Article

Examining the Effect of Affect on Life Satisfaction Judgments: A Within-Person Perspective

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Abstract

While extant studies have examined between-person relationships between life satisfaction and current affect, the nature of this relationship is fundamentally a within-person question. We define this effect of affect on life satisfaction as the proportion of total variance in life satisfaction explained by changes in affect over time. In a study of life satisfaction judgments (N = 92 with 353 assessments), we found that the effect of current affect on life satisfaction was relatively inconsequential.

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... In one study, Eid and Diener (2004) used latent state-trait models to partition the variance in life satisfaction at the state and trait level and found that the (''trait") consistency variance (about 80-90% of the variance) was higher than the occasion-specific variance (about 10-20% of the variance). 1 While Eid and Diener's occasion-specific analyses focused across individuals within time points, Jayawickreme et al. (2017) within-person analyses focused within individuals across time points, and found evidence for a relatively inconsequential effect of affect on life satisfaction, as there was relatively little withinperson variance (9%) in trait life satisfaction over time (at least on a weekly basis over several weeks). 2 Jayawickreme et al. defined the effect as the percentage of variance in life satisfaction explained by changes in affect, and found that the effect on trait life satisfaction was relatively small: 4.2% for positive affect, 7.7% for negative affect, and 8.0% for the simultaneous influence of positive and negative affect. 3 It should be noted that this question is fundamentally a within-person question, and should be tested as one. This is because within-person approaches may reveal different answers from what between-person approaches reveal, since the causes for why variables may vary across people may be different from why they vary within a person across situations (Jayawickreme et al., 2017). ...
... 1 While Eid and Diener's occasion-specific analyses focused across individuals within time points, Jayawickreme et al. (2017) within-person analyses focused within individuals across time points, and found evidence for a relatively inconsequential effect of affect on life satisfaction, as there was relatively little withinperson variance (9%) in trait life satisfaction over time (at least on a weekly basis over several weeks). 2 Jayawickreme et al. defined the effect as the percentage of variance in life satisfaction explained by changes in affect, and found that the effect on trait life satisfaction was relatively small: 4.2% for positive affect, 7.7% for negative affect, and 8.0% for the simultaneous influence of positive and negative affect. 3 It should be noted that this question is fundamentally a within-person question, and should be tested as one. This is because within-person approaches may reveal different answers from what between-person approaches reveal, since the causes for why variables may vary across people may be different from why they vary within a person across situations (Jayawickreme et al., 2017). However, the nature and magnitude of the within-person distinction between satisfaction and affect at the state level remains unclear. ...
... The present study is a ''systematic" replication of the Jayawickreme et al. (2017) study extending the results from the trait level to the state level. Luhmann et al. (2012) found affective and cognitive well-being to be structurally distinct even when using the same time frame (i.e. when assessing both types of well-being at the state level). ...
Article
Assessments of global life satisfaction capture beliefs about overall well-being; state satisfaction assessments focus on short-term or “in-the-moment” appraisals of current life circumstances. Prior research has examined how trait measures of life satisfaction and affect are related at between-person and within-person levels of analysis. At the state level, however, a lack of clarity exists about the nature and magnitude of the association between satisfaction and affect. In a diary study involving assessments of both affect and satisfaction at the daily level (N = 350 with 6024 assessments), we found a consequential effect of affect on state satisfaction due to greater within-person variance over time.
... Global judgments of life satisfaction are highly correlated with chronically accessible information about important life domains (Schimmack & Oishi, 2005), while judgments restricted to relatively short and recent periods are more likely to rely on episodic information, making those judgments more susceptible to the influence of temporarily accessible information (Robinson & Clore, 2002). One possible solution for this problem is to examine within-person effects of affect across several time points (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017b. The results of the Jayawickreme et al. (2017aJayawickreme et al. ( , 2017b) studies clearly pointed out that the relationship between the cognitive and affective components of well-being should be analyzed at the within-person level and that time-frame should not be ignored. ...
... One possible solution for this problem is to examine within-person effects of affect across several time points (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017b. The results of the Jayawickreme et al. (2017aJayawickreme et al. ( , 2017b) studies clearly pointed out that the relationship between the cognitive and affective components of well-being should be analyzed at the within-person level and that time-frame should not be ignored. When weekly reports were used as a time-frame, the effect of affect on life satisfaction was negligible (Jayawickreme et al., 2017a). ...
... The results of the Jayawickreme et al. (2017aJayawickreme et al. ( , 2017b) studies clearly pointed out that the relationship between the cognitive and affective components of well-being should be analyzed at the within-person level and that time-frame should not be ignored. When weekly reports were used as a time-frame, the effect of affect on life satisfaction was negligible (Jayawickreme et al., 2017a). Within a daily time-frame the effects of affect on satisfaction appear to be more consequential (Jayawickreme et al., 2017b). ...
Article
This study aims to examine the effect of affect on satisfaction, both at the between- and the within-person level for momentary assessments. Affect is regarded as an important source of information for life satisfaction judgments. This affective effect on satisfaction is well established at the dispositional level, while at the within-person level it is heavily under-researched. This is true especially for momentary assessments. In this experience sampling study both mood and satisfaction scales were administered five times a day for 7 days via hand-held devices (N = 74 with 2,122 assessments). Several hierarchical linear models were fitted to the data. Even though the amount of between- person variance was relatively low, both positive and negative affect had substantial effects on momentary satisfaction on the between- and the within-person level as well. The within-person effects of affect on satisfaction appear to be more pronounced than the between-person ones. At the momentary level, the amount of between-person variance is lower than in studies with longer time-frames. The affect-related effects on satisfaction possibly have a curvilinear relationship with the time-frame used, increasing in intensity up to a point and then decreasing again. Such a relationship suggests that, at the momentary level, satisfaction might behave in a more stochastic manner, allowing for transient events/data which are not necessarily affect-related to affect it.
... Positive affect may act as another mediator between social support and life satisfaction. Both theoretical and empirical studies have explored the relationships among social support, positive affect, and life satisfaction (Jayawickreme et al. 2017;Rzeszutek 2017). Positive affect broadens the repertoire of thought movements, formulating a flexible and positive mental state and promoting successful adjustment to adversity (Lightsey et al. 2013;. ...
... The results are also consistent with existing studies that substance users with adequate social support tend to experience positive psychological outcomes (Cao and Zhou 2019). The theoretical underpinnings of the findings are that perceived social support, including support from family, friends, and specialists, help substance users to develop a greater level of resilience (Liu et al. 2013a;Worthington and Scherer 2004), promoting positive affections (Afifi and MacMillan 2011;Schultz et al. 2009) and a higher level of life satisfaction (Jayawickreme et al. 2017;Kuppens et al. 2008;Zhang 2016). ...
... For one thing, this path showed that resilience is a mediator between social support and positive affect, in accordance with studies affirming that resilience has a significant association with social support (Liu et al. 2013a;Worthington and Scherer 2004). For another, this path indicated that positive affect may act as a mediator between resilience and life satisfaction, consistent with the findings that resilience played a vital role in promoting positive affect (Bajaj and Pande 2016;Liu et al. 2012), and that positive affect is closely correlated with life satisfaction (Jayawickreme et al. 2017). Above all, it is reasonable to speculate that resilience might play a mediating role in the association between social support and positive affect, while positive affect might act as a mediator between resilience and life satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to analyze how perceived social support is correlated with life satisfaction through mediators of resilience and positive affect. A total of 397 Chinese individuals with substance-use disorders were asked to complete the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Structural Equation-Modeling (SEM) results indicated that resilience fully mediated the relationship between perceived social support and life satisfaction and also revealed that the paths from social support through resilience and positive affect to life satisfaction were significant, although positive affect was not found to mediate the link between social support and life satisfaction. Finally, a multiple group analysis indicated that females with high resilience scores were more likely to exhibit greater positive affect than males. This study offers a practical application for health professionals seeking to implement effective interventions and improve the well-being of individuals with substance-use disorders.
