for testing indirect effects. Findings The results revealed that perception of eco-label and environmental advertisements had a positive influence on green purchasing behaviour, however, the direct relationships of eco-brand and environmental knowledge were not supported in the model. While environmental advertisements and environmental knowledge posed an indirect influence on green purchasing to some extent. Research limitations/implications The generalizability of the findings needs to augment an extensive approach of a cross-sectional survey. Theoretical, managerial and policy implications were recommended to promote green products towards sustainable consumption. Originality/value The operationalization of green purchasing behaviour using marketing stimuli has remained scant in the Indian setting. The insights gained from this study contributes to the knowledge domain of green consumer psychology in the backdrop of an emerging market.
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This paper investigated the strength and stiffness of L-shaped and T-shaped mortise and tenon joints with rounded shape of tenon. PVA-c glue was utilized to assemble the beech wood joints with interference fit. The strength was carried out by measuring maximal applied load and by calculating ultimate bending moment. Stiffness evaluation was conducted by measuring displacement and by calculating the ratio of applied force and displacement along the force line and the ratio of bending moment and rotation angle of the joint. The results were compared for common mortise and tenon joints and reinforced mortise and tenon joints. The joints were reinforced with round beech wood pegs i.e., standard dowels. The round peg passed perpendicular through the geometric center of the tenon cheeks. The results showed that, for the same tenon geometry but different shape of joints and test configurations, the maximum force of L-shape joints was higher than the force value of T-shape joints. However, the results showed small difference among the calculated bending moments of the analyzed type of tenon joints. The values of stiffness of L-shape joints and T-shape joints were notably different. A significant difference was not detected between the bending moment (strength) and stiffness of nonreinforced joints and reinforced joints for both L-shape and T shape joints. The investigation showed that the joints reinforced in this way could not be successfully used to improve mechanical properties of loaded mortise and tenon joints.
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Purpose Eco-labeling will grow in importance as natural resources grow scarcer and environmental concerns increase. The purpose of this study considers team collaboration (TC) and integration capability (IC) to examine the possible effects of team member’s shared vision (SV) on the performance of marketing eco-labeled products. Design/methodology/approach Theoretical perspectives on SV, IC and TC were studied to evaluate the development of eco-labeled products and to improve their marketing performance. A total of 247 eco-label products were sampled; confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used for statistical analysis. Findings The results demonstrate that team members’ SV is positively correlated with TC. Both TC and IC are positively correlated with the performance of eco-labeled product marketing, but SV does not correlate positively with IC. The results herein also demonstrate that TC significantly mediates the effect of SV on the performance of eco-labeled product marketing. Research limitations/implications Firstly, this research aimed to study the effects of SV, TC and IC, particularly on the performance of marketing eco-labeled products. The analysis on other organizational performance, for example, human resource management performance or financial performance can be further studied. Secondly, further study of different products is necessary as different eco-labeled products have dissimilar product life cycle patterns. As human environmental concern grows, firms engaging in the manufacture of eco-labeling products will increase significantly and cover many different products. The analyses on different products or applications require further study to elucidate diverse management strategies. Practical implications An effective SV can rapidly clarify the goals and directions associated with eco-labeled marketing performance. Managers with high expectations of marketing performance can improve marketing performance when they clearly share eco-labeled product development objectives and directions. Proper IC and TC are also essential to the performance of eco-labeled product marketing. Originality/value This study introduces the concept of SV to explain the relationship between TC and IC as they pertain to eco-labeling product marketing. A theory of eco-labeling marketing is also presented.
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The research proposes a model based on the theory of planned behavior to examine the relationships on self-confidence with green foods, green consumer attitude, perceived behavioral control, social norms, label knowledge, and eco-labeling. Attitudes, social norms, and PBC were found to be significant Ecolabels mediate the relationship between attitudes and consumer self-confidence, while attitudes were found to mediate between label knowledge and intention to use ecolabels. The study contributes to a wider explanation of the impact of these contextual variables for eco-labels and provides support for both theory and practice that facilitate insights for business practitioners, policymakers, and consumer behavior theorists.
