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Brief Pornography Screener: A comparison of US and Polish pornography users

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... Future studies should include bigger, more statistically powerful, samples." Minor errors/typos: p. 6: "Brief Pornography Screener (BPS; Kraus et al., 2017).This is a short …" [needs space after closing parenthesis] p.7: "The information about the study were sent to specialists …" [should be "was"] Reply: Thank you for this comments, we corrected them. ...
... Minor errors/typos: p. 6: "Brief Pornography Screener (BPS; Kraus et al., 2017).This is a short …" [needs space after closing parenthesis] p.7: "The information about the study were sent to specialists …" [should be "was"] Reply: Thank you for this comments, we corrected them . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 ...
... The main reasons to cultivate mindfulness as a part of addiction treatment are to develop awareness of external and internal triggers of addictive behaviour and to improve the ability to tolerate challenging emotional, cognitive and physical experiences (Bowen et al. , 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 2009). More broadly, mindfulness training is a type of systematic practice for enhancing individuals' metacognitive abilities including that of decentring from challenging mental events (Jankowski & Holas, 2014). Indeed, studies have shown that mindfulness practices taught in MBRP may lead to greater attentional (Chambers, Lo, & Allen, 2008) and inhibitory (Hoppes, 2006) control by teaching patients to observe challenging or uncomfortable emotional or craving states without habitually reacting to them. ...
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Background and aims Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder (CSBD) is a medical condition that can impair social and occupational functioning and lead to severe distress. To date, treatment effectiveness studies of CSBD are under-developed; typically, treatment for CSBD is based on guidelines for substance or other behavioural addictions. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is an evidence-based treatment for substance addiction aimed at, among other things, reducing craving and negative affect—i.e. processes that are implicated in the maintenance of problematic sexual behaviours. However, to our knowledge no prior research has been published evaluating mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in the treatment of CSBD, except two clinical case reports. Therefore, the aim of the current pilot study was to examine whether MBRP can lead to clinical improvement in CSBD. Methods : Participants were 13 adult males with a diagnosis of CSBD. Before and after the eight-week MBRP intervention, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires including measurements of porn viewing, masturbation and emotional distress. Results : As expected, we found that after MBRP participants spent significantly less time engaging in problematic pornography use and exhibited a decrease in anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions: The findings indicate that MBRP could be beneficial for CSBD individuals. Further clinical effectiveness studies with bigger sample sizes, delayed post-training measurements and randomised control trial design are warranted. In conclusion, MBRP leads to a decrease in time spent watching porn and a decrease in emotional distress in CSBD patients.
... 1,11 A cutoff value for SAST-PL is 5 (absolute range 0e20), and a higher score indicates a greater intensify of compulsive sexual behaviors. Finally, severity of the problematic pornography use was assessed using the Brief Pornography ScreenerePolish-language version (BPS-PL), 45,46 with a cutoff point of 4 (absolute range 0e10). The higher the result obtained, the greater the problem of pornography use. ...
... The current study examined the relationships between various psychological tendencies and symptoms of CSBD (measured with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-PL and Brief Pornography Screener-PL) 1,45,46 in men with CSBD and without CSBD. Using the Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire-PL (MSQ-PL), 47 we were able to explore the multidimensional aspects of sexuality among men with and without CSBD. ...
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Introduction Human sexuality is a multidimensional phenomenon related to several factors, such as self-esteem, awareness of sexual needs, and ability to communicate them to others. Aim To examine the sexual characteristics of patients seeking treatment for compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD)—a clinical diagnosis recently included in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases classification. Methods We have investigated the sexual characteristics of 72 Polish men seeking treatment for CSBD compared with 208 men from the Polish general population. Main Outcome Measures The Multidimensional Sexual Questionnaire–PL was used to examine 12 sexual aspects of human sexuality. The severity of CSBD symptoms was assessed using Sexual Addiction Screening Test–PL, and the severity of problematic pornography use was measured by Brief Pornography Screener. Results Results show that CSBD patients (when compared with the general population) exhibit higher sexual anxiety, sexual depression, external sexual control, and fear of sexual relationship. Furthermore, CSBD severity is negatively related to sexual esteem, internal sexual control, sexual consciousness, sexual assertiveness, and sexual satisfaction. Clinical Implications Our findings suggest that the impairment of the abovementioned dimensions warrant attention during clinical work and future studies on CSBD. Strengths & Limitations This study was limited to men, most of whom self-identified as heterosexual. Future research should include women and non-heterosexual identified individuals. Conclusion Sexual esteem, consciousness, assertiveness, satisfaction and internal sexual control are commonly affected among CSBD individuals and should be properly addressed during the clinical interview and treatment intervention.
