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Trait mindfulness at work: A meta-analysis of the personal and professional correlates of trait mindfulness

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Abstract

Popular and academic press alike have concluded that mindfulness significantly benefits healthy individuals as well as those suffering from physical and psychological problems. Workplace interventions, clinical therapies, and popular self-help programs aimed at enhancing mindfulness abound, and research has demonstrated the efficacy of such mindfulness interventions in enhancing mindful states. It is of importance to note that research also suggests the average frequency with which individuals experience states of mindfulness varies from person to person, underscoring the existence of a dispositional tendency toward mindfulness—trait mindfulness. We meta-analytically cumulate the results of 270 independent studies (N = 58,592 adults from nonclinical samples) of trait mindfulness in order to explore its personal and professional correlates. Results suggest the benefits of trait mindfulness extend to both personal and professional domains. With regards to personal benefits, trait mindfulness was found to be positively correlated with confidence (ρ = .39), mental health (ρ = .38), emotional regulation (ρ = .40), and life satisfaction (ρ = .36), and negatively correlated with perceived life stress (ρ = –.43), negative emotions (ρ = –.40), anxiety (ρ = –.34), and depression (ρ = –.38). Professionally, results suggest trait mindfulness may benefit job satisfaction (ρ = .29), performance (ρ = .34), and interpersonal relations (ρ = .31), while also reducing burnout (ρ = –.48) and work withdrawal (ρ = –.17). Meta-analytic regressions also suggest trait mindfulness adds incremental predictive variance over more traditional predictors of employee burnout and work performance.

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... Depuis plusieurs années, certaines études ont démontré que la mindfulness pouvait être une ressource permettant ainsi de réduire le burnout des employés (Cohen-Katz & al., 2005;Hülsheger & al., 2013;Taylor & Millear, 2016). Pour les personnes confrontées régulièrement à des situations difficiles au travail, un degré élevé en mindfulness leur permettrait de faire une évaluation « décentrée » afin de réduire les interprétations négatives et les réponses automatiques (Mesmer-Magnus & al., 2017). Cette évaluation engendrerait des réactions appropriées sur leur situation de travail (Hülsheger & al., 2013). ...
... Lorsque la mindfulness est associée à des affects positifs, elle est liée à la diminution de la détresse psychologique (Mandal & al., 2012). La mindfulness permettrait aux individus d'avoir moins de ruminations sur les incidents négatifs ou de moins s'inquiéter sur de futurs échecs diminuant ainsi les perceptions de stress (Mesmer-Magnus & al., 2017). ...
... Le protocole n'a pas permis ce résultat mais plutôt, de mieux apprendre à les accepter et à les réguler. En effet, plusieurs études ont mis en évidence des associations entre la mindfulness et la régulation des émotions Brown & Ryan, 2003;Glomb & al., 2011;Goldin & Gross, 2010;Hülsheger & al., 2013;Mesmer-Magnus & al., 2017;Tomlinson & al., 2018). Dans une future recherche, il serait intéressant de mesurer la régulation des émotions au moyen de l'échelle de DERS (Gratz & Roemer, 2004). ...
Thesis
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Au cours des vingt dernières années, le concept de mindfulness a été largement investigué dans les recherches scientifiques. De multiples définitions de la mindfulness émanent des études publiées. L’une d’entre elles a particulièrement retenue notre attention, il s’agit de celle de Brown & Ryan (2003). Ces auteurs définissent la mindfulness comme une disposition à être attentif et conscient de ce qui se déroule dans le moment présent. Pour ces auteurs, la mindfulness est une capacité innée ou une ressource psychologique qu’il est possible de développer (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Brown, & Ryan, 2004; Weinstein & al., 2009). Même si quelques études ont établi un lien entre mindfulness et différentes variables liées au travail comme la performance, l’équilibre de vie professionnelle et personnelle ou encore le burnout, trop peu d’études sont menées pour étudier ces effets dans le milieu professionnel (Hülsheger & al., 2013). Cette thèse a pour ambition de répondre à ce constat en étudiant la mindfulness en lien avec la santé au travail. Nous avons souhaité mettre en évidence le rôle de la mindfulness comme une ressource psychologique potentielle pour les individus au travail pouvant leur permettre d’accroître leur bien-être professionnel et les protéger du burnout. Pour cela, nous avons mis en oeuvre quatre études (par questionnaire) permettant de répondre à cet objectif. En conclusion de ces études, les résultats permettent d’enrichir les connaissances, la compréhension du concept et de proposer des pistes d’actions pour élargir son utilisation.
... In addition to the role of trust in an organization, this research focuses on trait mindfulness of flight attendants as another factor that could help them cope with stressful situations. Trait mindfulness is considered a critical variable in the study because previous research has shown that it significantly promotes the psychological well-being of individuals (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Sala et al., 2020;Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara et al., 2020;Charoensukmongkol, 2019a). However, whether trait mindfulness can help flight attendants to cope with stress during a crisis remains unknown. ...
... The nonjudgmental assessment also enables individuals to decipher the situation they encounter more accurately, thereby preventing them from reacting impulsively to the situation (Charoensukmongkol and Pandey, 2021;Charoensukmongkol and Aumeboonsuke, 2017). In research, these characteristics of mindful individuals have been proposed as the reasons why possessing mindfulness promotes the psychological health of employees and helps them to cope effectively with stress (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Sala et al., 2020). ...
... Effect of mindfulness on perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the evidence from prior studies that have supported the benefits of trait mindfulness on stress reduction (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Sala et al., 2020;Charoensukmongkol, 2013Charoensukmongkol, , 2016Charoensukmongkol, , 2019b, it is expected that flight attendants who possess trait mindfulness are likely to experience lower levels of stress. From COR theory, trait mindfulness is regarded as a personal resource that supports their ability to deal with resource loss situations (Montani et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose This research adopts the conservation of resources (COR) theory to examine the effects of trust in organizations and trait mindfulness on optimism and perceived stress of flight attendants in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Online survey data were collected from 234 flight attendants who work for five low-cost airlines based in Thailand. The data were analyzed by using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings The results show that trust in an organization and trait mindfulness are negatively associated with the perceived stress of flight attendants. Their associations are also partially mediated by optimism. Moreover, the moderating effect analysis reveals that trait mindfulness intensifies the positive association between trust in organizations and optimism. Originality/value The evidence from this research broadens COR theory by showing that different aspects of resources can be combined to strengthen the ability of individuals to gain more resources to lessen stress.
... Reviews and meta-analytic syntheses have summarized relations between trait mindfulness and its relation to psychological and behavioral features (Keng et al., 2011;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Sala et al., 2019). As reviewed by Keng et al. (2011), trait mindfulness has been shown to correlate with a variety of aspects of psychological health, including increased subjective well-being, reduced psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and improved behavior regulation (Keng et al., 2011). ...
... As reviewed by Keng et al. (2011), trait mindfulness has been shown to correlate with a variety of aspects of psychological health, including increased subjective well-being, reduced psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and improved behavior regulation (Keng et al., 2011). According to a quantitative meta-analysis conducted on 270 independent studies (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), trait mindfulness correlates with confidence, mental health, emotional regulation, and life satisfaction; conversely, it correlates negatively with perceived life stress, negative emotions, anxiety, and depression. Within the professional domain, trait mindfulness was found to positively correlate with job satisfaction, performance, and interpersonal relations, while also being related to reduced burnout and work withdrawal (Mesmer--Magnus et al., 2017). ...
... According to a quantitative meta-analysis conducted on 270 independent studies (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), trait mindfulness correlates with confidence, mental health, emotional regulation, and life satisfaction; conversely, it correlates negatively with perceived life stress, negative emotions, anxiety, and depression. Within the professional domain, trait mindfulness was found to positively correlate with job satisfaction, performance, and interpersonal relations, while also being related to reduced burnout and work withdrawal (Mesmer--Magnus et al., 2017). Overall, these results suggest a broad spectrum of health-related benefits associated with trait mindfulness and an overall 'healthier' lifestyle. ...
Article
This review synthesizes relations between mindfulness and resting-state fMRI functional connectivity of brain networks. Mindfulness is characterized by present-moment awareness and experiential acceptance, and relies on attention control, self-awareness, and emotion regulation. We integrate studies of functional connectivity and (1) trait mindfulness and (2) mindfulness meditation interventions. Mindfulness is related to functional connectivity in the default mode (DMN), frontoparietal (FPN), and salience (SN) networks. Specifically, mindfulness-mediated functional connectivity changes include (1) increased connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex (DMN) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (FPN), which may relate to attention control; (2) decreased connectivity between cuneus and SN, which may relate to self-awareness; (3) increased connectivity between rostral anterior cingulate cortex region and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMN) and decreased connectivity between rostral anterior cingulate cortex region and amygdala region, both of which may relate to emotion regulation; and lastly, (4) increased connectivity between dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (SN) and anterior insula (SN) which may relate to pain relief. While further study of mindfulness is needed, neural signatures of mindfulness are emerging.
... Trait mindfulness research has identified several significant correlations of emotional balance and cognitive performance as they relate to overall psychological wellbeing [12]. In a meta-analytical study of trait mindfulness studies, Mesmer-Magnus et al. [18] found that overall psychological wellbeing, as well as a number of other indicators of psychological health, were positively correlated with trait mindfulness. Though the authors' primary focus was to gauge effects on occupational outcomes, other metacognitive factors affecting daily functioning, such as positive affect, psychological wellbeing, psychological flexibility, confidence, and general life-satisfaction, were also positively correlated with trait mindfulness. ...
... Trait mindfulness and other self-oriented mental health strategies, such as self-compassion, have been shown to directly mediate psychological health outcomes in mindfulness-based intervention programs [19]. Additionally, Mesmer-Magnus et al. [18] noted negative correlations between mindfulness and certain psychological experiences, such as perceived life stress, negative emotions, depression, and anxiety. This research supports a connection between mindfulness-based interventions and effective treatment of mood and anxiety disorders. ...
... Support for this hypothesis comes from the cognitive and emotional benefits of both positive self-talk and mindful practice. Positive affect has been shown to be predictive of mindfulness levels [18] and trait mindfulness has been tied to reductions in anxiety [10]. In a similar vein, self-talk has been shown to have a positive effect on self-confidence and to reduce performance anxiety [38]. ...
Article
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This research explores the relationships between trait mindfulness, self-compassion, self-talk frequency, and experience with mindful practice. We expected to find that positive self-talk would be positively related to mindfulness and self-compassion, and negative self-talk would be negatively related to these variables. Participants (N = 342) were recruited through a university research pool, as well as via social media posting. The participants completed two measures of trait mindfulness (the 15-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Trait Toronto Mindfulness Scale), two measures of self-talk (the Self-Talk Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire—Revised), and the Self-Compassion Scale short form. The results showed moderate positive correlations between (1) positive self-talk and trait mindfulness and (2) positive self-talk and self-compassion. A significant negative correlation also emerged between negative self-talk and trait mindfulness. Additional analyses indicated no moderating effects of mindfulness experience on self-talk or self-compassion in predicting trait mindfulness. We discuss implications for the significance of the relationship between self-talk and mindfulness for the effective implementation in future treatment methodologies.
... In meta-analysis conducted for an earlier study, trait mindfulness was found to be positively correlated with emotion regulation, mental health perceived life satisfaction, workplace functioning and professional outcome (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). In addition, mindfulness is correlated negatively with avoidance (Baer et al., 2004), rumination (Desrosiers et al., 2013), and daytime impairment (Black et al., 2015). ...
... Takagaki et al. (2013b) described avoidance as positively correlated with functional impairment in a behavioral activation model. Therefore, based on results of several earlier studies (Baer et al., 2004;Desrosiers et al., 2013;Takagaki et al., 2013b;Black et al., 2015;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), we hypothesized the following: trait mindfulness is negatively related to avoidance and impairment (Figure 1). Moreover, avoidance is positively correlated with impairment. ...
... However, there has been lack of evidence among five trait mindfulness, avoidance, and impairment in the behavioral activation model of depression. Although we hypothesized that trait mindfulness is negatively related to avoidance and impairment based on earlier studies (Baer et al., 2004;Desrosiers et al., 2013;Black et al., 2015;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), whether five trait mindfulness (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity) is related to avoidance and functional impairment has not yet been investigated in behavioral activation for depression (Figure 2). Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to assess the relation among five trait mindfulness, avoidance, and functional impairment in depression. ...