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This study highlights the importance of incorporating objectively quantified, non-market environmental values (such as avoided erosion and carbon sequestration) into land use decision making for sustainable forest management. A continuously developing approach that has facilitated discussions between researchers, industries, and governments on the quantification of non-market values is the ecosystem services (ES) framework. Using a spatial economic tool, called Forest Investment Framework, this study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first assessment of the market (timber) and non-market (carbon sequestration, avoided nitrogen leaching and avoided erosion) ES values of the 1.75 million-hectare New Zealand planted forest estate. To collect the views of key planted forest industry representatives on ES assessment/quantification, we interviewed 14 forest managers representing 60% of the planted forest area. Results from the spatial economic analysis indicated that the non-market ES values can be more than four times the timber profit nationally, and up to 12 times higher in New Zealand's most erosion-prone region. These estimated values are indicative and should be treated with caution. From a sensitivity analysis, we found that different discount rates significantly impact ES values, ratios, and distributions. Results from the interviews indicated that ES quantification helped inform decision making by supporting license to operate, while also signaling the development of a reward system for sustaining ES. Sixty-four percent of survey respondents identified the importance of quantifying ES in ecological terms and describing other non-market ES in spatial, qualitative, or binary forms. Overall, this study provided evidence of how estimated non-market ES values compare with market values and highlighted the importance of including them in decision making processes. Future cost benefit analyses that incorporate these non-market monetary ES values would complement multi-criteria analysis that integrate additional dimensions and allow decision makers to rank options based on their particular criteria.
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In 2020, a Special Issue entitled Rural Development: Strategies, Good Practices and Opportunitieswas launched, in which 16 papers were published. The aim of this monograph was to study this problem with contributions in which different initiatives or projects are presented to reduce the demographic, economic and social imbalances between rural and urban areas. On the other hand, some studies highlighted the weaknesses that certain projects and programmes are having in achieving the same objectives. The papers presented were very diverse and provided cases in a wide variety of territories including European, American, and Asian. The different strategies presented focused on achieving rural development through the promotion of activities complementary to agriculture, such as rural tourism, the revaluation of natural heritage, the promotion of agroecological products, the industrial promotion of rural areas, the introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Internet to improve their communications and teleworking, the design of sustainable housing for youngers and new settlers, etc. This book serves as a reference to showcase current papers that address more or less successfully sustainable rural development strategies. It is aimed at researchers from multiple and different fields such as geography, earth sciences, political science, economics, econometrics, econometrics, and other fields of study.
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Green product certification is an important link between sustainable production and consumption, which are widely used by governments to promote sustainable development. However, the risks in the green product certification are not sufficiently addressed. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk of green product certification, for a risk index system and the intelligent risk assessment model were constructed, which could provide support for risk management of green product certification. Green furniture products were taken as an example, as they are closely related to daily life and health. Based on the implementation specification of green product certification on furniture in China, six basic links and 19 certification risk indicators were proposed. Then an intelligent risk assessment model was constructed using the interpretation structure model, analytical network process and probabilistic neural networks methods. Based on the history data of green furniture product certification in China, the results show that on-site inspection stage has the highest risk weight of 0.3457 among the six links. The comprehensiveness of the information input has the highest risk weight of 0.1290 among the 19 indicators. The intelligent risk assessment model could accurately evaluate the risk, the results showed that there is always a certain risk in the green product certification. Therefore, some suggestions were recommended, certification traceability system, professional staff training and intelligent information filling would be helpful to risk management of green product certification. The results of this study could be extended to other fields of green products and be used for other countries to improve the risk management of green product certification.