... CSB = compulsive sexual behavior (criteria by [4]). PPU measures: s-IATsex = short internet addiction test, adapted for sexual content [18], HBI = Hypersexual Behavior Inventory [19], SAST-R = Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised [20], SES = sensitivity towards sexual excitation [21], PPUS = Problematic Pornography Use Scale [22], BPS = Brief Pornography Screener [23], PCI = Pornography Consumption Inventory [24], Internet Sex Screening Test [25], PIPUS = Problematic Internet Pornography Use Scale [26]. The time until its delivery Effort ...
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Purpose of Review Problematic pornography use (PPU) describes a pattern of behavior characterized by excessive time spent using or thinking about pornography and continued use despite negative consequences. To help advance the understanding of transdiagnostic underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms in PPU, we aim to review existing evidence on these mechanisms focusing on positive valence systems within the transdiagnostic Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework. Recent Findings Reward anticipation processes seem to be increased in individuals with PPU symptoms when they anticipate sexual stimuli compared with other rewards. Studies further suggest that the initial neural and attentional responses to sexual rewards compared with different control stimuli are also increased in individuals with PPU symptoms, as are conditioned responses in sexual reward learning paradigms. Sexual reward valuation studies point towards an increased neural value differentiation with increasing PPU symptoms. Summary The current state of evidence indicates that positive valence systems are altered in persons with PPU. This framework of organizing evidence may aid in elucidating PPU development and maintenance as well as planning future studies.
... The scale includes statements such as, "I was unsuccessful in my efforts to reduce or to control the frequency of my use of pornography" and "I spend too much time thinking about pornography" (Kor et al., 2014). Similarly, the BPS asks individuals to respond to five situations in regard to their use of pornography over the past 6 months on a 3-point Likert scale from "never" to "very often," and consists of items such as, "You continue to use sexually explicit material even though you feel guilty about it" (Kraus et al., 2017). The BPS is a screening scale that measures only one aspect of problematic pornography usecontrol or lack thereof over behaviorand may be useful in identifying individuals at risk of problematic pornography use or as a proxy measure. ...
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Background and aims: Addicted individuals often demonstrate relatively automatic action tendencies in response to addiction-related stimuli, whereby they approach rather than avoid addictive stimuli. This study assessed whether an approach bias for erotic stimuli exists among heterosexual college-aged males who report using pornography. Methods: We tested 72 male undergraduate students using an approach-avoidance task employing erotic stimuli, during which participants were instructed to push or pull a joystick in response to image orientation. To simulate approach and avoidance movements, pulling the joystick enlarged the image and pushing shrunk the image. Frequency and severity of pornography use was assessed using a Brief Pornography Screener and the Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS). Results: Participants demonstrated a significant approach bias for erotic stimuli as compared to neutral stimuli, and this approach bias significantly correlated with pornography-use measures. Moreover, individuals with problematic pornography use (as classified by the PPUS) showed more than double the approach bias than did non-problematic users. Discussion and conclusion: The observation of cognitive biases for erotic stimuli in individuals with problematic pornography use indicate similarities between behavioral and substance addictions.
... We also collected questionnaire measurements. Severity of CSBs was assessed with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test -Revised (SAST-R; Carnes, Green, & Carnes, 2010;Gola, Skorko, et al., 2017) and Brief Pornography Screener (BPS; Kraus et al., 2017). The BPS Questionnaire is a five-item scale, measuring the severity of problematic pornography use. ...