Book
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Table of Contents -Editorial: The Patient’s Change: Understanding the Complexity of the Dynamics of Change and Its Precursors in Psychotherapy Giulio de Felice, Melissa M. De Smet, Reitske Meganck and Guenter Schiepek -The Role of Entrapment in Crisis-Focused Psychotherapy Delivered in Psychiatric Emergency Settings: A Comparative Study Dana Tzur Bitan, Adi Otmazgin, Mirit Shani Sela and Aviv Segev -Love, Work, and Striving for the Self in Balance: Anaclitic and Introjective Patients’ Experiences of Change in Psychoanalysis Andrzej Werbart, Annelie Bergstedt and Sonja Levander -The Action of Verbal and Non-verbal Communication in the Therapeutic Alliance Construction: A Mixed Methods Approach to Assess the Initial Interactions With Depressed Patients Luca Del Giacco, M. Teresa Anguera and Silvia Salcuni -Roles of Trait Mindfulness in Behavioral Activation Mechanism for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Koki Takagaki, Masaya Ito, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Shun Nakajima and Masaru Horikoshi -What Differentiates Poor- and Good-Outcome Psychotherapy? A Statistical-Mechanics-Inspired Approach to Psychotherapy Research, Part Two: Network Analyses Giulio de Felice, Alessandro Giuliani, Omar C. G. Gelo, Erhard Mergenthaler, Melissa M. De Smet, Reitske Meganck, Giulia Paoloni, Silvia Andreassi, Guenter K. Schiepek, Andrea Scozzari and Franco F. Orsucci -A Mixed Methods Framework for Psychoanalytic Group Therapy: From Qualitative Records to a Quantitative Approach Using T-Pattern, Lag Sequential, and Polar Coordinate Analyses Eulàlia Arias-Pujol and M. Teresa Anguera -A Phase Transition of the Unconscious: Automated Text Analysis of Dreams in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Alessandro Gennaro, Sylvia Kipp, Kathrin Viol, Giulio de Felice, Silvia Andreassi, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Sergio Salvatore and Günter Schiepek -Convergent Validation of Methods for the Identification of Psychotherapeutic Phase Transitions in Time Series of Empirical and Model Systems Günter Schiepek, Helmut Schöller, Giulio de Felice, Sune Vork Steffensen, Marie Skaalum Bloch, Clemens Fartacek, Wolfgang Aichhorn and Kathrin Viol -Long-Term Effects of Home-Based Family Therapy for Non-responding Adolescents With Psychiatric Disorders. A 3-Year Follow-Up Egon Bachler, Benjamin Aas, Herbert Bachler, Kathrin Viol, Helmut Johannes Schöller, Marius Nickel and Günter Schiepek
... Mindfulness can offer significant advantages in the workplace such as enhancing individual performance and work resilience while also reducing absenteeism and turnover (Hyland et al., 2015). As the state-of-the-art stands, however, empirical evidence remains scarce (Good et al., 2016;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Consequently, we focus here on investigating the effects of dispositional mindfulness (referred to as mindfulness in the rest of the manuscript) as well as IT mindfulness on technostress and their negative consequences that arise within the workplace aiming to demonstrate their beneficial and protective role against technostress. ...
... We have addressed these calls by examining the role of mindfulness and IT mindfulness that can buffer the exposure of technostress and mitigate its negative consequences arising in the workplace. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that mindfulness can decrease general work related stress (Grover et al., 2016;Virgili, 2015;Zimmaro et al., 2016) and improve personal and professional outcomes (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Our findings showcase the detrimental role of technostress as a mediator (partially) between mindfulness varieties and professional outcomes while also highlight the (overall) beneficial influence of mindfulness and IT mindfulness. ...
... This indicates that while mindfulness can improve an individual's job satisfaction, IT mindfulness can increase an individual's satisfaction with the technology used for work related tasks (end user satisfaction) thus indirectly improving task performance. Our findings thus, add to the limited base of empirical research supporting the benefits of mindfulness and IT mindfulness in the workplace (Hülsheger et al., 2012;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Sun et al., 2016). ...
Article
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IT offers significant benefits both to individuals and organisations, such as during the Covid-19 pandemic where technology played a primary role in aiding remote working environments; however, IT use comes with consequences such as ‘technostress’ – stress arising from extended use of technology. Addressing the paucity of research related to this topic, in this study, we examine the role of mindfulness and IT mindfulness to both mitigate the impact of technostress and alleviate its negative consequences; revealing that mindfulness can reduce technostress and increase job satisfaction, while IT mindfulness can enhance user satisfaction and improve task performance. Moreover, our work sheds light on the under-researched relationship between mindfulness and IT mindfulness; showing that the latter has a stronger influence on IT related outcomes; revealing the valuable role of mindfulness and IT mindfulness in the workplace and offering important implications to theory and practice.
... Hence, many of the benefits of mindfulness should be experienced in subjective (or affect-related) terms (Brown et al., 2007;Goodman et al., 2015). Consistent with this analysis, a recent meta-analysis has linked variations in dispositional mindfulness to higher levels of confidence and life satisfaction and to lower levels of stress, negative emotion, anxiety, and depression (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Relatedly, there is a robust relationship between mindfulness and selfesteem and this relationship has been shown to mediate some of the variance linking mindfulness to subjective states of happiness (Bajaj et al., 2019). ...
... As indicated above, a number of studies have linked mindfulness to prosocial behavior (Donald et al., 2019), though the scope of these effects as well as their mechanisms require further study (Reb et al., 2020;Schindler and Friese, 2022). Mindfulness is protective against stress and distress (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), which often motivate individuals to escape situations that involve others in need (Batson, 2011). Mindfulness may also give rise to thoughts and feelings that often precipitate helping behavior, such as empathetic concern (Batson, 2011). ...
... Having reviewed lines of research pertinent to the present project, we note that questions of mechanism are critical in mindfulness research (Reb et al., 2020;Schindler and Friese, 2022), and there is a large body of work linking mindfulness to affective variables such as stress, anxiety, anger, confidence, and so on (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Carpenter et al., 2019). Given that this is true, there is also a growing sense that mindfulness may impact behaviors largely or primarily through affective routes. ...
Article
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Mindfulness, defined in terms of greater attention and awareness concerning present experience, seems to have a number of psychological benefits, but very little of this research has focused on possible benefits within the workplace. Even so, mindfulness appears to buffer against stress and negative affect, which often predispose employees to deviant behaviors. Conversely, mindful employees may be more engaged with their jobs, which could support organizational citizenship. Two studies (total N = 418) pursued these ideas. In Study 1, part-time employees who were higher in dispositional mindfulness were less prone to job negative affect, which in turn predicted lower levels of workplace deviance. In Study 2, more mindful full-time employees were more engaged, and less stressed, and these variables mediated a portion of the relationship between mindfulness and organizational citizenship. Collectively, the two studies link mindfulness to both traditional forms of voluntary work behavior while highlighting mediational pathways.
... Second, mindfulness has often been promoted as an approach to improve individual and organizational performance (e.g., Hyland et al., 2015). Some researchers base this assumption on promising results from cross-sectional research (see Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), others refer to hypothetical mechanisms of mindfulness (Good et al., 2016), and some build on the happy worker-productive worker thesis, suggesting that workers who experience high levels of well-being also perform well and vice versa. Although a variety of performance and productivity outcomes have been studied in quasi-experimental and uncontrolled studies with inconsistent results (Lomas et al. 2017b), productivity measures have only rarely been included in RCTs and yielded no robust significant results in our analysis. ...
... The level of mindfulness varies between people, indicating state and trait qualities, and can be cultivated through practice and intervention(Jamieson & Tuckey, 2017). In the workplace context, trait mindfulness has been associated with a variety of positive health and work-related outcomes, such as general mental health, emotion regulation, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, performance, and positive interpersonal relations(Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Intervention studies have shown that these positive effects can also be achieved through regular mindfulness practice at workplaces(Bartlett et al., 2019;Lomas et al., 2019a;. ...
Thesis
Im Zuge der Globalisierung, Digitalisierung und des gesellschaftlichen Wandels, hat sich die Arbeitswelt in den letzten Jahren stark verändert. Diese Veränderungen stellen erhöhte Anforderungen an die psychische Gesundheit der Beschäftigten. Die Prävention psychischer Störungen am Arbeitsplatz und die Frage, wie Arbeit gesund gestaltet werden kann, gewinnt daher zunehmend an Bedeutung. Eine zentrale Rolle nimmt dabei die Führungskraft ein, da diese maßgeblich die Arbeitsumgebung und die Arbeitsprozesse gestaltet und im direkten Kontakt mit ihren Mitarbeitenden steht. Zudem haben in den letzten Jahren achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme zur Prävention psychischer Störungen enorm an Bedeutung gewonnen, deren Wirksamkeit im Arbeitskontext jedoch oft in Frage gestellt wurde. Ziel dieser Dissertation ist es, die Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen achtsamkeitsbasierter Programme in der Arbeitswelt zu prüfen und deren Integration im Rahmen der gesunden Führung zu untersuchen. Zu diesem Zweck ist die vorliegende Dissertationsarbeit in insgesamt vier Abschnitte gegliedert. In Abschnitt 1 wird der Effekt psychischer Belastungen von N = 2.287 Studienteilnehmenden im Hinblick auf deren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten in den folgenden zwei Jahren geprüft, um die langfristigen ökonomischen Folgen psychischer Belastungen zu erörtern und die Relevanz von Präventionsangeboten aus einer sozioökonomischen Perspektive zu beurteilen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen subjektiv erlebter psychischer Belastung und späteren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstagen bzw. Krankheitskosten. So zeigt sich, dass schwer belastete Personen 27mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im ersten Jahr und 10mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im zweiten Jahr aufweisen, verglichen mit Personen ohne psychische Belastungen. Außerdem zeigten schwer belastete Personen 11fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im ersten Jahr und 6fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im zweiten Jahr, verglichen mit nicht belasteten Personen. Auch schon bei leichten und mittleren psychischen Belastungen zeigten sich signifikant erhöhte Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten (2fach bis 11fach erhöht). Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen die sozioökonomische Relevanz psychischer Belastungen und bilden eine empirische Grundlage für die Annahme, dass durch effektive Präventionsmaßnahmen sowohl individuelles Leid gelindert als auch sozioökonomische Kosten reduziert werden können. In Abschnitt 2 wird in Form einer Übersichtsarbeit der aktuelle Forschungsstand zu achtsamkeitsbasierten Programmen in der Arbeitswelt skizziert und deren Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen metaanalytisch geprüft. Über k = 56 randomisiert-kontrollierte Interventionsstudien hinweg zeigen sich kleine bis mittlere Effekte (g = 0,32 bis 0,77) auf unterschiedlichen gesundheitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Wohlbefinden, Stress, subsyndromale Symptome, Burnout und somatische Beschwerden) sowie arbeitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Arbeitsengagement, Arbeitszufriedenheit und Produktivität), die bis zu 12 Wochen nach der Intervention bestehen bleiben. Diese Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme effektiv in verschiedenen Arbeitskontexten eingesetzt werden können und somit eine gute Grundlage zur Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt bilden. In Abschnitt 3 wird der Zusammenhang zwischen gesunder Führung und psychischer Gesundheit aus Perspektive von Führungskräften und deren Mitarbeitenden in einem querschnittlichen Studiendesign mit Hilfe von Mehrebenenanalysen untersucht, um den komplexen Zusammenhang zwischen Führung und Gesundheit besser zu verstehen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Einschätzungen der gesunden Führung zwischen Führungskräften und ihren Mitarbeitenden deutlich abweichen und nur auf konkreten Verhaltensdimensionen signifikante Zusammenhänge aufweisen. Die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung durch die Mitarbeitenden zeigt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang mit deren psychischer Gesundheit, nicht aber die Selbsteinschätzungen der Führungskräfte. Insgesamt weisen diese Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung gesunder Führung eine wichtige Determinante für die psychische Gesundheit bei der Arbeit darstellt, dass das Thema gesunde Führung jedoch expliziter im Arbeitskontext ausgestaltet werden sollte, um ein gemeinsames Verständnis von gesunder Führung zwischen Führungskräften und Mitarbeitenden zu schaffen. In Abschnitt 4 wird dargestellt, wie die gesunde Führung mit Hilfe einer gezielten Intervention gefördert werden kann und welche Rolle das Konzept der Achtsamkeit dabei einnimmt. Die achtsamkeitsbasierte Intervention umfasst drei Seminartage (à 8 Stunden) zu i) gesunder Selbstführung, ii) gesunder Mitarbeiterführung und iii) Umgang mit psychisch belasteten Mitarbeitenden sowie zwei Nachhaltigkeitstermine (à 3 Stunden). Anschließend werden die Wirksamkeit sowie potentielle Wirkmechanismen der Intervention in einem quasiexperimentellen Studiendesign sowohl auf Ebene der Führungskräfte als auch auf Ebene der Mitarbeitenden empirisch geprüft. In 12 Unternehmen nahmen insgesamt 117 Führungskräfte an der Intervention teil. Die Führungskräfte und deren 744 Mitarbeitende machten Angaben zu ihrer psychischen Belastung sowie zur gesunden Führung zu drei Messzeitpunkten (Prä, Post, 3 Monate Follow-Up). Diese Angaben wurden mit einer passiven Kontrollgruppe, basierend auf Propensity Score Matching, verglichen. Hierarchische lineare Modelle ergaben, dass die Führungskräfte, die an der Intervention teilgenommen haben, eine signifikant stärkere Abnahme der psychischen Belastung und eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung im Zeitverlauf aufzeigen als die gematchten Kontrollpersonen (g = 0,27 bis 0,55). Der signifikante Interventionseffekt auf die psychische Belastung der Führungskräfte wird durch die Häufigkeit der selbstständig durchgeführten Achtsamkeitsübungen moderiert und durch eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbstführung vermittelt. Auf Mitarbeiterebene ergaben sich keine signifikanten Effekte zwischen den Gruppen im Zeitverlauf. Es zeigte sich jedoch ein signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen der subjektiv erlebten gesunden Führung und der späteren psychischen Belastung. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung eine wichtige Determinante der psychischen Gesundheit von Mitarbeitenden darstellt. Insgesamt tragen diese Ergebnisse zu unserem Verständnis bei, wie eine gesunde Führung effektiv trainiert werden kann, um die gesunde Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung der teilnehmenden Führungskräfte zu erhöhen und deren psychische Belastung zu reduzieren. Die Ergebnisse weisen jedoch gleichermaßen auf die Herausforderung hin, Interventionsprogramme weiter zu verbessern, um deren indirekte Effektivität auf Mitarbeiterebene zu erhöhen. Diese Dissertation trägt insgesamt dazu bei, die Bedeutung der Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt zu verdeutlichen und zeigt Möglichkeiten auf, wie eine effektive Prävention in Unternehmen ausgestaltet werden kann.