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The objectives of the research are to study the factors the determine consumer intentions towards buying green products The inclusion criterion for the respondent was at least 14 years of education and the minimum age of 19. Findings of the study show that age and education have positive relation with Eco- literacy. Socio demographic variables are not significantly related with green purchase intention. Besides this Environmental advertisements, Price and Ecological packaging were found to be positively related with the Green purchase intention. Recommendations are presented for the existing and new companies to exploit the opportunities by investing in corporate social responsibility and advertisement as well as in improving and greening the marketing program. Further studies are needed to widen the scope of research in other areas of greenmarketing program and strategy. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n11p650
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The diversity of forest environmental certification schemes can be confusing to consumers and may weaken the clarity of their message. Certified forest product demand is partly contingent on product information. There is a need to understand how information provided by certifiers is processed by supply chain members. In this study, we develop and test a model that deconstructs certification descriptions into three components; (1 ) certification drivers, (2) certification principles, and (3) pledge of certified products. Four descriptions of forest certification were evaluated based on the weight placed on each of these three components by U.S. homebuilders and architects. A multivariate regression was used to determine each certification description's influence on respondents to (1) consider procuring certified wood products, (2) deem certification as an effective marketing tool for their company, and (3) perceive that certified products provide advantages over noncertified products. Findings suggest that forest certification descriptions that place a high importance in explaining reasons that justify the use of certified wood products are the most important determinants of supply chain members' perceptions about forest certification. Descriptions with a thorough explanation of the principles that determine how a product is certified also have a significant and positive, but smaller, effect.
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INTRODUCTION The Furniture Society is a member-based nonprofit organization founded in 1996. Its mission is to advance the art of furniture making by inspiring creativity, promoting excellence and fostering an understanding of this art and its place in society. By sponsoring a variety of programs that contribute to the education and enrichment of members and the public, the Furniture Society champions excellence, refinement, responsibility, and craftsmanship in furniture. It seems that when it comes to woodworking and working with our hands, we are inherently more connected to nature than many other occupations. I attend the Furniture Society’s annual conference every year in June. In almost every furniture maker presentation that I’ve listened to, the artist has mentioned nature as a source of inspiration. And in most encounters with fellow makers, I find that the lot genuinely tries to do good by our planet and its limited resources. Of course, the level of awareness varies among each maker, but consciousness of how we’re using resources seems to exist on at least some level. What is green furniture? There are many elements to consider when identifying green furniture, and I’ve listed only some of the ingredients below that responsible furniture makers are taking into account as they design and build. There are other elements to consider, and within the list below, one can continue to dissect each depending on the degree of responsibility a person chooses to pursue. Materials-How are materials sourced and used, and is there waste? Are they renewable, recyclable, reused or repurposed? Are they safe? Do they off-gas? Manufacturing Practices-Is the object designed well, and is it easy/ efficient to manufacture? Are alternative sources of energy used during its manufacture? Use-Keep it out of the landfill! Is the object durable, useable, and/or multi-functional? What happens at the object’s end of life? Is it easily recycled or repurposed? Fair Labor-Are the folks involved in the manufacture of the object treated and paid fairly? Maybe this doesn’t apply to a one-person woodshop, but what about the laborers who made or processed the materials the furniture maker is using? Transportation-Is the object going to a local client? How are materials transported to the woodshop or place of manufacture? How does the final product reach the client? Is the maker able to walk or ride a bike to work? Rather than try to place my own judgments about what’s green enough, I opted to highlight the green practices that Furniture Society members are endeavoring. There’s always room for improvement just like there’s always more to learn. It’s my hope that this peek into what different makers, educators, and businesses are doing will inspire even better things to come.
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In 1995, Ozanne and Vlosky conducted a study of U.S. consumers to discern perceptions about environmentally certified wood products, consumer willingness to incur a premium for such products, and entities that consumers trust to certify. Results included an estimate of the size of the segments(s) for environmentally certified wood products and a profile of those consumers who are willing to pay the greatest premium for certified wood products. That study was replicated in 2000 using the same population. This paper compares results from the 1995 and 2000 studies and discusses managerial implications.