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Background and aims Compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs) are an important clinical and social issue. Despite the increasing number of studies, some of CSB’s aspects remain under-investigated. Here, we explore the nature of CSB, such as binge pornography use and masturbation (PuM), and verify the correspondence between self-perceived factors leading to such behavior with its measures obtained in a diary assessment. Methods Semi-structuralized interviews with nine treatment-seeking males aged 22–37 years (M = 31.7, SD = 4.85) were followed by a questionnaire and a 10-week-long diary assessment, allowing us to acquire real-life daily patterns of CSB. Results Six out of nine subjects experienced binge (multiple hours or times a day) PuM. All subjects presented a high level of anxiety and perceived PuM as a way to regulate mood and stress. Data collected in the diary assessment uncovered a high diversity in the patterns of sexual behaviors (such as frequency of regular and binge PuM) and its correlates. Binge PuM was related to decreased mood and/or increased stress or anxiety. The causal relation between these correlates remains undetermined. Discussion and conclusions Binge PuM seems to be one of the most characteristic behavior among males who are seeking treatment for CSB and is related to the feeling of losing control over one’s sexual activity. CSB individuals indicate a variety of binge triggers. Also, diary assessment data indicate that specific correlates of binge PuM (decreased mood, increased stress, and anxiety) differ between subjects. It suggests the existence of significant individual differences in binge PuM behaviors, and a need to study these differences, as it may help guide personalized treatment.
... questionnaires: SAST-R(Carnes et al, 2010;Gola et al, 2016b); BPS(Kraus et al, 2017; see Supplementary Materials); SAIHoon et al, 1976); OCI-R(Foa et al, 2002); UPPS-P(Poprawa, 2016;Whiteside and Lynam, 2003); IVE-I/R (Jaworowska, 2011); STAI-S/T(Sosnowski and Wrześniewski, 1983;Spielberger, 2010). a Non-significant: p40.2. ...
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Pornography consumption is highly prevalent, particularly among young adult males. For some individuals, problematic pornography use (PPU) is a reason for seeking treatment. Despite the pervasiveness of pornography, PPU appears under-investigated, including with respect to the underlying neural mechanisms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined ventral striatal responses to erotic and monetary stimuli, disentangling cue-related ‘wanting’ from reward-related ‘liking’ among 28 heterosexual males seeking treatment for PPU and 24 heterosexual males without PPU. Subjects engaged in an incentive delay task in the scanner, in which they received erotic or monetary rewards preceded by predictive cues. BOLD responses to erotic and monetary cues were analyzed and examined with respect to self-reported data on sexual activity collected over the 2 preceding months. Men with and without PPU differed in their striatal responses to cues predicting erotic pictures, but not in their responses to erotic pictures. PPU subjects when compared to control subjects showed increased activation of ventral striatum specifically for cues predicting erotic pictures but not for cues predicting monetary gains. Relative sensitivity to cues predicting erotic pictures versus monetary gains was significantly related to the increased behavioral motivation to view erotic images (suggestive of higher ‘wanting’), severity of PPU, amount of pornography use per week and number of weekly masturbations. Our findings suggest that, similar to what is observed in substance and gambling addictions, the neural and behavioral mechanisms associated with the anticipatory processing of cues specifically predicting erotic rewards relate importantly to clinically relevant features of PPU. These findings suggest that PPU may represent a behavioral addiction and that interventions helpful in targeting behavioral and substance addictions warrant consideration for adaptation and use in helping men with PPU.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to describe a wider perspective of the so-called hypersexuality including compulsive sexual behavior disorder as defined in the ICD-11 with its common features and therapeutic interventions but also other etiologies and clinical manifestations of “out-of-control sexual behaviors” that physicians and psychologists may be confronted with. We elaborate on clinical features labeled as problematic sexual behavior, including such various manifestations as problematic pornography use, compulsive masturbation, impulsive/compulsive sexual contacts with casual partners, cybersex, and others, and describe mechanisms leading to the loss of control over sexual behavior. Three descriptive cases of hypersexual behaviors of different etiologies are presented. The chapter ends with a comprehensive guidance into clinical management of the out-of-control sexual behavior.