... The definition of satisfaction is individuals' overall emotional responses to the discrepancy that results from their anticipated expectation and the actual experience with a product/service/environment (Oliver, 1980). This traditional definition of satisfaction is based on individuals' holistically affective judgments (Jayawickreme et al., 2017). More specifically, the emotional judgments are formulated by a product/service/environment feature or the product/service/environment itself that fulfills individuals' pleasurable levels (Holbeck & Hartman, 2018;Jayawickreme et al., 2017). ...
... This traditional definition of satisfaction is based on individuals' holistically affective judgments (Jayawickreme et al., 2017). More specifically, the emotional judgments are formulated by a product/service/environment feature or the product/service/environment itself that fulfills individuals' pleasurable levels (Holbeck & Hartman, 2018;Jayawickreme et al., 2017). However, Ladhari et al. (2017 indicate that satisfaction is both a cognitive and an emotional response to the latter having encountered and experienced a product/service/environment during a particular time period. ...
Article
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Engaging activities are increasingly a staple in higher education. Professional programs, including business, engineering, and healthcare, rely on engaging activities to better prepare students for their future careers. Experiential learning can be achieved through a wide variety of approaches that can generally be classified as hands-on activities, such as internships, practicums, and medical practice models, or as high-tech tools, such as simulations, games, and exercises delivered via an electronic medium. It is unlikely that all activities produce equally valuable outcomes under all course settings and disciplines. The purpose of this study is to specifically compare a computer-based simulation to hands-on based activities. An empirical structural equation model has been estimated developing pathways between dimensions of gamification, measures of satisfaction, scales of student attitudes, and measures of student loyalty. The model was estimated using undergraduate hospitality students as part of business coursework in a large U.S. public university. Findings validate significant paths. Based on the findings, this study proposes theoretical and pedagogical implications for faculty in higher education.
... While withinperson designs allow researchers to examine the dynamic effects of stressors, between-subject studies explore these effects at a static time point or over a longer duration of time. In fact, scholars have warned that the relationships obtained from within-person studies may not generalize to between-person associations or vice versa (Jayawickreme et al., 2017). Therefore, further research is warranted to investigate whether challenge/hindrance stressors exhibit short-term effects on employee outcomes. ...
... While the majority of the studies on challenge/hindrance stressors have assessed the cumulative effects of these stressors at a given time point (i.e., between-persons), our study investigated the effects of the dynamic stressors on work engagement over time (i.e., within-persons) and found the association to be positive in direction and moderate in magnitude. This is a reasonable assumption considering numerous studies have found that cumulative effects examined statically between the predictor and outcome do not always hold when compared to dynamic effects, and vice versa (e.g., Jayawickreme et al., 2017). Our finding is important for research as the effects of stressors on individual outcomes may be immediate, but are often assessed in a static manner. ...
Article
Full-text available
Our research examined the role of challenge and hindrance stressors, as well as the interactive effects of these stressors with positive and negative affect, in predicting work engagement and exhaustion using experience sampling methodology. In Study 1, university staff completed measures of challenge and hindrance stressors, positive and negative affect, work engagement, and exhaustion before the end of the workday over 5 working days. Results from multilevel regression indicated that challenge stressors were positively related to work engagement but not exhaustion, while hindrance stressors were unrelated to both work engagement and exhaustion. Additionally, positive affect moderated the association between challenge stressors and both work engagement and exhaustion. We partially replicated and extended these findings in our second sample of Amazon’s Mechanical Turk workers, who completed measures of affect in the mornings before starting work and stressors, work engagement, and exhaustion in the evenings before leaving work, over a period of 10 working days. Results suggested that challenge stressors were positively related to work engagement and exhaustion, while hindrance stressors were positively related to exhaustion and negatively related to work engagement. Similar to our results in Study 1, we found that positive affect interacted with challenge stressors in predicting each work outcome. Furthermore, positive affect moderated the hindrance stressor-work outcomes relationship. Lastly, negative affect moderated the association between challenge stressors and exhaustion. The findings of this study can be used to design interventions that enhance employee motivation and engagement in the presence of challenge and hindrance stressors.
... Several discrepancies warn about the validity of life satisfaction as a single indicator of wellbeing, especially concerning the influence of affect in self-ratings (Jayawickreme, Forgeard, & Seligman, 2012;Schwarz & Strack, 1999). However, literature revealed that affect has a relatively small effect on life satisfaction judgments (Eid & Diener, 2004), especially at a within-person level, thus life satisfactions may be considered a relatively stable pattern of wellbeing and quality of life (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017). ...
... This assumption is embodied within the academic discussion about the role of affection and cognition in the measurement of wellbeing (Eid & Diener, 2004). Consid- ering life satisfaction as a reliable indicator of general wellbeing (Jayawickreme et al., 2017;Veenhoven, 2002), the effects of character strengths may be influenced by the affective or cognitive nature of these traits. To sum, the present study provides evidence to emphasize the need of strength-based interventions to improve life satisfaction (Park et al., 2004;Proyer et al., 2011), specifically con- cerning positive affective-component traits, such as heart character strengths. ...
Article
Character strengths have been found to be predictive of high levels of life satisfaction. The present study attempts to examine the relationship between these constructs but at a fine-grained level. To that end, we used the heart versus mind classification of character strengths (Peterson, 2006), scarcely examined in prior research, to test whether affective-component traits (heart strengths) are more linked to life satisfaction than cognitive-component traits (mind strengths). A sample of 419 undergraduate students completed the measures of character strengths and life satisfaction. Statistical analysis showed that affective-component traits were more predictive of life satisfaction than cognitive-component traits. These findings emphasize the need to devise strength-based interventions aimed at improving life satisfaction, specifically addressing heart character strengths. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
... Research in several nations has demonstrated that positive and negative affect are causally related to life satisfaction, with positive emotions being more strongly related to life satisfaction than the absence of negative emotions (Kuppens, Realo, & Diener, 2008). Positive and negative affect are thought to influence life satisfaction either through the influence of current mood on satisfaction judgments (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017b or as a result of predispositions to positive and negative affect (Schimmack, 2008). ...
Article
Core self-evaluations (CSE) are associated with a range of indicators of positive personal and job outcomes. Current research suggests that CSE may be a precursor of judgment of life satisfaction but little is known about the factors that mediate the relationship. Affect is a potential mediator of the relationship and so we investigated whether positive and negative affect mediated the relationship between CSE and life satisfaction in two independent Spanish samples. Three hundred and fifty-two university students (Sample 1) and 520 adults (Sample 2) completed self-report measures of core self-evaluation, positive and negative affect and life satisfaction. In both samples, the association between CSE and life satisfaction was mediated by positive, but not negative affect. If replicated in longitudinal research, these results would provide evidence that CSE is associated with greater positive affect, which might influence life satisfaction judgments. These findings also highlight the importance of CSE and affect components that could take into consideration in positive psychology interventions aimed at increasing well-being.
... The benefits of using a diary methodology include generalizability to real life compared to lab settings, as well as a diminishing of the distortions related to memory recall over an extended period of time in more typical questionnaire studies (Almeida, 2005). Furthermore, the use of a within-subjects design is better suited to accurately reflect the relationship between an individual's experience of daily events and the respective outcomes, representing intraindividual differences over a given time period (Cervone, 2005;Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015;Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017). ...
Article
The present study examined daily savoring as a moderator of the relationship between daily demands and daily psychological capital (PsyCap), a collective term referring to the positive psychological states of hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy. A sample of university students (N = 109) responded to nightly online surveys over the course of eight days. Results showed that daily uplifts and savoring were positively related to overall daily PsyCap, as well as each individual dimension of the PsyCap. Daily demands were negatively related to PsyCap and each dimension of PsyCap. Additionally, daily savoring significantly interacted with daily demands to predict overall PsyCap, as well as the individual dimensions of optimism and resilience. Specifically, the negative relationship between daily demands and PsyCap was reduced when individuals engaged in greater savoring. The discussion focuses on the role of savoring in responding to demands and the mechanisms linking higher savoring to greater PsyCap on demanding days.
