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Girls and Subcultures

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Abstract

Very little seems to have been written about the role of girls in youth cultural groupings. They are absent from the classic subcultural ethnographic studies, the pop histories, the personal accounts and the journalistic surveys of the field. When girls do appear, it is either in ways which uncritically reinforce the stereotypical image of women with which we are now so familiar … for example, Fyvel’s reference, in his study of teddy boys,1, to ‘dumb, passive teenage girls, crudely painted’ … or else they are fleetingly and marginally presented: It is as if everything that relates only to us comes out in footnotes to the main text, as worthy of the odd reference. We come on the agenda somewhere between ‘Youth’ and ‘Any Other Business’. We encounter ourselves in men’s cultures as ‘by the way’ and peripheral. According to all the reflections we are not really there.2

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... We found that white youth cited the bedroom as the best space for sexual wellbeing practices, but BIPOC youth felt the bedroom was only their best available option and still found they had to negotiate privacy. Attending to intersectionality theory, we expand on McRobbie and Garber's (1976) bedroom culture concept and widen Hernes' (2004) concept of physical, social and mental boundary-work to include sound as a fourth type, which straddles amongst them. This research shows how privacy, gender and sexual identities were negotiated at home in times of extreme uncertainty, highlighting how implications of home as a 'place' during the pandemic, constructs sexual wellbeing. ...
... Participant's acoustic and physical experience of their bedroom shows that the bedroom is not just as a site of cultural production, but one of negotiating for sexual wellbeing and therefore, agency of self. Here, we expand this concept to include not only gender, but sexuality and ethnicity, two facets of individual identities that McRobbie and Garber (1976) left out in their analysis. Finally, we use Hernes' (2004) concept of boundary work and expand it from physical, social and mental, to include sound as a fourth type of boundary that intersects and connects all other forms of boundary work. ...
... There is significance between the bedroom as 'refuge' versus "best option". McRobbie and Garber (1976) saw the bedroom as a significant site of privacy and personal space, but they neglected to describe the boundary-making processes that make that place private and personal. Therefore, we argue that sound in the bedroom as a boundary-maker and -marker played an important role in youths' perception of their own privacy, which is vital for sexual wellbeing. ...
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To understand how COVID-19’s stay-at-home orders impacted youths’ sexual and social development, we conducted five virtual focus groups (n=34) with adolescent girls’, trans’, and non-binary youths’ aged 16-19 between April-June 2021 in the GTA. We queried experiences of home, privacy, and sexual wellbeing during Canada's third wave. Auto-generated zoom transcripts were coded using an inductive framework with NVivo. Field notes and team discussions on the coded data informed the analysis. This paper explores how sexual wellbeing during the pandemic is practiced in relation to, dependent upon, and negotiated at home. Using intersectionality theory and embodiment theory, this research analyzes how youth's diverse identities shape their understandings and experiences of sexual wellbeing. We found youth needed spaces where they were not only unseen, but importantly, unheard. We argue sound as an important piece of boundary-work that reveals the way youth construct space during precarious times. Youth primarily negotiated sonic privacy through (a) sound-proofing, (b) sound warnings and (c) “silent reassurance”, a term we coined to describe the precursor of silence from other household members in order for youth to feel safe enough to practice sexual wellbeing. We found that white youth cited the bedroom as the best space for sexual wellbeing practices, but BIPOC youth felt the bedroom was only their best available option and still found they had to negotiate privacy. Attending to intersectionality theory, we expand on McRobbie and Garber's (1976) bedroom culture concept and widen Hernes’ (2004) concept of physical, social and mental boundary-work to include sound as a fourth type, which straddles amongst them. This research shows how privacy, gender and sexual identities were negotiated at home in times of extreme uncertainty, highlighting how implications of home as a ‘place’ during the pandemic, constructs sexual wellbeing. Mapping how and where youth practice embodied sexual wellbeing exposes the ways that private and public understandings of identity relate to sexuality and geographies of home. We understand the home as a complex space that can not only determine sexual wellbeing, but where health promoting boundaries can be negotiated. We conclude with suggestions for supporting adolescent sexual wellbeing, inside and outside the home, during and after COVID-19.
... More specifically, as this essay will explore, such coverage of TikTok in recent months can be read as a celebration of girlhood in the face of the pandemic. The phenomenal rise in TikTok's cultural visibility during the Coronavirus crisis can be seen to contribute to the transformation of girls' 'bedroom culture ' (McRobbie and Garber, 2006) from a space previously conceptualised as private and safe from judgement, to one of public visibility, surveillance and evaluation. TikTok facilitates -indeed invites and rewards, via the logic of its metrics -the viral spectacle of girls' bedroom culture. ...
... In relation to the more public spaces traditionally occupied by male youth, the bedroom has long been understood as a central organising space for the leisure, same-sex friendships, expression of sexual desire, and creative and playful production for girls in Western culture. McRobbie and Garber's (2006) feminist intervention into subcultural theory in 1975 was foundational in prompting such attention into 'bedroom culture' in girlhood studies. While there is not space here to discuss their essay in detail, 1 one important departure from that conceptualisation of the girl's bedroom in this new context of TikTok is that girls' bedroom culture can no longer be understood as 'private' or 'safe' from gendered surveillance. ...
... While there is not space here to discuss their essay in detail, 1 one important departure from that conceptualisation of the girl's bedroom in this new context of TikTok is that girls' bedroom culture can no longer be understood as 'private' or 'safe' from gendered surveillance. McRobbie and Garber (2006) suggested that, particularly in terms of girls' expressions of their emerging heterosexual desire of male pop stars in the company of their female friends: 'There are no risks involving personal humiliation or degradation, no chance of being stood up or bombed out' (p. 187). ...