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Repeated engagement in addictive behaviors may lead to relatively automatic action tendencies whereby individuals approach rather than avoid addictive stimuli. This study assessed whether an approach bias for erotic stimuli exists among heterosexual college-aged females who report using pornography. We tested 121 female undergraduates using an approach-avoidance task (AAT) employing both erotic and neutral stimuli, during which participants were instructed to push or pull a gaming joystick in response to image orientation. To simulate approach and avoidance movements, pulling the joystick enlarged the image and pushing shrunk the image. Severity of pornography use was assessed using the Brief Pornography Screener (BPS) and the Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS). Participants demonstrated a significant approach bias of 24.81 ms for erotic stimuli as compared to neutral stimuli, and this approach bias significantly positively corelated with PPUS scores. Moreover, approach bias scores were significantly positively correlated with anhedonia (as assessed by the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale), indicating that the stronger the degree of approach for erotic stimuli, the more anhedonia that was observed. Anhedonia was not significantly associated with pornography use severity, however.Findings implicate both similarities and differences in problematic pornography use among female and male users. A limitation of the current study is that it assessed approach biases among only heterosexual females due to the erotic stimuli employed during the AAT. Future studies should examine approach biases among females of varying sexual orientations.
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Diagnoses that could refer to compulsive sexual behavior have been included in the DSM and ICD for years and can now be diagnosed legitimately in the United States using both DSM-5 and the recently mandated ICD-10 diagnostic coding. Compulsive sexual behavior disorder is being considered for ICD-11.
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There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS.
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Background How best to conceptualize problematic pornography use (PPU) and intervene most effectively remain debated, with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and addiction frameworks. We investigated the efficacy of the serotonin-reuptake inhibitor paroxetine in combination with cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of problematic pornography use (PPU). Case presentation Three heterosexual males with PPU were treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy and paroxetine. Frequency of pornography use, other sexual behaviors, and anxiety were assessed during treatment. Discussion Paroxetine treatment, although seemingly initially effective in reducing pornography use and anxiety, appeared related to new compulsive sexual behaviors after 3 months. Conclusions Paroxetine may hold promise for short-term reduction of PPU and related anxiety, but new potentially distressing sexual behaviors may emerge. The cases suggest that PPU may arise from multiple domains. We propose an explanation of the effects based on recent neuroscientific research on sexual behaviors and alcohol use.
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Introduction: Pornography has become popular with Internet technology. For most people, pornography use (PU) is entertainment; for some, it can result in seeking treatment for out-of-control behavior. Previous studies have suggested that PU can influence sexual behaviors, but the direct relation between frequency of PU and treatment-seeking behaviors has not been examined. Aims: To investigate whether individuals seeking treatment as a consequence of their problematic PU do so because of their quantity of pornography consumption or because of more complex psychological and behavioral factors related to PU, such as the severity of negative symptoms associated with PU and/or subjective feeling of loss of control over one's behavior. Methods: A survey study was conducted of 569 heterosexual Caucasian men 18 to 68 years old, including 132 seeking treatment for problematic PU (referred by psychotherapists after their initial visit). Main outcomes measures: The main outcome measures were self-reported PU, its negative symptoms, and actual treatment-seeking behavior. Results: We tested models explaining sources of seeking treatment for problematic PU with negative symptoms associated with PU and additional factors (eg, onset and number of years of PU, religiosity, age, dyadic sexual activity, and relationship status). Seeking treatment was significantly, yet weakly, correlated solely with the frequency of PU (r = 0.21, P < .05) and this relation was significantly mediated by negative symptoms associated with PU (strong, nearly full mediation effect size; k(2) = 0.266). The relation between PU and negative symptoms was significant and mediated by self-reported subjective religiosity (weak, partial mediation; k(2) = 0.066) in those not seeking treatment. Onset of PU and age appeared to be insignificant. Our model was fairly fitted (comparative fit index = 0.989; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; standardized root mean square residual = 0.035) and explained 43% of the variance in treatment-seeking behavior (1% was explained by frequency of PU and 42% was explained by negative symptoms associated with PU). Conclusion: Negative symptoms associated with PU more strongly predict seeking treatment than mere quantity of pornography consumption. Thus, treatment of problematic PU should address qualitative factors, rather than merely mitigating the frequency of the behavior, because frequency of PU might not be a core issue for all patients. Future diagnostic criteria for problematic PU should consider the complexity of this issue.