... The asymmetry of activity effects found in the present study could be, at least in part, due to the conceptual and measurement overlap of satisfaction and affect. This appears to be less of an issue in longer time-frames than in shorter time frames or in momentary setting (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017bTončić & Anić, in press). On the other hand, there was a more pronounced effect of learning activities on satisfaction, which can be seen as a composite overall measure, combining both cognitive and affective components of well-being. ...
... The asymmetry of activity effects found in the present study could be, at least in part, due to the conceptual and measurement overlap of satisfaction and affect. This appears to be less of an issue in longer time-frames than in shorter time frames or in momentary setting (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017bTončić & Anić, in press). On the other hand, there was a more pronounced effect of learning activities on satisfaction, which can be seen as a composite overall measure, combining both cognitive and affective components of well-being. ...
Article
Problem statement: Satisfaction and enjoyment in everyday experience, work and leisure is important for understanding subjective well-being. However, people experience different levels of pleasure, meaning, and engagement during specific activities. Research questions: The study investigated the effect of activity type (related or unrelated to learning) on momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction. Purpose: Students generally find meaning in education-related activities, although they usually do not enjoy them. Whereas pleasurable (predominantly freely chosen) activities immediately increase well- being, meaningful activities that are often imposed, may have a delayed effect on satisfaction and affect. However, the temporal extent of these effects is still unclear. Research methods: 117 students (aged 18-27 years, 28% males) participated in the experience sampling study during one week. They were prompted five times per day to describe what they were doing and to assess momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction on hand-held devices. Reported activities were coded as learning-related or other activities. Findings: Hierarchical linear modelling showed that engaging in learning activities immediately decreased satisfaction and increased negative affect, when compared with other activities. The delayed effects were significant up to three hours for negative affect and six hours for satisfaction. On the other hand, the activity type had neither immediate nor delayed effect on positive affect. Conclusions: Learning-related activities decrease subjective well-being, but this effect ceases after six hours. In general, freely chosen activities are source of pleasure and enjoyment. On the other hand, learning-related activities are necessary for the realization of long-term goals, but they are often not enjoyable because they are mainly imposed.
... The asymmetry of activity effects found in the present study could be, at least in part, due to the conceptual and measurement overlap of satisfaction and affect. This appears to be less of an issue in longer time-frames than in shorter time frames or in momentary setting (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017bTončić & Anić, in press). On the other hand, there was a more pronounced effect of learning activities on satisfaction, which can be seen as a composite overall measure, combining both cognitive and affective components of well-being. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Problem statement: Satisfaction and enjoyment in everyday experience, work and leisure is important for understanding subjective well-being. However, people experience different levels of pleasure, meaning, and engagement during specific activities. Research questions: The study investigated the effect of activity type (related or unrelated to learning) on momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction. Purpose: Students generally find meaning in education-related activities, although they usually do not enjoy them. Whereas pleasurable (predominantly freely chosen) activities immediately increase well-being, meaningful activities that are often imposed, may have a delayed effect on satisfaction and affect. However, the temporal extent of these effects is still unclear. Research methods: 117 students (aged 18-27 years, 28% males) participated in the experience sampling study during one week. They were prompted five times per day to describe what they were doing and to assess momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction on hand-held devices. Reported activities were coded as learning-related or other activities. Findings: Hierarchical linear modelling showed that engaging in learning activities immediately decreased satisfaction and increased negative affect, when compared with other activities. The delayed effects were significant up to three hours for negative affect and six hours for satisfaction. On the other hand, the activity type had neither immediate nor delayed effect on positive affect. Conclusions: Learning-related activities decrease subjective well-being, but this effect ceases after six hours. In general, freely chosen activities are source of pleasure and enjoyment. On the other hand, learning-related activities are necessary for the realization of long-term goals, but they are often not enjoyable because they are mainly imposed.
... Third, the results showed that change in positive affect was positively related to change in life satisfaction and change in negative affect was negatively related to change in life satisfaction. This result is consistent with existing research findings [36,[88][89][90] and is also backed up by the Feelings-as-information theory [37]. In addition, the results showed that change in positive and negative affects play a complete mediating role between change in social effort-reward imbalance and change in life satisfaction, meaning the change in social effort-reward imbalance affects change in life satisfaction through change in positive and negative affect. ...
Article
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Improving life satisfaction is consistent with the United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals. Although there are many studies examining life satisfaction, research on the influencing mechanisms remains a hot topic and scholars hope to explore more aspects that improve life satisfaction. The purpose was to explore how the relationship between social effort-reward imbalance and life satisfaction are mediated by positive and negative affect. We collected longitudinal data from 909 respondents participating in the 2008 and 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We used the first-order difference method and structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis to evaluate the validity of the proposed hypotheses. Our results demonstrated that social effort-reward imbalance was positively related to negative affect, and negatively related to positive affect. Positive affect was positively related to life satisfaction, while negative affect was negatively related to life satisfaction. The findings also indicated that positive and negative affect completely mediated the relationship between social effort-reward imbalance and life satisfaction. This study has made a contribution to the research on the influencing mechanism of life satisfaction from the aspects of theory and practice. Longitudinal data ensured that the conclusions were more reliable so that the study could provide useful suggestions for improving life satisfaction.
... Interestingly, these elements of subjective well-being are in fact interrelated to some extent, in the sense that affect appears to have an influence on subjective evaluations of life satisfaction, but this effect is relatively small [20]. ...
Article
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Medicine in the 21st century needs to be patient-or, rather, person-centered. Accordingly, medical education needs to adopt an authentic student-centered stance and also include an emphasis on wellbeing and quality of life-starting in medical students` university years. Studies on eudaimonic and hedonic aspects of wellbeing in academic contexts might offer valuable insights for conceptualizing and implementing medical teaching. Our research aimed at exploring eudaimonic and hedonic orientations in students in their first years of medical and nursing studies, in relation to outcomes like satisfaction, subjective meaning experience and engagement with university studies. We also wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using a translated version of HEMA (Hedonic and Eudaimonc Motives for Action) Scale in our university students. 120 1st and 2nd year students of our university completed HEMA and questionnaires evaluating the above-mentioned outcomes, in one session. The instrument demonstrated good reliability (assessed by Cronbach`s alpha coefficients) and also captured valuable correlations with students satisfaction, subjective sense of meaning and engagement with their studies. Importantly, eudaimonic subscores were moderately but significantly correlated with Hedonic enjoyment ones, as previously reported. Exploratory Principal Component Analysis suggested two or three factors, but a larger group would be needed to confirm the factor structure of the Romanian version of the test. Conclusions: HEMA is applicable in this academic context, in Romanian, has good reliability and promises to offer valuable insights into students` orientations, helping us support their aspirations and shape our teaching so that they could benefit the most from it.
... Schwarz & Strack, 1999), despite the frequently observed circaseptan rhythm of mood (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003;Stone et al., 2012). Indeed, recent replications of contextual influences on SWB (e.g., weather effects; Lucas & Lawless, 2013;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2014) or, more generally, the effect of mood on SWB ratings (Jayawickreme et al., 2017;Yap et al., 2017) failed to establish pronounced transfer effects. Rather, SWB was largely unaffected by respondents' momentary mood. ...
Article
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In large-scale social surveys, respondents are typically interviewed on different days of the week. Because previous research established systematic daily fluctuations of people’s mood, it was hypothesized that subjective well-being ratings might be similarly affected by the day the interview takes place. Therefore, an individual-participant meta-analysis of 221 representative samples from the European Social Survey including 408,637 participants is presented. The random-effects meta-analysis found a negligible day of the week effect on life satisfaction and happiness ratings, even after accounting for selection and interviewer effects. Although significantly different ratings were observed on Sundays, the size of the obtained effects was trivial. These findings provide little evidence that the interview day has a meaningful impact on subjective well-being research in cross-sectional, large-scale studies.
... To minimize these effects, some scholars have promoted online measures or detailed assessments such as the DRM (Kahneman et al., 2004). However, recent studies suggest that mood and order effects have a minimal impact on self-reported global SWB (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017;Schimmack & Oishi, 2005;Yap et al., 2017). In addition, Tov (2012) showed that global SWB was predicted by the cumulative effects of events that were experienced over the past few weeks. ...