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During the global lockdowns brought about by the Coronavirus crisis, TikTok saw a phenomenal rise in users and cultural visibility. This short essay argues that the media attention paid to TikTok during this time can be read as a celebration of girlhood in the face of the pandemic, and can be seen to contribute to the transformation of girls’ ‘bedroom culture’ (McRobbie and Garber, 2006) from a space previously conceptualised as private and safe from judgement, to one of public visibility, surveillance and evaluation. Focusing on Charli D’Amelio, this essay argues that the increasing visibility of TikTok and rising celebrity of D’Amelio during the Coronavirus crisis continues and intensifies the longer history of young female celebrity culture, and obscures the dangers and impacts faced by girls around the world who are situated outside of the ideals embodied in TikTok stars like D’Amelio.
... Bedrooms culture, terutama bagi kaum muda, adalah seperangkat makna dan praktik konvensional yang terkait erat dengan identitas, privasi, dan diri (the self) yang terhubung dengan ruang domestik (kamar tidur) mereka pada masyarakat modern akhir (Livingstone, 2007). Bedrooms culture di satu sisi juga mempertimbangkan kehadiran media di dalamnya (Lincoln, 2004(Lincoln, , 2012Livingstone, 2005Livingstone, , 2007McRobbie & Garber, 1991). Studi ini masih terbilang asing dalam lingkup penelitian sosial di Indonesia sehingga menjadikan penelitian ini masih segar untuk dibicarakan. ...
... Studi tentang bedrooms culture bisa disebutkan sebagai terobosan sekaligus kritik terhadap studi kaum muda klasik yang dilakukan oleh Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) di Birmingham sekitar tahun 1970an (Bennet & Kahn-Harris, 2004). Pada awalnya, studi kaum muda cenderung menaruh perhatian terhadap upaya anak muda melakukan perlawanan di ruang publik -dengan konteks situasi pasca perang dunia di saat itu (McRobbie & Garber, 1991). Studi kaum muda dikritik mengabaikan aktivitas sehari-hari dari anak muda itu sendiri, yakni aktivitas mereka di ruang privat (Lincoln, 2012). ...
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The boarding room is a private room for students, but it is constantly changing due to the development of communication technology. This research shows that the media have found a barrier between the public and the private. By using the spatial ethnography method, this study finds that media consumption in boarding rooms has an impact on the way the occupants condition the private space zone. Data was collected by observation and interviews. The discussion is carried out by conducting a dialogue with field findings with the study of bedroom culture, which is offered by Siân Lincoln. This concept assumes that when young people (red: students) consume media in private spaces, they are actually at the crossroads between public and private. The findings of this study reveal that the presence of media in boarding rooms can open communication portals, thus giving rise to various mediated activities. This has made the boarding room an integral space, as well as a center for student activities. The student, when consuming media, can arrive at the reality of the world between the physical and the virtual world. This opens up opportunities for activities and controls that were previously public to enter their boarding rooms.
... In general, Only-fans and CP-fans tacitly follow the rule of Quandi Zimeng ('QDZM'), or literally to 'enjoy oneself in one's own circle'. This is like McRobbie andGarber's (2006[1975]) view of subcultures, in that fans form a kind of 'defensive retreat' to avoid being constrained and judged by those who identify with the dominant culture. The formation of a community provides fans with a relatively independent and closed space. ...
... In general, Only-fans and CP-fans tacitly follow the rule of Quandi Zimeng ('QDZM'), or literally to 'enjoy oneself in one's own circle'. This is like McRobbie andGarber's (2006[1975]) view of subcultures, in that fans form a kind of 'defensive retreat' to avoid being constrained and judged by those who identify with the dominant culture. The formation of a community provides fans with a relatively independent and closed space. ...
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Fans as consumers of cultural products have received a great deal of attention from sociologists and cultural studies academics in recent years, and research on the relationship between fans and state power is gradually gaining traction. Through a 12-month digital ethnography of a large-scale fan conflict surrounding The Untamed, a popular ‘Boys’ Love’-adapted drama in China, we uncover a complex picture of two-way exploitation between fans and state power. By doing so, the article challenges previous assumptions by Chinese and Western scholars that fan culture is resistant to or negotiates with mainstream culture. We show that by perpetuating heteronormativity and censorship, fans internalise ‘reporting’ as a norm of legitimacy in consumer culture. Some fans portray themselves as ‘fandom police’ and use censorship to report ‘illegal’ comments by their rivals in order to prevail in fan conflicts. However, the power gained by these fandom police is illusory. Their practices are exploited by the state as a tool for censoring media users’ speech and cultural production, with the ultimate consequence of perpetuating censorship and heteronormativity.
... The bedroom for them acts as both private and collective space for the creation and representation of identities, of participation in subcultural activities, even acts of resistance, through music. This section revisits McRobbie and Garber's (1976) classic study, where the bedroom is described as the central space for young women's 'teeny bopper' subculture, as well as reflecting on more recent research on young women's use of the bedroom for engaging in cultural consumption and the formation and representation of individual and collective identities, increasingly with the augmentation of digital and online technology (Baker 2004;Lincoln 2005;Davies 2010Davies , 2013. Taking a critical view of 'teeny bopper' culture as passive consumer culture primarily centred around the adoration of (male) stars, it also demonstrates how consumption and production are often practically inseparable social and cultural activities, as exemplified by teenagers singing along to music, practising dance routines and creating their own mixtapes. ...
