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Frilled sharks (Chondrichthyes, Hexanchiformes, Chlamydoselachidae), long believed to be a monotypic family and genus, consisting of a single wide ranging species, Chlamydoselachus anguineus (Garman, 1884), is now known to contain at least two species. A new species of frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus africana, sp. nov., is described from five specimens collected from southern Africa. The new species, although difficult to distinguish externally from the well known C. anguineus, differ internally by the structural differences in the chondrocranium, lower total vertebral and spiral valve counts, and pectoral-fin radial counts. The new species, Chlamydoselachus africana, is known from off southern Angola, Namibia, and South Africa.
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Elacatinus lobeli is described as a new species of cleaning goby from coral reefs of Belize and Islas de la Bahía, Honduras. Formerly misidentified as E. oceanops Jordan, it differs in smaller size (largest, 31 mm SL vs. 41 mm for E. oceanops), 10–12 (rarely 12) branched caudal rays vs. 12–14 (rarely 12) for E. oceanops, a mode of 16 pectoral rays vs. 17 for E. oceanops, a longer pelvic disk, averaging 17.1% SL, vs. 15.6% for E. oceanops), and in life color: notably a bright blue line within a gray stripe on upper side of body, compared to a broad bright blue stripe on E. oceanops. It has been observed in cleaning symbioses with 39 species of fishes representing 19 families. Larval gnathiid isopods have been found in the gut contents.
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Species inventories for macroecology, biogeography and conservation biology rely upon accurate lists of valid species. In order to provide a more uniform taxonomic treatment for blennioid fishes, we evaluated the taxonomic status of 21 species with currently recognized subspecies. In six cases we found no compelling evidence for recognizing these nominal forms as distinct species. However, in 15 cases, evidence exists for elevating 17 subspecies to full species status based on currently used criteria for delimiting fish species. This evidence includes the existence of significant phenotypic and/or genetic differences supporting the hypothesis that they are on distinct evolutionary pathways in accordance with a phylogenetic species concept. Known distributions of affected species are modified accordingly. Most of these elevated species are separated from their closest relatives by well-known biogeographic barriers.
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The Aphyosemion calliurum species group is poorly diagnosed by chromatic and meristic characteristics leading various authors to propose different species as members. We used partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to characterize all species that have been at one time or another included in the A. calliurum species group. Results obtained allowed a clear definition of the group which is composed of 10 species: A. ahli, A. australe, A. calliurum, A. celiae, A. edeanum, A. franzwerneri, A. heinemanni, A. lividum, A. pascheni, and a herein newly described species A. campomaanense. This new species is described from 26 specimens captured in small streams of the Campo-Ma’an region within the Ntem River basin of southern Cameroon. A. campomaanense n. sp. is distinguished from all the other species of the A. calliurum species group, and above all from A. ahli, by asymmetric coloration of the caudal fin with a yellow lower margin and a white upper margin, and a body with a dark blue background against which red spots are arrayed in horizontal rows towards the head merging into vertical rows posteriorly. This species is also genetically distinguished from the other species of the A. calliurum species group by its mitochondrial genome and its karyotype, characterized by an unusually high number of chromosomes and arms (2n= 44, NF=58).
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A new species of zoarcid fish is described on the basis of three specimens collected from the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Ocean. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by its body shape and pigment pattern, and by the following combination of characters: 6 branchiostegal rays; pectoral-fin origin well below midbody, pectoral base extending ventrally to abdomen; lateral line double with ventral and medio-lateral branches; oral valve not reaching anterior edge of vomer; gill slit extending ventrally well below end of pectoral fin base; vertebrae asymmetrical 22+7074=92-96; dorsal fin origin associated with vertebrae 4 or 5 with no supraneurals; pectoral fin rays 16 or 17; 2 postorbital pores (positions 1 & 4) and 2 well developed pyloric caeca. The relationships of the new species with its congeners are discussed.