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Background Within the medical community there is persistent debate as to whether the information available through social media is trustworthy and valid, and whether physicians are ready to adopt these technologies and ultimately embrace them as a format for professional development and lifelong learning. Objective To identify how physicians are using social media to share and exchange medical information with other physicians, and to identify the factors that influence physicians’ use of social media as a component of their lifelong learning and continuing professional development. Methods We developed a survey instrument based on the Technology Acceptance Model, hypothesizing that technology usage is best predicted by a physician’s attitudes toward the technology, perceptions about the technology’s usefulness and ease of use, and individual factors such as personal innovativeness. The survey was distributed via email to a random sample of 1695 practicing oncologists and primary care physicians in the United States in March 2011. Responses from 485 physicians were analyzed (response rate 28.61%). Results Overall, 117 of 485 (24.1%) of respondents used social media daily or many times daily to scan or explore medical information, whereas 69 of 485 (14.2%) contributed new information via social media on a daily basis. On a weekly basis or more, 296 of 485 (61.0%) scanned and 223 of 485 (46.0%) contributed. In terms of attitudes toward the use of social media, 279 of 485 respondents (57.5%) perceived social media to be beneficial, engaging, and a good way to get current, high-quality information. In terms of usefulness, 281 of 485 (57.9%) of respondents stated that social media enabled them to care for patients more effectively, and 291 of 485 (60.0%) stated it improved the quality of patient care they delivered. The main factors influencing a physician’s usage of social media to share medical knowledge with other physicians were perceived ease of use and usefulness. Respondents who had positive attitudes toward the use of social media were more likely to use social media and to share medical information with other physicians through social media. Neither age nor gender had a significant impact on adoption or usage of social media. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the use of social media applications may be seen as an efficient and effective method for physicians to keep up-to-date and to share newly acquired medical knowledge with other physicians within the medical community and to improve the quality of patient care. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the meaningful use of social media on physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors in practice.
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China’s rapid economic development has improved people’s living standards and has thus raised people’s health awareness and environmental consciousness. Nowadays, more and more Chinese parents have realized the growing importance of healthy and eco-friendly products for children’s growth. In the past 10 years, the Chinese children's furniture market has developed rapidly, making up 9% of the entire furniture market in China in 2011. Due to a lack of research on the analysis of consumers’ environmental perceptions of children’s furniture in China, a survey in two coastal metropolitan cities of China (Shanghai and Shenzhen) was conducted at the turn of 2012/2013. Results indicate that 83% of 299 valid respondents chose solid wood as their preferred raw material for children’s furniture. From the Chinese consumers’ perspective, eco-friendly furniture contains the following key attributes: natural, non-poisonous and scentless material, adoption of environmental certification, and verification of legal origin of wood. Furthermore, there is some evidence on the linkage between consumers’ lifestyle of health and sustainability and gender (females), location (Shanghai) and income (higher income). Although Chinese consumers still have low brand awareness and their price expectations on solid wood furniture are below current market prices, the market for children’s furniture presents a growing high-end segment with business potential for both furniture producers and wood raw material suppliers.
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Consumers cannot verify green attributes directly and must rely on such signals as eco-labels to authenticate claims. Using signaling theory, this study explored which aspects of eco-label design yield more positive effects. The study uses a 2 (argument specificity: specific versus general) x 2 (label source: government versus corporate) x 2 (product involvement: low versus high) experimental design (n = 233). Specific arguments consistently yield greater eco-label trust and positive attitudes toward the product and label source, but only with low-involvement products is source important, with corporate labels yielding more positive attitudes. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and managerial implications.
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The authors use conjoint analysis to provide interval-level estimates of part-worths allowing tradeoffs among attribute levels to be examined. Researchers often possess prior information about the part-worths, such as the order and range restrictions of product attribute levels. It is known, for example, that consumers would rather pay less for a specific product given that all other product attribute levels are unchanged. The authors present a Bayesian approach to incorporate prior ordinal information about these part-worths into the analysis of conjoint studies. Their method results in parameter estimates with greater face validity and predictive performance than estimates that do not utilize prior information or those that use traditional methods such as LINMAP. Unlike existing methods, the authors' methods apply to both rating and choice-based conjoint studies.