... In 'Girls and subcultures Garber [1976] 1991), which first appears in Resistance through Rituals (Hall and Jefferson [1976] 1991), a collection dedicated to the work of the 'Sub-cultures Group' of the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, Angela McRobbie and Jenny Garber start out by asking the question of why girls are apparently invisible from contemporary accounts of post-war youth subcultures. 1 They 'find' the missing young women in the space of their bedrooms, similarly engaged in activities around music and fashion to their male contemporaries. As part of what the authors termed 'Teeny Bopper' (sub)culture, served in part by pop magazines, some of which are particularly marketed at teenage girls, these girls can perform music fandom and engage in 'a quasi-sexual ritual' (220), typically in relation to the adoration of a male star such as Donny Osmond, in a protected female environment free from male threat. ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the bedroom as a space for listening to, creating and performing music. The bedroom is understood as a social, cultural, technological, as well as psychological space – a space within which household relations, family relations, gender and generational relations are being shaped and played out; a space wherein meanings are generated and appropriated; a material and technological space that is open to other spaces – whether through analogue media technology such as radio, or digital and online technology, such as online music platforms; and psychological space, a material extension one’s identity, a storage of one’s memories and feelings, as well as a technology for evoking these. It can function as a space for rest, a space for leisure and play and a space for work, and it may contribute to the blurring of the boundaries between these. It may be private and shared, individualized and collective, often each of these at the same time. The chapter proceeds by exploring, first, the bedroom as a space for listening to music for teenagers in particular, for whom the bedroom, if they have one, is the first space where they are able to exert control (Lincoln 2005: 400). The bedroom for them acts as both private and collective space for the creation and representation of identities, of participation in subcultural activities, even acts of resistance, through music. This section revisits McRobbie and Garber’s (1976) classic study, where the bedroom is described as the central space for young women’s ‘teeny bopper’ subculture, as well as reflecting on more recent research on young women’s use of the bedroom for engaging in cultural consumption and the formation and representation of individual and collective identities, increasingly with the augmentation of digital and online technology (Baker 2004; Lincoln 2005; Davies 2010, 2013). Taking a critical view of ‘teeny bopper’ culture as passive consumer culture primarily centred around the adoration of (male) stars, it also demonstrates how consumption and production are often practically inseparable social and cultural activities, as exemplified by teenagers singing along to music, practicing dance routines and creating their own mixtapes. I then proceed to explore the bedroom studio as a location for cultural production embedded into broader social and economic structures; as a meeting point of musical practices, technologies – old and new – and social relations. Through referring to relevant studies, I also reflect on the changing function of the bedroom studio within the structure of the music industries. I invoke literature exploring the bedroom as a site for creating and recording music for women in particular and consider the question of whether, and in what ways, accessible and affordable technology has resulted in a democratization of music making, and whether it has opened up a space for change of the patriarchal power relations of the music industries. The fourth section examines the question of access and use of resources, focusing on bedroom music making as a DIY (do-it-yourself) practice, and the significance of this in the context of underground and mainstream relations.
... It prioritises a certain type of participation -that which is publicly visible-and assumes that all participants have the same access to cultural activities. These assumptions replicate early subcultural studies that were limited to public activity dominated by men, and was an omission first addressed by Angela McRobbie and Jenny Garber (1977) (see also Joanne Gottlieb and Gayle Wald 2006;Sarah Thornton 2006). The increased danger (real and perceived) for women on the streets at night, protective parents disproportionately strict with their daughters particularly regarding leisure time with large groups of boys, reputation management which, due to limited career and earning capacity, was often necessary to secure a girl's future prospects, all limited girls' participation in cultural activities (see further McRobbie and Garber 1977;Gottlieb and Wald 2006). ...
... These assumptions replicate early subcultural studies that were limited to public activity dominated by men, and was an omission first addressed by Angela McRobbie and Jenny Garber (1977) (see also Joanne Gottlieb and Gayle Wald 2006;Sarah Thornton 2006). The increased danger (real and perceived) for women on the streets at night, protective parents disproportionately strict with their daughters particularly regarding leisure time with large groups of boys, reputation management which, due to limited career and earning capacity, was often necessary to secure a girl's future prospects, all limited girls' participation in cultural activities (see further McRobbie and Garber 1977;Gottlieb and Wald 2006). According to Rose (1994) and Johnson (2014), these restrictions were compounded for the earliest b-girls who, as young African American, Afro-Latina, and Afro-Caribbean girls, were subjected to additional racially informed accusations and pressures. ...
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Representation is a central tenet of hip-hop culture, yet women’s experiences and contributions have long been invisibilised. This article reveals some of the barriers to visibility facing women in breaking (“b-girls”). It shows how b-girls respond to gender-based challenges and their sense of obligation to be visible in order to promote gender equality. Through participant-observation, interviews with Sydney b-girls, and online case studies, this article situates b-girling practices “in relation to” a hip-hop feminist framework. This article shows how white hetero-patriarchal neoliberal structures shape visibility in breaking culture, and how b-girls respond to, negotiate, challenge, and enact their representation.
... Otras formas apuntan a la existencia de subculturas juveniles de oposición que recurren a elementos alternativos, por ejemplo de carácter artístico (Abraham, 1989), en los que se inscriben chicos y chicas de clase media. La misma McRobbie (McRobbie & Garber, 1976), en estudios posteriores, observa cómo surgen nuevas formas subculturales más "soft" desde el punto de vista de género para ambos sexos de la clase obrera, como por ejemplo la subcultura Mod. O 1 , en análisis más actuales, cómo puede la resistencia adoptar la forma de un discurso de justicia social crítico con la opresión y las desigualdades (Ramirez, 2018). ...
