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A Comparison of the Academic Achievement of Home School and Public School Students

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Abstract

p>This study added to existing data on home school effectiveness by comparing the academic achievement of 66 home school students with 66 of their grade-level peers in traditional public schools. The two groups of students were matched on gender, race, and grade level and were administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery III. No significant difference in overall academic achievement was found between the groups. Both home school and public school students had average or above average scores in reading, math, written language, and broad knowledge (science, social studies, and humanities). The results further revealed a downward trend in math, reading and broad knowledge scores with increasing grade level. This trend suggests that home school and public school students experience a “developmental mismatch” between the changes that occur in adolescence and their school/home experiences, resulting in lower motivation, confidence, and academic performance.</p
International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR)
1
A Comparison of the Academic Achievement of Home
School and Public School Students
1
Lyn T. Boulter
2
ABSTRACT
This study added to existing data on home school effectiveness by comparing the academic
achievement of 66 home school students with 66 of their grade-level peers in traditional public
schools. The two groups of students were matched on gender, race, and grade level and were
administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery III. No significant difference in
overall academic achievement was found between the groups. Both home school and public school
students had average or above average scores in reading, math, written language, and broad
knowledge (science, social studies, and humanities). The results further revealed a downward trend
in math, reading and broad knowledge scores with increasing grade level. This trend suggests that
home school and public school students experience a “developmental mismatch” between the
changes that occur in adolescence and their school/home experiences, resulting in lower
motivation, confidence, and academic performance.
Keywords: Education Attainment, Education System, K12 Learning, Schooling.
JEL Codes: I20, I21, I28, I29.
Available Online: 17-04-2017
This is an open access article under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, 2017.
1. Introduction
A growing number of families in the United States are educating their children at home rather than in a
traditional school setting. In 2009, approximately 1.5 million American parents were teaching their
children at home, up from the 850,000 students the federal government estimated were home
schooled in 1999 (Ray, 2009), although the growth rate has declined over the last two decades. The
growth rate in the late 60’s was estimated to be 7% to 15% per year (Home School Legal Defense
Association, 1997; Ray, 1997) but more recent estimates are 2% to 8% per annum over the past few years
1
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Melina Rice for her help in collecting and coding the data, and Al
Roberts for his very helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. The authors also wish to thank the home-school and
public school students for their cooperation, their parents for allowing their children to participate in this study, and the
principals for permitting the study to be conducted in their school.
2
Department of Psychology, Catawba College, North Carolina, 28147, USA. E-mail: lboulter@catawba.edu.
International Journal of Business and Social Research
Volume 07, Issue 03, 2017
ISSN 2164-2540 (Print), ISSN 2164-2559 (Online)
Boulter, IJBSR (2017), 07(03): 01-09
International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR)
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(Bielick, 2008). Once discouraged in many states, it is now legal in every state, although the laws and
standards that regulate it vary. Since a Supreme Court decision in 1985 that ruled a home school could
operate under the existing private school law, most states recognize home education as an alternative
for complying with compulsory school attendance requirements (Furst, 1994).
A review of the literature indicates parents home school their children for varied reasons. Some reasons
can be classified as familial, such as teaching specific values, providing a Christian education, controlling
social interactions, developing close family ties, and maintaining a high level of academics (Ray, 1990;
Ray, 1997). Other reasons pertain to dissatisfaction with the public schools, including inadequate
academic standards, the lack of a quality curriculum and character education, teaching methods, and
control of student behavior (Cizek, 1988; Gray, 1993; Murray, 1996; Wilhelm & Firmin, 2009).
However, some of the practices and procedures that pertain to the academic effectiveness of home-
school education are controversial. Typical home education practices use child-centered curricular
approaches involving private, individualized instruction (Hadderman, 2000), smaller time periods of
highly focused academic learning time and an environment free from distractions (Murray, 1996).