Chapter
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Subjective well-being (SWB) consists of affective components (frequent positive feelings, infrequent negative feelings) and cognitive components (evaluations of life and judgments of satisfaction). We review four commonly used measures of SWB: the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Cantril’s ladder, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (SPANE). We conducted a meta-analysis of the reliability and validity of each measure based on studies published from 1999 to 2019. The SWLS, PANAS, and SPANE generally exhibit acceptable levels of reliability (alphas > .80) across most samples, time frame instructions, and age groups. All measures were substantially correlated with each other. However, SWLS was more strongly correlated with SPANE-P than with PANAS-PA. We discuss key differences between the PANAS and SPANE and their implications for researchers. Finally, we discuss ongoing issues with commonly used SWB measures that should be addressed by future research.
... Schwarz & Strack, 1999), despite the frequently observed circaseptan rhythm of mood (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003;Stone et al., 2012). Indeed, recent replications of contextual influences on SWB (e.g., weather effects; Lucas & Lawless, 2013;Schmiedeberg & Schröder, 2014) or, more generally, the effect of mood on SWB ratings (Jayawickreme et al., 2017;Yap et al., 2017) failed to establish pronounced transfer effects. Rather, SWB was largely unaffected by respondents' momentary mood. ...
Article
This editorial briefly introduces the six articles included in the fifth “Hotspots in Psychology” of the Zeitschrift für Psychologie. The format is devoted to systematic reviews and meta-analyses in research-active fields that have generated a considerable number of primary studies. The common denominator of published papers is the application of research synthesis approaches and not a specific psychological topic or theme that all articles have to address. Moreover, methodological advances in research synthesis methods relevant to any subfield of psychology are being addressed. To foster the open science philosophy, all papers present comprehensive supplemental material via PsychArchives ( www.psycharchives.org ).
... Therefore, within-subjects designs are needed to capture this within-person variability (Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012). Additionally, considering that the associations found at the between-person level may not hold true at the within-person level (Jayawickreme et al., 2017), within-persons research is crucial for fully understanding the relations between situational work events and important outcomes within employees over time (Wright et al., 2004). ...
Article
Using a 12-week experience sampling design, this study examined the interaction between negative and positive events in predicting work engagement and burnout in a sample of nurses. Additionally, this study explored the moderating effect of affective occupational commitment as a moderator of work events and work engagement/burnout relation. Results indicated that positive and negative events, as well as their interactive effects significantly predicted both work engagement and burnout. In addition, occupational commitment moderated the association between negative events and burnout. Specifically, the association between negative events and burnout was stronger for nurses who reported high occupational commitment. Positive events did not interact with occupational commitment to predict work engagement or burnout. Similarly, occupational commitment did not moderate the link between negative events and work engagement. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Article
Personality psychologists are increasingly documenting dynamic, within‐person processes. Big data methodologies can augment this endeavour by allowing for the collection of naturalistic and personality‐relevant digital traces from online environments. Whereas big data methods have primarily been used to catalogue static personality dimensions, here we present a case study in how they can be used to track dynamic fluctuations in psychological states. We apply a text‐based, machine learning prediction model to Facebook status updates to compute weekly trajectories of emotional valence and arousal. We train this model on 2895 human‐annotated Facebook statuses and apply the resulting model to 303 575 Facebook statuses posted by 640 US Facebook users who had previously self‐reported their Big Five traits, yielding an average of 28 weekly estimates per user. We examine the correlations between model‐predicted emotion and self‐reported personality, providing a test of the robustness of these links when using weekly aggregated data, rather than momentary data as in prior work. We further present dynamic visualizations of weekly valence and arousal for every user, while making the final data set of 17 937 weeks openly available. We discuss the strengths and drawbacks of this method in the context of personality psychology's evolution into a dynamic science. © 2020 European Association of Personality Psychology
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Recent research has advocated for the value of conceptualizing post-traumatic growth as positive personality change. However, most research continues to use both methodologically suspect assessment tools and unsupported theoretical assumptions. How can personality psychologists contribute to the pursuit of high-quality research on this topic? The current special issue, which grew out of the European Association for Personality Psychology (EAPP) expert meeting on “Integrating Post-Traumatic Growth and Personality Change”, held at the University of Nottingham, on September 16–17, 2019, includes 15 papers that (1) examine short-term change in multiple personality constructs after adversity, (2) highlight the limitations of only assessing post-traumatic growth with retrospective questionnaires, and (3) provide theoretical and methodological recommendations for the continued advancement of the study of post-traumatic growth through the lens of personality psychology. While these papers all address specific ways to advance the personality science of post-traumatic growth, collectively they highlight the many unanswered questions that future research should tackle.
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Prior research has highlighted the possibility that current affect may be interchangeable with state assessments of other dimensions of subjective well-being. In the present study, we conducted a systematic replication and extension by examining the relationship between state assessments of affect and eudaimonic well-being (meaning, core self-evaluation, authenticity, and gratitude) in a 14-day diary assessment (N = 207 with 2,147 assessments). We utilized multi-level structural equation modeling (ML-SEM) with affect as a time-varying covariate and found that the impact of affect for these outcomes was less consequential than for assessments of state satisfaction, and that the impact of positive affect on these dimensions was stronger than that of negative affect.
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To what extent do our beliefs about how our well-being has improved over time correspond to observed changes? Participants (N = 1,247 from Qualtrics Panels) completed questionnaires measuring dispositional well-being and ill-being (depressive symptoms) at three time points over the course of one year, as well as 44 weekly assessments of state well-being and ill-being over 52 weeks. They additionally completed measures of perceived improvements in well-being and ill-being at Weeks 45 and 52 as well as a measure of broad personality traits. We estimated latent change scores and latent growth curves, which allowed us to obtain more accurate estimates of the convergence between retrospective improvements and veridical change compared to past methods utilized. Stability in both global and state well-being and ill-being were observed. People who agreed more strongly that their well-being had improved (or their ill-being had increased) tended to show greater increases in actual well-being (or ill-being) across the past year. Additionally, we observed meaningful relationships between personality traits and perceived improvements. On average, people have some insight in assessing whether they became happier (or unhappier) over one year.
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This study was designed to investigate the mediating and moderating roles of positive and negative affect on the relationship between perceived social support and life satisfaction among drug addicts in China. A sample of drug addicts (n = 513) were recruited from two compulsory detoxification units in Nanjing. Participants completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MPSS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Correlations analyses revealed that perceived social support was significantly associated with life satisfaction. Furthermore, mediation analysis indicated that both positive affect and negative affect partially mediated the influence of perceived social support on life satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis for testing moderating effect showed that only positive affect served as a moderator on the relationship between perceived social support and life satisfaction. These findings might provide a more comprehensive understanding of the overall mental health among drug addicts.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a social support program on the stress, anxiety, guilt, and life satisfaction levels among Korean mothers of children with precocious puberty. Design and methods: A non-equivalent control group and a non-synchronized design were used in this quasi-experiment study. Thirty-four mothers (divided into equal-sized experimental and control groups), 32-47 years of age, with children aged 6-11 years old, were recruited from a pediatric outpatient department at a national university hospital. The experimental group was involved in four sessions of a 4-week social support program. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic characteristics. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used to evaluate group differences. Results: The program significantly reduced mothers' stress and guilt and significantly increased their life satisfaction. No significant differences in changes in anxiety were reported between the groups. Conclusions: This study confirms that the social support program was a useful nursing intervention for Korean mothers of children with precocious puberty, which can be extensively applied to help mothers in similar situations. Practice implications: The preliminary study findings may inform healthcare professionals to develop effective interventions to promote psychosocial well-being of mothers of children with precocious puberty through strengthening their social support and to further improve the quality of life of children with precocious puberty and their families.