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El presente artículo explora y analiza las actitudes de los estudiantes en el último curso de educación secundaria obligatoria (ESO) y el papel que juegan estas actitudes en los itinerarios educativos. Después de un breve recorrido por las aportaciones teóricas de diversos autores sobre la actitud del alumnado en la escuela, proponemos una tipología de actitudes frente a la escuela a partir de los datos del International Study of City Youth (ISCY), con una muestra de 2056 estudiantes de 27 institutos de secundaria de la ciudad de Barcelona. En un segundo análisis descriptivo analizamos cómo ciertas variables sociodemográficas inciden en la adscripción a una actitud concreta. Finalmente, con un análisis de regresión logística, exploramos el papel de las actitudes en los itinerarios formativos de los estudiantes. Los resultados muestran como las actitudes explican poco del itinerario resultante, de manera que las variables sociodemográficas se mantienen como influyentes. Los resultados académicos y los comportamientos tienen una incidencia importante, actuando como mediación para explicar los itinerarios posteriores, concretamente en la elección de seguir un itinerario académico (o no) en la transición de la escuela obligatoria a la postobligatoria. Finalmente, observamos como actitudes, comportamientos y resultados son procesos relacionados entre sí. Los resultados del presente artículo aportan una mayor comprensión sobre estos procesos y su papel en la construcción de las trayectorias educativas de los estudiantes.
... Baulch and Pramiyanti (2018) reorientate theorising for more nuanced perspectives of postdigital cultures' multiplicities that are not purely relative to local trajectories and, while not in the Global North, are nevertheless certainly global. However, FPT theorising disrupts universal assumptions of postfeminist hegemonies or that women are already necessarily empowered and therefore no longer require feminist epistemologies (Banet-Weiser, 2018;McRobbie & Garber, 2021). Conversely, the FPT lens is an acutely feminist perspective but conceives of subjectification in postdigital terms. ...
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Subjectification has been defined as the formation of the subject via discourses while social media bundles audio-visual discourses that afford subjectification. However, what is meant by the ‘subject’ is not neutral and subjectification can differ according to cultural context. This study takes Middle Eastern women influencers’ subjectification on TikTok as a case to illustrate postdigital transnational subjectification. The novel framework of feminist postdigital transnational inquiry is applied to the corpus assisted study of three Middle Eastern women influencers’ short-form TikTok videos. The findings reveal observable audio-visual elements while embedding conceptual meanings surrounding subjectification. Discussion postulates subjectification on TikTok as living postdigital practices with transnational meanings both within and beyond their immediate context. It is suggested that subjectification could occur beyond regional, generational, traditional, fixed or essentialist terms. Theorising offers nuanced insights into the curatorial potential of TikTok for subjectification as consecutively interdependent with contextual issues, trends and deeper traditional audio-visual ontologies. At the same time, it suggests that platforms’ transnational affordances in Global South contexts occur independently to Northcentric frameworks and interpretations.
... To press these points, I shall present some final illustrative examples. For one, think about the bed, obviously co-constitutive in the coming into being of so-called 'bedroom culture' (McRobbie and Garber 1991). Now, it is difficult to turn this bed into a mere sign; to be sure, it should be explored with the same kind of agentic interest and respect as Willis's tables and chairs. ...
Chapter
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... To press these points, I shall present some final illustrative examples. For one, think about the bed, obviously co-constitutive in the coming into being of so-called 'bedroom culture' (McRobbie and Garber 1991). Now, it is difficult to turn this bed into a mere sign; to be sure, it should be explored with the same kind of agentic interest and respect as Willis's tables and chairs. ...
... To press these points, I shall present some final illustrative examples. For one, think about the bed, obviously co-constitutive in the coming into being of so-called 'bedroom culture' (McRobbie and Garber 1991). Now, it is difficult to turn this bed into a mere sign; to be sure, it should be explored with the same kind of agentic interest and respect as Willis's tables and chairs. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
... I mean this in three ways: one, it inscribes resistance in subcultures' basic nature, which is a functionalist error; two, it assumes that subcultures are homogenous and discrete and that their socio-symbolic homologies have stable meanings that are shared by all members; and, three, it renders white, male, working-class youth cultures with spectacular forms of style as paradigmatic of all subcultures. Such essentialism has only been possible through the bracketing of those elements that disrupt the theoretical model, such as the subcultural experiences of girls and women (McRobbie & Garber, 2006), on the one hand, and members of racial or ethnic minorities (Hebdige, 1979), on the other hand. In point of fact, the essentially working-class character of even the "classical" subcultures is questionable, though this matter is difficult to verify empirically (Muggleton, 2000, pp. ...
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Subculture theory, a paradigm most closely associated with British cultural studies, promised to provide a Marxian sociology of the connections between social-structural determinants and their expression in the relatively autonomous sphere of culture. This promise has remained largely unfulfilled. The more recent, so-called “post-subcultures” literature has decisively demonstrated the limitations of the model elaborated by the scholars of the Birmingham School. However, in abandoning its class-based critique, they have tended to fall back upon a single-minded concern with the emancipatory potential of lifestyle and consumption. In neither of these “moments” is the issue of style itself opened up as an arena of social and cultural reproduction. That is to say, subculture theory has tended to fall prey to a fetishism of style. In this paper, I will briefly outline post-subculture critiques of “classical” subculture theory and, drawing on Jean Baudrillard’s theory of consummativity, point towards the need for a defetishizing study of subcultures as an integral part of a critical cultural studies project. I will also outline a typology of cultural formations as an analytical model for future subculture research.
... To take one example, Straw (1997, p. 15) discusses record collecting as an activity defined by a masculine popular music culture. To take another, McRobbie (1980McRobbie ( /1991 suggests that subcultures presume particular constructions of masculinities juxtaposed with opposite constructions of femininities. Both authors distinguish between men and the construction of masculinity as a socially constructed performance. ...