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Hypersexual behavior has been documented within clinical and research settings over the past decade. Despite recent research on hypersexuality and its associated features, many questions remain how best to define and classify hypersexual behavior. Proposed diagnostic criteria for Hypersexual Disorder (HD) have been proposed for the DSM-5 and a preliminary field trial has lent some support to the reliability and validity of the HD diagnosis. However, debate exists with respect to the extent to which the disorder might be categorized as a non-substance or behavioral addiction. In this article, we will discuss this debate in the context of data citing similarities and differences between hypersexual disorder, drug addictions, and pathological gambling. The authors of this paper conclude that despite many similarities between the features of hypersexual behavior and substance-related disorders, the research on HD at this time is in its infancy and much remains to be learned before definitively characterizing HD as an addiction at this time.
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Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour.
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Hypersexual Disorder is proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for consideration in the Sexual Disorders section for DSM-V. Historical precedents describing hypersexual behaviors as well as the antecedent representations and proposals for inclusion of such a condition in the previous DSM manuals are reviewed. Epidemiological as well as clinical evidence is presented suggesting that non-paraphilic "excesses" of sexual behavior (i.e., hypersexual behaviors and disorders) can be accompanied by both clinically significant personal distress and social and medical morbidity. The research literature describing comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and a purported relationship between Axis I disorders and Hypersexual Disorder is discussed. Based on an extensive review of the literature, Hypersexual Disorder is conceptualized as primarily a nonparaphilic sexual desire disorder with an impulsivity component. Specific polythetic diagnostic criteria, as well as behavioral specifiers, are proposed, intended to integrate empirically based contributions from various putative pathophysiological perspectives, including dysregulation of sexual arousal and desire, sexual impulsivity, sexual addiction, and sexual compulsivity.
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This paper presents a biopsychological theory of drug addiction, the 'Incentive-Sensitization Theory'. The theory addresses three fundamental questions. The first is: why do addicts crave drugs? That is, what is the psychological and neurobiological basis of drug craving? The second is: why does drug craving persist even after long periods of abstinence? The third is whether 'wanting' drugs (drug craving) is attributable to 'liking' drugs (to the subjective pleasurable effects of drugs)? The theory posits the following. (1) Addictive drugs share the ability to enhance mesotelencephalic dopamine neurotransmission. (2) One psychological function of this neural system is to attribute 'incentive salience' to the perception and mental representation of events associated with activation of the system. Incentive salience is a psychological process that transforms the perception of stimuli, imbuing them with salience, making them attractive, 'wanted', incentive stimuli. (3) In some individuals the repeated use of addictive drugs produces incremental neuroadaptations in this neural system, rendering it increasingly and perhaps permanently, hypersensitive ('sensitized') to drugs and drug-associated stimuli. The sensitization of dopamine systems is gated by associative learning, which causes excessive incentive salience to be attributed to the act of drug taking and to stimuli associated with drug taking. It is specifically the sensitization of incentive salience, therefore, that transforms ordinary 'wanting' into excessive drug craving. (4) It is further proposed that sensitization of the neural systems responsible for incentive salience ('for wanting') can occur independently of changes in neural systems that mediate the subjective pleasurable effects of drugs (drug 'liking') and of neural systems that mediate withdrawal. Thus, sensitization of incentive salience can produce addictive behavior (compulsive drug seeking and drug taking) even if the expectation of drug pleasure or the aversive properties of withdrawal are diminished and even in the face of strong disincentives, including the loss of reputation, job, home and family. We review evidence for this view of addiction and discuss its implications for understanding the psychology and neurobiology of addiction.