Chapter
Whole Trait Theory articulates a modern theory of individuals' traits, one that incorporates social-cognitive responsiveness to situations into the nature of traits themselves. It articulates two parts of individuals' traits, which are joined together into whole traits. One part of individuals' traits is the descriptive part, and describes how much people enact the trait content in their behavior. The other part is the explanatory part, and consists of social-cognitive, motivational, and biological mechanisms that cause the trait contents people enact in their behavior. Two decades of supportive research showed first that trait-content enactments are quite variable. People change the trait contents they enact from moment to moment as much as they change their affect from moment to moment and more than people differ from each other. Nonetheless, people differ in average trait-content enactments in very consistent and reliable ways. The density distribution expresses these joint findings in a unified way, standing as the descriptive side of personality. Second, these descriptive accounts of personality were found to be predicted by social-cognitive mechanisms. Within-person variations in trait-content enactments (states) were predictable from situation features in systematic and meaningful ways. Most of the variance—both within-person and between-person—in states was explained by momentary variation in goal pursuit. States were shown to be consequential (e.g., extraverted states cause positive affect). Goals were shown to cause states as well. People appear to change states in order to accomplish the consequences desired by current goals at the time. These findings highlight the functional role of personality traits.
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This study explored the factors deciding the expected number of children among university students in the early adulthood. Based on the theory of planned behavior, it focused on the effects of altruistic motivation of being parents, the number of children being perceived ideal in the society, and the levels of life satisfaction. The survey results based on the 362 students are as follows: first, the respondents answered that having 2.33 children on average is perceived as ideal. Second, when all other things are held constant, female students tended to expect less children compared with male counterparts. Additionally, the subjective levels of living status was negatively associated with the expected number of children. Third, while the levels of altruistic motivation of being parents and the ideal number of children were positively associated with the expected number of children, the levels of life satisfaction did not show significant relationship with it. Based on these findings, it suggested policy implications and directions for future research. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ▲주제어(Key words) : 기대자녀수(the expected number of children), 부모됨의 동기(motivation of being parents), 이상적 자녀수(the ideal number of children), 삶의 만족도(life satisfaction), 계획된 행동이론(theory of planned behavior)
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of mindfulness training on stress, mindfulness, and life satisfaction in accounting students. Eighty-eight students participated in a randomized control trial conducted at a Midwestern university comparing students who went through a mindfulness training program called Daata Meditation (DM) with students in a control group. A Split Plot ANOVA found that the students who went through mindfulness training showed reduced stress, increased mindfulness, and increased life satisfaction. A Process Model Regression Analysis (PMRA) further showed that these results are moderated partially by intensity of mindfulness practice. The results of this study indicate that mindfulness training can be a valuable tool in increasing accounting student success and as a potential solution to ameliorate the high levels of stress prevalent in accounting careers.
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Previous research suggests global assessments of cognitive well-being—life satisfaction—are relatively stable over time. Far fewer studies have examined the extent to which experiential measures of affective well-being—the moods/emotions people regularly experience—are stable, especially over extended periods of time. The present study used longitudinal data from a representative sample of Germans to investigate the long-term stability of different components of well-being. Participants provided global ratings of life satisfaction and affect, along with experiential measures of well-being up to 3 times over 2 years. Results indicated between one-third and one half of the variance in people’s daily affect was attributable to trait-like latent variables. Replicating meta-analytic findings, 50% of the variance in global measures of well-being was attributable to trait-like latent variables.
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Life satisfaction (LS) is prospectively associated with the occurrence of several major events in work and family life. Analyzing longitudinal data from three nationally representative panel studies (Ns between 2,321 and 18,692), the authors found that higher LS is associated with a higher likelihood of marriage and childbirth, and with a lower likelihood of marital separation, job loss, starting a new job, and relocating. These effects held even after controlling for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and the Big Five, and were highly consistent across the three samples. Discrete-time survival analyses indicated that for most of these events, temporary rather than stable mechanisms account for the prospective effect of LS. Together, these findings provide evidence that LS is an important predictor of major life outcomes.
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A non-arbitrary method for the identification and scale setting of latent variables in general structural equation modeling is introduced. This particular technique pro- vides identical model fit as traditional methods (e.g., the marker variable method), but it allows one to estimate the latent parameters in a nonarbitrary metric that re- flects the metric of the measured indicators. This technique, therefore, is particularly useful for mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses, where the means of the indicators and latent constructs are of key interest. By introducing this alternative method of identification and scale setting, researchers are provided with an addi- tional tool for conducting MACS analyses that provides a meaningful and non- arbitrary scale for the estimates of the latent variable parameters. Importantly, this tool can be used with single-group single-occasion models as well as with multi- ple-group models, multiple-occasion models, or both. In this brief note, a non-arbitrary method for identification and scale setting of la- tent variables in general structural equation modeling (SEM) and, more specifi- cally, with mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses, is introduced. In so doing, the two most common methods for identifying and scaling constructs are re- viewed and the strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed. For simplicity, demonstration focuses on the common SEM situation in which (a) constructs have multiple indicators, (b) most indicators load only on one construct (i.e., "simple structure"), and (c) each indicator has the same possible response scale (i.e., same range of possible outcomes). In other words, the discussion of identification and scale setting applies to rather unrestricted assumptions about the
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Published in: "Positive Psychology in Practice", chapter 39, edited by Alex Linley and Stephen Joseph, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken (NJ), 2004
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Two experiments examined the effects of answering a question about a specific component of life satisfaction on respondents' assessment of their overall satisfaction with life. The results suggest that the use of primed information in forming subsequent judgments is determined by Grice's conversational norms. In general, answering the specific question increases the accessibility of information relevant to that question. However, the effect that this has on the general judgment depends on the way in which the two questions are presented. When the two questions are merely placed in sequence without a conversational context, the answer to the subsequent general question is based in part on the primed specific information. As a result, the answer to the general question becomes similar to that for the specific question (i.e. assimilation). However, this does not occur when the two questions are placed in a communication context. Conversational rules dictate that communicators should be informative and should avoid redundancy in their answers. Therefore, when a specific and a general question are perceived as belonging to the same conversational context, the information on which the answer to the specific question was based is disregarded when answering the general one. This attenuates the assimilation effect. The conditions under which these different processes occur are identified and experimentally manipulated, and the implications of these findings for models of information use in judgment are discussed.
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Weather conditions have been shown to affect a broad range of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The current study examines whether these effects extend to life satisfaction judgments. We examine the association between daily weather conditions and life satisfaction in a representative sample of over 1 million Americans from all 50 states who were assessed (in a cross-sectional design) over a 5-year period. Most daily weather conditions were unrelated to life satisfaction judgments, and those effects that were significant reflect very small effects that were only detectable because of the extremely high power of these analyses. These results show that weather does not reliably affect judgments of life satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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The relative importance of emotions versus normative beliefs for life satisfaction judgments was compared among individualist and collectivist nations in 2 large sets of international data (in total, 61 nations, N = 62,446). Among nations, emotions and life satisfaction correlated significantly more strongly in more individualistic nations ( r = .52 in Study 1; r = .48 in Study 2). At the individual level, emotions were far superior predictors of life satisfaction to norms (social approval of life satisfaction) in individualist cultures, whereas norms and emotions were equally strong predictors of life satisfaction in collectivist cultures. The present findings have implications for future studies on cultural notions of well-being, the functional value of emotional experiences, and individual differences in life satisfaction profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated, in 2 experiments, whether judgments of happiness and satisfaction with one's life are influenced by mood at the time of judgment. In Exp I, moods were induced by asking 61 undergraduates for vivid descriptions of a recent happy or sad event in their lives. In Exp II, moods were induced by interviewing 84 participants on sunny or rainy days. In both experiments, Ss reported more happiness and satisfaction with their life as a whole when in a good mood than when in a bad mood. However, the negative impact of bad moods was eliminated when Ss were induced to attribute their present feelings to transient external sources irrelevant to the evaluation of their lives; but Ss who were in a good mood were not affected by misattribution manipulations. The data suggest that (a) people use their momentary affective states in making judgments of how happy and satisfied they are with their lives in general and (b) people in unpleasant affective states are more likely to search for and use information to explain their state than are people in pleasant affective states. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Subjective well-being (SWB) has two components: affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB). The present study demonstrated that AWB and CWB have are influenced by different factors in a nationally representative sample in Germany (N=1053). Neuroticism was a stronger predictor of AWB than CWB. Unemployment and regional differences between the East and West of Germany were stronger predictors of CWB than AWB. In addition, the study demonstrated that shared evaluative biases in personality and SWB ratings inflate estimates of the effect size of personality. After controlling for this bias, the effects of environmental factors (unemployment, regional differences) on CWB were stronger than the effects of personality (neuroticism). The results demonstrate that AWB and CWB are distinct components of SWB and that research findings for one component may not generalize to the other component. The results also raise important questions about the weighing of the two components in the creation of subjective social indicators.