... For example, mindfulness applications (apps) are highly popular and regularly rank among the most downloaded mobile apps (Statista, 2017). Beyond meditation and mindfulness practice, individual differences in mindfulness as a presentfocused attention and awareness have been shown to yield multiple benefits across various life domains, such as healthrelated behavior, interpersonal skills, or job performance (for meta-analyses, see Eberth & Sedlmeier 2012;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Mindfulness is assumed to curb self-enhancement (Carlson, 2013), but may have the paradoxical effect of inflating feelings of self-importance ("paradox of self-enhancement"; Vonk & Visser 2021). ...
... Moreover, positive outcomes of trait mindfulness both on a personal and professional level, such as more confidence, better interpersonal relations, or positive emotional regulation could be mediated by higher levels of agentic narcissism or lower levels of antagonistic narcissism (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). On a clinical basis, narcissism could also play an important role in the negative association between mindfulness and symptoms of depression, anxiety or trauma (Carpenter et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Broad sections of the population try to be more mindful, often with quite self-centered motives. It is therefore not surprising that there is growing interest in the investigation of narcissism and mindfulness. Despite theoretical and empirical ties, however, existing research on this association is scarce. In two studies (N = 3,134 and 403) with English- and German-speaking participants, we apply structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between facets of grandiose narcissism and trait mindfulness. Across both studies and, using different narcissism and mindfulness measures, SEM consistently revealed opposing patterns for agentic and antagonistic narcissism, with agentic narcissism being positively related to trait mindfulness, and antagonistic narcissism being negatively related to it. Findings highlight the necessity to acknowledge the conceptual heterogeneity of narcissism when examining its relationship with trait mindfulness. Practical implications regarding how agentic and antagonistic narcissists might profit differently from mindfulness practice are discussed.
... Mindfulness has been described as a unique combination of the ability to pay particular attention and be present without judgment while maintaining enhanced awareness (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Kabat-Zinn, 2009). Mindfulness is considered both a state and a trait (Glomb et al., 2011;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017) that enables one to question the interaction of knowledge and routines while being able to appropriately question expectations and navigate complicated social, technological, and physical settings (Weick et al., 1999). The state perspective, implying a malleability that can be nurtured, focuses on examining mindfulness-based interventions that reduce negative physical and mental health outcomes (e.g., Eberth & Sedlmeier, 2012;Piet & Hougaard, 2011;Virgili, 2015). ...
... Despite findings that mindfulness may provide positive outcomes for military members (e.g., Jha et al., 2015;Meland et al., 2015), scant research on mindfulness has focused on its potential importance for Special Operation Forces (Fraher et al., 2017). Since there is indication that some individuals have a greater capability for mindfulness (Carpenter et al., 2019;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), it is important to investigate how one's natural capacity for mindfulness (mindfulness as a trait) contributes to persisting through arduous situations, such as BUD/S. ...
Article
Mindfulness and resilience are thought to be essential qualities of the military’s special operations community. Both are tested daily in Special Operations Forces (SOF) assessment and selection efforts to prepare candidates to persist through grueling training and complex combat situations; but these qualities are rarely measured. While military leadership places value on the concepts of mindfulness and resilience, there is minimal empirical research examining the role that they play in the completion of training. This longitudinal study followed three classes of SEAL candidates at Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) training over their six-month selection program. We estimated logit models predicting successful completion of BUD/S and specific types of failure in that training environment with indexes of mindfulness and resilience at the start of the program as predictors of completion. The results indicate that (1) mindfulness is unrelated to completion, while (2) resilience is positively related to completion, and (3) The results indicate that mindfulness is generally unrelated to completion, while resilience generally predicts completion.
... Overall, research suggests that "being mindful" is positively related to favorable personal and professional outcomes. For example, a recent meta-analysis (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017) indicates that trait mindfulness relates positively to mental health, emotional regulation, and confidence and relates negatively to stress. Moreover, trait mindfulness relates positively to higher job satisfaction and performance and negatively to burnout and work withdrawal. ...
... Moreover, trait mindfulness relates positively to higher job satisfaction and performance and negatively to burnout and work withdrawal. Various studies have also shown a positive association between trait mindfulness and mental and physical well-being (e.g., Brown & Ryan, 2003;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). In addition, even though studies on state mindfulness are relatively scarce, Brown and Ryan (2003) found that people felt more positive during states of mindfulness within the day. ...
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Most research on employee creativity has been focused on relatively distal antecedents, e.g., personality or job characteristics, which has resulted in top‐down organizational approaches to promote employee creativity. However, such approaches overlook the self‐regulating potential of employees and may not explain intra‐individual fluctuations in creativity. In the present research, we build on proactive motivation theory to examine how employees may promote their own creativity on a daily basis through the use of proactive vitality management (PVM). To better understand the PVM – creativity link, we zoom in on this process by examining the role of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism. In two daily diary studies, employees from the US (N = 133 persons, n = 521 data points) and the creative industry in Germany (N = 62 persons, n = 232 data points) reported on their use of PVM and states of mindfulness for five consecutive workdays. Additionally, participants completed a daily creativity test (brainstorming task) in Study 1, while supervisors rated participants’ daily creative work performance in Study 2. In both studies, multilevel analyses showed that daily PVM was positively related to creative performance through daily mindfulness, supporting our hypotheses. These replicated findings suggest that individuals may bring themselves in a cognitive, creative state of mind on a daily basis, emphasizing the importance of proactive behavior in the creative process.
... Research on trait mindfulness has shown its benefits in terms of greater workers' wellbeing [88][89][90][91] and as protective factor [87]. For instance, Roche and colleagues [90] found that leaders' mindfulness is negatively related to their levels of anxiety, depression, negative affect, emotional exhaustion, and cynicism. ...
... Diary studies demonstrated its positive effects on reducing emotional exhaustion and improving sleep quality [89,92]. A recent meta-analysis [88] showed a significant and positive relationship between trait mindfulness and physical, mental health, and emotion regulation and a negative relationship with anxiety, depression, negative emotions, or burnout. ...
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In recent years, work-related stress has grown exponentially and the negative impact that this condition has on people’s health is considerable. The effects of work-related stress can be distinguished in those that affect workers (e.g., depression and anxiety) and those that affect the company (e.g., absenteeism and productivity). It is possible to distinguish two types of prevention interventions. Individual interventions aim at promoting coping and individual resilience strategies with the aim of modifying cognitive assessments of the potential stressor, thus reducing its negative impact on health. Mindfulness techniques have been found to be effective stress management tools that are also useful in dealing with stressful events in the workplace. Organizational interventions modify the risk factors connected to the context and content of the work. It was found that a restorative workplace (i.e., with natural elements) reduces stress and fatigue, improving work performance. Furthermore, practicing mindfulness in nature helps to improve the feeling of wellbeing and to relieve stress. In this paper, we review the role of mindfulness-based practices and of contact with nature in coping with stressful situations at work, and we propose a model of coping with work-related stress by using mindfulness in nature-based practices.
... Mindfulness (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017) and stereotype threat (von Hippel et al., 2011) not only affect the performance, but are also associated with confidence or perceived performance. Furthermore, the perceived performance positively predicts the actual performance in a mental rotation task (Rahe & Jansen, 2021). ...
... A meta-analysis confirmed that trait mindfulness is positively correlated to confidence (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). A study showed that self-confidence could be improved with eight mindfulness training sessions (Vala et al., 2016). ...
Article
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We investigated gender differences in mental rotation performance in younger and older adolescents and effects of stereotype threat activation and a short mindfulness induction. Two hundred fifty younger adolescents from grades 5, 6, and 7 (119 boys) and 152 older adolescents from grades 10, 11, and 12 (80 boys) were divided into four groups with or without a mindfulness induction and with or without stereotype threat activation. All participants solved a mental rotation test and filled out a questionnaire about their gender stereotype beliefs and perceived abilities of masculine and feminine activities. Results illustrate that older adolescents outperformed younger adolescents, and gender differences in favour of males appeared only in the older age group. Independent of gender, the mindfulness induction had a significantly positive effect on adolescents’ mental rotation performance that was significant only in the older age group. No effect of the stereotype activation was found. For gender stereotype beliefs and perceived abilities of gendered activities, the mindfulness intervention enhanced male stereotype beliefs and participants’ perceived ability of masculine activities. A short mindfulness induction seems to have an enhancing effect on a subsequently performed stereotypically masculine cognitive task and consequently on adolescents’ male stereotype beliefs and their perceived ability in masculine activities.
... Higher mindful attention and awareness was associated with greater empathic accuracy, consistent with previous research that largely supports the association between mindfulness and positive interpersonal outcomes (Kang, 2018;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;van Agteren et al., 2021). Although our current data cannot explain mechanisms through which mindfulness may promote empathic accuracy, one possibility is that mindfulness may reduce self-focused biases directly or indirectly by dampening emotional reactivity. ...
... Mindfulness is associated with positive interpersonal outcomes in previous work (Kang, 2018;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;van Agteren et al., 2021). However, even among some highly mindful individuals, having similar past experience diminished the potential benefit of mindfulness on empathic accuracy in our data. ...