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This article builds on research about gender in music practice, concerned with skewed musical canons, ratios and quotas of gender representation, unfair treatment and power dynamics, and the exclusionary enmeshment with music technologies. The aim is to critically discuss what ‘gender’ is understood to be, how it has been studied and how gendered power has been challenged, in order to suggest new routes for research on gender and music practice. While we count ourselves among the scholars working in the field and critically investigate our own work as well as that of others, the article addresses some additional concerns to those of previous studies by examining how gender is ontologically constructed in these studies, how intersectional approaches can enrich analyses of gender in music practice and how the material dimensions of music practice can be actively addressed. The conclusions outline suggestions for broadening research in gender and music practice.
... Initial work by the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) conceptualised youth cultures, or subcultures, as bounded, homogeneous groupings of committed youth (Hall & Jefferson, 2006;Muggleton, 2000) and this is where punk as a topic for academic enquiry really emerged (Hebdige, 1998). The concept of subculture utilised by the CCCS has been critiqued as holding little relevance to current youth culture (Bennett, 1999) as well as for the absence of girls/women in its analysis (McRobbie with Garber, 1991). There has been an increased focus on females within subcultural literature more broadly since the critique made above, including research on girls/women in Goth (Brill, 2007), metal (Hill, 2016), hip-hop (Vasan, 2011), rave (Pini, 2001) and skateboarding (Pomerantz et al., 2004). ...
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What does punk mean to older punk women? And how are such understandings interwoven with experiences of ageing and gender? The complexity in defining punk has been noted and it has been suggested that this complexity in part results from punk’s dislike of being labelled/categorised. Drawing upon interviews with 22 self-identifying older punk women, this article considers how they conceived punk as ‘a state of mind’, exploring the four shared punk values seen to comprise this: DIY, subversion, political consciousness and community. An unpacking of these values in terms of what they might ‘look like’ and how they are put into action by the women highlights the considerable roles ageing and gender play.
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This research thesis focuses on the 1980s and how postfeminism in media was established during this period. Postfeminism as an ideology believes that feminism "died," or at minimum completed and no longer functions as necessary, as women seem to have legal equality now. This thesis looks at postfeminism through the lens of superhero stories from the 1980s. Ultimately, the stories presented show how the overall rejection of the ideology of feminism in favor of postfeminism after the "success" of the second wave affected superhero comic culture in America. Additionally, this thesis looks at the inclusion of this ideology around women's rights in the 1980s in a part of pop culture traditionally produced for men. Superhero stories as a medium were more gender-biased toward men in the 1980s because men were the primary consumers of this type of media, so the inclusion of feminism (or the lack thereof) demonstrated how second-wave feminism and postfeminism impacted the presentation to several groups, including those that were not necessarily affected by these movements.
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Enkel Collective was established in late 2014 in the small post-industrial port city of Fremantle, near Perth in Western Australia, during the tail-end of a decade long 'mining boom' in a region that relies heavily on primary industries for its economic survival.2 Not long afterward, my conversations with co-founder Adam Jorlen began, and during an interview in late December 2018, we discussed the journey to date. Here, I reflect on our conversation, sharing portions from a unique sociotechnical experiment that responded to growing precarity by building and sustaining an organized network.
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Gender issues have fortunately become a topic of growing interest in research into contemporary music and artistic scenes. With the aim of obtaining data on the exclusion of gender in the current conditions imposed by COVID-19, the investigation is focused on learning how women in the cultural and artistic sector have offered resistance to the cultural policies that continue to discriminate them. The methodology focal point is geared to examine the issues related to the practices that have condemned women by history and how gender inequalities are expressed in the 21st century. The study’s base is an intersectional sample of 20 female interpreters and professionals of the musical industry in the Spanish territory in different roles and genres: producers, managers, singers, composers and music critics. The answers were drawn first from radio interviews with a qualitative slant during 2018-19 and later in the post COVID scenario in spring of 2021, and organized in three analytical categories: profession, prestige and recognition of women's musical creations/productions and how their representation was portrayed by media/public. The results provided some meanings relevant to the opportunities and careers they could access. Although the arts and culture are women's worlds are pierced by cumulative disadvantages: gender stereotypes, difficulties in reconciling work and family life, objectification and sexual harassment, the conclusions extracted divulge claims in synthony with their own responses: the more i fight, the more i feel alive!; what if women had the power?; and no more twenty feet from stardom.
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The article is seeking for transformation processes within gender ratio in german speaking rap culture. After dealing with the increasing number of women* and some perspectives on femininity in rap, it discusses some specific modes of gender construction within rap. In the following section the category of masculinity comes to view. Is there a ‘crisis’ or structural change concerning the idea of hegemonic masculinity in rap? The question will be answered critically by using the example of discursivation of masculinity within rap studies and scene.SchlüsselwörterGeschlechterverhältnisGenderFeminismusHegemoniale MännlichkeitMarginalisierungRap-ForschungKrise der MännlichkeitTransformationsprozesse
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Youth music subcultures are often understood as a free space where everybody has equal opportunities to express themselves. A closer look into these subcultures suggests that there are barriers preventing women the same participation and status available to men. Based on theories and foreign literature the aim of this article is to describe and analyze the patterns of gender differences and inequalities in the Czech youth subcultures. Using the example of punk and hip hop where women play active roles, the article focuses on the strategies of assertion that are available to women in male dominated subcultures, which include: becoming an active member, a subject instead of sexual object; balancing the contradictions of masculine norms with the demands of femininity; creating their own space, networks of support and (female) solidarity. The research draws on data acquired through insider research comprised of in-depth interviews, participant observation, lyrical content and fanzine analysis providing an insight on the gender dynamics of the two current Czech music subcultures – punk and hip hop.
