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The Role of Communication in Enhancing Work Effectiveness of an Organization

  • Academia Fortelor Terestre Nicolae Balcescu

Abstract and Figures

Communication is one of the most important levers of management that a company can implement for the formation of teams and achieving valuable performance. Communication and management are complementary disciplines and strong business elements for success. Management skills are essential in a business, but all equally important are those relating to the rules for the communication and the way in which a manager knows how to interact with his staff. Being manager not only means to rein in business, but mostly means knowing to coordinate a team, leadership skills and most of all, communicate.
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Land Forces Academy Review
Vol. XXII, No 1(85), 2017
“Lucian Blaga” University, Sibiu, Romania
Alexandru Marius RIZESCU
“Nicolae Bălcescu” Land Forces Academy, Sibiu, Romania
Communication is one of the most important levers of
management that a company can implement for the formation of teams
and achieving valuable performance. Communication and
management are complementary disciplines and strong business
elements for success. Management skills are essential in a business,
but all equally important are those relating to the rules for the
communication and the way in which a manager knows how to
interact with his staff. Being manager not only means to rein in
business, but mostly means knowing to coordinate a team, leadership
skills and most of all, communicate.
KEYWORDS: business communication, organizational communication,
work productivity
1. Introduction
It is essential that any type of
organization, which wishes to pursue an
activity in full accordance with the society
in which it exists, to begin the work based
on a pre-set plan, a management strategy
carefully designed as management
represents a vital aspect of the functioning
of the organizational and the social systems,
especially in the conditions of modern era,
marked by the increasing complexity of
technological and informational products,
radical transformation at the level of social
structure, trends of globalization of the
economy and, especially, changes to the
product at the organizational level. In this
context we consider necessary the
intervention of managerial structures that
will adapt to all organization changes.
2. Internal Corporate Communication
Management should consider first
people. The main aim of their involvement
in the tasks they have undertaken, the
efficiency with which they are carried out
as it is a very important parameter, bearing
especially in mind that it requires
management to work together in teams.
Management deals with the coordination of
their activities, planning, organization and
coordination of pre-established objectives,
DOI: 10.1515/raft-2017-0008
© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.
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levels, budget management and control and
assessments, as a result of the work carried
out. These management functions which
support work within the organization are
bringing a touch of its dynamism.
The individuals of the organization, namely
the work force, will be the first to benefit
from the results of the strategy or not,
because they are the ones who execute the
tasks assigned to attain the objectives
(Bodie and Crick, 2014).
Therefore, a manager who is in charge
of carrying out the functions of management
will always use the processes of
communication in order to make it
understandable to coordinate its business
activities, to make decisions and implement
them, in order to conclude partnership and
cooperation agreements etc. Communication,
from a management point of view, is the
process by which people are informed and
guided to achieve the best results.
To communicate effectively means not only
putting your thoughts in order and
presenting them in an accessible way, but
also expressing them in a way that would
capture the attention of the receiver (Beattie
and Ellis, 2014).
Communication makes possible the
interaction between members of the working
team. A manager should be the first to
establish bridges between the members of the
organization, through a careful and effective
communication. Through communication,
organization activities scroll correctly.
A good manager will use communication in
order to make it understandable to convey
its message receptor exactly as we think in
order to obtain the expected feedback at the
time of the initiation of the communicative
process. All these elements form the basis
of communication processes, whereby
individuals of an organization will be able
to establish interpersonal connections,
which are be the basis of good management
activities, both internally and externally.
Figure no. 1 The internal corporate communications process
(Source: Miller, 2012)
As a management tool, communication
intends to establish good interpersonal
relationships, non-confrontational and based
on the achievement of common goals: to
increase the level of skills, the need to
mobilize employees on the path of changing
goals, in order to exploit to the fullest of their
work force the evolution of forms of
production. It resembles some of the factors
that could explain the objective of increasing
the role of communication.
Managerial communication must take
into account a number of conditions:
a concise and precise formulation
of the message to be understood
easily and in full;
rapid transmission of the message;
fluency and assurance of
reversibility of communication;
use of a common language of the
transmitter and receiver;
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simplifying the communication
ensuring flexibility and
adaptability of the system of
communication to be used in any
situation (Burnside-Lawry, 2011).