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Objectives Understanding other people’s thoughts and feelings is important for successful relationships. The current study examined potential benefits and pitfalls of experience similarity and mindful awareness in relation to accurate interpersonal understanding. Methods Participants (n = 77) watched a video of a speaker sharing a real-life story, rated the speaker’s emotions throughout the story, and recalled factual details of the story. Measures of accuracy included factual accuracy when recalling facts about the story and empathic accuracy in understanding the speaker’s feelings. Participants also indicated whether they did or did not have experiences in the past that were similar to the ones from the speaker’s video, and self-reported their levels of mindful attention and awareness. Results Having, compared to not having, a similar past life experience was associated with lower factual and empathic accuracy. Individuals with higher mindful attention and awareness were more likely to show higher empathic accuracy, being able to more accurately infer the speaker’s emotions throughout the story. This relationship was driven most strongly by individuals who did not have similar past experience as the speaker, such that mindfulness was associated with higher empathic accuracy only among individuals with no similar past experiences. Conclusions Experience similarity may diminish the benefit of mindfulness on the ability to accurately infer the target’s mental states. Considering potential pitfalls and biases that may hinder accurate interpersonal understanding can help provide skillful support that is most suited to the needs of specific individuals.
... Mindfulness is negatively associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, burnout, and negative affects (Roche et al., 2014). Individuals empowered by mindfulness ruminate less on negative incidents and worry less about future failures, thereby reducing perceived stress (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). A mindfulness-based stress reduction protocol has been developed to help healthcare professionals act on their psychological health (Botha et al., 2015;Gilmartin et al., 2017). ...
... We chose to use this scale, because all the existing questionnaires were self-report measures of trait mindfulness (Grossman & Van Dam, 2011). The Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale is one of the most widely used measures (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Rau & Williams, 2016) in research, and the French version shows good psychometric qualities (Jermann et al., 2009). Furthermore, this scale is fast to complete, as it only has 15 items. ...
Article
The current study explored the mediating roles of affects and coping strategies in the relationship between mindfulness and burnout among a sample of French healthcare professionals. A total of 180 professionals (mean age = 30.10 years) from various health and social care centers in different parts of France completed a questionnaire that contained measures of mindfulness, emotional experience (positive vs. negative affects), coping strategies, and the three dimensions of burnout. Results indicated that trait mindfulness protects healthcare professionals from burnout (especially the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions). In addition, coping strategies and affects mediate the link between trait mindfulness and emotional exhaustion. More specifically, participants with a low degree of mindfulness reported more negative affects and greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies. These findings suggest that trait mindfulness and positive affects help these professionals maintain a high level of personal accomplishment through the use of problem-focused coping strategies. Based on our results, recommendations could be drawn up to protect healthcare professionals from burnout and enhance their personal accomplishment. Keywords: Trait mindfulness; burnout; positive affects; negative affects; coping strategies
... Baru-baru ini, muncul sebuah anteseden baru dari keterikatan kerja yaitu mindfulness (Gunasekara & Zheng, 2018;Malinowski & Lim, 2015;Tabaziba, 2015;Kotzé, 2017;Wiroko & Evanytha, 2019). Mindfulness adalah kesadaran yang muncul saat seseorang fokus pada momen saat ini, memperhatikan stimulus baru yang muncul, dan memproses stimulus tersebut secara netral tanpa bersikap reaktif atau menghakimi (Mesmer-Magnus, Manapragada, Viswesvaran, & Allen, 2017). Individu yang mindful memperhatikan apa yang sedang terjadi saat ini, tidak banyak merenungkan tentang apa yang bisa terjadi di masa depan, atau pun terjebak di masa lalu. ...
... Training employees in mindfulness might also provide solutions to negative emotions. Studies have demonstrated that mindfulness-based therapy/exercises increase well-being, alleviate clinical and nonclinical problems (e.g., anxiety, stress, depression, negative feeling, pain, and burnout, etc.), and enhance work performance, job satisfaction, and social relations (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Schutte & Malouff, 2011;Wright & Schutte, 2014). Employee emotional intelligence is the best predictor of: ...
... It is examined that an employee mentally present at work with full attention will be gratified with the job (Hülsheger et al., 2013). Employees are having the feature of mindfulness, concentrate on the job, and get the advantage of job satisfaction (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). If anyone wants to get high level of job satisfaction needs to have low negative emotions. ...
Article
The aim of the current study was to identify the impact of mindfulness on employees’ level outcomes (job satisfaction, organisation commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour). In addition, the mediating role of workplace spirituality was examined between relationship of mindfulness and employees’ outcomes. This model was tested by preacher mediation analysis using PROCESS macro in SPSS data analysis software. Further model’s validity and reliability we tested using AMOS data analysis software. Data was obtained from 270 employees working in the banking industry of Pakistan. An adopted questionnaire having five-point Likert scale for all variables was utilised for data collection. The results revealed substantially support all hypotheses. The results of this research help human resource policy creators to bring effectiveness in their strategies by keeping in vision the significant implications underlined in this study. This study contributes to the literature by explaining the mediating role of workplace spirituality in the relationship between mindfulness and employees’ level outcomes.
... Mindfulness has also been positively correlated with job satisfaction and with being promotion-focused such as achieving goals to gain a promotion and achieve job-related goals to maintain the status quo and job security (Andrew et al., 2014). To add, a meta-analysis confirmed that mindfulness is positively associated with job satisfaction, job performance and interpersonal relations in the workplace (Mesmer-Magmus et al., 2017). Another longitudinal study found that employees with high mindfulness experienced reduced emotional exhaustion and increased job satisfaction than those with low mindfulness (H€ ulsheger et al., 2013). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the interrelationships between leaders' communication competence, mindfulness, self-compassion and job satisfaction. Barge and Hirokawa's (1989) communication-centered theoretical approach of leadership and Gilbert's (2005) social mentality offered frameworks to examine mindfulness and self-compassion as co-mediators of the relationship between business leaders' communication competence and job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional online survey was conducted with 219 business leaders in the USA via snowball sampling. Findings The results showed that communication competence served as an antecedent of mindfulness and self-compassion. Additionally, self-compassion served as a significant mediator between the positive relationship between communication competence and job satisfaction. Practical implications Managers and business leaders may gain insights about the benefit of developing self-compassion and communication competence skills to enhance their job satisfaction via courses, workshops and certifications. Originality/value This study is the first to examine the effect of two well-being constructs (self-compassion and mindfulness) on the relationship between leaders' communication competence and job satisfaction.
... In general, scholars provide outpouring support that mindfulness training programs can be undertaken in the organizational context based on recently developed theoretical backups to improve performance and employee well-being. Therefore, researchers strongly encourage implementing mindfulness interventions, and incorporating mindfulness measurements for recruitment and promotional tools, specifically for stressful jobs [3,80]. ...
Article
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Mindfulness has rapidly become a significant subject area in many disciplines. Most of the work on mindfulness has focused on the perspective of health and healthcare professionals, but relatively less research is focused on the organizational outcomes at the workplace. This review presents a theoretical and practical trajectory of mindfulness by sequential integration of recent fragmented scholarly work on mindfulness at the workplace. The review showcases that most contemporary practical challenges in organizations, such as anxiety, stress, depression, creativity, motivation, leadership, relationships, teamwork, burnout, engagement, performance, well-being, and physical and psychological health, could be addressed successfully with the budding concept of mindfulness. The causative processes due to higher mindfulness that generate positive cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral outcomes include focused attention, present moment awareness, non-judgmental acceptance, self-regulatory functions, lower mind wandering, lower habit automaticity, and self-determination. Employee mindfulness could be developed through various mindfulness interventions in order to improve different organizational requirements, such as psychological capital, emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior, in-role and extra-role performance, financial and economic performance, green performance, and well-being. Accordingly, this review would be beneficial to inspire academia and practitioners on the transformative potential of mindfulness in organizations for higher performance, well-being, and sustainability. Future research opportunities and directions to be addressed are also discussed.
... First, there is a substantial body of evidence supporting a positive association between levels of mindfulness and workers' positive outcomes, including higher work performance, work satisfaction, quality of life, and resilience. There is also an association with reduced anger, anxiety, depression, stress, and burnout (see reviews by Good et al., 2016;Lomas et al., 2017;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The negative emotional and health effects of work-life conflict (WLC) have been demonstrated in numerous studies regarding organizational psychology and occupational health. However, little is known about WLC’s relationship with positive wellbeing outcomes, including emotional, psychological, and social aspects of workers’ thriving. Furthermore, the mediating processes underlying the effects of WLC remain mostly unknown. The current study investigated the associations of perceived time- and strain-based WLC with positive mental health and thriving at work, as well as the mediating role of mindfulness in these associations. It is argued that WLC causes reduced mindfulness capacities among workers, which is in turn associated with lower positive wellbeing given the importance of mindfulness in emotion regulation. A sample of 330 workers based in Québec, Canada, completed an online survey including a measure of strain- and time-based interference with personal projects (i.e., the goals and activities that define the daily life of an individual) and validated scales of wellbeing outcomes and mindfulness. Results of structural equation modeling revealed negative associations between time- and strain-based WLC with positive mental health and thriving at work. Work-life conflict was related to lower mindfulness, which played a mediating role in the associations between time-based WLC with positive mental health and thriving at work, as well as strain-based WLC with positive mental health. The mediation was complete for the time-based WLC and positive mental health association, but partial for the other mediated pathways, highlighting the need for more research to identify additional mediators. These results highlight that beyond resulting in negative emotional/health outcomes often studied in previous research, WLC may be associated with workers’ reduced potential to live a fulfilling life, in general and in the workplace. Recommendations (e.g., mindfulness intervention to promote emotional regulation, personal project intervention) for workplace policymakers and practitioners are identified.
... This construct has been studied both as a quality cultivated through meditation practice and as a dispositional characteristic that naturally varies between individuals (Baer, 2011). There is now robust evidence supporting the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for stress reduction and overall well-being in healthy adults (Chiesa & Serretti, 2009) and in students (Bamber & Schneider, 2015;Greeson et al., 2015;Oman et al., 2008), as well as a growing body of evidence linking dispositional or "trait" mindfulness to lower perceived stress in adults who have never formally meditated (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). ...
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Higher trait mindfulness may be associated with better cognitive functioning and academic achievement in college students. Although mediating mechanisms are unclear, lower stress levels could explain this relationship. Participants: Cross-sectional online survey (n = 534; 33% non-white; Apr 2018 – Sep 2019). Path analysis tested Perceived Stress as a mediator between specific facets of trait mindfulness and three measures of self-reported cognitive functioning and academic achievement: Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Concerns, and GPA. Perceived Stress fully or partially mediated the relationship between all facets of trait mindfulness and perceived cognitive functioning. Only Decentering, however, was associated with higher GPA as a function of lower stress. Lower stress can explain the link between higher trait mindfulness and better cognitive functioning, but not necessarily academic achievement. Future research is needed to address causality, examine objective measures of cognitive functioning, and extend this explanatory model to mindfulness training.
... Personal resources re ect personality traits, attitudes, knowledge, and behavioral tendencies of an individual. For instance, problem-focused coping [14], and trait mindfulness [15] have been identi ed as healthenhancing resources. ...
... When this unhealthy state persists, it will trigger emotional states, such as anxiety, depression, and burnout. However, if an individual can maintain abundant personal resources, such as mindfulness, he or she can effectively relieve negative emotions (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Recent studies have proven that mindfulness, as a personal psychological resource, plays a positive role in reducing people's job burnout. ...
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In the last 20 years, amid extensive social and economic reforms, China’s social structure and community life have changed considerably. A large number of social workers are needed to provide many more social services to community residents. The central government has issued many policies to rapidly develop human service organizations and increase the number of social workers. Thus, by the end of 2019, the number of social workers has reached more than 1.5 million in China. At the same time, local governments have issued many policies to promote an increase in the number of social workers. According to statistics from the Chengdu Civil Affairs Bureau, from 2010 to 2021, the number of social workers in Chengdu City increased, remarkably, from 553 to 17,622. Although the number of social workers has increased rapidly, some problems still exist. According to a survey by the Chengdu Social Workers Association, the turnover rate of social workers has reached approximately 20% in Chengdu City in 2018. Therefore, we aim to determine what influences social workers’ job burnout. Through regression analysis and mediation effect tests, we found the following: First, when controlling for gender, age, education, and workday, social support of social workers had a significant negative impact on job burnout ( β = − 0.376). Second, the mindfulness of social workers had a significant negative impact on job burnout ( β = − 0.320). Third, the mindfulness of social workers played a mediating role between social support and job burnout. The mediating effect was −0.116 ( p < 0.001). Fourth, among the three dimensions of social support, mindfulness played a partially mediating role in family support and other support. The mediating effect between other support, which is the support from leaders and colleagues, and job burnout was the strongest, with a mediating effect of −0.109 ( p < 0.001). In other words, the support provided by agency leaders and colleagues can maximize the level of mindfulness of social workers, thereby reducing social workers’ job burnout most effectively. We can thus reduce social workers’ job burnout by improving their level of mindfulness and the social support for them in China.