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Crenicichla mandelburgeri, new species, is described from the streams Tembey, Pirayuy, Pirapó and Poromoco which are Paraguayan tributaries to the Paraná River. It is similar in particular to Crenicichla niederleinii, C. mucuryna, and C. jaguarensis, distinguished by relatively small size (114 mm SL), low scale counts, and details of the colour pattern.
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A new Barbulifer species is described from 26 specimens. Barbulifer enigmaticus differs from its congeners by the following combination of characters: body completely lacks scales, including modified basicaudal scales. Cephalic pore pattern generally B'FH' + M'O' in juveniles and B'FH' + M'NO' in adults. No median barbel on snout. A single short barbel on each side of head, flattened, flexible, and located between the eye and the upper jaw, directly below the anterior nostril. A single median pair of short barbels on chin. D1 VII, D2 13(12–13), A 11(10–11), P 19(18–20). To 24 mm SL (29 mm TL). The species is found in very shallow reef areas from Espírito Santo to São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.
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The present paper describes two new species of the gobiid fish genus Glossogobius from southern New Guinea and a third related species from northeastern Australia. All three species are restricted to a small number of river systems. Glossogobius bellendenensis, sp. nov. is distinctive in having reduced predorsal scales and fin-ray counts and mental frenum shape. It is restricted to relatively clear water rivers of northeastern Queensland. The closely related, Glossogobius muscorum sp. nov. is also distinctive in reduced predorsal scales and fin-ray count and is found only in the Fly River system of New Guinea. Glossogobius robertsi sp. nov. is distinctive in fin-ray and scale counts and is found in the Fly River in Papua New Guinea and possibly in a river in Papua close to the Fly River. That species has been confused with Glossogobius giuris, which generally occurs in lower reaches of the river.
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The Sri Lankan population of the spiny eel previously assigned to Macrognathus aral Schneider (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae) is shown to be a distinct species, for which the name M. pentophthalmos Gronow is available. Macrognathus pentophthalmos is distinguished from its closest congener, M. aral, by having 14–16 dorsal spines and a pre-dorsal length of 43.3–46.8% of standard length (SL) (vs. dorsal spines 18–22 and pre-dorsal length 35.5–40.8% SL in M. aral). Macrognathus pentophthalmos differs from its only other Indian congener, M. guentheri Day, among other characters, by having 24 pairs of rostral tooth plates (vs. rostral tooth plates absent). With the present designation of a neotype, Rhynchobdella orientalis Bloch & Schneider (type locality East Indies to Sri Lanka) becomes an objective junior synonym of M. aculeatus Bloch. Although assessed as ‘common’ in 1980, the population of M. pentophthalmos suffered a precipitous decline in the following decade, the causes of which are unknown. The species may now be extinct.
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The genus Cephaloscyllium Gill 1862 (Chondrichthyes, Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) until recently had only two species recognized, C. isabellum [= C. umbratile (Jordan & Fowler 1903)] and C. fasciatum Chan 1966, from the western North Pacific (WNP), with one dubious species, C. formosanum, having been described by Teng in 1962. Recently, three additional species were described, C. circulopullum Yano et al. 2005, C. sarawakensis Yano et al. 2005, and C. parvum Inoue & Nakaya 2006 from this region. Here we present a revision of this genus for the WNP, including redescriptions of C. fasciatum and C. umbratile based on the holotypes, a re-examination of the recently described species, and descriptions of two new species from Taiwan. Cephaloscyllium umbratile can be distinguished from its congeners based on maximum size, length of first dorsal-fin base, anal–caudal space, and dorsal–caudal space. We conclude, based on a comparison of C. parvum and C. sarawakensis, that the former is a junior synonym of the latter species. The two new Taiwanese species can be separated from other WNP species by color pattern, shape of the anterior nasal flap, anal and dorsal-fin size, internarial width, and mouth size. Finally, we present a revised dichotomous key to the WNP Cephaloscyllium recognizing six contemporary taxa: C. circulopullum, C. fasciatum, C. sarawakensis, C. umbratile, C. pardelotum sp. nov. and C. maculatum sp. nov.