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Variance-based structural equation modeling is extensively used in information systems research, and many related findings may have been distorted by hidden collinearity. This is a problem that may extent to multivariate analyses in general, in the field of information systems as well as in many other fields. In multivariate analyses, collinearity is usually assessed as a predictor-predictor relationship phenomenon, where two or more predictors are checked for redundancy. This type of assessment addresses vertical, or “classic,” collinearity. However, another type of collinearity may also exist, called here “lateral” collinearity. It refers to predictor-criterion collinearity. Lateral collinearity problems are exemplified based on an illustrative variance-based structural equation modeling analysis. The analysis employs WarpPLS 2.0, with the results double-checked with other statistical analysis software tools. It is shown that standard validity and reliability tests do not properly capture lateral collinearity. A new approach for the assessment of both vertical and lateral collinearity in variance-based structural equation modeling is proposed and demonstrated in the context of the illustrative analysis.
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Efforts to explain environmental concern as a function of social structure have revealed some weak but reliable associations. Stronger associations have been found between environmental concern and social psychological variables including attitudes, beliefs, and worldviews. The authors used the 1993 General Social Survey to explore a conceptual framework that postulates four causal levels: social structural factors and early socialization experiences; general worldview and ideology about humanity and the environment; specific attitudes, beliefs, and cognitions about environmental issues; and environmentally relevant behavior. Each class of variable has explanatory power beyond that given by other classes of variables, with the social psychological variables generally adding more explanatory power than the structural variables. The patterns are different, however, for the five behavioral indicators. Efforts to explain the structural influences as indirect, operating through the social psychological variables, were mainly unsuccessful.
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In this article, we examine how consumers assess product quality when confronted with multiple cues. Based on cue diagnosticity, a conceptual framework is developed that differentiates between cue types and suggests that the diagnosticity of some cue types depends on the valence of other cue types in the environment. The cue diagnosticity framework is then used to assess the effects of manufacturer reputation, retailer reputation, and product warranty on consumer perceptions of product quality. Consistent with the conceptual framework, we find in 2 studies that warranty is not used in judgments of product quality when a manufacturer with a poor reputation sells directly to consumers or sells through a retailer with a poor reputation. However, when the same manufacturer sells through a reputed retailer, then the warranty is used in making quality evaluations. The results not only support the conceptual framework, but also highlight the important role that the retailer plays in assessments of product quality. The implications of the findings are discussed along with directions for future research.
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Looking to the future of green marketing, examines the dynamic nature of ecologically conscious consumer behavior. The study also provides a method of profiling and segmenting college students based upon ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Findings indicate that, despite a significant amount of past research attention, demographic criteria are not as useful a profiling method as psychographic criteria. Consistent with past findings, the study indicates that perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) provides the greatest insight into ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Further, the inclusion of altruism to the profile appears to add significantly to past efforts. Additional constructs examined suggest that environmental segmentation alternatives are more stable than past profiles that have relied primarily on demographic criteria.
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Purpose – The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of green marketing tools on consumer's actual purchase behavior in case of Penang (Malaysia). Design/methodology/approach – A survey was carried out on 250 Chinese, Malay, Indian and other races that represent the Penang population. Factor analysis, Cronbach alpha and multiple regression were used to identify factors impact on Penang consumers actual purchase behavior. Findings – The result revealed that customer's trust in eco-label and eco-brand and their perception of eco-brand show positive and significant impact on their actual purchase behavior. Practical implications – The paper provides practical information for green marketers and producers of green products in Malaysia. Originality/value – This paper offer helpful guideline for government to formulate the green policies such as providing promotional incentives to green products manufacturers and encouraging public to buy products with eco-label.