... Moreover, weekly mindfulness reduces an individual's weekly emotional disorders (such as depressive symptoms and stress) and increases their positive emotional experience (Brown et al., 2007;Martins et al., 2019). By reducing negative emotions and increasing positive emotions during weekly episodes (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), weekly mindfulness improves weekly SWB. Based on these arguments, we propose the following hypotheses: ...
Article
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Subjective well-being (SWB) varies within a person. However, even though previous studies have paid attention to why people with a more proactive personality have higher SWB, they have ignored how proactive personality influences an individual’s state SWB using a within-person approach. According to the time perspective, we propose that proactive personality positively influences an individual’s weekly SWB. Moreover, we propose that weekly rumination, weekly mindfulness, and weekly future optimism—which represent the past, present, and future time perspective, respectively—mediate the relationship between proactive personality and weekly SWB. Using a multilevel model, including 97 people and 388 within-person data points, we found that proactive personality positively influences an individual’s weekly SWB. Only the mediation of weekly future optimism underlying this relationship was supported. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
... Keywords Mindfulness · Dispositional mindfulness · Interpersonal circumplex · Social support · Transactional cycle Dispositional mindfulness is conceptualized largely in terms of internal processes, such as attending to moment-tomoment experiences and accepting them without judgment (Bishop et al., 2004;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Kabat-Zinn, 2003). Yet, mindfulness also relates to interpersonal processes and aspects of social functioning (Berry et al., 2018), such as higher quality intimate relationships and better relationships at work (Barnes et al., 2007;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Quinn-Nilas, 2020). Mechanisms underlying these associations are of increasing interest (Karremans et al., 2017), and the interpersonal framework from social and personality psychology (Pincus & Ansell, 2013) may facilitate related research. ...
Article
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Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that dispositional mindfulness is associated with health, well-being, and the quality of personal relationships. Mechanisms underlying these associations are of considerable current interest. Interpersonal processes may contribute to associations of mindfulness with social support and interpersonal conflict, and the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) and other aspects of interpersonal theory provide a framework for examining possible mediating processes. The present study factor analyzed multiple mindfulness-related scales to identify key components related to psychosocial outcomes. Also, we examined whether interpersonal style dimensions of control and affiliation contribute to associations of mindfulness factors with psychosocial outcomes.Methods Two undergraduate samples (total N = 614) completed self-report questionnaires related to dispositional mindfulness and interpersonal processes.ResultsFactor analyses identified broader mindfulness dimensions consistent with prior literature, which were associated with more social support and less interpersonal conflict. In mediational analyses, this association was by way of warmth as a component of interpersonal style in the case of social support, but not for conflict.Conclusions Interpersonal style contributes to the association of dispositional mindfulness with psychosocial outcomes relevant to health and adjustment. Aspects of the interpersonal perspective (e.g., transactional cycles) can provide an integrative framework and a guide to future research.
... Mindfulness is positively linked to performance (Dane & Brummel, 2014), affective commitment, job satisfaction and engagement (Andrews et al., 2014;Zivnuska et al., 2016), and negatively related to turnover intentions (Andrews et al., 2014;Dane & Brummel, 2014), counterproductive behaviour (Schwager et al., 2016), and workplace aggression (Liang et al., 2018). These and other personal and professional correlates of mindfulness in the work context have been summarised in a recent meta-analysis (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). ...
... In line with this perspective, trait mindfulness not only has been shown to be influenced by consistent mindfulness practices, but is also present in non-practitioners . Importantly, meta-analytic evidence indicates that increased trait Mindfulness mindfulness has a host of beneficial outcomes ranging from positive work outcomes to psychological well-being (Carpenter et al., 2019;Karyadi et al., 2014;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017;Sala et al., 2020). This focus on individual differences created a second and rather distinct research line in addition to clinical intervention studies, focusing on trait mindfulness that aim to identify outcomes, predictors, and underlying mechanisms of such stable interindividual differences. ...
Article
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Objectives We present a bibliometric review of research on trait mindfulness published from 2003 until 2021 to determine the current state of the field and identify research trajectories. Methods A search conducted on Aug 25, 2021, using the search terms “trait mindfulness” OR “dispositional mindfulness” in the Web of Science Core Collection identified 1405 documents. Results Using keyword-based network analyses, the various clusters suggested two major approaches in the field, one focusing on cognitive attentional processes, and a second approach that encompasses a wider field of well-being and clinical research topics. We also documented increasing consolidation of research fields over time, with research on wider individual differences such as personality being subsumed into clinically and well-being-oriented research topics. More recently, a distinct theme focused on the validity of measurement of mindfulness emerged. In addition to general patterns in the field, we examined the global distribution of trait mindfulness research. Research output was substantially skewed towards North American-based researchers with less international collaborations. Chinese researchers nevertheless also produced research at significant rates. Comparing the difference in research topics between China and the US-based researchers, we found substantial differences with US research emphasizing meditation and substance abuse issues, whereas researchers from China focused on methodological questions and concerns around phone addiction. Conclusions Overall, our review indicates that research on trait mindfulness might profit from conceptual and cultural realignment, with greater focus on individual differences research as well as stronger focus on cross-cultural and comparative studies to complement the strong clinical and cognitive focus in the current literature.
... complex reality of being a HCP and will introduce realistic ways to incorporate mindfulness into one's current daily routines. This will set the stage for the importance of this mindfulness curriculum for building resilience and improving retention of psychologically healthy professionals in the workforce [8][9][10][11]. Figure 4.1 provides a framework for understanding the multiple factors impacting HCPs well-being, which also impacts patient care and safety. This framework was informed by work by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine [12] and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) Action Collaborative on Clinician Well-Being and Resilience [13]. ...
Chapter
The current environment in which healthcare professionals (HCPs) work is often chaotic and physically and emotionally draining. The prevalence of burnout and turnover cause concern to the individual professional and the healthcare system at large. This chapter focuses on the key mindfulness concepts of intention, attitude, and attention and provides examples of how targeted mindfulness practices can be incorporated into the busy daily schedules of HCPs. The authors (a physician intensivist, an academic faculty member, and a primary care nurse practitioner) provide specific examples from their professional lives of situations that threaten intention, attitude, and attention and give suggestions for mindfulness practices that have helped them. This chapter sets the stage for delivering a mindfulness curriculum to interdisciplinary healthcare professionals.
... While there have been a number of literature reviews that have scoped existing research and proposed fruitful research agendas (e.g. Glomb et al., 2011;Good et al., 2016;Sutcliffe et al., 2016), meta-analyses (e.g. Bartlett et al., 2019;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017) and conceptual reviews (e.g. Kudesia, 2019;Daniel et al., 2022) for mindfulness at work, as well as systematic literature review in specific fields such as information systems (e.g. ...
Article
Mindfulness is receiving growing attention in the project management community, probably due its proven beneficial effects at individual, team and organization levels in other management domains. Indeed, 80% of the 50 publications identified in this paper were published over the last decade. This review addresses the disparate extant publications related to mindfulness in the field of project management to date and seeks to establish how mindfulness is studied in the management of projects. We first recall the two historical schools of thought, their respective perspective on mindfulness and highlight a recent, reconciling conceptualization of the mindfulness construct termed meta-cognitive practice. Next, we review existing project management works that have included mindfulness theory and categorize them into six main research themes. Project management scholars have studied mindfulness as an enabler of (1) high reliability project organizing, (2) change and innovation, (3) agility and flexibility, (4) mindfulness-based behaviours to be compared with routine-based ones, (5) project actors and project team self-regulation, and (6) megaprojects performance. Third, we provide an overall framework of how mindfulness may benefit the project management field, together with an overall discussion of issues to be addressed. Last, we provide research avenues to foster future research in each of the identified themes. In sum, as the first review on the application of mindfulness in project management research, we contribute to the understanding of how mindfulness can contribute to overall project performance.
... A significant portion of the research has focused on the effects of self-reported trait mindfulness, which is defined as the tendency for one to be aware of and pay attention to the present moment in an open, nonreactive, and nonjudgmental way (Baer et al., 2006;Bishop et al., 2004). Cumulative evidence shows that trait mindfulness is positively associated with better psychological functioning (e.g., depression, anxiety, stress; Carpenter et al., 2019), emotion regulation (Tomlinson et al., 2018), health behaviors (Sala et al., 2020), work satisfaction and performance (e.g., burnout; Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), romantic and intergroup relationships (Oyler et al., 2021;Quinn-Nilas, 2020), and prosocial behavior (Donald et al., 2019). These wide-ranging findings suggest that the general disposition to be mindful can impact many areas of one's life (e.g., mental and physical health, work, relationships). ...
Article
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Objectives The Interpersonal Mindfulness Scale (IMS) was recently developed to assess the qualities of mindfulness relevant to interpersonal interactions. The objective of the current study was to create a valid and reliable short-form version from the existing 27-item IMS. Methods Rasch modeling methods were used to evaluate a 17-item version and 13-item version of the IMS-short form (IMS-SF) in a sample of 584 participants (sample A). Items from the IMS were deleted with the goals to maintain the theoretical representation of the construct and to retain at least three items from each subscale. An independent sample of 503 participants (sample B) was used to examine the robustness of each IMS-SF. Results In both samples, the 17-item and 13-item versions of the IMS-SF met the expectations of the unidimensional Rasch model, were invariant across demographic factors, and had acceptable reliability (PSI = 0.74–0.81). The 17-item version demonstrated better reliability and coverage of the construct in both samples compared to the 13-item version. Nevertheless, the 13-item IMS-SF maintained satisfactory psychometric properties to be recommended as a briefer alternative for most research uses. Zero-order correlations and partial correlations, controlling for trait mindfulness, supported the construct validity of each IMS-SF. The accuracy of measurement of the IMS-SF can be enhanced by transforming ordinal responses into interval-level data using the included ordinal-to-interval conversion tables. Conclusions Both the 17-item and 13-item IMS-SF can be used to efficiently measure overall levels of interpersonal mindfulness.
... In other words, there are individuals who are, by nature, more or less mindful in comparison to other individuals (Carlson, 2013). Research on trait mindfulness compares the mindfulness levels among individuals and examines how these differences affect the outcomes of a construct (e.g., Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Similar to state mindfulness, trait mindfulness can be further developed through mindfulness practice. ...
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Mindfulness is gaining popularity in organizations, with management placing increased importance on the quality of life of employees while responding to the demands of today's environment. Current research explains the effects of mindfulness on management constructs by basing their studies on either Eastern or Western conceptualizations of mindfulness. This article combines the Buddhist teachings used in the Eastern perspective with the scientific-based Western thought in an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of mindfulness and the components that lead to its benefits. The mindfulness process is portrayed through a spectrum, which explains the states of mind and qualities developed before reaching the "ready to use" state in the workplace context. The development of the mindfulness spectrum contributes to the academic field and provides a more detailed understanding of mindfulness for management to further apply in the organizational context. In addition, the elaboration of the mindfulness process opens more areas for future studies in mindfulness and management literatures.
... complex reality of being a HCP and will introduce realistic ways to incorporate mindfulness into one's current daily routines. This will set the stage for the importance of this mindfulness curriculum for building resilience and improving retention of psychologically healthy professionals in the workforce [8][9][10][11]. Figure 4.1 provides a framework for understanding the multiple factors impacting HCPs well-being, which also impacts patient care and safety. This framework was informed by work by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine [12] and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) Action Collaborative on Clinician Well-Being and Resilience [13]. ...
Chapter
The current environment in which healthcare professionals (HCPs) work is often chaotic and physically and emotionally draining. The prevalence of burnout and turnover cause concern to the individual professional and the healthcare system at large. This chapter focuses on the key mindfulness concepts of intention, attitude, and attention and provides examples of how targeted mindfulness practices can be incorporated into the busy daily schedules of HCPs. The authors (a physician intensivist, an academic faculty member, and a primary care nurse practitioner) provide specific examples from their professional lives of situations that threaten intention, attitude, and attention and they give suggestions for mindfulness practices that have helped them. This chapter sets the stage for delivering a mindfulness curriculum to interdisciplinary healthcare professionals.