Only effective communication can
enable the successful completion of these
requirements, which are necessary for
conducting tool organization. According to
some authors, communication management is
a form of interpersonal leadership, a tool with
which the manager may exercise specific
powers: forecasting, training, organization,
coordination, control, evaluation. According
to these boundaries of communication
management, the manager can arrange tasks
in a more efficient manner, he can
communicate more easily with employees,
have a starting point in making decisions, a
well developed plan.
Furthermore, the managerial
communication has a triple role:
Interpersonal role: managers act as
leaders of the organization,
interacting with peers, subordinates,
customers from the organization and
from outside. Specialized studies
mention that managers use about
45 % of the time for communication,
in discussions with colleagues at the
same hierarchical level, 45 %
communicating with employees in
their organization and only 10 % of
the time, to communicate with
Informational role, whereby
managers collected information
from colleagues, from subordinates
and through other contacts, trying to
keep themselves informed about
anything that might affect their work
and responsibility. Also, they in
turn, disseminate, and provide
important information.
The role of decision-making:
managers implement new projects,
allocate resources on individuals
and work compartments within the
organization. Some of the decisions
are taken in private, but they are
based on information that has been
disclosed before.
Analyzing the three roles, a common
result is obtained, namely the importance of
communication in the organization without
which things might not work. Lack of
communication may cause certain problems
to achieving the objectives of the company.
Employees are the most important
resource of the organization, and the way in
which they are actively involved in
attaining the strategic objectives of the
company for which they work is crucial to
get the expected performance of top
management (Kandlousi et al. 2010).
Figure no. 2 Communication Process Management
(Source: Beattie, & Ellis, 2014)
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3. Communication Process
The motivated and dedicated
employees are the dream of any employer
because they are the ones that increase the
productivity of the company, maintain a
positive working environment and based on
collaboration and teamwork, are loyal to the
company. In short, they are the ones who
ensure the long-term success of the
organization (Frandsen, Johansen and Pang,
Motivating employees, however, is
not an easy thing to get. Motivation, from
the psychological point of view, is the basis
of each individual’s behavior, both in the
sphere of personal and professional. When
we talk about an employee’s behavior at
work, motivation has strict concerning the
manner in which it perceives its role within
the organization, with the way in which his
work is appreciated, both in terms of value
(the fact that he receives a salary for his
work), and the social aspect (the way in
which his work is regarded by others) but
also with human relations established in the
professional area.
In addition to human resource
policies that are implemented in any
organization in terms of financial packages,
career plans, training programs and
professional development, internal
communication programs have a very
important role in enhancing the motivation
of employees. The explanation is simple:
numerous studies have shown that, at the
international level, great importance is
given to the non-financial factors, such as:
the relationship between professional life
and private life and quality relationships
with coworkers. Internal communication
programs contain increasingly more often
such factors of non-financial motivation.
Internal professional communication has
been challenged over the last decade,
gradually passing from the internal
communication programs intended
exclusively for the dissemination of
information within the organization,
whether uni-or bi-directional, to programs
of involvement and motivation of
employees (Miller, 2012).
In general terms, communication
inside a company:
creates job satisfaction: organizations
that encourage a distribution of information
between seniors and subordinates, as well as
between employees of the same departments;
a good feedback brings only benefits,
motivates employees to work better and
makes them feel valuable to the company;
open communication prevents the occurrence
of conflicts and helps solving them faster.
When a conflict is resolved through
discussion, employees develop mutual
respect, which leads to an their development,
both professionally and personally;
grows productivity; effective
communication in the workplace is an
important issue for the success or failure of
the organization; managers need to define,
to explain thoroughly the objectives to be
accomplished, communicate to employees
the responsibilities and duties that have to
be met; if the line ahead is clear, the
employees will know exactly what they
have to do and how to focus on that,
leading to increased productivity;
uses resources more effectively:
when problems, crises and conflicts arise in
an organization, due to the lack of
communication between employees,
unnecessary delays in the daily routine
occur; it comes down to a resource leak and
end up in decreasing the overall
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Figure no. 3 The positive engagement model (communication perspective)
(Source: Ruck & Welch, 2012)
As leader or manager in an
organization, the person in charge needs to
make him/her understood, and to send the
information to arrive at the receiver in time,
in order to be processed; if it is lost then the
fault will occur at the organizational level.