Some follow the philosophy of John Holt (Welner & Welner, 1999) and allow the child’s natural
curiosities to define the content and pace of education, rejecting set curricula and testing. State
requirements for curriculum, assessment, record keeping, educational qualifications for homeschooling
parents, protections for at-risk students, and extracurricular activities are often inadequate or lack
enforcement (Coalition for Responsible Home Education, 2017). Moreover, many states do not require
annual submission of curriculum plans or test scores and none require the home-schooling parent to be
a certified teacher. (Lines, 2011). For these reasons, the National Education Association called for more
vigorous regulation of home school practices. The practice of home schooling is opposed by the
National Parent-Teacher Association as well as the National Association of Elementary School
Principals, which endorses the philosophy that the most effective educational models are carried out in
more formal settings (Lines, 2011).
A small body of research is available on the academic effectiveness of home school education. Most
studies indicate that the students educated at home perform as well as or better than their peers in
conventional schools on standardized achievement tests (Boulter & Macaluso, 1994; Eaton, 1993; Ray,
1988; 1997; Rudner, 1998). A nationwide study reported average percentile scores for home school
students tested with the nationally normed Iowa Test of Basic Skills: median test scores across grade
level were in the 87th percentile in reading, the 80th percentile in language and the 82nd percentile in
math (Ray, 1997). In comparison, the nationwide median percentile of students educated in traditional
(public and private) schools was at the 50th percentile in reading, language, and math. A large study of
home school students in the southeast region by Rudner (1998) reported median scores across grade
level and subject area that ranged from the 70th to 80th percentile.
At the state level, home-educated students from grades K through 8 in the state of Washington
consistently scored above the national average on the Stanford Achievement Test in reading, language,
math and science. The median score was at approximately the 67th percentile on national norms (Ray,
1992). A similar study of 4th and 7th grade students in Arkansas reported that the home schooled
students scored higher than public school students in all major content areas (Calvery, Bell, & Vaupel,
1992).
Some studies, however, reported academic achievement scores that were not above the average of
their traditionally educated peers. A study of home schooling in Alabama found that home educated
students at the 1st and 4th grade level scored below the national average in math (Rakestraw, 1988). In
Arkansas, 10th grade students scored significantly above public school means for their grade level in
reading, mathematics, science and social studies, but scored significantly lower in language (Calvery,
Bell, & Vaupel, 1992).
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International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR)
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Controlled empirical studies published in the 1990’s explored possible gender or grade-level differences
through high school (Cizek & Ray, 1995; Ray, 1997) or compared the test scores of home schooled
students with other students in public or private schools that have similar demographic characteristics
(Rudner, 1998; Welner & Welner, 1999), but no studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 2000
have been found that made such comparisons.
More recent studies compared the abilities of home schooled versus traditionally educated students
when they became young adults. Riley (2015) found young adults who were home-schooled had
significantly higher levels of autonomy and competence satisfaction than their traditionally educated
peers, but there was no difference in the level of relatedness satisfaction. Wasley (2007) reported that
studies measuring home-schoolers' academic and social performance throughout their years in college
found little difference between their performance and that of their traditionally educated peers.
The procedures used in the previous research raise several methodological issues. First, most of the
previous research measuring the academic effectiveness of home school education typically described
academic achievement by reporting mean percentiles for a few selected age or grade levels. There are
a limited number of controlled empirical studies that explored possible gender or grade-level
differences through high school (Cizek & Ray, 1995; Ray, 1997).
A second issue concerns the appropriateness of standardized group achievement tests such as the
California Achievement Test, the Stanford Achievement Test and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (Lines,
1987; Rudner, 1998; Wright, 1988) to measure home school effectiveness. The achievement that is most
appropriate for use is the one that is the best match with the instructional objectives of the particular
school "system" (Aiken, 2000). Although reviews of the group standardization sample demonstrate
adequate reliability and validity coefficients for screening academic performance (Ebel, 1978; Wright,
1988), the content and administration procedures of the group achievement tests may not be a valid
assessment of students educated exclusively in an individualized curriculum (Cizek, 1988; Jenkins &
Pany, 1978; Wright, 1988). These measures were designed to assess and compare the achievement of
large groups (Cizek, 1991; Cizek & Ray, 1995). Studies are needed using individualized assessments of
academic achievement to evaluate the overall quality of home education (Mayberry, Knowles, Ray, &
Marlow, 1995).