... On the other hand, mindfulness is a cognitive or metacognitive practice (Sumantry and Stewart 2021) that describes the human ability to maintain one's attention and awareness centred on the present moment and to observe the experience with a non-judgmental attitude (Kabat-Zinn 1990). Fostering this ability was linked to a wide array of desirable outcomes like greater confidence, better mental health, more effective emotion regulation, higher life satisfaction, lowered experiences of stress, less intense negative emotions, and lower anxiety and depression; furthermore, it has been associated with desirable workplace-related outcomes like higher job satisfaction, better interpersonal relationships, less intense feelings of withdrawal and burnout, and higher job performance (Mesmer-Magnus et al. 2017). Taken together, mindfulness is a promising resource accompanying self-leadership that can prove to be valuable at every stage of the entrepreneurial process. ...
Conference Paper
Nascent entrepreneurs face ambiguous demands and unique challenges. They require novel and specific skills to address the continuously changing environment successfully. Mindfulness can serve as a means to enhance self-leadership skills, and thereafter, entrepreneurial skills. This study is occupied with the development of a training program manual designed to improve the entrepreneurial mindset and skills of high school and university students via the use of mindfulness-based self-leadership methods. The manual will be tested with the focus groups of enrolled students and pupils in Albania, Croatia, Finland, and Liechtenstein. Based on the results, a digital course will be constructed. The first module of the course covers self-awareness; the second module focuses on goal setting; and during the third module, a business plan is constructed. The third module also provides exercises to address obstacles such as intrusive thoughts or impedimental emotions. The fourth module teaches revision and reflection of accomplishments as well as forming habits to reach goals and implementing systems to manage tasks. The final module covers understanding others, their opinions, and different ways of thinking to empower students to build relationships and connections. Thus, a path from self-awareness to leadership is established. The training manual resulting from the project's implementation will enable access to specialized education and knowledge to a wide audience.
... Charoensukmongkol (2014) also found that mindfulness can affect perceived stress through emotional intelligence [24]. According to the basic biological research, mindfulness can activate the prefrontal cortex and left amygdala of the brain during emotional processing [41], and these brain regions have the functions of recognizing and regulating emotions as well as emotional memory, which can help individuals to better perceive and regulate emotions and reduce psychological stress [56]. Moreover, the Emotion Regulation Model of mindfulness also holds that, when we accept the problems and challenges during daily life and work without negative evaluations, it can often improve emotional adaptability and reduce the level of burnout [19]. ...
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Preschool teachers’ job burnout has many adverse effects on their career development; although some studies have examined the influencing factors of teachers’ burnout, less were explored from the perspective of individual factors. This study aimed to examine the relationship between mindfulness and job burnout of preschool teachers, and the mediating effects of emotional intelligence and coping style. A total of 394 preschool teachers in China filled in questionnaires measuring mindfulness, emotional intelligence, coping style, and job burnout. The findings suggested that: (1) mindfulness was negatively related to job burnout; (2) emotional intelligence and negative coping style played independent mediating effects between mindfulness and job burnout; and (3) emotional intelligence and positive coping style played a chain mediating effect between mindfulness and job burnout. The results revealed the mechanism of mindfulness on preschool teachers’ job burnout, which is of great significance for the psychological intervention of preschool teachers in the future.
... In this respect, we address two primary limitations of existing reviews. First, compared with prior qualitative reviews and meta-analyses that have tended to focus more narrowly on individual mindfulness (e.g., Good et al., 2016;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017), or have purposefully compared two bodies of research (individual and collective mindfulness; Sutcliffe et al., 2016), we take a broader scope, relying on bibliometric techniques to provide a more holistic and objective exploration of mindfulness research and highlight specialized topics within specific management domains. Further, existing literature reviews tend to draw on textual analyses of definitions (e.g., Sutcliffe et al., 2016), which provide a valuable summary of the research but are less helpful in bringing clarity to the construct and reconciliation of the field. ...
Article
Over time mindfulness research and practice has taken on diverse basic assumptions and theoretical traditions, and the pseudo‐scientific use of the term has become more prevalent. Given the ubiquitousness of both personal and professional applications of mindfulness, the need for a thorough understanding of its theoretical cornerstones is necessary. In this review, we use bibliometric techniques to uncover the field's intellectual roots (Study 1), and document bibliographic coupling analysis to illuminate current research avenues across management disciplines (Study 2). Our bibliometric process covers 48 references for co‐citation and 238 articles for bibliographic coupling analyses, respectively, published between 2012 and 2020. Co‐citation analysis reveals a shift of focus from the past two historical mindfulness schools of thought (Eastern and Western) to a novel intellectual structure of the mindfulness field articulated around three distinct yet overlapping research streams. We propose integrative ways to advance mindfulness research by unpacking mindfulness processes, dimensions and development, arguing that the integration of these three main foci is necessary to advance understanding of mindfulness. Bibliometric coupling analysis identifies eight management‐related mindfulness research themes. We discuss the extent to which these eight themes have comparably explored the three foci (mindfulness processes, dimensions and development) highlighted in our model. Lastly, we use our theory‐driven review to draw on under‐developed areas of research, identifying profitable directions for future research on mindfulness in the workplace and beyond.
... One of the main aims of this study is to address the effectiveness of MBI on the mental health of middle school students in a Chinese school campus setting through a randomized controlled experiment. The results showed that the trait mindfulness of middle school students significantly improved not only in terms of the overall level, but also in the five components of Observation, Describing, Act with Awareness, and Non-Judgement and Non-Reaction through MBI, which is consistent with previous studies (Lu et al., 2020;McCluskey et al., 2020;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017). Mindfulness can be regarded as either a particular psychological state called state mindfulness that may fluctuate when individuals meditate consciously or spontaneously, or as a personality trait of individuals called trait mindfulness (Eisenlohr-Moull et al., 2016). ...
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Background Adolescents’ psychological stress has become an important problem. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are proven to be effective in school settings in the Western world, and so expanding MBIs further is a particularly important consideration. Objective This study addresses the effectiveness of MBI in reducing psychological stress in Chinese school settings and the mediating role of resilience between trait mindfulness and psychological stress. Methods This study conducts a cluster randomized controlled trial. Ninety-two middle school students in the experimental group received 10 weeks of MBI, with 10 sessions of a mindfulness course, while 97 students in the control group followed their regular school program without intervention. Results Psychological stress, trait mindfulness, and psychological resilience were measured by the Psycho-Somatic-Tension-Relaxation Inventory (PSTRI), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RSCA). The results showed that (1) compared with the pretest scores of the experimental group, and the pre- and post-test scores of the control group, the post-test scores of trait mindfulness and psychological resilience in the experimental group were significantly increased, while psychological stress was significantly decreased. (2) Trait mindfulness was positively associated with psychological resilience. Trait mindfulness and psychological resilience were negatively associated with psychological stress. (3) The mediating effect of psychological resilience accounted for 43.58% of the overall effect of trait mindfulness on psychological stress. Conclusions These findings provide encouraging evidence for MBI’s effectiveness in reducing adolescents’ psychological stress and the possible mediating role of psychological resilience; thus, MBI is worthy of expanding to Chinese school settings.
... This confirms previous diary studies that found a positive relationship between mindfulness and affective well-being ( Brockman et al., 2017 ;Mahlo and Windsor, 2021 ). Furthermore, the results give the first indication that mindfulness is connected to satisfaction with life and meaning in life ( Allan et al., 2015 ;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017 ) not oly at a between-person level, but also on a more fine-grained intrapersonal level in daily life. ...
Article
The concept of mindfulness has been discussed as being a promising pathway to strenghten pro-environmental behavior, that is at the same time related to personal well-being. Several studies identified correlations between trait mindfulness and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) and identified different mediators. To obtain better, fine-grained insights into this connection, the present study investigated mindfulness as a predictor of same-day connectedness to nature, personal ecological norm activation (PENA), PEB and well-being on a within-person level. In a daily diary study (N = 183, days = 1197), multilevel regression analysis showed: (i) positive same-day within-person relationships between mindfulness and PENA, connectedness to nature and well-being; (ii) a significant effect of mindfulness on next-day PEB; (iii) relationships between regular mind-body practices, such as mindfulness meditation, and daily PEB. Path analysis showed, (iv) a path from mindfulness to PEB mediated by connectedness to nature and PENA. The study confirms the significance of mindfulness in every-day life for connectedness to nature, PENA and well-being. Furthermore, the study points out the relevance of investigating predictors of PEB on a within-person level
... Mindfulness has also been conceptualised as a disposition or trait, indicating one's tendency to evoke the state of mindfulness in daily life, outside of mindfulness meditation practice (Baer et al., 2006). Besides having been correlated with wellbeing, better interpersonal relations, less burnout and greater job and life satisfaction (Mesmer-magnus et al., 2017), trait mindfulness has been inversely associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress (Soysa and Wilcomb, 2015). ...
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Objectives: Research has linked mindfulness to improved mental health, yet the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. This study explored the mediating role of emotion regulation strategies and sleep in the relationship between mindfulness and symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: As detailed in this study’s pre-registration (osf.io/k9qtw), a cross-sectional research design was used to investigate the impact of mindfulness on mental health and the mediating role of emotion regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal, rumination and suppression) and insomnia. A total of 493 participants from the general population answered an online survey and were included in the final analysis. The online survey consisted of the short form of the Five-Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-SF), the Impact of Event Scale-revised (IES-R), the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), the short form of the Rumination Response Scale (RSS-SF), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Results: Structural equation modelling revealed that mindfulness was related to lower symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress, both directly and indirectly. Mindfulness was negatively associated with rumination and insomnia. As hypothesised, models revealed that the associations between mindfulness and depression, anxiety and psychological distress were significantly mediated by its negative associations with rumination and insomnia. Our findings also demonstrated that rumination was related to increased insomnia symptoms, which in turn was associated with increased mental health problems, indicating a mediated mediation. Mindfulness was also positively associated with cognitive reappraisal and negatively associated with suppression, which were, respectively, negatively and positively associated with depressive symptoms, and thus functioned as specific mediators of the association between mindfulness and depression. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that rumination and insomnia operate transdiagnostically as interrelated mediators of the effects of mindfulness on mental health, whereas cognitive reappraisal and suppression function as specific mediators for depression. These insights emphasise the importance of targeting emotion regulation and sleep in mindfulness interventions for improving mental health. Limitations and implications for practice are discussed.
... Personal resources reflect personality traits, attitudes, knowledge, and behavioral tendencies of an individual. For instance, problem-focused coping [14], and trait mindfulness [15] have been identified as health-enhancing resources. ...
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Background Nurses experience high, and often chronic, levels of occupational stress. As high-quality care requires a healthy workforce, individualized stress-alleviating interventions for nurses are needed. This study explored barriers and resources associated with health behaviors in nurses with different stress levels and work-related behavioral tendencies and identified health behavior determinants based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model. Methods Applying a mixed methods transformative triangulation design, n = 43 nurses filled out chronic stress (SSCS) and work-related behavior and experience patterns (German acronym AVEM) questionnaires, and participated in semi-structured interviews. With content analysis, categories of health behavior-related barriers and resources emerged. Behavior determinants (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), health behavior, and barriers and resources were quantified via frequency and magnitude coding and interrelated with SSCS and AVEM scores to link level of health behavior with potential influencing factors. Nonparametric tests explored differences in quantified variables for SSCS and AVEM scores and 4-step-hierarchical regression analysis identified predictors for health behavior. Results Eighty-four percent of the nurses were chronically stressed while 49% exhibited unhealthy behavioral tendencies at the workplace. 16 personal and organizational themes (six resources, ten barriers) influenced health behaviors. Stress was associated with resource frequency (p = .027) and current health behaviors (p = .07). Self-efficacy significantly explained variance in health behaviors (p = .003). Conclusion Health promotion related barriers and resources should be considered in designing nurse health promotion campaigns. Practitioners need to individualize and tailor interventions toward stress and behavioral experiences for sustainable effects on adherence and health.