Effective communication involves
expressing the content and intention of the
transmitter to the receiver provided that the
receiver may have understood the message
and that between receiver and transmitter
there are certain differences. It is pointless
using the mind to dominate the heart.
We act more on the basis of what we feel
instead of based on what we think.
If employees do not maintain harmonious
feelings among them, emotional barriers
will appear. Communication is primarily a
matter of confidence and acceptance of
ideas and feelings of others. If we manage
to leave aside the spirit of adversity, social
norms, exaggerated attention to building
their own images, we save a lot of energy
and time. A large part of the decision-
making process in the organization requires
working in teams. Driving groups allows
the purchase of information, information
that is required for efficient management.
In this context, if the working party
must act to be effective, it requires ensuring
open communication between participants
and the responsibility rests with the
information flow in the largest part of the
head of the group: the concern to inform the
collaborators in the work and to inform
them correctly, the ability to create
conditions for all to be able to express
themselves freely. In this sense, permissive
position communication is expressed
through the fact that it does not interfere
with the stifling premature criticism of an
opposite view, but also gives the possibility
of discussion (Ledbetter, 2014).
This open attitude towards the
dynamics of group discussion is not an
instinctive human ability, but, on the
contrary, it requires adequate training for
those who have status and leadership
responsibilities. Most problems encountered
in the process of communication lies in the
issues of credibility. Each sees the world
through their own systems of reference-
influenced by feelings, beliefs and behavior.
Many problems of credibility can be solved if
at least one of the parties concerned, realizes
that at the basis there is only a problem of
perception, the latter must investigate the
matter so as to understand (King, 2015).
Verbal communication is used in
everyday life, but also in human
relationships within an organization. Verbal
communication is to be treated as an
integral part of every person’s
responsibility towards the people around it.
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Figure no. 4 The relationship between types of managerial problems
and managerial decisions (communication perspective)
(Source: Slatten, Göran & Sander, 2011)
Language represents natural language
but there are other artificial languages, such
as sign-used by deaf and dumb or computer
The spoken language is the one that
helps us communicate with our fellow
human beings in different circumstances: in
the family, at school, among friends, at
work, etc. The way we use language
to make it efficient is what makes us
good communicators. In relationships,
communication plays an especially
important role. It depends on how we
communicate the organization’s mission, as
part of which they can be achieved, and we
have a successful career that we choose.
Regardless of the place of work, no matter
who is our basic professional band, which
helps us take decisions, express thoughts,
ideas, feelings, attitudes and so we are
understood and appreciated.
To communicate ideas or feelings, we
use sounds and symbols, with a generally
accepted sense, which are called words.
Effective communication requires skills,
and their development requires practice.
Wanting to express both content and
intention, we are learning the language of
logic and emotion-the latter being by far the
most powerful and most motivating effect.
We listen with our eyes first, and with our
heart and only then with the ears. We seek
to understand the intent of communication
without prejudice. Allowing extra time and
patience, trying to understand and
expressing our heartfelt feelings, we present
the standpoint of starting to demonstrate a
clear understanding of other points of view.
Communication is more a matter of trust
and acceptance of others, their feelings and
ideas that are different and that, from their
point of view, have the same intellect (Ruck
& Welch, 2012).
From a theoretical point of view,
motivation and performance are two separate
concepts. Managers are interested first in their
employees to attain the company’s important
professional objectives. It focuses on concrete
results, quality and low costs. Successful
completion of these targets is the result of a
series of factors, which may include: effort,
time and the effective engagement of people.
The effectiveness of the decisions
depends on the quality and dedication of the
people, and is achieved by dedication and
involvement. The change process provides
the opportunity to use two-thirds of our
energy on reducing restrictive forces and a
third on the driving forces of growth.
Because each situation is different, we have
to study the restrictive nature of the forces
and try turning as more of these into driving
forces. Involving him and others, some of
the driving forces that already exist in
normal people can be found here. When the
proposed driving forces synchronize with
the internal motivations and impulses of
team members, we have a team that solves
the problems together.