Third, the research using the tests mentioned above reported results in the form of percentiles,
sometimes comparing the median percentiles of the home school students with the median (50th)
percentile from the nationwide standardization sample typically made up of public and private school
students (Conoley & Kramer, 1993). Ordinal-level measurements such as percentiles, however, are not
considered suitable for making complex interpretations of test scores or calculating differences
between scores (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1995). Because the distances between percentiles are not equal,
the percentiles cannot be directly averaged. Thus, it is not possible to average one person's percentile
ranks on two or more tests, or average the percentiles of a group of people who took the same test.
Standard scores are more appropriate for statistical analysis and research because they are equal-
interval scales and based on a standard deviation from the mean. Group comparisons are possible and
the scores can be averaged (Lyman, 1991; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001).
The purpose of the present research was to add to existing data on home school effectiveness by
comparing the academic achievement of 66 home school students with 66 of their grade-level peers in
traditional public schools. The two groups of students were matched on gender, race, grade level, and
type of school (home or public), and administered a standardized achievement test assessing core
content areas. No significant difference in overall academic achievement was found between the
groups. The results further revealed a downward trend in math, reading and broad knowledge scores
with increasing grade level. The findings from this study will aid policy decisions regarding regulation of
home school education.
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Following this review of the literature is a description of the methods, participants, procedures, data
analysis and results. The paper concludes with an interpretation of the findings and a discussion of
limitations, future studies, and policy implications.
2. Method
2.1 Participants
A sample of 132 students, 66 home school students and 66 public school students, from the southwest
region of North Carolina were administered a standardized academic assessment battery. The home
school students were selected from consenting parents who had requested “end-of-grade” testing for
their child to comply with state law that mandates home-schooled students be tested annually with a
standardized achievement test. To identify the comparison group of public school students, the
researchers mailed letters with information about the study and a consent form to all the regular
education students enrolled in the 3rd and 4th grades at two elementary schools; the 6th and 7th
grades at two middle schools, and the 9th and 10th grade students enrolled in English I and English II at
two high schools. None of the students had been identified with mental retardation or with a specific
learning disability. Since all of the families in the home school sample were Caucasian, only Caucasian
public school families received letters. Researchers sampled from among the students with parental
consent. The home school and public school samples were then matched by gender (34 male, 32
female) and grade (21 elementary, 21 middle school, and 24 high school).
2.2 Measures and Procedure
Academic achievement was measured with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III), an
individually administered, norm-referenced assessment commonly used to measure the academic
development of individuals from preschool through adulthood (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001).
The WJ III Standard Battery consists of nine tests, including two reading tests (Letter-Word
Identification and Passage Comprehension), two mathematics tests (Calculation and Applied
Problems), two writing tests (Dictation and Writing Samples), and three tests of specific content areas
(Science, Social Studies, and Humanities). The Humanities test measures knowledge of music, art and
literature. In addition to the scores for each of the individual tests, four cluster scores are derived
through analysis of certain combinations of the nine tests. Broad Reading measures reading
achievement, Broad Mathematics measures math achievement, Broad Written Language measures
both production of single-word responses and production of sentences embedded in context, and
Broad Knowledge measures acquisition of general information in the three content areas listed above.
The WJ III is considered an appropriate measure of academic aptitude and achievement for children age
2 and over, and is accepted as a research tool to measure program effectiveness and developmental
change in individual abilities over wide spans of time (Wodrich, 1997; Costenbader & Perry, 1990;
Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Reviews of the WJ-R report adequate internal consistency
coefficients for all age groups exceeding .90 for the achievement clusters and ranging from the .80s to
90s for the individual subtests (Cummings, 1994; Ebel, 1978; Salvia & Yesseldyke, 1991).