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Feminist ethnography in education has in so-called Western countries developed in the late 1900s into a research approach with its own identifiable characteristics. Starting points are in feminist theorizations that draw from perspectives of different marginal groups, raised in the context of cultural radicalization of the 1960s and 1970s. In Finland, feminist ethnography took the first steps in the 1990s and achieved a stable position in educational research in the early 2000s. This emerging research has provided possibilities for subtle analysis in educational institutions on gendered, spatial and embodied practices, which have impact on intersectional inequalities. A theoretical and methodological invention developed by the first Finnish feminist ethnographers in the 1990s is differentiation between the official, informal, and physical layers of the school. Teaching and learning, the curriculum, pedagogy, and formal hierarchies belong to the official layer. Interaction among teachers and students, including informal hierarchies and youth cultures, takes place in the informal layer. The physical school refers to temporality, spatiality, and embodiment. These layers are intertwined in the everyday life of the school; the distinctions between them are analytical. This differentiation is one illustration of nuanced ways to conduct analysis of gendered, classed, and racialized processes and practices in schools. This analytical tool was elaborated in the large ethnographic project, Citizenship, Difference and Marginality in Schools-With Special Reference to Gender (1993-1998). The project was conducted in schools in Finland, collaborating with a similar project in the United Kingdom. The collective project was conceptualized in comparative reflections on contemporary educational politics and policies in both countries and included cross-cultural ethnographic analysis. The layers were used as tools in constructing the theoretical-methodological layout of the project and in focusing the ethnographic gaze in the field, as well as in analysis, interpretation, and writing. Using the layers of the school as an analytic tool passed on to later studies and have further been developed in novel ways, demonstrating the usefulness of collaborative feminist work in national and international networks. Keywords: educational ethnography, feminist studies, official layer of the school, informal layer of the school, physical layer of the school, gender and education
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In Chaps. 3 and 4 we have seen that ‘chav’ has been semiotized as ‘alien’ at its first emergence in British culture, at the turn of the twenty-first century. This chapter examines some of the TikTok videos in which the ‘chav’ issue has recently re-emerged to understand whether such videos draw on and consolidate this perspective; alternatively, whether they appear to question it or even re-inscribe it entirely or in part. Section 5.1 presents a review of the main aspects of TikTok, a platform intended for creating, sharing, and responding to, other people’s short videos: metaxis (the condition of in-betweenness in which metamodernism is embedded) seems to effectively describe the TikTok individual, caught between dichotomous directions: the real and the virtual; reception and production. Section 5.2 focuses on the issue of TikTok as an “appropriation accelerant” and TikTok videos as original assemblages of bits drawn from a variety of different sources whose wide––mostly anonymous––availability suggests that a redefinition of intellectual property may be impending. Section 5.3 discusses Chav check videos, in which TikTok users deploy a range of chav semiotic resources to reach out to other users and invite them to align with their performances in the construction of ‘chav.’ This construction process is performed through a ‘queering’ of chav object-signs, which are detached from their supposedly original sources and re-used in novel contexts. Section 5.4 discusses some of the fresh indexicalities that appear to emerge from some of these performances. Section 5.5 analyzes one Chav check video in detail to illustrate the semiotic processes through which some Chav check TikTokers appropriate chav object-signs and incorporate them into their performances, and how such recontextualizations de-chav chav resources while retaining some of their stylistic functions.
Technical Report
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This report is the main deliverable of a pilot study that looked at the use of TikTok in academic contexts, specifically for teaching and knowledge mobilization (i.e., sharing research findings and academic theories). The pilot study included a review of the relevant literature from both academic and industry sources, an environmental scan, and the compilation of a collection (or playlist) of examples of noteworthy educational TikToks. “Academic TikTok” makes a unique, timely intervention into emerging scholarly discussions about and interest in using a corporately owned social media platform—initially made popular by adolescents creating and sharing user-generated videos—for research knowledge mobilization and pedagogical outreach. While the project’s findings are preliminary, this report provides an informed starting point and lays the groundwork for future research. The intended audience of this report is academics across disciplines and in all stages of their careers who are thinking about using TikTok for professional purposes. To help readers get started with making TikToks of their own, the report provides background and contextual information about the app and the videos that circulate on it; highlights the app’s place within youth culture; describes the aesthetics that shape content on the platform and the features that make TikTok so successful; and concludes with advice for building a community of creators and best practices for using TikTok.
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Socialization and selection are agreed within the sociology of education to be the two main functions of the school as a social institution. On the one hand, schools inculcate values and norms that are key to constructing students' identities. On the other, schools transmit knowledge and skills that are critical to explaining individuals' social positions. The main question addressed in this chapter is the following: what shapes how children and young people engage with school and the perceived purpose of education? This question includes both the socialization and the selection function of the school and it interrogates the role of education in learning and human development in broad terms. The chapter aims to provide an overview of how the sociology of education has engaged with this topic. To this end, the chapter identifies five principal mechanisms stressed by the discipline to explain the role of schooling in 'producing' human beings, mediating their school experience and guaranteeing their learning and educational success, namely: structural mechanisms; systemic mechanisms; institutional mechanisms; relational mechanisms; and subjective mechanisms. For each of these, the main theoretical, conceptual and empirical contributions of classical and contemporary sociological research are shared. These mechanisms work in concert, resulting in processes of learning and human development that are profoundly shaped by, and in turn themselves extend social-class inequalities in education.