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Measures of well-being were created to assess psychological flourishing and feelings—positive feelings, negative feelings, and the difference between the two. The scales were evaluated in a sample of 689 college students from six locations. The Flourishing Scale is a brief 8-item summary measure of the respondent’s self-perceived success in important areas such as relationships, self-esteem, purpose, and optimism. The scale provides a single psychological well-being score. The measure has good psychometric properties, and is strongly associated with other psychological well-being scales. The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience produces a score for positive feelings (6 items), a score for negative feelings (6 items), and the two can be combined to create a balance score. This 12-item brief scale has a number of desirable features compared to earlier measures of positive and negative emotions. In particular, the scale assesses with a few items a broad range of negative and positive experiences and feelings, not just those of a certain type, and is based on the amount of time the feelings were experienced during the past 4weeks. The scale converges well with measures of emotions and affective well-being. KeywordsSubjective well-being-Well-being-Measure-Positive affect-Negative affect-Scales (or Assessment)
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A meta-analysis of published studies that reported correlations between self-ratings and informant ratings of well-being (life-satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, negative affect) was performed. The average self-informant correlation based on 44 independent samples and 81 correlations for a total of 8,897 participants was r=0.42 [99% credibility interval=0.39|0.45]. Statistically reliable moderators of agreement were construct (life-satisfaction=happiness>positive affect>negative affect), age of the target participant (older>younger), number of informants (multiple>single), and number of items in the measure (multiple>single). The implications for the validity of self-ratings of well-being as indicators of well-being are discussed.
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Many experts now recognize that income is not a measure that alone captures the wellbeing of individuals, and governments around the world are starting to rethink the ways in which they measure the welfare of their citizens. Wellbeing is best understood as a multifaceted phenomenon that can be assessed by measuring a wide array of subjective and objective constructs. This review summarizes the state of research on the various domains of wellbeing measured by psychologists and social scientists, and provides an overview of the main theoretical perspectives that integrate these domains. Among these theoretical perspectives, we highlight Well-being Theory, which decomposes the wellbeing construct into five domains: Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment (PERMA). We conclude by formulating recommendations for future research on the measurement of wellbeing. These recommendations include the need to combine both objective and subjective indicators, and the use of a dashboard approach to measurement. This approach conveys the multifaceted nature of wellbeing and will help policy-makers and citizens understand which domains of wellbeing should constitute priorities for public policy.
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The predictive validity of personality for important life outcomes is well established, but conventional longitudinal analyses cannot rule out the possibility that unmeasured third-variable confounds fully account for the observed relationships. Longitudinal hierarchical linear models (HLM) with time-varying covariates allow each subject to serve as his or her own control, thus eliminating between-individual confounds. HLM also allows the directionality of the causal relationship to be tested by reversing time-lagged predictor and outcome variables. We illustrate these techniques through a series of models that demonstrate that within-individual changes in self-control over time predict subsequent changes in GPA but not vice-versa. The evidence supporting a causal role for self-control was not moderated by IQ, gender, ethnicity, or income. Further analyses rule out one time-varying confound: self-esteem. The analytic approach taken in this study provides the strongest evidence to date for the causal role of self-control in determining achievement.
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What is progress, and how should we measure the well-being of a population? The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has held two major conferences on the subject, and last year, President Sarkozy of France established a distinguished commission to report on the same questions ( 1 ). This major debate reflects the fact that higher national income has not brought the better quality of life that many expected, and surveys in the United States show no increase in happiness over the past 60 years. These surveys rely on questions about subjective well-being, and it is reasonable to ask how reliable survey answers are as measures of the quality of life as people experience it. On page 576 of this issue ( 2 ), Oswald and Wu carry out an interesting test of this. First they measure subjective well-being in each U.S. state, and then compare it with the average objectively measured wage in the same U.S. state (both variables being controlled for personal factors). The negative correlation of the two variables is remarkably high—as it should be if higher wages are compensating for a lower experienced quality of life (and vice versa). The study will likely stimulate some lively debate across many disciplines, including scientists, economists, sociologists, psychologists, and policy-makers.
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In this new edition of his landmark book, Richard Layard shows that there is a paradox at the heart of our lives. Most people want more income. Yet as societies become richer, they do not become happier. This is not just anecdotally true, it is the story told by countless pieces of scientific research. We now have sophisticated ways of measuring how happy people are, and all the evidence shows that on average people have grown no happier in the last fifty years, even as average incomes have more than doubled. In fact, the First World has more depression, more alcoholism and more crime than fifty years ago. This paradox is true of Britain, the United States, continental Europe, and Japan. What is going on? Now fully revised and updated to include developments since first publication, Layard answers his critics in what is still the key book in 'happiness studies'.
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Is happiness good for your health? This common notion is tested in a synthetic analysis of 30 follow-up studies on happiness and longevity. It appears that happiness does not predict longevity in sick populations, but that it does predict longevity among healthy populations. So, happiness does not cure illness but it does protect against becoming ill. The effect of happiness on longevity in healthy populations is remarkably strong. The size of the effect is comparable to that of smoking or not. If so, public health can also be promoted by policies that aim at greater happiness of a greater number. That can be done by strengthening individual life-abilities and by improving the livability of the social environment. Some policies are proposed. Both ways of promoting health through happiness require more research on conditions for happiness.
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Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks--gratitude, interest, love, and so forth--fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping.
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The belief that high income is associated with good mood is widespread but mostly illusory. People with above-average income are relatively satisfied with their lives but are barely happier than others in moment-to-moment experience, tend to be more tense, and do not spend more time in particularly enjoyable activities. Moreover, the effect of income on life satisfaction seems to be transient. We argue that people exaggerate the contribution of income to happiness because they focus, in part, on conventional achievements when evaluating their life or the lives of others.
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Life satisfaction judgments are thought to represent an overall evaluation of the quality of a person's life as a whole. Thus, they should reflect relatively important and stable characteristics of that person's life. Previous highly cited research has suggested that transient factors, such as the mood that a person experiences at the time that well-being judgments are made, can influence these judgments. However, most existing studies used small sample sizes, and few replications have been attempted. Nine direct and conceptual replications of past studies testing the effects of mood on life satisfaction judgments were conducted using sample sizes that were considerably larger than previous studies (Ns = 202, 200, 269, 118, 320, 401, 285, 129, 122). Most of the 9 studies resulted in nonsignificant effects on life satisfaction and happiness judgments, and those that were significant were substantially smaller than effects found in previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Social cognition research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are based on a selected set of relevant information that is accessible at the time of the life-satisfaction judgment. Personality research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are quite stable over extended periods of time and predicted by personality traits. The present article integrates these two research traditions. We propose that people rely on the same sources to form repeated life-satisfaction judgments over time. Some of these sources (e.g., memories of emotional experiences, academic performance) provide stable information that explains the stability in life-satisfaction judgments. Second, we propose that the influence of personality traits on life satisfaction is mediated by the use of chronically accessible sources because traits produce stability of these sources. Most important, the influence of extraversion and neuroticism is mediated by use of memories of past emotional experiences. To test this model, participants repeatedly judged life-satisfaction over the course of a semester. After each assessment, participants reported sources that they used for these judgments. Changes in reported sources were related to changes in life-satisfaction judgments. A path model demonstrated that chronically accessible and stable sources are related to stable individual differences in life-satisfaction. Furthermore, the model supported the hypothesis that personality effects were mediated by chronically accessible and stable sources. In sum, the results are consistent with our theory that life-satisfaction judgments are based on chronically accessible sources.