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4. Organizational Culture and
The culture in which confidence is
created by high upright people (who make
promises to them and to others, and keep
them), mature (balances the courage and
self-respect, are able to express their ideas
and feelings with courage, balanced by
respect for the ideas and feelings of others)
and with the mentality of abundance (we
assume that there are enough resources for
everyone, have a deep appreciation for
other people and consider solutions that
represent a third alternative have an
unlimited potential). People of character are
free to interact with genuine synergy and
creativity, and therefore they can
comfortably penetrate in the cultures where
there is low confidence. In order for the
members of the team to function, they must
have fundamental skills in communication
(the ability to understand thoroughly the
others and being understood by them) and
organization (ability to plan, act and do)
and in resolving problems synergically (the
ability to arrive at solutions that represent a
third alternative). A manager can provide
strategic direction and vision, can motivate
and build a team based on mutual respect,
which are complementary for each other,
whether we are talking more about
efficiency than performance, about
direction and results than the methods,
systems and procedures.
Figure no. 5 Organizational culture and communication
(Source: Kandlousi, et al, 2010)
Communication is an asset available to
each organization and must be harnessed for
the purpose of attaining the aims set out
which are of major importance. This asset is
seen, on the one hand, as a series of products,
services, brands, and performance, part of
respecting the objectives of the organization
and on the other hand even as personality.
Permanent contact with the developing
organization creates connections: whether
you are with your customers, suppliers,
competitors, employees, or other audiences,
all of which cannot exist without a
communicative potential (Slatten, Göran and
Sander, 2011).
Organizational communication can be
divided in two directions: inside
communication and outside communication.
Inside communication proposes that
information transmission triggers the
fulfilment, by the staff of those activities,
while ensuring a stimulation of the employees
towards their adhesion to the objectives of the
organization. Outside communication implies
contacts which have the object of business
through connections with suppliers,
distributors, consumers, public opinion,
together with the promotion of these ties.
Communication is a relational
process, in which two or more parties shall
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exchange information, understand and
influence each other; it is an indispensable
element for the optimal operation of any
human collectivities. This consists of the
transmission, receipt, storage, processing and
use of information. Communication is also a
functional way of psycho-social interaction of
people, achieved by means of symbols and
meanings of the generalised social-reality, in
order to obtain stability in times of changes of
individual and group behavior. Effective
communication requires specialized
personnel in the field of communication,
which deals with communication of
information both internally and externally.
Internal communication aims to send,
by audiences, suitable messages on which
the organization wishes to serve in society.
Effective internal communication will
certainly result in the welding of the team
working in a harmonious relationship
between the employee and the employer,
whereas it offers everyone the chance to get
to know each other, get to know the
organization’s objectives in working
effectively, to work, to actively participate
in all activities within the Organization, to
be more motivated, etc. As an instrument of
internal communication, through which the
Organization informs, reminds, announces
projects, policies, actions, activities etc., a
periodic newsletter can be used, sent via
e-mail or on paper.
External communication refers to
communication management strategy,
which any organisation applies for the
purpose of communicating messages to the
general public. Any kind of information,
consultation, advertisement, brochure,
letter, and any form of contact between
persons or things in your organization and
those outside it is or should be part of the
communication strategy. External
communication takes into account: the
identity of the organization, the
organization’s image, brand identity/brand,
integrated campaigns. Through them, the
organization/institution is known and
informs all those interested in information
about the activities and actions undertaken
(Vidales Gonzáles, 2011).
Communication between employers
and employees will be more efficient if, after
a period of three months of employment,
employees were asked to complete a
questionnaire regarding satisfaction at work.
Then, these questionnaires should be applied
to all employees each year, the answers being
interpreted by specialists. Another effective
method of communication and, at the same
time, a way to improve the performance of
your employees and your organization’s
development would be the existence of a
program with employees so that when they
have something to say they can confidently
go to the employer and discuss openly about
any concern.
In order to achieve the desired
objectives, employers need to be aware that
people are less predictable and less
manipulated, and managers need to work
with people requesting more wisdom, energy
and experience than to work with lifeless
things. Therefore, the relationship between
employee and employer acts as a factor of
utmost motivation for the employee.
Employers must not omit employee
acknowledgements when required. Everyone
wants to be appreciated, wants to see that his
progress does not remain unnoticed, so that
recognition, preferably in public, of his merits
matter enormously. Being appreciated, the
employee will be more motivated, more
effective, more efficient, and this only
requires resources of time, not necessarily
5. Conclusions
The communication process in a
company is therefore an essential
management tool, a particular complexity
of the management system. The role of
communication as a management tool is to
facilitate relationships between people, to
establish an environment beneficial to the
internal development of the organization.