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Ch 1: Can We Love our Bodies in a Postfeminist Context? (available on Routledge https://tinyurl.com/4949u3mj) Ch 2: Because You’re Worth It (body positivity) Ch 3: Change Yourself (transformation imperative) Ch 4: Eat Clean, Train Mean, Get Lean (discourse of health as the solution to body image, through analysis of clean eating and fitspo) Ch 5: Oh My God, I Hate You (role of shame in contemporary body image) Ch 6: Muscle Men Make a Comeback (PF masculinity)
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In fan studies scholarship, the term ‘young fans’ tends to refer to university-age fans, thereby often overlooking school-age children and the meaning of fandom among future generations of fans. While it can be difficult to study children due to issues around access and consent, it is important that we do – they can tell us a lot about not only where fan cultures are right now but also where they might be heading in the future. In this article, we offer the results of a large-scale survey presented to approximately 1700 children aged 7–17. The answers reveal why it is important for media studies scholarship to develop new methods for understanding children’s media consumption behaviours. First, despite the ‘mainstreaming’ of fandom in popular culture, our research evinces that the traditional depictions of fans as ‘unruly’ or ‘obsessive’ persist. And second, these young fans are not viewing themselves as fans of specific objects, but rather as ‘fans’ first and foremost, with the specific object of fandom unstated. Fan studies’ traditional view of fandom as being devoted to one thing needs expansion.
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Eu Não Sou de Aço. Eu Sou de Bambu. Hip-hop, desigualdades de gênero e resistência.
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This paper will introduce key findings of the ethnographic case study ´Anti-fascist punk activism´ conducted as part of the MYPLACE project. Through 21 in-depth interviews, the most common topics that arose were related to gender issues and perceptions of politics. One of the main findings is related to the specific perception of gender roles among members of the punk scene. Except for the activist scene, in which women are still heavily involved, the ratio of men to women is uneven in other areas. This raises the question of the similarity between the perception of gender roles in the punk scene and that among the general and more mainstream culture. This issue can also be discussed in relation to the fragmentation of the punk scene. Most of the respondents expressed critical views towards contemporary politics and the wish to subvert the dominant discourse ; however, when discussing specific undertakings to change this discourse, a certain gap is apparent between specific principles and practices.
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This paper examines the ways in which the digitalization of the music industries has impacted the work of musicians locally, in the semi-peripheral country of Hungary. In particular, it focuses on the ways in which the work of musicians is shaped by gender relations. It aims to critique the democratization discourse of the digitalization of musical production by exploring, first, the local policy and industry context of digitalized musical labor, and, secondly, the role of gender relations within the household in the labor and careers of musicians in Hungary.
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This chapter traces the genealogy of the use of the concept of belonging in youth studies. It shows how belonging has enabled youth researchers to attend to the relational dynamics and processes through which individuals and society are interpellated, across time, space and historically. Since the 1920s, the concept of belonging has galvanised youth research at times of social change, often giving expression to anxieties and preoccupations with nationhood, the future, economies and social control. The metaphor of belonging has informed research across diverse conceptual frameworks from Marx, Weber and Durkheim, to Mannheim, Beck, Bourdieu, Deleuze and Guattari and others, its relational register spanning structuralist thinking, post-structuralism, political economy, settler colonial theory and the new materialism.
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In post-war Britain, quality of life but also political and economic success were measured in relation to the living conditions of the country’s youth. This chapter gives an overview of how the modern teenager became a key evaluator for identifying and describing a Britain that was leaving austerity behind, and had started to break free of its image as a society that was, for Arthur Marwick, still characterised by the straitjacket of the Victorian moral system. Therefore, the chapter examines the ways in which working-class kids and their cultural production were discursively intertwined with key developments of the 1960s, such as a transnational pop culture, new affluence and modern consumption, cultural fragmentation, the crisis of religion, changing gender notions, and the making of a multi-cultural Britain. It outlines how science and politics turned youth, adolescence, and youth culture into objects that allowed scholars to read and understand social transformation at a time when British society was becoming not a “culture for youth”, but “a culture of youth”. The chapter introduces the reader to the key themes of the book and shows how both moral panic and the hope that youth and generational renewal would help to build a better world and a better Britain in the future shaped the responses of a huge variety of actors involved in the birth of modern teenage culture in Britain.
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As belief in the applicability and efficacy of DIY production, open-source, and method sharing has broadened to include institutional hackathons and open-data-fueled and civic 'maker weekends', taking stock and articulating how certain approaches 'work' or 'do not work' within maker culture – and for progressive and expansive creator cultures more generally – continues to be essential. 'Making' is a key concept that frames a host of more specific practices, lending characteristic manual/moral, communal/communicational, aesthetic/ethical, and enacted/ economic inflections and values. Even simple historical, traditional, technological, or digital acts of object and media creation, of art and design, but also of writing and thinking itself, can be recast as 'making'. What is it that happens to the thinking and doing of such activities, when such recasting is desired, chosen, projected, enforced, or assumed?
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Radical feminism and punk subculture were two communities in Britain in the 1970s which produced politically diverse cultural, visual, and photography practices. This paper explores, for the first time, the overlap between these two communities and how their political perspectives and enthralling disruptive visual strategies informed each other. I argue that punk, although resembling the dominant culture and other subcultures in their patriarchal aspects, provided a space for communicating feminist arguments and shared radical feminism’s disruptive strategies. My discussion examines punk artist Linder Sterling’s exploration of gender boundaries and sexuality in her feminist photomontages and her controversial punk performance. This argument is posited in relation to radical feminist street events, feminist photography, and punk aesthetics. Finally, I suggest that feminist and punk uses of photography, visual production, and performance were affective practices that engendered a political sense of community, identification, and mobilization.