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Concerns related to the environment are evident in the increasingly ecologically conscious marketplace. Using various statistical analyses, investigats the demographic, psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Finds that this segment of consumers were more likely to be females, married and with at least one child living at home. They reported that today’s ecological problems are severe, that corporations do not act responsibly toward the environment and that behaving in an ecologically favorable fashion is important and not inconvenient. They place a high importance on security and warm relationships with others, and they often consider ecological issues when making a purchase. Managerial implications for green marketers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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b>Purpose – The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of multiple factors on the green purchase intention of customers in Australia. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model is proposed and was subjected to empirical verification with the use of a survey of metropolitan and regional households in Victoria, Australia. The data were analyzed using both descriptive measures and exploratory factor analysis to identify and validate the items contributing to each component in the model. AMOS structural modeling was used to estimate the measure of respondents' overall perception of green products and their intention to purchase. Findings – The results indicate that customers' corporate perception with respect to companies placing higher priority on profitability than on reducing pollution and regulatory protection were the significant predictors of customers' negative overall perception toward green products. The only positive contribution to customers' perception was their past experience with the product. Other factors including the perception of green products, product labels, packaging, and product ingredients did not appear to influence customers' perception. The results also indicate that customers are not tolerant of lower quality and higher prices of green products. Research limitations/implications – The knowledge of the overall perception formation about green products and its predictors provides management with the facility to identify and implement strategies that may better influence the change of attitude by customers. Corporations can also benefit from the identification of the types of information required to enable management to influence this process of perception formation. Originality/value – The present findings contributes to an understanding of the antecedents of green purchasing and highlight that green customers rely more on personal experience with the product than the information provided by the marketer.<br /
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The paper presents partial results from an Italian study on consumer perception and knowledge of organic food and related behaviour. Uses the means-end chain model to link attributes of products to the needs of consumers. In order to provide insights into consumer motivation in purchasing organic products, 60 respondents were interviewed using ``hard’’ laddering approach to the measurement of means-end chains. The results (ladders) of these semiqualitative interviews are coded, aggregated and presented in a set of hierarchical structured value maps. Even if organic products are perceived as difficult to find and expensive, most consumers judge them positively. All consumers associate organic products with health at different levels of abstraction and want good, tasty and nourishing products, because pleasure and wellbeing are their most important values. Results show that differences exist between groups of consumers with respect to their frequency of use (experience) of organic products and level of information (expertise). Reports and discusses results on consumer cognitive structures at different level of experience.
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The authors use conjoint analysis to provide interval-level estimates of part-worths allowing tradeoffs among attribute levels to be examined. Researchers often possess prior information about the part-worths, such as the order and range restrictions of product attribute levels. It is known, for example, that consumers would rather pay less for a specific product given that all other product attribute levels are unchanged. The authors present a Bayesian approach to incorporate prior ordinal information about these part-worths into the analysis of conjoint studies. Their method results in parameter estimates with greater face validity and predictive performance than estimates that do not utilize prior information or those that use traditional methods such as LINMAP. Unlike existing methods, the authors’ methods apply to both rating and choice-based conjoint studies.
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Multicollinearity is one of several problems confronting researchers using regression analysis. This paper examines the regression model when the assumption of independence among the independent variables is violated. The basic properties of the least squares approach are examined, the concept of multicollinearity and its consequences on the least squares estimators are explained. The detection of multicollinearity and alternatives for handling the problem are then discussed. The alternative approaches evaluated are variable deletion, restrictions on the parameters, ridge regression and Bayesian estimation.
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A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS. Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference. Generalized linear models. Bayesian hierarchical models. Predictive distribution and model checking. Bayesian model and variable evaluation. Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all data sets and code are available on the book's related Web site. Requiring only a working knowledge of probability theory and statistics, Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS serves as an excellent book for courses on Bayesian statistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the fields of statistics, actuarial science, medicine, and the social sciences who use WinBUGS in their everyday work.
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This article shows that trust in the organic label as well as perceived positive health effects of consumption of organic products have positive causal effects on actual organic consumption. Furthermore perceived positive environmental effects and perceived better animal welfare related to organic production are found not to have no significant causual effect on actual behaviour, whereas concern for artificial additives and low price sensitivity have. Even when differences in time varying attitudes have been controlled for there is still a rather large heterogeneity in the organic purchasing behaviour. Part of this heterogeneity can be explained by differences in urbanisation or level of education, while income does not seem to have any effect when education has been controlled for. The data used is panel data for 830 households reporting actual purchases as well as stated preferences and attitudes in 2002 and again in 2007. The results point towards that the most efficient way of increasing organic consumption seems to be to continuously increasing the trust in the organic label and/or to document the positive health effects of organic food by e.g. focussing on measurable things such as a lower frequency of findings of pesticide residues in organic foods compared to conventional foods.