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Managers must be aware that perseverance
in learning how to communicate should be
a top priority for them, being the main skill
which they must acquire or refine to obtain
the expected results set in the company’s
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London: Psychology Press.
Bodie, G. & Crick, N. (2014). Theory of communicative action. Vol. 1: Reason and the
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Burnside-Lawry, J. (2011). The dark side of stakeholder communication: Stakeholder
perceptions of ineffective organisational listening. Australian Journal of Communication,
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Frandsen, F., Johansen, W. & Pang, A. (2013). From management consulting to
strategic communication: studying the roles and functions of communication consulting.
International Journal of Strategic Communication, 7(2), 81-83.
Kandlousi, N.S.A.E., et al. (2010). Organizational citizenship behavior in concern of
communication satisfaction: The role of the formal and informal communication.
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King, M. (2015). Corporate blogging and microblogging: An analysis of dialogue,
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... The results of this study were reinforced by several previous finding Grissom, for insatnce J. A., Loeb, S., & Mitani, H. (2015), in planning management, all programs related to the effectiveness and progress of the institution are the responsibility of all colleagues or teams in determining the allocation of time and work effectiveness (Bucăţa, G., & Rizescu, 2017). Hence, the work results can be optimal. ...
... The communication process that is established between members of the community provides a space for group members to share what they feel and experience. (Bucăţa & Rizescu, 2017) revealed that communication aims to build good interpersonal relationships, which are non-confrontational and have a mission to achieve common goals. In a study conducted by (Adedokun et al., 2010) it was revealed that encouraging community development requires a good and effective communication strategy, this can develop if the community actively participates. ...
Daily routine can trigger stress and load of though that make mood changes, mood changes are normal, for physical and mentally healthy human but not so with ODB (people with bipolar). The focus of this study is communication of bipolar survivor group in Denpasar that supports healing from ODP (people with bipolar). This research is qualitative research using case study approach, with only focuses on group communication in only one group of bipolar survivors in Denpasar. Data collection technique used participatory observation, in-depth interviews with informants and documentation techniques. This study uses data triangulation as a technique for validity of the data. The result obtained from this study show that ODB (people with bipolar) are greatly helped by the presence of bipolar group of survivors, so that emotion bond are established between members and have the same goal, namely recovering from mental illness. In addition, this group also help its member find the self-concept of its members, so that its members have a new life to rejoin the society.Keywords: Group Communication, Bipolar, Self Concept
We used the online survey method to explore the relationship between the importance of volunteer retention during the COVID-19 pandemic and organizational volunteer communication practices among nonprofit organizations’ leaders of local communities. The target population for our study was 696 nonprofit organizational leaders. The response rate was 10.6%. Organizational volunteer communication practices explain 63% of the importance of organizational volunteer retention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the challenges posed by COVID-19, organizations placed significant value on effective organizational communication practices, especially in developing trusting relationships with volunteers, encouraging free-flowing communication, and listening to volunteers. Outreach educators and volunteer administrators should educate local nonprofit leaders on effective communication practices during times of uncertainty. Organizations that depend heavily on volunteers must ensure that their leaders understand the importance of communication strategies and implement them effectively. For local community nonprofit leaders, organizational volunteer communication skills are even more crucial during crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Communication is a key element for the success of any organization. The present study aims to construct and validate a scale of perception of internal communication. It is also intended to assess whether there are differences in internal communication between employees who are teleworking and those who are in‐person work in times of the COVID‐19 pandemic. The methodology used is quantitative in nature based on a questionnaire survey, with the sample consisting of 837 Portuguese individuals in a work context. The results show that the structure of the scale of perception of internal communication is composed of three factors: organizational information, communication with supervisors, and communication between colleagues. The perception of internal communication in the factor organizational information showed higher levels in workers who are in telecommuting situations. It is hoped that this work will enrich the academy and enable managers to use communication more effectively so that the organizations they manage become more competitive.