Three researchers administered the WJ III to the public school students during the final months of the
academic year (April and May) and tested the home school students during May and June of the same
year. The researchers tested each public school student individually in a room set aside for testing at
each school site. Parents brought the home school students to the college campus and a researcher
tested each student in a designated testing room. All participants were assured complete anonymity
and told they had the right to refuse or discontinue testing at any time.
3. Results
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International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR)
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Student performance on each WJ III subtest and cluster was reported in standard scores (mean = 100,
standard deviation = 15). Individual student standard scores for each of the four WJ III clusters (Broad
Reading, Broad Math, Broad Written Language, Broad Knowledge) were then averaged and mean
standard scores were calculated for each type of schooling at the elementary, middle school and high
school levels. To facilitate comparison of these results with the percentiles reported in previous
research, the standard score and the corresponding percentile are reported. Descriptive statistics for
the home school students and the public school students are displayed in Table 1 and Table 2
respectively.
Table 1: Mean standard scores for home school students by grade level
WJ III Clusters
Grade Level
Broad Reading
Broad Written
Language
Broad Knowledge
Elementary (n = 21)
M
118
101
110
SD
19.57
15.71
15.32
PR
89
52
75
Middle School (n = 21)
M
109
102
103
SD
15.56
23.72
15.15
PR
73
54
57
High School (n = 24)
M
111
106
104
SD
20.56
27.32
19.44
PR
76
65
61
Total (n = 66)
M
113
103
105
SD
18.90
22.74
16.88
PR
80
57
63
Note. M = mean, SD = standard deviation, PR = percentile rank
Table 2: Mean standard scores for public school students by grade level
WJ III Clusters
Grade Level
Broad Reading
Broad Written
Language
Broad Knowledge
Elementary (n = 21)
M
114
102
114
SD
17.08
14.49
12.70
PR
83
54
83
Middle School (n = 21)
M
107
91
102
SD
14.73
23.58
10.27
PR
67
27
54
High School (n = 24)
M
115
107
105
SD
14.12
14.89
10.69
PR
84
67
63
Total (n = 66)
M
112
101
105
SD
15.53
18.93
12.10
PR
79
52
67
Note. M = mean, SD = standard deviation, PR = percentile rank
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3.1 Home school and public school comparison
The prediction of differences between type of schooling (home or public school), gender, and grade
level (elementary, middle school or high school) was tested in a 2 x 2 x 3 mixed design using MANOVA
procedures. No significant main effect was observed for type of schooling, F(1, 120) = .32, p < .46, ns. A
main effect of gender emerged, however, in which male students scored significantly higher than
female students in Broad Math, F(1, 120) = 7.61, p < .01, and Broad Knowledge, F(1, 120) = 8.29, p < .01. A
second main effect was observed for grade level, F(2, 120) = 4.83, p < .01. Tukey HSD tests (alpha = .05)
revealed that the mean standard scores in Broad Math (128) for the elementary students were
significantly higher (p < .001) than the middle school (108) and high school students (106). There were
no significant interactions, all Fs < .1, ns.
Because the academic achievement scores of the home school students were not statistically different
from the scores of the public school students, the two groups were combined and separate one-way
ANOVAs were calculated for Broad Reading, Broad Math, Broad Written Language, and Broad
Knowledge. Results showed significantly higher (p < .01) Broad Knowledge mean scores for elementary
school students (112) than middle school students (103). The Broad Knowledge mean scores for the
elementary school students were also significantly higher (p < .03) than the high school students (104).
A trend that approached significance was also observed in reading and written language ability as
grade level increased. The mean standard scores in reading at the elementary level (116) exceeded the
middle school level (108; p < .08). Although the mean written language standard scores of the
elementary students (102) did not differ from the middle school scores (97), an increase in written
language standard scores was observed at the high school level (107; p < .08). The other interactions
were not significant, all Fs < .1, ns.