Book
Positive psychology exploded into public consciousness ten years ago and has continued to capture attention around the world ever since. The movement promised to study positive human nature, using only the most rigorous scientific tools and theories. How well has this promise been fulfilled? This book evaluates the first decade of this fledgling field of study from the perspective of nearly every leading researcher in the field. Scholars in the areas of social, personality, clinical, biological, emotional, and applied psychology take stock of their fields, while bearing in mind the original manifesto and goals of the positive psychology movement. Chapters provide honest, critical evaluations of the flaws and untapped potential of these various fields of study. The chapters design the optimal future of positive psychology by addressing gaps, biases, and methodological limitations, and exploring exciting new questions.
Article
Objective: Subjective well-being (SWB; Diener, 1984) comprises three primary components: Life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). Multiple competing conceptualizations of the tripartite structure of SWB have been employed, resulting in wide spread ambiguity concerning the definition, operationalization, analysis, and synthesis of SWB-related findings (Busseri & Sadava, 2011). We report two studies evaluating two predominant structural models (as recently identified by Busseri, in press): a hierarchical model comprising a higher-order latent SWB factor with LS, PA, and NA as indicators; and a causal systems model specifying unidirectional effects of PA and NA on LS. Method: A longitudinal study (N = 452; M age = 18.54, 76.5% female) and a lab-based experiment (N = 195; M age = 20.42 years, 87.6% were female; 81.5% Caucasian) were undertaken. Structural models were evaluated with respect to (i) associations among SWB components across time (three months, three years in Study 1; one week in Study 2) and (ii) the impact of manipulating the individual SWB components (Study 2). Results: A hierarchical structural model was supported in both studies; conflicting evidence was found for the causal systems model. Conclusion: A hierarchical model provides a robust conceptualization for the tripartite structure of SWB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
The Tanner Lectures are a collection of educational and scientific discussions relating to human values. Conducted by leaders in their fields, the lectures are presented at prestigious educational facilities around the world.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
Objective Diener (1984) introduced the concept of ‘subjective well-being’ (SWB) as comprising three primary components: Life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). Busseri and Sadava (2011) identified multiple competing conceptualizations of the tripartite structure of SWB and delineated problems with this ambiguity with respect to defining, operationalizing, analyzing, and synthesizing information concerning SWB. The present work provides an empirical evaluation of four competing structural approaches in which SWB is conceptualized variously as three separate components (Model 1), a hierarchical construct (Model 2), a causal system (Model 3), and a composite (Model 4).Method Data from a longitudinal study of middle-aged Americans (n = 3707; 20 to 75 years old, 55% female, 94% Caucasian) were used to examine the relatedness versus independence of the three SWB components within and across time, and predictive effects on SWB.Results/Conclusion The various structural models differ in how adequately they accommodate the joint relatedness/independence of the SWB components and lead to different conclusions concerning predictive effects on SWB. Conceptual and empirical considerations are considered within and across models. Implications and next steps for further understanding the tripartite structure of SWB are discussed.
Article
The study of well-being is hampered by the multiplicity of approaches, but focusing on a single approach begs the question of what “well-being” really is. We analyze how well-being is defined according to the three main kinds of theories: “Liking” approaches (generally adopted by psychologists), “Wanting” approaches (predominant among economists), and “Needing” approaches (used in both public policy and psychology). We propose an integrative framework, the engine model of well-being, drawing on Seligman (Seligman, M. E. P., 2011, Flourish. New York, NY: The Free Press) and Sen's (Sen, A. K., 1999, Development as freedom. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press) emphasis on the plurality of this construct by distinguishing among (a) inputs (resources that enable well-being), (b) processes (internal states of mechanisms influencing well-being), and (c) outcomes (the intrinsically valuable behaviors that reflect the attainment of well-being). We discuss implications for research, measurement, and interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies on the impact of temporary moods on judgments of satisfaction with life in general and with specific life-domains are reported. It was hypothesized that individuals simplify the complex task of evaluating their life in general by referring to their mood at the time of judgment, but evaluate specific life-domains on the basis of domain-specific information. In accordance with this hypothesis, both studies demonstrated strong mood effects on judgments of general life-satisfaction but only weak and non-significant effects on judgments of specific domain-satisfactions. The findings are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that affective states serve informative functions.
Article
Judgmental and conversational processes underlying context effects in attitude surveys are explored. Most importantly, preceding questions may influence the interpretation of subsequent ones, and may determine which information respondents consider in making an attitude judgment. The conditions that moderate the emergence of assimilation and contrast effects are specified, and theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Article
Scales with varying degrees of measurement reliability are often used in the context of multistage sampling, where variance exists at multiple levels of analysis (e.g., individual and group). Because methodological guidance on assessing and reporting reliability at multiple levels of analysis is currently lacking, we discuss the importance of examining level-specific reliability. We present a simulation study and an applied example showing different methods for estimating multilevel reliability using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and provide supporting Mplus program code. We conclude that (a) single-level estimates will not reflect a scale's actual reliability unless reliability is identical at each level of analysis, (b) 2-level alpha and composite reliability (omega) perform relatively well in most settings, (c) estimates of maximal reliability (H) were more biased when estimated using multilevel data than either alpha or omega, and (d) small cluster size can lead to overestimates of reliability at the between level of analysis. We also show that Monte Carlo confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals closely reflect the sampling distribution of reliability estimates under most conditions. We discuss the estimation of credible intervals using Mplus and provide R code for computing Monte Carlo confidence intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
We examined whether the empirical differences between affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) might be due to (a) the use of different time frames in measures of AWB and CWB or (b) structural differences. In Study 1, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis indicated that levels of different components are more similar but do not converge completely when the same time frame is used. In Study 2, we found that people are more likely to consider global life circumstances (as opposed to specific events and activities) when they evaluate their CWB, regardless of the specific time frame. In both studies, the time frame did not moderate the associations between AWB and CWB and important correlates (personality, life circumstances).
Article
Measurement invariance is usually tested using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which examines the change in the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) when cross-group constraints are imposed on a measurement model. Although many studies have examined the properties of GFI as indicators of overall model fit for single-group data, there have been none to date that examine how GFIs change when between-group constraints are added to a measurement model. The lack of a consensus about what constitutes significant GFI differences places limits on measurement invariance testing. We examine 20 GFIs based on the minimum fit function. A simulation under the two-group situation was used to examine changes in the GFIs (ΔGFIs) when invariance constraints were added. Based on the results, we recommend using Δcomparative fit index, ΔGamma hat, and ΔMcDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluate measurement invariance. These three ΔGFIs are independent of both model complexity and sample size, and are not correlated with the overall fit measures. We propose critical values of these ΔGFIs that indicate measurement invariance.
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The purpose of this chapter is to guide the use of analytic models for studying the processes underlying personality variables. It is important that personality psychologists have available powerful and widely understood methods for studying processes, for at least three reasons. First, interest in process has always been strong among personality psychologists, but has grown recently as personality psychologists become increasingly interested not only in what personality is but also in how it works. Second, such advancement in understanding process is the hallmark of a mature science and reflects the field's growing self-confidence. Finally, advancement in describing processes will reveal the potential for personality change as well as promising opportunities to effect such change. Meeting this growing interest in studying processes have been assessment, computing, and conceptual advances that make studying processes more practical. This chapter provides initial guidance in implementing these advances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Subjective well-being, or what is popularly often called “happiness,” has been of intense interest throughout human history. We review research showing that it is not a single factor, but that subjective well-being is composed of a number of separable although somewhat related variables. For example, positive feelings, negative feelings, and life satisfaction are clearly separable. In understanding the various types of subjective well-being, it is important to remember that appraisals move from immediate situations to a later recall of feelings, and then to global evaluations of life. At each stage, from momentary feelings to large global life eval-uations, somewhat different processes are involved in what is called “happiness.” In order to understand how to measure subjective well-being, one must understand the time course and components of the phenomenon in question, and be clear about what is most important to assess. On-line feelings are very different from global evaluations of life, although both have been studied under the rubric of subjective well-being. Although debate has focused on which type of subjective well-being should be called “true happiness,” the goal of scientists is to understand each type, their relations with each other, and their causes. The future of the field depends on understanding the differences between various types of well-being, and the different and similar causes of each.
