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Infusing Thinking-Based Learning in Twenty-First-Century Classroom: The Role of Training Programme to Enhance Teachers’ Skilful Thinking Skills

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The education stakeholders of the twenty-first century stress on the importance of thinking-based learning (TBL) where instructors are not only teaching students’ critical and creative thinking (CCT) but also teaching them strategically and visually how to use the forms of skilful thinking techniques in the content of learning. TBL highly emphasizes on the types of thinking techniques that directly lead students to obtain higher order thinking skills. To meet the challenges of the twenty-first century, current classroom pedagogy should infuse TBL techniques into their content of learning. Academics should also conduct uncompromising TBL professional development trainings for teachers on how to apply TBL techniques in their teaching, since (a) the improvement of students occurs with the empowerment of teachers’ abilities, (b) the majority of classroom instructors lack of adequate TBL skills, and (c) they find it difficult to identify where to apply the techniques in curriculum. This study aims to review TBL-related theories, applications, and practices in teaching and learning, emphasizing on the importance of TBL professional trainings to boost skilful thinking skills in school learning activities. Achieving these skills empowers teachers to infuse TBL into classroom activities and consequently enhance students’ skilful thinking skills across the globe.

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... Thinking-based learning (TBL) is a method of teaching and learning where the teaching of a specific thinking skill is infused into the teaching of content or subject matter [18]. The infusion method is highly effective in not only facilitating the process of acquiring new knowledge but at the same time fostering the development or enhancement of thinking skills [19]. TBL provides step-by-step procedures or routines, and guiding rules by which a type of thinking can be carried out with a high degree of efficiency and effectiveness. ...
... This study has successfully developed a TBL module for Algebraic Expression topic for Form one (13 -year old) Malaysian secondary school level with a satisfactory validity and reliability indices. This study could be contributed to assertions [19], [20], [32], and [34] that to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century, current classroom pedagogy should infuse TBL. Theinstructors nowadays are not only teaching students' critical and creative thinking but also teaching them strategically and visually how to use the forms of skillful thinking techniques in the content of learning. ...
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This paper was written as part of a project funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The authors thank the foundation for its help, acknowledging that the ideas expressed here do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of supporting agencies. Correspondence may be sent to: Shari Tishman, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 219 Longfellow Hall, Appian Way, Cambridge, MA 02138 In Press: Theory Into Practice Teaching Thinking Dispositions: From Transmission to Enculturation
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