3.2 Academic achievement
Since the home school and public school groups did not differ significantly, the mean standard scores
for each cluster were examined to determine the overall academic achievement of each group. The
mean standard scores/percentiles for the home school students were 113 for Broad Reading, 113 for
Broad Math, 103 for Broad Written Language and 105 for Broad Knowledge. The mean standard
scores/percentiles for the public school students were 112 for Broad Reading, 115 for Broad Math, 101 for
Broad Written Language and 107 for Broad Knowledge. Thus, both groups of home school students and
public school students scored at or above the mean standard score of 100 on each of the four clusters.
4. Discussion
In general, the academic achievement scores of the home school students in this study did not differ
significantly from the scores of the public school students. However, both groups demonstrated a
downward trend in achievement scores with increasing grade level. The middle school students scored
significantly lower that the elementary students in Broad Math and Broad Knowledge.
4.1 Home school and public school comparison
Home school and public school students overall performed at or above average in Broad Reading,
Broad Math, Written Language and Broad Knowledge. This finding is consistent with the results of
previous nationwide and statewide studies that assessed the effectiveness of home school education
by using the general nationwide population of public and nonpublic school students as the “norm” or
comparison group (Ray, 1992, 1997). The results of this and previous studies suggest that home school
education is as effective as traditional education in all the major subjects.
Contrary to previous findings, however, no significant differences were observed between the
academic performance of home school students and public school students on any of the four
A comparison of the academic achievement ...
International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR)
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measured content areas. Moreover, the overall achievement of elementary, middle school and high
school home school students was similar to that of the corresponding grade levels of public school
students, and the home school male and female students performed as well as the public school male
and female students.
These findings suggest that the home school educational environment is as effective as the traditional
public school model for both males and females at all grade levels.
One possible reason for the apparent contradiction with earlier research may be that this study used
different sampling and testing procedures. First, selecting public school students who were
demographically matched with the home school students provided a more comparable sample than the
state-wide or nation-wide samples of public school students used for comparison in previous studies
(Welner & Welner, 1999). Second, the individualized achievement test provided greater efficiency
during testing and a more sensitive measure of student strengths and weaknesses than a group
achievement test (Aiken, 2000). Third, since averaging percentiles is statistically inappropriate,
averaging standard scores provided a more accurate index of achievement and may have greatly
reduced the differences in achievement between the two types of schooling.
4.2 Gender comparison
The scores of male and female students differed significantly in Broad Math and Broad Knowledge. The
performance of the male students was fairly consistent but the achievement scores of the female
students had dropped by middle school, with minimal improvement in high school. Consistent with the
literature, male students maintained a mild to moderate edge over female students in math and spatial
abilities at least until high school (Linn & Hyde, 1989).
4.3 Academic achievement
The performance of home school and public school students on specific content areas declined with
increasing grade level. When groups were combined and the achievement in specific content areas at
different grade levels was analyzed across the two types of schooling, downward trends were
observed in math, broad knowledge and reading between the elementary and middle school grades.
The one positive trend was the improvement in writing skills between the middle school and high
school.
Consistent with the findings of past investigations involving public school students (Eccles, et al. 1993),
therefore, a drop in academic performance early in the middle school years was observed, compared to
their performance in elementary school. One possible explanation, based on developmental theories of
motivation (Anderman & Midgley, 1997), is a “developmental mismatch,” (Eccles & Midgley, 1996) that
occurs between the needs of the developing adolescents and their experiences at school and at home.
As students transition from elementary to middle school, they become less interested in school and less
confident about their academic abilities. This decreased motivation and confidence contribute to lower
academic performance (Eccles & Midgley, 1996). The trends in this study suggest that, despite the child-
centered, interest-based, individualized instructional model that characterizes home school education,
home school students are just as vulnerable to a “developmental mismatch” as their public educated
peers. As the home school students progress from the elementary grades to the middle school level,
the physiological, psychological and social needs that occur at adolescence may clash with their home
school experiences, resulting in lower motivation, confidence and academic achievement.
