Chapter

Ice Class Rules and International Regulations

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Abstract

Traditionally, ice class rules and regulations for ships sailing in ice have been developed by nations whose fairways are blocked by ice in winter. Strengthening of ships for sailing in ice-covered waters has not been regulated by international treaties, but coastal states have imposed requirements for ships to be ice strengthened when entering their ports or sailing in their coastal waters. Recently, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted new energy efficiency regulations for new ships, where the special needs of ice-strengthened ships have been taken into account. IMO has also developed a mandatory code for ships operating in polar waters. The code contains safety regulations, including ice strengthening, and regulations covering prevention of pollution of the Arctic and Antarctic marine environment by ships. It is evident that ships sailing in ice conditions require special consideration, especially when international regulations for protection of the environment from pollution by ships are developed. In this document, the most important ice class rules are described. The energy efficiency regulations of IMO and the development of the Polar Code are discussed briefly, with emphasis placed on how the special needs of ships designed to sail in ice conditions have been taken into account in IMO regulations.

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... As per IMO [12]; maritime activity in the Arctic is subject to multiple hazards including sea ice, icing, low temperatures, darkness, poor satellite coverage, remoteness, a lack of relevant crew experience, and difficult weather conditions. To account for such hazards, traditionally the design of Arctic ships has been regulated by mainstream International Maritime Organization (IMO) statutory instruments, such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which have been supplemented by flag state and classification society specific ice class regulations [13]. To harmonise the regulations, in 2017 the IMO enforced the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code), making it mandatory under both SOLAS and MARPOL [12]. ...
... In contrary to the Polar Class rules, the FSICR consider the probabilistic nature of ice loading and an assumed return period [38]. Specifically, the rules have been determined so that for a ship with a typical operating profile, the yield limit state of the ship's structure is expected to be reached once a year, whereas the plastic limit state is expected to be reached once during a ship's lifetime [13]. For ships operating on the Baltic Sea, the rules can be considered very robust, as they have been calibrated based on extensive ice damage surveys and are 'tested' every year by a large number of ships [13]. ...
... Specifically, the rules have been determined so that for a ship with a typical operating profile, the yield limit state of the ship's structure is expected to be reached once a year, whereas the plastic limit state is expected to be reached once during a ship's lifetime [13]. For ships operating on the Baltic Sea, the rules can be considered very robust, as they have been calibrated based on extensive ice damage surveys and are 'tested' every year by a large number of ships [13]. However, because the rules rely significantly on empirical data from 'typical' ship operations in the Baltic Sea, they cannot be assumed efficient for ships operating in the Arctic. ...
Article
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... While maritime activities in the Arctic provides many benefits for society, as per IMO (2015) it is important to recognize that they are subject to multiple hazards including sea ice, icing, low temperatures, darkness, poor satellite coverage, remoteness, lack of relevant crew experience, and difficult weather conditions. To manage the related risks, traditionally the design of Arctic ships has been regulated by mainstream International Maritime Organization (IMO) statutory instruments, such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MAR-POL), which have been supplemented by flag state or classification society specific ice class regulations (Kämäräinen and Riska 2017). To harmonize the regulations, in 2017 the IMO enforced the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code), making it mandatory under both SOLAS and MARPOL (IMO 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
While society benefits from Arctic shipping, it is necessary to recognize that ship operations in Arctic waters pose significant risks to people, the environment, and property. To support the management of those risks, this article presents a comprehensive approach addressing both short-term operational risks, as well as risks related to long-term extreme ice loads. For the management of short-term operational risks, an extended version of the Polar Operational Limit Assessment Risk Indexing System (POLARIS) considering the magnitude of the consequences of potential adverse events is proposed. For the management of risks related to long-term extreme ice loads, guidelines are provided for using existing analytical, numerical, and semi-empirical methods. In addition, to support the design of ice class ship structures, the article proposes a novel approach that can be used in the conceptual design phase for the determination of preliminary scantlings for primary hull structural members.
Chapter
The paper presents an overview of progress from the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regarding various requirements for ships operating in polar waters, with special emphasis on the requirements for the Arctic, including provisions concerning matters such as stability, life-saving appliances, navigation, guidelines for ships operating in polar waters, special area status, carriage requirements for heavy grade fuel oil, certification of ice navigators, and fishing vessels. Relevant international conventions include the following: International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS 1974) http:// treaties. un. org/ doc/ Publication/ UNTS/ Volume%20 1184/ v1184. pdf.; 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78) http:// treaties. un. org/ untc/ / Pages/ / doc/ Publication/ UNTS/ %20 Volume%20 1340/ volume-1340-I-22484-English. pdf.); International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW 1978) http:// www. admiraltylawguid e. com/ conven/ stcw1978. html.); and Torremolinos International Convention for the Safety of Fishing Vessel, 1977, as modified by the Torremolinos Protocol of 1993 relating thereto http:// www. ecolex. org/ server2. php/ libcat/ docs/ TRE/ Multilateral/ En/ TRE001173. doc.). IMO’s ongoing work on the development of a mandatory International Code of Safety for Ships Operating in Polar Waters is described in some detail. The paper also briefly touches on relevant provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982) as well as on other international requirements and activities concerning the subject in which IMO is directly or indirectly involved.
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Article
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Article
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Simulation of ship-ice interaction
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Full Scale Observations of Ship-Ice Contact
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Long-Term Measurements of Ice Pressure and Ice-Induced Stresses on the Icebreaker SISU in Winter 1978
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