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Az internet az elmúlt évtizedekben alaposan megbolygatta az életünket, új médiumként a demokratikus nyilvánosság teljes megújulását is ígérte. Azt vizsgálom, hogy mennyi-re váltotta be az internet az elmúlt bő két évtizedben ezt az ígéretet, és hogy lehet-e az államnak szerepe ezen ígéretben foglaltak gyakorlati megvalósulásával kapcsolatban. Röviden áttekintem a sajtószabadság fogalmát abból a szempontból, hogy a jogi felfogás szerint annak alanyát milyen közérdekű kötelezettségek terhelik, amelyek az internet szabályozásának is szükségszerű kiindulópontjai. Ezt követően az internet szabályozásáról, az interneten (is) elérhető szolgáltatásoknak a sajtószabadsághoz fűződő kapcsolatáról, majd a demokratikus nyilvánosság állapotáról az interneten, végül az internet hatására átalakuló „hagyományos” médiáról és újságírásról lesz szó.
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Inspired by Deleuze and Guattari, this article details how racial minority girls, and those around them, affectively respond to and resist racialization and different forms of racist aggression online. The material draws on a larger netnographic study of young teens on a public social media platform in Sweden and demonstrates how these girls, as well as their racialized peers, are ‘othered’ through direct, indirect and repeated aggression. I explore how instances of resistance work in various ways to reject, re-appropriate and renegotiate racist assemblages where differing racialized figures are affectively produced and enforced in direct and indirect ways in online interaction. Through this, the study contributes to knowledge on girls’ resistance to racialized aggression online, as well as how racism works affectively in youths’ everyday online interaction.
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To understand why young women engage in the (sub)culture of badness whilst ‘on road’, as opposed to more conventional employment pathways, it’s imperative to consider their access (or lack of) to legitimate opportunities. Living in deprived urban areas creates a set of conditions which can impact on life chances, thus demonstrating the continued importance of intersecting factors class, gender, race and place in their lives as they navigate precarious transitions against a backdrop of neo-liberalism and racial disadvantage. The Teesside transitions literature, based on white young people from a deindustrialised area of the north-east of England, is considered in terms of its usefulness of thinking about young women ‘on road’ in London, given that the interest in capturing and analysing their experiences has been notably absent in the British criminological literature. Consequentlyvery little is known about those who are entrenched in road culture as the majority of what we know around crime and violence is focused on the experiences of young men, so experiences of young women of colour are even more limited. This paper has begun to make some headway in terms of addressing these gaps so they are more visible in marginalised urban spaces.
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The Girlhood Project (TGP) is a community based, service-learning/research program that is part of the undergraduate course at Lesley University called “Girlhood, Identity and Girl Culture.” TGP works with community partners to bring middle and high school girls to Lesley’s campus for nine weeks as part of intergenerational girls’ groups that are co-facilitated by Lesley students (also referred to as TGP students). TGP fosters the development of feminist leadership, critical consciousness, voice, and community action, and activism in all participants. In this article, we describe how we adapted TGP’s model to a virtual and synchronous platform for students during COVID-19 and supported their learning competencies. We reflect critically on this experience by centering the voices and perspectives of girls, students, and professors.
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This paper examines a vibrant online community called Female Fashion Advice, which exemplifies convergence culture because its members both produce and consume its content. This large subreddit offers a compelling alternative to traditional fashion journalism and empowers women to partake in a hobby that has been denigrated due to its association with femininity. Using grounded practical theory, we found that fashion is treated as serious leisure, as evidenced by displays of personal effort, career progress, and an emphasis on enduring benefits. However, women in this community also struggle to keep fashion from becoming unpaid labor. The tension between leisure and labor emerged as women discussed fashion as meaningful, enjoyable, and enriching, but also stressful and socially required. We argue that this is an aspect of convergence culture, which has collapsed the distinction between media producers and consumers, and therefore made the line between leisure and labor blurry.
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The final chapter scrutinises issues and debates in relation to poststructuralist approaches to class, such as the claim that these have resulted in the ‘death’ of class analysis and can lead to political immobilisation. The chapter also examines concerns about the ability of critical, discursive approaches to capture the ‘extra-discursive’ components of class. We attempt to respond to such critiques by, for example, considering the important role of values in such work and an analysis of affect as discursive practice. Finally, we consider some future directions for critical research on class focussing on three areas: the accounting practices of the privileged; the usefulness of critical community psychology and participatory action research (PAR) for scholar-activists; and the impact of coronavirus on working-class people, families and communities.
Conference Paper
The prevalence of social media in young people’s lives is widely accepted in today’s society. Although social media use is ubiquitous in young people’s lives, schools continue to overlook how young people engage with social media. Drawing on ideas from Deleuze and Guattari (2013) this thesis uses an ethnographic approach to explore the ways in which nine young people engage with social media platforms to generate a sense of identity. Using ethnographic interviews, school and online observations, this thesis examines the relationship between school cultures and online social media environments inhabited by the young people. Working as an academic tutor at a mainstream secondary school in the UK, the researcher had access to the research participants’ day-to-day school activities, as well as extended access to their online lives by conducting online observations on various social media platforms they used. Each participant was analysed using a Deleuzo-Guattarian conceptual frame which draws from the notions of assemblages, becomings, territorialisations and de-territorialisations. The research findings identify some of the participants’ dissatisfaction with narrow and constricting school curricular cultures, whilst also highlighting how the blurred expectations that social media offers facilitates the building of their ambitions and aspirations. Therefore, the thrust of the thesis is to trace some of the relationalities between school cultures and the social media used by the young people. The findings could inform current government initiatives exploring social media’s impact on young people’s health and lives. With legislation due to be passed between 2020 and 2021, this thesis could deepen the understanding of how young people’s online activity is intricately linked with other aspects of their everyday lives, such as school. The thesis demonstrates how participants’ engagements online are nuanced and opening up possibilities for empowerment, identity work and the pursuit of a curated becoming underpinned by the particularities of social media platforms.
The Noonday Underground
  • T Wolfe
The Sound of Our Time
  • . D Laing
Half Our Future: A Report
  • J H Newsom
The Insecure Offenders
  • T R Fyvel
  • TR Fyvel