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Advances in brain imaging techniques have allowed neurobiological research to temporally analyze signals coding for the anticipation of rewards. In addicted populations, both hypo- and hyper-responsiveness of brain regions (e.g., ventral striatum) implicated in drug effects and reward system processing have been reported during anticipation of generalized reward. Here, we discuss the current state of knowledge of reward processing in addictive disorders from a widely used and validated task: the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT). The current paper constrains review to those studies applying the MIDT in addicted and at-risk adult populations, with a focus on anticipatory processing and striatal regions activated during task performance, as well as the relationship of these regions with individual difference (e.g., impulsivity) and treatment outcome variables. We further review drug influences in challenge studies as a means to examine acute influences on reward processing in abstinent, recreationally using and addicted populations. Here, we discuss that generalized reward processing in addicted and at-risk populations is often characterized by divergent anticipatory signaling in the ventral striatum. Although methodological/task variations may underlie some discrepant findings, anticipatory signaling in the ventral striatum may also be influenced by smoking status, drug metabolites and treatment status in addicted populations. Divergent results across abstinent, recreationally using and addicted populations demonstrate complexities in interpreting findings. Future studies will benefit from focusing on characterizing how impulsivity and other addiction-related features relate to anticipatory striatal signaling over time. Additionally, identifying how anticipatory signals recover/adjust following protracted abstinence will be important in understanding recovery processes.
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Importance Since pornography appeared on the Internet, the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of consuming visual sexual stimuli have increased and attracted millions of users. Based on the assumption that pornography consumption bears resemblance with reward-seeking behavior, novelty-seeking behavior, and addictive behavior, we hypothesized alterations of the frontostriatal network in frequent users.Objective To determine whether frequent pornography consumption is associated with the frontostriatal network.Design, Setting, and Participants In a study conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Germany, 64 healthy male adults covering a wide range of pornography consumption reported hours of pornography consumption per week. Pornography consumption was associated with neural structure, task-related activation, and functional resting-state connectivity.Main Outcomes and Measures Gray matter volume of the brain was measured by voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity was measured on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scans.Results We found a significant negative association between reported pornography hours per week and gray matter volume in the right caudate (P < .001, corrected for multiple comparisons) as well as with functional activity during a sexual cue–reactivity paradigm in the left putamen (P < .001). Functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively associated with hours of pornography consumption.Conclusions and Relevance The negative association of self-reported pornography consumption with the right striatum (caudate) volume, left striatum (putamen) activation during cue reactivity, and lower functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could reflect change in neural plasticity as a consequence of an intense stimulation of the reward system, together with a lower top-down modulation of prefrontal cortical areas. Alternatively, it could be a precondition that makes pornography consumption more rewarding.
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Aims: Although debates over the efficacy of oral naltrexone and acamprosate in treating alcohol use disorders tend to focus on their global efficacy relative to placebo or their efficacy relative to each other, the underlying reality may be more nuanced. This meta-analysis examined when naltrexone and acamprosate are most helpful by testing: (i) the relative efficacy of each medication given its presumed mechanism of action (reducing heavy drinking versus fostering abstinence) and (ii) whether different ways of implementing each medication (required abstinence before treatment, detoxification before treatment, goal of treatment, length of treatment, dosage) moderate its effects. Methods: A systematic literature search identified 64 randomized, placebo-controlled, English-language clinical trials completed between 1970 and 2009 focused on acamprosate or naltrexone. Results: Acamprosate had a significantly larger effect size than naltrexone on the maintenance of abstinence, and naltrexone had a larger effect size than acamprosate on the reduction of heavy drinking and craving. For naltrexone, requiring abstinence before the trial was associated with larger effect sizes for abstinence maintenance and reduced heavy drinking compared with placebo. For acamprosate, detoxification before medication administration was associated with better abstinence outcomes compared with placebo. Conclusions: In treatment for alcohol use disorders, acamprosate has been found to be slightly more efficacious in promoting abstinence and naltrexone slightly more efficacious in reducing heavy drinking and craving. Detoxification before treatment or a longer period of required abstinence before treatment is associated with larger medication effects for acamprosate and naltrexone respectively.