Conference Paper
Indian Army (IA) has a rich and great saga of valor and fortitude and has relentlessly proven it is worth during peace and war. IA is functionally organized in Command, Corps, Division, Brigade, and Unit to achieve its operational and tactical objectives. Unit is a fundamental tactical building block commanded by a full Colonel, approximately 21 officers, 900 men with an appropriate weapon system are posted in the unit. The unit’s Officers’ rank structure is Lieutenant, Captain, Major, Lieutenant Colonel, and Colonel. These are the officers who are designated to command units / sub-units independently in peace and war. They act as the principal link between senior hierarchy and troops. They are primarily responsible for honing soldiers’ skills and ensure the highest level of operational preparedness of IA at all times to meet any contingency in the complete spectrum of warfare starting from low-intensity conflict, conventional warfare to nuclear warfare. The style of the officers’ leadership and personnel conduct acts as a guiding beacon for the units/subunits. Hence, their motivation must remain at zenith all the time to ensure cohesion of their command and optimization of the resource. For the research, principal information was obtained from the officer through the survey conducted via e-questionnaire, and the same has been analyzed, and descriptive understanding was undertaken.
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Social networks aid the theorization of interdependencies of organizational components and provide futuristic methods to operationalize and analyze relationships. The purpose is to study the existing knowledge base, understand interactions in organizations as socially composed networks of relationships, and enhance comprehension of social networks. The chapter provides a systematic review and synthesis of select research papers. It presents highlights to understand key concepts, theories, and models, with emergent themes to comprehend the role of networks and importance of emergent structures in the systems of organizations. It cites technology as an enabler of interaction in intra-organizational communication and provides deconstructed models of multidimensional networks. These will guide young network researchers in the area of social science. It concludes that better integration of information technology and network literature will be instrumental to micro-level studies of organizations and create sustainable networks beneficial to organizations.
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El artículo propone al relativismo teórico como una problemática actual de los procesos de producción teórica y de formación académica en los es-­ tudios de la comunicación. Se plantea un segundo orden de observación que supone mirar a la comunicación des-­ de la propia disciplina a través de una matriz teórica general que sintetice la discusión en dos rutas posibles: la consideración de la comunicación como principio explicativo y la con-­ sideración de la comunicación como disciplina práctica.
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Purpose – The objective of this paper is to test a selection of hypothesized relationships between: employees' perceived service quality; employees' turnover intentions; role clarity; and empowerment and coaching. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing from theory, this paper develops a set of hypothesized relationships. The data collection is based on a survey with a sample of 1,076 frontline employees in service organizations. Findings – There are indications that employees' perceived service quality has a direct negative effect on employees' turnover intentions. The effect of empowerment, coaching, and role clarity on turnover intention appears to be mediated through employees' perceived service quality. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to a selection of variables related to employees' turnover intentions. Future research may focus on testing other variables that may be related to employees' turnover intentions. Practical implications – This study stresses the importance for managers in service organizations to measure employees' perceived service quality. The results show that there are both direct and indirect relationships to employees' turnover intentions. The conclusion is that employees' perceived service quality is an important consideration with respect to employee-turnover management. Originality/value – This study has developed and tested a set of hypothesized relationships in the field of service management.
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Communication cues play an important role in the development of satisfaction within an organization.Communication in most of the related studies has been considered as a one-dimensional construct, while thepresent study specifically proposed formal and informal communication as predictors of communicationsatisfaction. Furthermore, although literature introduced job satisfaction as a great predictor of OCB, the presentstudy takes one more step forward and proposes communication satisfaction as an antecedent of OCB. Theserelationships were tested by 231 survey completed by respondents from Electrical Manufacturing industry inIran. Formal communication and informal communication were found to predict communication satisfaction.Besides, communication satisfaction was a strong predictor of all dimensions of OCB.
Effective internal communication is a prerequisite for organisational success. Organisations need to evaluate and improve communication especially in increasingly difficult economic pressures. Assessment instruments enable organisations to monitor communication effectiveness. This review of academic and consultancy studies found over reliance on measuring satisfaction with the communication process. The analysis found management-centric rather than employee-centric approaches to assessment. This indicates a need to develop new approaches to assessing internal communication. A conceptual model is proposed here to encourage focus on employee communication needs in terms of content as well as channel. Future approaches to assessment should draw on a wider theoretical and conceptual framework. Assessment instruments need to reflect advances in practice. They need to assess the value of internal communication to employees as well as their organisations.
The dark side of stakeholder communication : Stakeholder perceptions of ineffective organisational listening of
  • Burnside
Burnside-Lawry, J. (2011). The dark side of stakeholder communication: Stakeholder