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Most research methodology in the behavioral sciences employs interindividual analyses, which provide information about the state of affairs of the population. However, as shown by classical mathematical-statistical theorems (the ergodic theorems), such analyses do not provide information for, and cannot be applied at, the level of the individual, except on rare occasions when the processes of interest meet certain stringent conditions. When psychological processes violate these conditions, the interindividual analyses that are now standardly applied have to be replaced by analysis of intraindividual variation in order to obtain valid results. Two illustrations involving analysis of intraindividual variation of personality and emotional processes are given.
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Seven types of evidence are reviewed that indicate that high subjective well-being (such as life satisfaction, absence of negative emotions, optimism, and positive emotions) causes better health and longevity. For example, prospective longitudinal studies of normal populations provide evidence that various types of subjective well-being such as positive affect predict health and longevity, controlling for health and socioeconomic status at baseline. Combined with experimental human and animal research, as well as naturalistic studies of changes of subjective well-being and physiological processes over time, the case that subjective well-being influences health and longevity in healthy populations is compelling. However, the claim that subjective well-being lengthens the lives of those with certain diseases such as cancer remains controversial. Positive feelings predict longevity and health beyond negative feelings. However, intensely aroused or manic positive affect may be detrimental to health. Issues such as causality, effect size, types of subjective well-being, and statistical controls are discussed.
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Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of quality oflife. SWB can be conceptualized as a momentary state (e.g., mood) aswell as a relatively stable trait (e.g., life satisfaction). Thevalidity of self-reported trait aspects of SWB has been questioned byexperimental studies showing that SWB judgments seem to be stronglycontext dependent. Particularly, momentary mood seems to have a stronginfluence on global SWB judgments. To explore the ecological validity ofthese conclusions a non-experimental longitudinal self-reportstudy with three occasions of measurement was conducted(N = 249). The associations between momentarymood ratings and global judgments of SWB (life satisfaction,satisfaction with life domains, frequency and intensity of emotions) aswell as personality ratings (self-esteem, optimism, neuroticism,extraversion) were analyzed in a multistate-multitrait-multiconstructmodel. This model takes (a) measurement error, (b) occasion-specificdeviations, and (c) stable interindividual differences into account. Itis shown that the variability in global SWB judgments and personalityratings is relatively small and much smaller than the variability inmood. Furthermore, the occasion-specific associations between moodstates, on the one hand, and global SWB and personality ratings, on theother hand, are relatively small and inconsistent. All global SWB andpersonality variables are more strongly related to mood on the traitlevel than on the occasion-specific deviation level. Therefore, incontrast to experimental studies, occasion-specific mood effects do notseem to be inherently important in ecological measurement settings.
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We examined the extent to which satisfaction with life, with one’s self, and with one’s day are predicted by pleasure, purpose in life, interest, and mood. In a sample of 222 college students we found that both satisfaction with life and self-esteem were best predicted by positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings, as well as purpose in life. By contrast, satisfaction with individual days was predicted by negative feelings, and very strongly predicted by positive feelings, but not by purpose in life. In predicting life satisfaction purpose in life provided a buffering effect for lower levels of mood. People high in purpose in life reported high levels of life satisfaction even with moderate levels of mood. Thus, what makes a satisfying day is different from what makes a satisfying life or self. Life and self satisfaction were predicted significantly by purpose in life even after controlling for physical pleasure and affect balance, suggesting that they are more than just hedonic variables. KeywordsDaily satisfaction–Life satisfaction–Purpose–Feelings–Self-esteem
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Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises a global evaluation of life satisfaction and positive and negative affective reactions to one's life. Despite the apparent simplicity of this tripartite model, the structure of SWB remains in question. In the present review, the authors identify five prominent structural conceptualizations in which SWB is cast variously as three separate components, a hierarchical construct, a causal system, a composite, and as configurations of components. Supporting evidence for each of these models is reviewed, strengths and weaknesses are evaluated, and commonalities and discrepancies among approaches are described. The authors demonstrate how current ambiguities concerning the tripartite structure of SWB have fundamental implications for conceptualization, measurement, analysis, and synthesis. Given these ambiguities, it is premature to propose a definitive structure of SWB. Rather, the authors outline a research agenda comprising both short-term and longer-term steps toward resolving these foundational, yet largely unaddressed, issues concerning SWB.
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The Gallup World Poll, the first representative sample of planet Earth, was used to explore the reasons why happiness is associated with higher income, including the meeting of basic needs, fulfillment of psychological needs, increasing satisfaction with one's standard of living, and public goods. Across the globe, the association of log income with subjective well-being was linear but convex with raw income, indicating the declining marginal effects of income on subjective well-being. Income was a moderately strong predictor of life evaluation but a much weaker predictor of positive and negative feelings. Possessing luxury conveniences and satisfaction with standard of living were also strong predictors of life evaluation. Although the meeting of basic and psychological needs mediated the effects of income on life evaluation to some degree, the strongest mediation was provided by standard of living and ownership of conveniences. In contrast, feelings were most associated with the fulfillment of psychological needs: learning, autonomy, using one's skills, respect, and the ability to count on others in an emergency. Thus, two separate types of prosperity-economic and social psychological-best predict different types of well-being.
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Social cognition research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are based on a selected set of relevant information that is accessible at the time of the life-satisfaction judgment. Personality research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are quite stable over extended periods of time and predicted by personality traits. The present article integrates these two research traditions. We propose that people rely on the same sources to form repeated life-satisfaction judgments over time. Some of these sources (e.g., memories of emotional experiences, academic performance) provide stable information that explains the stability in life-satisfaction judgments. Second, we propose that the influence of personality traits on life satisfaction is mediated by the use of chronically accessible sources because traits produce stability of these sources. Most important, the influence of extraversion and neuroticism is mediated by use of memories of past emotional experiences. To test this model, participants repeatedly judged life-satisfaction over the course of a semester. After each assessment, participants reported sources that they used for these judgments. Changes in reported sources were related to changes in life-satisfaction judgments. A path model demonstrated that chronically accessible and stable sources are related to stable individual differences in life-satisfaction. Furthermore, the model supported the hypothesis that personality effects were mediated by chronically accessible and stable sources. In sum, the results are consistent with our theory that life-satisfaction judgments are based on chronically accessible sources.
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This study examined how the frequency of positive and negative emotions is related to life satisfaction across nations. Participants were 8,557 people from 46 countries who reported on their life satisfaction and frequency of positive and negative emotions. Multilevel analyses showed that across nations, the experience of positive emotions was more strongly related to life satisfaction than the absence of negative emotions. Yet, the cultural dimensions of individualism and survival/self-expression moderated these relationships. Negative emotional experiences were more negatively related to life satisfaction in individualistic than in collectivistic nations, and positive emotional experiences had a larger positive relationship with life satisfaction in nations that stress self-expression than in nations that value survival. These findings show how emotional aspects of the good life vary with national culture and how this depends on the values that characterize one's society. Although to some degree, positive and negative emotions might be universally viewed as desirable and undesirable, respectively, there appear to be clear cultural differences in how relevant such emotional experiences are to quality of life.
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Psychologists and sociologists usually interpret happiness scores as cardinal and comparable across respondents, and thus run OLS regressions on happiness and changes in happiness. Economists usually assume only ordinality and have mainly used ordered latent response models, thereby not taking satisfactory account of fixed individual traits. We address this problem by developing a conditional estimator for the fixed-effect ordered logit model. We find that assuming ordinality or cardinality of happiness scores makes little difference, whilst allowing for fixed-effects does change results substantially. We call for more research into the determinants of the personality traits making up these fixed-effects. Copyright 2004 Royal Economic Society.
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The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the relationship between values (understood as principles guiding behaviour), choices and their final outcomes in terms of life satisfaction, and use data from the BHPS to assess whether our ideas on what is important in life (individual values) are broadly connected to what we experience as important in our lives (life satisfaction).