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Galeus priapus sp. nov. is described from specimens collected on the slopes of the seamounts and ridges of southern New Caledonia and Vanuatu. It is the first Galeus species recorded in these areas. G. priapus is characterised by the presence of a conspicuous crest of enlarged denticles on the dorsal caudal margin, the absence of similar crest on ventral caudal margin, and extremely long and slender claspers in adult males that extend posteriorly to the anal-fin origin. The body coloration, which is plain greyish brown with large dark blotches on dorsal and caudal fins and their bases, closely resembles its sibling G. gracilis, a northern Australian and Indonesian species. An identification key to Indo-Pacific Galeus species is provided.
Article
Rhamdella cainguae, a new species of the family Heptapteridae is described from the Arroyo Cuña-Pirú, a tributary of the Río Paraná, in the subtropical forest of Misiones, northeastern Argentina. The presence of a large differentiated ovoid area on the supraorbital laterosensory canal along the frontal-sphenotic boundary, delimited by the slender dorsal walls of the bones, and with no foramen for a laterosensory branch, is an autapomorphy for R. cainguae. A detailed description of the skeleton and laterosensory system of R. cainguae is provided. The genus Rhamdella is rediagnosed on the basis of three autapomorphies: a very large opening in the frontal for the exit of the s6 (epiphyseal) branch of the supraorbital laterosensory canal (reversed in R. rusbyi), a large optic foramen, and a dark stripe along the lateral surface of the body (reversed in R. rusbyi). Rhamdella is considered to be the sister group of a large heptapterid clade composed of the Nemuroglanis sub-clade plus the genera Brachyglanis, Gladioglanis, Leptorhamdia, and Myoglanis. Rhamdella is herein restricted to five valid species: R. aymarae, R. cainguae, R. eriarcha, R. longiuscula, and R. rusbyi. A sister group relationship between R. aymarae and R. rusbyi is supported by three synapomorphies. Rhamdella cainguae shares 12 apomorphic features with R. eriarcha and R. longiuscula.
Article
Kali Lloyd is a very distinctive group of bathypelagic fishes with fragile bones in the cranium and recurved teeth, which are remarkably enlarged in some species. The genus has a worldwide distribution, being found in the subtropical to equatorial regions of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific; one species is also found in the Southern Ocean. In this taxonomic revision, seven species are considered valid, two of them described herein: K. indica; K. kerberti; K. macrodon; K. macrurus; K. parri; K. colubrina, new species; and K. falx, new species. Kali kerberti is re-evaluated as valid and the senior synonym of K. normani. A key for the species with updated maps of distribution are also given.
Article
Nandus andrewi sp. nov. is described from the Ichamati River in northeastern India. It differs from all congeners in having a bluish white (vs. mottled brown) body in life, and a combination of the following characters: body depth 24.3– 29.1% SL, pectoral fin length 15.1–18.5%, pelvic fin length 16.2–18.9% SL, eye diameter 18.3–21.7% HL, a dark spot on the caudal peduncle, and 45–52 lateral-line scales. A key to the species of Nandus is also provided.
Article
Gorogobius stevcici sp. nov. is described from the São Tomé Islands, Gulf of Guinea. Although it exhibits the unique combination of characters of Gorogobius Miller, it differs from present generic diagnosis of that genus. Therefore, a revised generic diagnosis and description of Gorogobius is provided. The new species differs from its only congener, G. nigricintus, by (1) presence of pore β; (2) row g anteriorly ends more or less in front of row o; (3) transverse interorbital row p present; (4) snout with four median preorbital rows; (5) 37–41 vs. 29–33 longitudinal scale rows; (6) 22–24 vs. 18 predorsal scales; (7) 9 vs. 10–11 anal fin rays; (8) 17 vs. 18–20 pectoral fin rays; (9) coloration.