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Up to now China's environmental reform has been mainly a state-led process. Yet, to enable further environmental improvements increased involvement of citizens and consumers is inevitable. This article explores existing, newly developing and future forms and channels of public participation in China's environmental management. Opportunities for public participation are analysed against the background of actual environmental parameters and in relation to China's specific political and socio-cultural dynamics. This contextual analysis of the (potential) roles for civil actors is framed around five environmental issues, which are central to the contemporary Chinese environmental debate: (1) protection of nature and bio-diversity; (2) local control of environmental pollution; (3) construction of green company images; (4) establishment of sustainable household practices; and (5) participation in international conventions and treaties.
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With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We found that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility.
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Selection of appropriate climatic variables for prediction of electricity demand is critical as it affects the accuracy of the prediction. Different climatic variables may have different impacts on the electricity demand due to the varying geographical conditions. This paper uses multicollinearity and backward elimination processes to select the most appropriate variables and develop a multiple regression model for monthly forecasting of electricity demand. The former process is employed to reduce the collinearity between the explanatory variables by excluding the predictor which has highly linear relationship with the other independent variables in the dataset. In the next step, involving backward elimination regression analysis, the variables with coefficients that have a low level of significance are removed. A case study has been reported in this paper by acquiring the data from the state of New South Wales, Australia. The data analyses have revealed that the climatic variables such as temperature, humidity, and rainy days predominantly affect the electricity demand of the state of New South Wales. A regression model for monthly forecasting of the electricity demand is developed using the climatic variables that are dominant. The model has been trained and validated using the time series data. The monthly forecasted demands obtained using the proposed model are found to be closely matched with the actual electricity demands highlighting the fact that the prediction errors are well within the acceptable limits.
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This study examined US and Chinese consumers' perceptions of the economic, ethical, legal, and philanthropic responsibilities that wood products companies should be held responsible for. Survey data collected in the United States and China in 2011 were analyzed to determine whether this four-component corporate social responsibility (CSR) model was valid and to explore differences between the two countries. Results suggest that economic, ethical, legal, and philanthropic dimensions fit well a model of CSR. Responsibilities related to sound forest management were embedded in legal and ethical expectations. Wood products consumers from both nations self-reported higher expectations for companies' legal and ethical responsibilities than for economic and philanthropic responsibilities. US respondents' expectations for ethical and philanthropic responsibilities in the wood products industry had positive and significant effects on their stated preferences to purchase wood products. In China, only respondents' expectations for philanthropic responsibilities were found to have a positive and significant impact on stated purchasing preferences. The premise that wood products companies' primary objective is to attain economic profits may not be representative of consumers' expectations. Economic expectations seem axiomatic, and consumers instead deem this and likely other natural resource-based industries should exercise greater legal, ethical, and philanthropic practices.
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Purpose ‐ This paper aims to re-examine the determinants of ecologically conscious consumer behaviour (ECCB) by analysing the green consumer profile (socio-demographic and psychographic variables), building on the work of Straughan and Roberts. Moreover, the study explores the determinants of effective green purchase behaviour (GPB) considering ECCB and green purchase intention (GPI) previously evaluated. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The authors conducted a quantitative study based on an online survey. Data collection was implemented in two different phases: in the first phase ECCB, GPI and profiling variables were measured. One month later, the same respondents evaluated their effective GPB. Through path analysis the effects of ECCB and GPI on GPB were measured. Findings ‐ The results show that psychographic variables, with emphasis on perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) and altruism, are more relevant than socio-demographics in explaining ECCB. The consumers with higher ECCB have shown higher green purchase intention (GPI). ECCB has a positive impact on GBP, higher than GPI, which in turn mediates that relationship. Research limitations/implications ‐ The research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further. Practical implications ‐ The paper provides evidence that whenever ecological consciousness is high, the gap between GPI and GPB is less evident, which provides clear evidence that an understanding of green consumer profiles and behaviour can enable organizations to respond better to new management challenges. Originality/value ‐ This paper provides a comprehensive understanding about the green consumer profile and behaviour, including the effect of GPI on GPB, and which contribute to the coordination of future marketing strategies to target this segment.