Article
Mindfulness has grown from an obscure subject to an immensely popular topic that is associated with numerous performance, health, and well-being benefits in organizations. However, this growth in popularity has generated a number of criticisms of mindfulness and a rather piecemeal approach to organizational research and practice on the subject. To advance both investigation and application, the present paper applies The Balance Framework to serve as an integrative scaffolding for considering mindfulness in organizations, helping to address some of the criticisms leveled against it. The Balance Framework specifies five forms of balance: 1) balance as tempered view, 2) balance as mid-range, 3) balance as complementarity, 4) balance as contextual sensitivity, and 5) balance among different levels of consciousness. Each form is applied to mindfulness at work with a discussion of relevant conceptual issues in addition to implications for research and practice. Plain Language Summary In order to appreciate the value of mindfulness at work researchers and practitioners might want to consider both the benefits and potential drawbacks of mindfulness. This paper presents a discussion of both the advantages and possible disadvantages of mindfulness at work organized in terms of the five dimensions of an organizing structure called The Balance Framework.
Article
Background Despite numerous gaps in the literature, mindfulness training in the workplace is rapidly proliferating. Many “online” or “digital mindfulness” programs do not distinguish between live teaching and recorded or asynchronous sessions, yet differences in delivery mode (eg, face-to-face, online live, online self-guided, other) may explain outcomes. Objective The aim of this study was to use existing data from an online mindfulness solutions company to assess the relative contribution of live and recorded mindfulness training to lower perceived stress in employees. Methods Perceived stress and the amount of live and recorded online mindfulness training accessed by employees were assessed during eMindful’s One-Percent Challenge (OPC). The OPC is a 30-day program wherein participants are encouraged to spend 1% of their day (14 minutes) practicing mindfulness meditation on the platform. We used linear mixed-effects models to assess the relationship between stress reduction and usage of components of the eMindful platform (live teaching and recorded options) while controlling for potential reporting bias (completion) and sampling bias. Results A total of 8341 participants from 44 companies registered for the OPC, with 7757 (93.00%) completing stress assessments prior to the OPC and 2360 (28.29%) completing the postassessment. Approximately one-quarter of the participants (28.86%, 2407/8341) completed both assessments. Most of the completers (2161/2407, 89.78%) engaged in the platform at least once. Among all participants (N=8341), 8.78% (n=707) accessed only recorded sessions and 33.78% (n=2818) participated only in the live programs. Most participants engaged in both live and recorded options, with those who used any recordings (2686/8341, 32.20%) tending to use them 3-4 times. Controlling for completer status, any participation with the eMindful OPC reduced stress (B=–0.32, 95% CI –0.35 to –0.30, SE=0.01, t2393.25=–24.99, P<.001, Cohen d=–1.02). Participation in live programs drove the decrease in stress (B=–0.03, SE=0.01, t3258.61=–3.03, P=.002, d=–0.11), whereas participation in recorded classes alone did not. Regular practice across the month led to a greater reduction in stress. Conclusions Our findings are in stark contrast to the rapid evolution of online mindfulness training for the workplace. While the market is reproducing apps and recorded teaching at an unprecedented pace, our results demonstrate that live mindfulness programs with recorded or on-demand programs used to supplement live practices confer the strongest likelihood of achieving a significant decrease in stress levels.
Chapter
It is likely safe to assume that nearly all students are coming to, and engaging in, school settings with multiple stressors and personal challenges. Moreover, the global pandemic has likely exacerbated these mental health issues. As such, the general problem is that many students are not adequately prepared to handle stress and emotional challenges in conjunction with everyday life and in school. This has the potential to derail both their personal well-being and their academic success. Mindfulness is a viable resource in PK-12 school systems to guide the acquisition and development of emotion regulation. This chapter describes the conceptual underpinnings that make up mindfulness. More specifically, the purpose of this chapter is to delineate how mindfulness in PK-12 classrooms may be used to promote students' emotion regulation, and to provide clear and specific examples and strategies of mindfulness practices that facilitate the development of empathy and sound emotion regulation.
Article
The current study aimed to explore the impact of a school-based mindfulness intervention on bullying behaviors among teenagers. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which the experimental group ( n = 92) received mindfulness intervention, and the control group ( n = 97) did not. The measured outcomes included: bullying behavior, self-control, and trait mindfulness. The results were as follows: (1) the post-test scores of trait mindfulness and self-control in the experimental group significantly increased ( p < 0.01) while the scores of bullying behavior significantly decreased ( p < 0.01); (2) trait mindfulness was positively associated with self-control (r = 0.13 to 0.63, p < 0.05), whereas trait mindfulness and self-control were both negatively associated with bullying behavior (r = −0.38 to −0.13, p < 0.05); and (3) the mediating effect of self-control accounted for 50% of the overall effect of trait mindfulness on bullying behavior. These findings demonstrated that the school-based mindfulness intervention distinctly improves trait mindfulness and self-control and reduces bullying behavior among teenagers. Moreover, self-control plays a mediating role between trait mindfulness and bullying behavior.
Article
"Purpose: The present study aimed to explore gender differences in the mindfulness tendency, specifically in the awareness and attention dimensions and also in the observing, describing, acting with awareness and accepting without judgement in Italian nurses. Methods: In June 2020 an on-line questionnaire was administered to nurses in order to analyze any differences both in the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) according to gender variable. Findings: 200 questionnaires were collected. Findings showed significant higher MAAS total score in males than females (p=.004). Additionally, by considering the four sub dimensions in the Mindfulness tendency, females reported significant higher levels in some items of “Observe” (p=.004) and “Act with awareness” (p=.001) than males, while males reported significant higher scores in the “Accept without judgement” than females (p<.001). Conclusions: The present study was a pilot research on exploring gender differences in mindfulness in Italian nurses in order to hope that it will be only the beginning of empirical research on this topic and to better address future mindfulness training courses addressed to nurses by emphasizing certain aspects of mindfulness for females compared to males and vice versa."
Article
This study explores whether, and how, mindfulness mediates the relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering. Based on data from a sample of 335 members of faculty and administrative staff from Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University in Saudi Arabia, the paper provides insights into how mindfulness affects the relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering. The authors believe that it is the first time that mindfulness as a mediator in this relationship has been studied. They also believe that it is the first time such a study has been conducted in an Arab environment. By studying the relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering, and by studying mindfulness as a mediating variable in this relationship in a non‐Western environment, the study expands the external validity of the notions of spiritual leadership and human engineering. The results indicate a significant relationship between spiritual leadership and human engineering, and show that mindfulness has an indirect effect on this relationship. The article highlights the implications for dealing with stress in the work environment by using mindfulness as a driver for developing spiritual leadership, as well as understanding and practicing the values of spiritual leadership in promoting spirituality.
Article
Objective In recent years, digital techniques, such as virtual reality (VR) has been employed in tandem with more traditional psychological interventions. The aim of this study is to investigate whether VR-based mindfulness training can improve mental health outcomes, and notably mindfulness levels amongst adults. In addition, this review seeks to summarise the various designed VR scenarios, as well as those elements around VR that may assist people in practising mindfulness and meditation. Methods The search for eligible studies for inclusion was conducted via the following databases: the Applied Social Science Index & Abstract (ASSIA), PsychINFO, Medline, EMBASE, and the Web-of-Science Core Collection. Only experimental studies were eligible for inclusion, and specifically, those that compared the effectiveness of mindfulness training using immersive VR (on the one hand) with a control condition. Results This search generated 2,523 articles published between 2016 and 2022, and of these, 106 were assessed for eligibility. This review included seven studies, with a collective total of 798 participants. VR-based mindfulness training has been shown to be more effective than conventional mindfulness – it improves levels of mindfulness and meditation experience; but also shown to reduce anxiety, depression, improve sleep quality, emotion regulation, and generate mood improvement. VR-based mindfulness training frequently contains natural ‘environmentally relevant’ elements, such as forest, grassland, caves, sea, etc. Conclusions This review suggests that using VR to assist mindfulness training is an effective and innovative way to improve mental health conditions within the adult population. Further directions and limitations are discussed.
Article
Purpose The benefits of meaning in the workplace are abundant. However, few opportunities exist to increase meaning among employees in ways that result in desired organizational impacts. The current study developed two new mindfulness-based interventions designed to ultimately increase both job and life satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Over five days, 67 participants either: (1) Reported their daily activities, (2) Additionally rated the meaningfulness of each hour, or (3) Additionally planned to increase the meaning of the least meaningful activities. At the beginning and end of the week, they also reported their job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Findings Results suggested that listing daily activities and rating the meaningfulness of each hour was most beneficial. Compared to only listing daily activities, this group experienced greater job and life satisfaction. In contrast, the group that additionally attempted to increase the meaningfulness of their daily activities did not perform better on either of these measures. Practical implications Spending only a few minutes focusing on recognizing the meaning in one's daily activities can improve one's job and life satisfaction. As such, organizations may consider encouraging engagement in such a task either at the end of the workday or at home. Doing so may result in an increase in both how satisfied they are at home and at work. Originality/value This provides initial evidence for a short intervention that may greatly increase the well-being of employees at work and home.
Chapter
Erholung von der Arbeit ist wichtig für die Aufrechterhaltung von Wohlbefinden, Gesundheit und Leistungsfähigkeit von Beschäftigten. Erholung wird als Prozess verstanden, der dem Stressprozess entgegenwirkt, indem Stressfolgen neutralisiert und verbrauchte Ressourcen wiederaufgebaut werden. Erholung kann sowohl während des Arbeitstages in Arbeitspausen wie auch außerhalb der Arbeit am Feierabend, am Wochenende oder im Urlaub stattfinden. In diesem Kapitel unterscheiden wir zwischen direkten und indirekten Interventionsansätzen zur Förderung von Erholungsprozessen. Direkte Interventionen verfolgen das primäre Ziel Erholungsprozesse zu fördern, indem sie beispielsweise an den sogenannten Erholungserfahrungen ansetzen. Indirekte Interventionen fördern Erholungsprozesse ebenfalls, auch wenn sie primär ein anderes Ziel (z. B. Steigerung von Achtsamkeit, Förderung einer stärkeren Grenzziehung zwischen Arbeit und Privatleben) verfolgen. Bei den indirekten Interventionsansätzen werden wir insbesondere auf Achtsamkeitsinterventionen eingehen, die die absichtsvolle und nicht-wertende Lenkung der Aufmerksamkeit auf den aktuellen Moment fördern. Innerhalb der direkten wie auch indirekten Interventionsansätze werden Interventionen zur Förderung von Erholung während sowie außerhalb der Arbeit bezüglich ihrer Effektivität dargestellt.
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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This study investigated, and partially aimed to replicate, important construct validity aspects and the homogeneity of trait mindfulness measures. Specifically, the study set out to examine whether a single dimension can explain the shared variance among these measures as well as the extent to which they converge with one another and in terms of their linkages to the Five-Factor Model (FFM). Two samples completed all trait measures of the construct and one of them additionally completed a measure of the Big Five personality traits. Results showed that a single dimension explains the shared variance among measures based on the original, Eastern conceptualization of mindfulness, although not all of them seem to represent this construct comprehensively. Intercorrelations, dimensionality analysis, as well as linkages to the FFM indicated that the Eastern and Western conceptualizations, and their respective measures, reflect distinct constructs. However, the amount of variance overlap with the FFM was similar across the two conceptualizations.
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Given the recent proliferation of mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies, there is a growing need for clarification of the construct of mindfulness and how to evaluate its progression during these treatments. Although mindfulness has been conceptualized as a process, it has been primarily operationalized as an outcome; therefore, important aspects of this construct may be overlooked in current research. This two-part study presents a theoretical examination of mindfulness as a process, along with the preliminary development of a new, process-oriented mindfulness questionnaire (Mindfulness Process Questionnaire [MPQ]) to measure and further investigate this conceptualization of mindfulness. In Study 1, 410 participants from an urban university campus completed measures of mindfulness, emotional responding, and well-being. We examined the relationship between the MPQ and both the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, as well as the incremental ability of the new measure to predict outcomes of interest, including psychological symptoms, emotional processing, and well-being. Findings from Study 1 indicate that the MPQ captures a unique aspect of mindfulness, beyond what is already measured by existing mindfulness questionnaires. In Study 2, 18 participants were randomly assigned to an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Therapy condition for generalized anxiety disorder. We examined the ability of the changes in MPQ scores from pre- to posttreatment to predict changes in similar outcomes of interest, including psychological symptoms, emotional processing, and well-being. Consistent with findings from Study 1, results suggest a significant relationship between the MPQ and these outcome measures, indicating a need for further study.