Article
Two species of Eviota with red or orange bars crossing the body, a bifurcated 4th pelvic-fin ray with two long branches,and lacking many or all cephalic sensory-canal pores are described from Palau, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Eviotajewettae has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 98% of the specimens lack all cephalic sensory-canal pores, 2–4 lowerpectoral-fin rays branched; non-filamentous dorsal-fin spines; short tubular anterior nares that are not black and are lessthan ½ pupil diameter in length, and five wide bars across the body. Eviota pinocchioi has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formulaof 9/8, always lacks the POP and IT pores and the PITO and AITO pores are fused in about 50% of the specimens, un-branched pectoral-fin rays, males with filamentous dorsal-fin spines, tubular anterior nares black and very long, almost equal to the pupil diameter, and six narrow bars across body.
Article
On the basis of a study of three specimens caught in the Scotia Sea north and in the SE Pacific and of analysis of supplementary data, the existence of 2 species in the genus Lampris, previously considered monotypic, is shown. L. guttatus is widespread in the World Ocean; L. immaculatus is encountered only in the high and middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.-from Sport Fishery Abstracts
Article
Tonlesapia amnica, a new species of dragonet lacking a first dorsal fin, is described from the Mekong River delta in southern Vietnam. It can be distinguished from its sole congener, T. tsukawakii, in having the infraorbital canal extending beyond (vs. not reaching) ventral margin of orbit, a more slender body (7.2-13.5% SL vs. 14.3-15.0) and caudal peduncle (4.4-5.2% SL vs. 5.1-6.3), a smaller eye (6.5-8.3% SL vs. 8.7-9.2) and more dorsal-fin rays (9-10 vs. 8).
Article
A new atelomycterine catshark species (Scyliorhinidae: Atelomycterinae), Atelomycterus marnkalha n. sp., is described from north-east Australia (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Torres Strait and Gulf of Carpentaria). It differs from A. baliensis, A. marmoratus and A. macleayi in having posteroventally sloping dorsal fins, a lower precaudal vertebrae count and smaller adult size. Most similar to the Western Australian catshark species A. fasciatus, A. marnkalha differs from this species in having a larger anal fin, lateral denticles with prominent shallow depressions, claspers of adult males with a cover rhipidion lacking an obvious notch and its colour pattern with prominent white spots and fewer, smaller black spots.
Article
Two new species of the scorpionfish genus Trachyscorpia are described on the basis of 20 and 7 specimens collected from Australasia at depths of 731–1020 m and the southwestern Indian Ocean at depths of 620–1080 m respectively. The two new species, classified into the subgenus Mesoscorpia, are distinguished from the only other member of the subgenus, T. (M.) eschmeyeri, by the following characters: the tympanic spines absent (vs. usually present in the latter), the upper-jaw lip well developed, covering the premaxillary tooth band laterally (vs. lip poorly developed, the premaxillary teeth exposed laterally), scales absent on the lateral surface of the maxilla (vs. scales present), and 4 blackish saddles on the body in preserved specimens (vs. no blackish saddles). Trachyscorpia (M.) carnomagula sp. nov. differs from T. (M.) longipedicula sp. nov. in having 57–63 scale rows in longitudinal series (vs. 50–53 in the latter). They are also distinguished by several morphometric characters, including lengths of pelvic-fin spine and soft ray, and first anal-fin spine. The subgenus Mesoscorpia is redefined. A key to the species of Trachyscorpia and comments on distribution of T. (M.) eschmeyeri are also provided.
Article
This paper examines the alpha level taxonomy of the genus Haploblepharus Garman, 1913 (Chondrichthyes; Scyliorhinidae). Three species are endemic to South Africa, with one species occurring in Namibia and South Africa. Haploblepharus pictus exhibits considerable colour variation which has led to some confusion between that species and H. edwardsii, resulting in a significant range extension for H. pictus. A neotype is designated for H. edwardsii, and problematic Haploblepharus juveniles are tentatively assigned to H. kistnasamyi. A novel species identification key is presented for Haploblepharus, and a comprehensive review of the taxonomy (including type material and synonyms) and distribution of all taxa is presented. The genus Haploblepharus contains four contemporary taxa: H. edwardsii (Schinz, 1822), H. pictus (Müller & Henle, 1838), H. fuscus Smith, 1950, and H. kistnasamyi Human & Compagno, 2006.