The grade level and gender related observations reported in this study are typically lacking in the
findings of earlier studies (Ray, 1997; Rudner, 1998). A possible explanation may be that most previous
research averaged the mean percentiles across grade, gender, and/or subject areas. This statistical
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procedure may have prevented the observation of any grade level, gender or subject area differences
in performance.
This research reaffirms the effectiveness of home school education and advances the knowledge of the
effects of home schooling with increasing grade level. The findings are limited, however, due to the
small, ethnically and culturally homogeneous sample. Possibilities for additional research include
sampling the population of home school families who are non-Caucasian, and including families in the
home school sample who did not specifically request standardized testing for their children. Additional
studies might also examine whether the performance of the home school students is related to the
effectiveness of the individualized, self-paced instructional model and/or to the motivation of the home
educators. A longitudinal study assessing a more demographically diverse sample of home school and
public school students would be useful to track academic achievement across time.
The findings from this study also support the need for more effective homeschool policy and oversight
of homeschool education to provide basic protections for students. Without federal guidelines,
individual states must govern homeschooling but policies vary widely from state to state. Uniform,
statewide policies are needed requiring a standards-based curriculum and instruction by a qualified
teacher. Policies must also require appropriate annual assessments to assure students are making
adequate academic progress in core subjects. Finally, states must provide oversight of these
requirements through examination of assessment scores and site visits to homeschools that are non-
compliant or low performing.
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... Познато още като образование у дома, домашно училище, хоумскулинг, училище вкъщи, семейно образование, това явление придобива все по-голяма популярност в много страни и предизвиква все по-силен обществен, политически и научен интерес. Изборът на тази образователна практика е продиктуван от различни комплексни фактори, сред които най-често могат да бъдат споменати семейните ценности, неудовлетвореността на родителите от училището и желанието или нуждата от индивидуален подход в образователния процес (Boulter, 2017). Както при всяка алтернативна практика, така и при домашното образование се наблюдават противоречиви позиции в научните трудове, както и различно ниво на регламентиране в нормативните текстове в отделните страни и техните териториални и административни единици. ...
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COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW OF HOMESCHOOLING IN SEVEN COUNTRIES Abstract: Homeschooling is a topic, which attracts a growing social and research interest both from the adherents and the opponents of this alternative educational practice. Research data from studies conducted in different countries around the world shows an increase in the number of families, making the conscious choice to homeschool their children, not only in countries with established traditions in the homeschooling, but also in countries where this practice is forbidden by law. The current paper provides an overview of the homeschooling phenomenon in Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, England, France, Switzerland, and the USA, based on a study of the existing concepts and official documents. The methods used in this research are literature analysis, study of legislation texts and comparison. The results of the study show that there is a broad range of concepts and definitions of the homeschooling phenomenon. There are also significant differences in the legal frameworks and levels of regulation in each one of the explored countries. The findings can lay the groundwork for further scientific discussion and comparative research on this topic, the relevance of which increases with the development of the homeschooling practice. Keywords: homeschooling, home-schooling, elective home education, alternative education, informal education, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, England, France, Switzerland, the USA СРАВНИТЕЛЕН ПРЕГЛЕД НА ДОМАШНОТО ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ В СЕДЕМ СТРАНИ Резюме : Домашното образование е тема, към която се наблюдава нарастващ обществен и научен интерес както от привържениците, така и от опонентите на тази алтернативна образователна практика. Данни от редица научни изследвания, проведени в различни страни, показват, че все повече семейства осъзнато правят избора да образоват децата си у дома, не само в страните, които имат изградени традиции в домашното образование и го позволяват, а и в страните, чието законодателство ограничава или забранява тази образователна практика. Настоящият доклад има за цел да очертае концептуалната рамка на домашното образование в Англия, Белгия, България, Канада, САЩ, Франция и Швейцария, като се позовава на проучване на съществуващите понятия и официални документи. Методите, използвани в изследването, са библиографски анализ, изучаване на актуалните нормативни уредби и сравнение. В резултат на проведеното концептуално проучване може да се твърди, че съществува богато многообразие от определения и нагласи към образованието в домашна среда. Налице са и нееднакви режими и нива за неговото регламентиране. Резултатите на изследването предлагат база за по-нататъшна научна дискусия и сравнителни изследвания, чиято актуалност нараства с развитието на популярността на домашното образование. Ключови думи: домашно образование, алтернативно образование, неформално образование, информално образование, хоумскулинг, Англия, Белгия, България, Канада, САЩ, Франция, Швейцария
... Większość badań dotyczących edukacji domowej pokazuje, że stanowi ona korzystne środowisko rozwojowe dla dziecka (Rudner, 1999;Rothermel, 2004). Amerykańskie badania (Boulter, 2017) porównujące wyniki osiągnięć akademickich uczniów korzystających z edukacji szkolnej lub domowej wykazały skuteczność edukacji domowej w zakresie wszystkich przedmiotów szkolnych i na każdym etapie kształcenia. Prowadzone przez nas badania dostarczają dowodowego materiału do dyskusji o wartości różnych form edukacjidomowej i szkolnej -dla rozwoju poznawczego dzieci okresu późnego dzieciństwa. ...