The present study was an effort to explore the direct and indirect impacts (mediated through retailer loyalty) of retailer awareness, retailer association and retailer perceived quality on purchase intention. Seven hypotheses were developed with relevant literature support. The hypotheses were tested with primary data (n=355) collected through structured questionnaire using systematic sampling from food retail shoppers of age 18 years and above in Kolkata, a metropolitan city of India. Structural equation modeling statistical technique was used to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that retailer awareness, retailer association, retailer perceived quality and retailer loyalty have positive impacts on purchase intention. Results also found that the indirect impacts (mediated though retailer loyalty) of retailer awareness, retailer association and retailer perceived quality on purchase intention are stronger than the direct ones. Academic and managerial implications are further discussed.
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This study develops a theoretical framework of green consumer behavior to determine the effects of personal influence, knowledge of green consumption, attitudes toward green consumption, internal and external moderators and examines whether these effects differ significantly among purchasing, using and recycling behaviors. Correlation analysis and multiple regression are applied to assess data collected by a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that attitudes are the most significant predictor of purchasing behavior. Using behavior is mainly determined by income, perceived consumer effectiveness and age, while recycling behavior is strongly influenced by using behavior. These findings have policy implications and improve understanding of green consumer behavior in China.
Article
Consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) price premiums for environmentally certified wood products has been frequently estimated using stated preference methods. Estimates of WTP premiums for certified wood products over non-certified options reported in the literature range from 1.0% to 39.3%. This paper describes a meta-analysis used to determine the key factors associated with WTP price premium estimates by examining data from 19 different studies conducted around the world. Results of Bayesian hierarchical models show that frequently purchased wood products and wood products with lower base prices tend to capture higher percentage premiums. Survey administration method was also a statistically significant factor influencing variations in WTP estimates. Results show that conjoint analysis elicited inflated WTP estimates toward certified wood products compared with contingent valuation methods. Reported WTP estimates have increased in recent years. Recommendations to reduce the error of WTP estimates toward certified wood products and improve the validity of experimental studies are provided.
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Product labelling with organic certification logos is a tool for signalling consumers that a product is a certified organic product. In many European countries, several different organic labelling schemes exist in the market. The aim of this paper is to elicit whether consumers prefer certain organic labelling schemes over others, to give recommendations for market actors in the organic sector. By means of choice experiments and structured interviews with 2441 consumers of organic food in six European countries, consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for different organic logos were analysed. The results of the random parameter logit models showed that the WTP differed considerably between the tested logos. Consumer perceptions of organic labelling schemes turned out to be of subjective nature and in many cases not based on objective knowledge. We conclude that it is advisable to label organic products with well-known organic certification logos that consumers trust. Organisations owning an organic labelling scheme should put effort into measures for increasing consumer awareness of the logo and forming consumer perceptions and attitudes regarding the underlying scheme in terms of standards and control regime.
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Don't Know responses to survey questions are ambiguous because the same words are used by respondents to mean different things—ignorance, indecision, or uncertainty about the meaning of the question asked. In order to clarify the meaning of such answers, survey interviewers are frequently trained to probe Don't Know answers at least once before the answer is considered final. We argue that unconditional probing of Don't Know answers may not be a desirable practice, particularly as regards knowledge items. Large unintended effects on responses to four knowledge items resulted when two groups of interviewers, who administered the same survey questions, probed Don't Know responses at different rates. Strong evidence is provided in the article that the probing of Don't Know answers encouraged guesswork on the part of uninformed respondents, giving rise to significant distributional differences and differences in means across half samples for the affected variables. However, relationships between variables appear to be largely unaffected by probing effects. In order to formulate valid probing guidelines for interviewer training, further research is needed to establish whether the findings for knowledge questions generalize to factual questions.