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Introduction. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for hypersexual disorder (HD) have been proposed to capture symptoms reported by patients seeking help for out-of-control sexual behavior. The proposed criteria created by the DSM-5 Work Group on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders require evaluation in a formal field trial. Aim. This DSM-5 Field Trial was designed to assess the reliability and validity of the criteria for HD in a sample of patients seeking treatment for hypersexual behavior, a general psychiatric condition, or a substance-related disorder. Method. Patients (N = 207) were assessed for psychopathology and HD by blinded raters to determine inter-rater reliability of the HD criteria and following a 2-week interval by a third rater to evaluate the stability of the HD criteria over time. Patients also completed a number of self-report measures to assess the validity of the HD criteria. Main Outcome Measures. HD and psychopathology were measured by structured diagnostic interviews, the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, Sexual Compulsivity Scale, and Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale. Emotional dysregulation and stress proneness were measured by facets on the NEO Personality Inventory—Revised. Results. Inter-rater reliability was high and the HD criteria showed good stability over time. Sensitivity and specificity indices showed that the criteria for HD accurately reflected the presenting problem among patients. The diagnostic criteria for HD showed good validity with theoretically related measures of hypersexuality, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, and stress proneness, as well as good internal consistency. Patients assessed for HD also reported a vast array of consequences for hypersexual behavior that were significantly greater than those diagnosed with a general psychiatric condition or substance-related disorder. Conclusions. The HD criteria proposed by the DSM-5 Work Group on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders appear to demonstrate high reliability and validity when applied to patients in a clinical setting among a group of raters with modest training on assessing HD. Reid RC, Carpenter BN, Hook JN, Garos S, Manning JC, Gilliland R, Cooper EB, McKittrick H, Davtian M, and Fong T. Report of findings in a DSM-5 Field Trial for hypersexual disorder. J Sex Med 2012;9:2868–2877.
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Reward contains separable psychological components of learning, incentive motivation and pleasure. Most computational models have focused only on the learning component of reward, but the motivational component is equally important in reward circuitry, and even more directly controls behavior. Modeling the motivational component requires recognition of additional control factors besides learning. Here I discuss how mesocorticolimbic mechanisms generate the motivation component of incentive salience. Incentive salience takes Pavlovian learning and memory as one input and as an equally important input takes neurobiological state factors (e.g. drug states, appetite states, satiety states) that can vary independently of learning. Neurobiological state changes can produce unlearned fluctuations or even reversals in the ability of a previously learned reward cue to trigger motivation. Such fluctuations in cue-triggered motivation can dramatically depart from all previously learned values about the associated reward outcome. Thus, one consequence of the difference between incentive salience and learning can be to decouple cue-triggered motivation of the moment from previously learned values of how good the associated reward has been in the past. Another consequence can be to produce irrationally strong motivation urges that are not justified by any memories of previous reward values (and without distorting associative predictions of future reward value). Such irrationally strong motivation may be especially problematic in addiction. To understand these phenomena, future models of mesocorticolimbic reward function should address the neurobiological state factors that participate to control generation of incentive salience.
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is primarily conceived as an anxiety disorder but has features resembling addictive behavior. Patients with OCD may develop dependency upon compulsive behaviors because of the rewarding effects following reduction of obsession-induced anxiety. Reward processing is critically dependent on ventral striatal-orbitofrontal circuitry and brain imaging studies in OCD have consistently shown abnormal activation within this circuitry. This is the first functional imaging study to investigate explicitly reward circuitry in OCD. Brain activity during reward anticipation and receipt was compared between 18 OCD patients and 19 healthy control subjects, using a monetary incentive delay task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Reward processing was compared between OCD patients with predominantly contamination fear and patients with predominantly high-risk assessment. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients showed attenuated reward anticipation activity in the nucleus accumbens compared with healthy control subjects. Reduced activity of the nucleus accumbens was more pronounced in OCD patients with contamination fear than in patients with high-risk assessment. Brain activity during reward receipt was similar between patients and control subjects. A hint toward more dysfunctional reward processing was found in treatment-resistant OCD patients who subsequently were successfully treated with deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients may be less able to make beneficial choices because of altered nucleus accumbens activation when anticipating rewards. This finding supports the conceptualization of OCD as a disorder of reward processing and behavioral addiction.