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The Ability to Operate Knowledge and Higher Cognitive Functions of Home Education Students The presented research examined the relationship between the use of knowledge, the development level of higher cognitive functions and the type of education. Research was conducted on two groups of third grade students: homeschoolers and public school students (28 children in each of the groups). Students were paired by sex and factors connected to the family environment. Ability to operate knowledge was tested by The original Reading Comprehension Test and the level of development of executive functions (inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning) was measured by a set of tasks from Inquisit computer program. Results show that homeschoolers use and utilize their knowledge better than public school students. They comprehend meaning of words more efficiently, understand cause-effect relations better and use relations of superiority-inferiority more efficiently. However, the results connected with executive functions do not show any dominance of any of groups. Ability of inhibition and planning is similar for homeschoolers and public students. Public school students have higher level of memory development whereas homeschoolers dominate in the category of flexibility. The presented results are material for a discussion on the role of the educational system in the development of late childhood students. They can also be used to consider the assessment of the value of home education.
... A fathers' homeschooling group often played in the same park where we met on Mondays. According to researchers in this field, approximately 1.5 million U.S. parents were teaching their children at home in 2009, up from the 850,000 students the federal government estimated were homeschooled in 1999 (Boulter, 2017). The fathers' group had formed as a Facebook group, and they were using their strengths to divide up the subjects they taught to the children. ...
... A fathers' homeschooling group often played in the same park where we met on Mondays. According to researchers in this field, approximately 1.5 million U.S. parents were teaching their children at home in 2009, up from the 850,000 students the federal government estimated were homeschooled in 1999 (Boulter, 2017). The fathers' group had formed as a Facebook group, and they were using their strengths to divide up the subjects they taught to the children. ...
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Poor health in the United States is having a devastating impact on individuals and their families. The regularity, fiscal cost, and emotional toll that Americans undergo caring for sick relatives, prematurely burying them, and attending their funerals have become a societal norm . Regardless of race and ethnicity, Americans are dying too soon. The high mortality rates from chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, obesity, HIV-related illnesses) have left many families bereaved and their family legacies shattered. To adverse family health, there need to be innovative and family-centered approaches to health and health care. For many families, family health navigation could provide them with ongoing health knowledge and healthy practices at home and during interfamilial settings.
... A fathers' homeschooling group often played in the same park where we met on Mondays. According to researchers in this field, approximately 1.5 million U.S. parents were teaching their children at home in 2009, up from the 850,000 students the federal government estimated were homeschooled in 1999 (Boulter, 2017). The fathers' group had formed as a Facebook group, and they were using their strengths to divide up the subjects they taught to the children. ...