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This study develops a model of engagement in the multiple roles of work and family. I examine two competing arguments about the effects of engaging in multiple roles, depletion and enrichment, and integrate them by identifying the type of emotional response to a role, negative or positive, as a critical contrasting assumption held by these two perspectives. Moreover, I represent depletion and enrichment as complex multistep processes that include multiple constructs, such as engagement and emotion. This study jointly examines both the depleting and enriching processes that link engagement in one role to engagement in another, using structural equation modeling. Findings from a survey of 790 employees reveal evidence for both depletion and enrichment as well as gender differences. Specifically, depletion existed only for women and only in the work-to-family direction. Men experienced enrichment from work to family, while women experienced enrichment from family to work. Overall, more linkages were found between work and family for women than for men.
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The literature is replete with evidence that the stress inherent in health care negatively impacts health care professionals, leading to increased depression, decreased job satisfaction, and psychological distress. In an attempt to address this, the current study examined the effects of a short-term stress management program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), on health care professionals. Results from this prospective randomized controlled pilot study suggest that an 8-week MBSR intervention may be effective for reducing stress and increasing quality of life and self-compassion in health care professionals. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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Mindfulness describes a state of consciousness in which individuals attend to ongoing events and experiences in a receptive and non-judgmental way. The present research investigated the idea that mindfulness reduces emotional exhaustion and improves job satisfaction. The authors further suggest that these associations are mediated by the emotion regulation strategy of surface acting. Study 1 was a 5-day diary study with 219 employees and revealed that mindfulness negatively related to emotional exhaustion and positively related to job satisfaction at both the within- and the between-person levels. Both relationships were mediated by surface acting at both levels of analysis. Study 2 was an experimental field study, in which participants (N = 64) were randomly assigned to a self-training mindfulness intervention group or a control group. Results revealed that participants in the mindfulness intervention group experienced significantly less emotional exhaustion and more job satisfaction than participants in the control group. The causal effect of mindfulness self-training on emotional exhaustion was mediated by surface acting. Implications for using mindfulness and mindfulness training interventions in organizational research and practice are discussed in conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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In this study, we extend previous work documenting links between procrastination, stress, and physical health by examining the potential role of mindfulness in explaining the high stress and poor health reported by procrastina-tors. A sample of 339 students (81% female) completed an on-line survey that included measures of trait procrastination, mindfulness, perceived stress, and per-ceived health. Univariate analyses revealed that procrastination was associated with low mindfulness, high stress, and poor perceived health. Structural equation mod-elling was used to test the role of mindfulness in explaining the links between procrastination and stress, and between procrastination and perceived health. The overall measurement model indicated a good fit to the data. Tests of the nested mediation models revealed that the effects of procrastination on stress and health were mediated by mindfulness, and bootstrapping analyses confirmed the signifi-cance of these effects. Our findings are consistent with previous research and theory on the salutatory effects of mindfulness for health and well-being and indicate that for procrastinators, low mindfulness may be a risk factor for poor emotional and physical well-being. This paper is based in part on data collected for Natalia Tosti's (2010) honours thesis.
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Studied the relationships between organizational variables (job and organizational stressors), individual variables (personality traits), and burnout. Computer-aided questionnaires were used to tap the appraisal of these variables by 224 senior managers who had taken an annual medical examination. Results show that several organizational stressors combined with personality traits explain a significant amount of variance for 2 of the 3 dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment. Tests of the moderating effect of social support show that social support has a marginal role in buffering burnout. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and the 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Purpose: Rehabilitation settings can be extremely demanding, and sometimes stressful, places to work. It is important, therefore, to consider influences on rehabilitation workers' health and general well-being and on their ability to face emotional, physical, or mental challenges at work. The purpose of this study was to examine a set of psychological processes, including psychological acceptance, mindfulness, and values-based action, that may be relevant to this problem. Method: Ninety-eight rehabilitation workers at the Rehabilitation Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, completed measures of background variables, health, and functioning, in addition to the 3 psychological variables of primary interest. Results: Correlation analyses demonstrated significant relations of the acceptance, mindfulness, and values measures with the measures of stress, burnout symptoms, health, and well-being, particularly general health perception, vitality, social functioning, and emotional functioning. In regression analyses, the process variables accounted for significant, and in some cases practically meaningful, increments in explained variance in 10 key outcomes related to work experience and health. Conclusion: Acceptance, mindfulness, and values-based action deserve further consideration in relation to burnout, health, and well-being among rehabilitation workers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Middle managers are often involved in complex, ambiguous and changing situations. Previous research found that middle managers who adapt to the uncertain environment successfully show high managerial mindfulness. To establish the generality of such finding, we develop a managerial mindfulness scale and examine the relationships between managerial mindfulness and two situational adaptation variables (i.e., reputational effectiveness and work-unit performance) and the moderating effects of two situational uncertainty variables (i.e., role conflict and role ambiguity). In Study 1, we obtain a three-factor scale of managerial mindfulness with good convergent validity and discriminant validity. In Study 2, we use this managerial mindfulness scale to test its relationship to situational adaptation. Results indicate that managerial mindfulness has positive effects on reputational effectiveness and work-unit performance when the situations are characterized by high role ambiguity, but the positive relationship disappears when role ambiguity is low. Findings enrich the existing research on mindfulness and adaptation.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate conflicting findings in previous research on personality and job performance. Meta-analysis was used to (a) assess the overall validity of personality measures as predictors of job performance, (b) investigate the moderating effects of several study characteristics on personality scale validity, and (c) appraise the predictability of job performance as a function of eight distinct categories of personality content, including the “Big Five” personality factors. Based on review of 494 studies, usable results were identified for 97 independent samples (total N= 13,521). Consistent with predictions, studies using confirmatory research strategies produced a corrected mean personality scale validity (.29) that was more than twice as high as that based on studies adopting exploratory strategies (.12). An even higher mean validity (.38) was obtained based on studies using job analysis explicitly in the selection of personality measures. Validities were also found to be higher in longer tenured samples and in published articles versus dissertations. Corrected mean validities for the “Big Five” factors ranged from .16 for Extroversion to .33 for Agreeableness. Weaknesses in the reporting of validation study characteristics are noted, and recommendations for future research in this area are provided. Contrary to conclusions of certain past reviews, the present findings provide some grounds for optimism concerning the use of personality measures in employee selection.
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Cognitive theorists describe mindfulness as a form of attention-awareness in which thoughts can be observed in non-judging, de-centered, and non-attached ways. However, empirical research has not examined associations between mindfulness and responses to negative automatic thoughts, such as the ability to let go of negative cognition. In the first study reported in this article, measures of dispositional mindfulness were negatively correlated with negative thought frequency and perceptions of the ability to let go of negative thoughts in an unselected student sample. In the second study reported, these associations were replicated in a treatment-seeking student sample, where participation in a mindfulness meditation-based clinical intervention was shown to be associated with decreases in both frequency and perceptions of difficulty in letting-go of negative automatic thoughts. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
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Sense of Coherence (SOC) is conceptualized as a disposition to experience life as meaningful and manageable. Research suggests a protective effect of SOC on psychological health in stressful circumstances. This study assessed the capacity of SOC to buffer the effect of illness symptoms on psychological distress among patients with fibromyalgia. Self-reported changes in SOC after participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program were also examined. Ninety-one women with fibromyalgia provided baseline data pertaining to illness symptoms, perceived stress, and depression prior to participation in a randomized trial of MBSR. SOC and fibromyalgia symptoms were independently related to perceived stress and depression at baseline. SOC was not a statistically significant moderator of symptom effects on psychological distress. In comparison with wait-listed controls, program participants reported a significant increase in SOC after MBSR participation. These results provide the first demonstration from a randomized trial that SOC may be enhanced via intervention.
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In this chapter we argue that self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) provides a useful conceptual tool for organizational researchers, one that complements traditional work motivation theories. First, we review SDT, showing that it has gone far beyond the "intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation" dichotomy with which it began. Then we show how the theory might be applied to better understand a variety of organizational phenomena, including the positive effects of transformational leadership, the nature of "true" goal-commitment, the determinants of employees' training motivation, and the positive impact of certain human resource practices. We note that SDT may yield significant new understanding of work motivation, and suggest opportunities to refine the theory for research on work-related phenomena.
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Background: The relationship between trait mindfulness and substance use behaviors has been inconsistent across studies. The current meta-analysis aimed at quantifying the magnitude of this relationship, and at determining how this relationship varies in context of (1) mindfulness facets, (2) substance type, (3) sample characteristics, and (4) substance use severity. Methods: Using electronic databases, the literature search yielded 303 articles, but only 39 articles met inclusion criteria to be included in this meta-analysis. The relationship was quantified as a Pearson's r correlation coefficient for all studies. Results: Findings indicated a small, negative, and significant trait mindfulness-substance use behaviors relationship (r=-0.13). This relationship varied across substance type, clinical status of the sample, and substance use severity. Mindfulness facet was not a significant moderator; however, only particular facets (e.g., acting with awareness, non-judgment, and non-reactivity) were consistently associated with substance use behaviors. Conclusions: This meta-analysis quantified the trait mindfulness-substance use behaviors relationship, which can be used as future effect size estimates. Findings also indicated that the trait mindfulness-substance use behaviors relationship was more robust: (1) for alcohol and tobacco use compared to marijuana use behaviors; (2) for problematic compared to non-problematic substance use behaviors; and (3) with inpatient compared to outpatient and non-clinical samples. Further work should continue to examine if acting with awareness, non-judgment, and non-reactivity mindfulness facets are more robustly associated with substance use behaviors. Failure to consider these factors, or collapsing across these factors, could explain the smaller or inconsistently reported associations across previous studies.
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Work-induced exhaustion and diminished vigour require recovery periods to offset future deleterious consequences for mental and physical health. It is therefore important to understand the factors that effect recovery. This study sought insight into the roles of the personal trait of mindfulness (which refers to paying attention to present experiences) and situational circumstances (respite experiences) that facilitate recovery during a short period of respite, expressed in decreased exhaustion and increased vigour. Two hundred nursing employees from 27 units of a hospital in the northern part of Israel responded to three sets of questionnaires before, during and after two-day periods of respite. Results showed that the nurses' level of exhaustion decreased and level of vigour increased after the short respite, indicating a successful recovery. Mixed Linear Model analyses identified the nature of respite activities and experiences (fewer non-work hassles and relaxation) and mindfulness as crucial catalysts of the recovery process. Mindfulness moderated the effects of non-work hassles and relaxation experiences on the levels of exhaustion and vigour after the short respites. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings for the recovery process are discussed.
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In the past, research examining the work-related correlates of job satisfaction in programmer/analysts has focused on the relationship between characteristics of the job itself and job satisfaction. It is hypothesized that certain aspects of relationships with co-workers, project leaders, and users will also be significant correlates of job satisfaction. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction, role conflict, role ambiguity, and quality of leadership provided by supervisors and peers is examined. A questionnaire measuring job characteristics, role conflict and ambiguity, leadership characteristics, and job satisfaction was administered to 118 programmer/analysts at four companies. The results indicate that both role and leadership variables correlated at least as highly with job satisfaction as job characteristics and that the addition of role and leadership variables to job characteristics significantly increases the explained variance in job satisfaction.
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Previous research has suggested that high levels of burnout lead to impaired functioning on the job. However, as this research has usually relied on self-reported performance, it is imperative to examine whether this association is also confirmed when using “objective” performance data (e.g., supervisor reports). This study reviewed previous research on the associations between burnout (exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) and various types of objective performance. A systematic literature search identified 16 studies dealing with the burnout–performance relationship. These studies showed the wide variety of approaches that are used to study burnout and objective performance. Using data from these 16 studies, a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain mean correlations. The meta-analytical correlations between exhaustion and in-role behaviour (based on five studies), organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB; five studies), and customer satisfaction (two studies) were −.22, −.19, and −.55, respectively, underlining the practical relevance of burnout research for organizational performance. The evidence for the relationships between depersonalization, personal accomplishment, and performance was inconclusive. Future research should focus on valid indicators of job performance, should more often employ longitudinal designs and large samples, and should consider the theoretical basis for the study expectations more extensively.