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To better understand the reward circuitry in human brain, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) and parametric voxel-based meta-analyses (PVM) on 142 neuroimaging studies that examined brain activation in reward-related tasks in healthy adults. We observed several core brain areas that participated in reward-related decision making, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate, putamen, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as cognitive control regions in the inferior parietal lobule and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The NAcc was commonly activated by both positive and negative rewards across various stages of reward processing (e.g., anticipation, outcome, and evaluation). In addition, the medial OFC and PCC preferentially responded to positive rewards, whereas the ACC, bilateral anterior insula, and lateral PFC selectively responded to negative rewards. Reward anticipation activated the ACC, bilateral anterior insula, and brain stem, whereas reward outcome more significantly activated the NAcc, medial OFC, and amygdala. Neurobiological theories of reward-related decision making should therefore take distributed and interrelated representations of reward valuation and valence assessment into account.
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This report describes the development of a self-report Sexual Arousability Inventory (SAI) for women. Sexual arousability was defined as the sum of a respondent's ratings of 28 erotic experience along a 7-point Likert arousal dimension. Multiple-regression and factor analyses were used to select valid items from a 131-item pool and build in factorial purity. The SAI has concurrent validity with respect to sexual experience, activity, and satisfaction, and discriminates between clinical and normal populations. In addition, the SAI is easy to administer and score, may be used with single, married, or lesbian women, is available with norms and in alternate forms, and possesses exceptional internal consistency. Although the SAI was designed primarily for clinical use, the construct it measures may have theoretical significance in future research.
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A method is described for the correction of geometric distortions occurring in echo planar images. The geometric distortions are caused in large part by static magnetic field inhomogeneities, leading to pixel shifts, particularly in the phase encode direction. By characterizing the field inhomogeneities from a field map, the image can be unwarped so that accurate alignment to conventionally collected images can be made. The algorithm to perform the unwarping is described, and results from echo planar images collected at 1.5 and 4 Tesla are shown.
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The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been developed from a six-country WHO collaborative project as a screening instrument for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. It is a 10-item questionnaire which covers the domains of alcohol consumption, drinking behaviour, and alcohol-related problems. Questions were selected from a 150-item assessment schedule (which was administered to 1888 persons attending representative primary health care facilities) on the basis of their representativeness for these conceptual domains and their perceived usefulness for intervention. Responses to each question are scored from 0 to 4, giving a maximum possible score of 40. Among those diagnosed as having hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 92% had an AUDIT score of 8 or more, and 94% of those with non-hazardous consumption had a score of less than 8. AUDIT provides a simple method of early detection of hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings and is the first instrument of its type to be derived on the basis of a cross-national study.
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Coadministration of kappa-opioid receptor agonists (kappa-agonists) with cocaine prevents alterations in dialysate dopamine (DA) concentration in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) that occur during abstinence from repeated cocaine treatment. Quantitative microdialysis was used to determine the mechanism producing these effects. Rats were injected with cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.), or saline, and the selective kappa-agonist U-69593 (0.32 mg/kg, s.c.), or vehicle, once daily for 5 d. Extracellular DA concentration (DA(ext)) and extraction fraction (E(d)), an indirect measure of DA uptake, were determined 3 d later. Repeated cocaine treatment increased E(d), whereas repeated U-69593 treatment decreased E(d), relative to controls. Coadministration of both drugs yielded intermediate E(d) values not different from controls. In vitro DA uptake assays confirmed that repeated U-69593 treatment produces a dose-related, region-specific decrease in DA uptake and showed that acute U-69593 administration increases DA uptake in a nor-binaltorphimine reversible manner. Repeated U-69593 also led to a decrease in [(125)I]RTI-55 binding to the DA transporter (DAT), but did not decrease total DAT protein. These results demonstrate that kappa-opioid receptor activation modulates DA uptake in the Acb in a manner opposite to that of cocaine: repeated U-69593 administration decreases the basal rate of DA uptake, and acute U-69593 administration transiently increases DA uptake. kappa-agonist treatment also alters DAT function. The action of kappa-agonists on DA uptake or DAT binding, or both, may be the mechanism(s) mediating the previously reported "cocaine-antagonist" effect of kappa-opioid receptor agonists.