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Poor health in the United States is having a devastating impact on individuals and their families. The regularity, fiscal cost, and emotional toll that Americans undergo caring for sick relatives, prematurely burying them, and attending their funerals have become a societal norm. Regardless of race and ethnicity, Americans are dying too soon. The high mortality rates from chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, obesity, HIV-related illnesses) have left many families bereaved and their family legacies shattered. For the millions of families who are caring for or burying relatives, more must be done to reduce, delay, and prevent these chronic family illnesses and deaths. To combat health disparities and adverse family health, there need to be innovative and family-centered approaches to health and health care. Family health navigation could provide families with ongoing health knowledge and healthy practices at home and during interfamilial settings.
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Home schooling is a growing practice in many Western countries. Examination of the practice has entailed collection of “hard” data, such as academic achievements and success rates in higher education, as well as investigation of the practice from the perspective of parents. It is very important to examine homeschooling from the perspective of the children studying in this framework, yet only a few studies of this type have been conducted. The purpose of the present research was to examine how adolescents evaluate homeschooling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 young people (ages 16–22) who were raised in a homeschooling setting. The interviews included a series of questions intended to examine how adolescents evaluate homeschooling. The findings indicated diverse themes that can be divided into four main super-themes: contents and methods of instruction and learning; outcomes – traits; outcomes – family; and outcomes – society. Regarding the first super-theme, the interviewees noted both advantages and disadvantages. For the second and third themes, they cited only advantages. With regard to the fourth theme, only disadvantages were mentioned. The findings suggest that some of the themes refer to constructivist learning and some of them reflect overall aims of education – socialization and individuation.
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Although most individuals pass through adolescence without excessively high levels of "storm and stress," many do experience difficulty. Why? Is there something unique about this developmental period that puts adolescents at risk for difficulty? This article focuses on this question and advances the hypothesis that some of the negative psychological changes associated with adolescent development result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by their social environments. It provides examples of how this mismatch develops in the school and in the home and how it is linked to negative age-related changes in early adolescents' motivation and self-perceptions. Ways in which more developmentally appropriate social environments can be created are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Males have greater access to science and technical fields and greater earning power than females. Many argue that cognitive and psychosocial gender differences explain these career differences. In contrast, evidence from meta-analysis and process analysis indicate that (a) gender differences on cognitive and psychosocial tasks are small and declining, (b) gender differences are not general but specific to cultural and situational contexts, (c) gender differences in cognitive processes often reflect gender differences in course enrollment and training, and (d) gender differences in height, physical strength, career access, and earning power are much larger and more stable than gender differences on cognitive and psychosocial tasks. These trends imply that small gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial domains be deemphasized and instead that learning and earning environments be redesigned to promote gender equity.
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This report presents the results of the largest survey and testing program for students in home schools to date. In Spring 1998, 20,760 K-12 home school students in 11,930 families were administered either the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) or the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency (TAP), depending on their current grade. The parents responded to a questionnaire requesting background and demographic information. Major findings include: the achievement test scores of this group of home school students are exceptionally high--the median scores were typically in the 70th to 80th percentile; 25% of home school students are enrolled one or more grades above their age-level public and private school peers; this group of home school parents has more formal education than parents in the general population; the median income for home school families is significantly higher than that of all families with children in the United States; and almost all home school students are in married couple families. Because this was not a controlled experiment, the study does not demonstrate that home schooling is superior to public or private schools and the results must be interpreted with caution. The report clearly suggests, however, that home school students do quite well in that educational environment.
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Arkansas law requires that each student aged 7 through 16 years in a home school program be tested annually using a nationally recognized standardized test chosen by the students' parents from a list of tests approved by the state. Achievement for home schooled and public schooled students in Arkansas was compared for grades 4, 7, and 10 using 6 subscales of the MAT-6. Responses of 428 home schooled and 89,314 public schooled students were used. Home schooled students scored higher than their counterparts in reading, mathematics, language, total basic battery, science, and social studies at grade 4 and grade 7. They also scored significantly above public school means for grade 10 in reading, mathematics, total basic battery, science, and social studies, but scored significantly lower in language. Three appendixes present detailed comparisons in three tables. (SLD)