Experimental Characterization Strategies of Non-Linearity Measurement Exhibitions for The Wideband LNA in IEEE L and S Bands

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DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0204/02
Abstract
In this paper, the test portrayal strategies of nonlinear measurements of wideband LNA exhibitions are simulated. Likewise, significance of the nonlinear estimations has been portrayed unmistakably with microwave LNA operating large signal analysis had been assessed. This work is endeavored to demonstrate the performances of the LNA with AM-AM, AM-PM measurements in points of interest and differentiating from the linear measurement regime. The most of the important aspects of LNA will be in linear measurements and furthermore to quantify nonlinear measurements accurately harmonic balance simulator is used. The harmonics up to order 3 and power characteristics are altogether shown with power swept variable. A simulation setup is made to measure the characteristics of LNA by using spectrum rectangular display type with power harmonic components. At last, author designed wideband LNA from the bandwidth 1 GHz to 5 GHz and elaborates how nonlinear measurements changed the way of LNA design to validate and development in microwave frequencies.
(IJEACS) International Journal of Engineering and Applied Computer Science
Volume: 02, Issue: 04, April 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-5-9
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0204/02
127
Experimental Characterization Strategies of Non-
Linearity Measurement Exhibitions for The
Wideband LNA in IEEE L and S Bands
Pramod K B Rangaiah
PhD student of JAIN University, Electronics Engineering
MCT’s RGIT, EXTC Dept, Mumbai
Bangalore, India
Kumaraswamy H V
Dean CAT, RVCE
Telecommunication Dept
Bangalore, India
AbstractIn this paper, the test portrayal strategies of nonlinear
measurements of wideband LNA exhibitions are simulated.
Likewise, significance of the nonlinear estimations has been
portrayed unmistakably with microwave LNA operating large
signal analysis had been assessed. This work is endeavored to
demonstrate the performances of the LNA with AM-AM, AM-
PM measurements in points of interest and differentiating from
the linear measurement regime. The most of the important
aspects of LNA will be in linear measurements and furthermore
to quantify nonlinear measurements accurately harmonic
balance simulator is used. The harmonics up to order 3 and
power characteristics are altogether shown with power swept
variable. A simulation setup is made to measure the
characteristics of LNA by using spectrum rectangular display
type with power harmonic components. At last, author designed
wideband LNA from the bandwidth 1 GHz to 5 GHz and
elaborates how nonlinear measurements changed the way of LNA
design to validate and development in microwave frequencies.
Keywords- wideband LNA; Nonlinear measurements;
microwave and harmonics.
I. INTRODUCTION
Microwave amplifiers are fundamental empowering parts
for wireless communication systems, broadband, wideband
satellite and radars applications. Propelled estimation methods
that give precise data on crucial parts of the amplifier dynamics
and noise are significant to enhance achievement in the plan
and manufacture of present day mobile handsets [1-3].
Microwave amplifiers add noise to the coveted signal
delivering corruption of affectability, determination and signal
quality in wireless systems. NF is usually decided without the
carrier, yet it can likewise be acquired from AM or PM noise
spectra and, along these lines, as an element of carrier level [4-
6].
The Calculations of intermodulation (IM) noise and input
power to output power transfer attributes for various distinctive
nonlinear amplifiers are observed to be in great concurrence
with estimations. The calculations are depending on the
deliberate AM/AM and AM/PM attributes, and incorporate
aftereffects of a simulation in the EDA tools like AWR, and
diagnostic results in light of displaying the amplifier as a
perfect envelope limiter [7].
II. RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND COLLECTED DATA
This area depicts about most recent related work done by
the analyst on nonlinear measurements, V. Bridier et al.,[8]
portrayed of radar power amplifier driven by non-periodic
pulsed signal was proposed. The mixer based NVNA can
gauge the basic and two harmonics at the same time while
utilizing non-periodic radar pulse train prepare permitting
measuring time domain waveforms and pulse to pulse
measurement within actual radar conditions. The estimation is
connected on a S-band 5W GaN on silicon HEMT. Later, [9]
measure a non-periodic monotonous radar pulse train as a
prepare as an intermittent one was performed. At that point,
surprisingly a 20 GHz six port mixers based NVNA ready to
gauge three unique frequencies in the meantime is outlined and
approved. This instrument permitted us to defeat the
imprecision brought about by the successive estimations of the
distinctive tones that emerge when the gadget under test show
highly unstable pulse to pulse behavior conduct which is
regular in radar working conditions. It was conceivable to get
the nonlinear conduct of a gadget inside a genuinely non-
periodic predefined pulse train. B. Brown [10], depicted a RF
network analyzer, the HP 8753B, which can make nonlinear
estimations of amplifiers and mixers. The estimations to be
talked about are cleared swept-frequency harmonic distortion,
gain compression with power metal calibration, and swept-
frequency conversion loss of a mixer. Moreover, the piece
graph of the system analyzer will be inspected with a specific
end goal to clarify how these estimations are made. Pramod K
B et.al, [11] displayed an examination, setup, outline to
quantify nonlinear attributes of LNA besides examination,
Pramod K B Rangaiah et al.
(IJEACS) International Journal of Engineering and Applied Computer Science
Volume: 02, Issue: 04, April 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-5-9
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0204/02
128
evaluate those estimations in the AWR microwave office Tool.
An extensive bit of the basic parts of LNA will be in linear
measurements and which is composed, designed and simulated
for the ultra-wideband LNA from 3-10GHz.
III. THE PROPOSED DESIGN
Figure 1. The proposed LNA design Schematic in block form
The above figure 1 is the entire schematic diagram of the
proposed design of the wideband LNA. It has obviously
indicated schematic comprises of the sub block which is having
name (net) from left side to be specific "Input Matching Stubs‖,
―Total Ckt‖, MLIN, Capacitor and MTRACE2, ―Total Ckt
and ―Output Matching Stubs‖. Every last square will be
examined obviously one by one with schematic and designs.
The reason, limit and capacity of every sub-square will be
examined and analyzed in detail advance.
Figure 2. Shows the Sub Block ―Total Ckt‖ of the complete schematic in
detail
The above figure 2 is the sub block of the main circuit
schematic figure 1. In order to make cascaded LNA is it good
practices by the designer to make first single stage LNA circuit
and then followed by that same circuit will be duplicated and
connected in series side by side. The cascaded 2 stage amplifier
will be done by using 2 ―Total Ckt‖ with intermediate
matching by using capacitor ―ID S3‖, ―MLIN‖ and
―MTRACE2‖ which is shown in figure 1 . LNA parameters are
mainly depend on S parameters which varies with respect to
frequency. Also Гin depends on Zin and ГL, ГL depends on ZL
and ГIN . Zin and ZL will be different for different biasing
components. Effects of biasing components is also frequency
dependent.
Figure 3. The small signal model of a pHEMT
Cgs and Cgd depends on the biasing voltage because the
depletion region changes with the bias .
Figure 4. The small signal model of a pHEMT at zero drain bias and gate
voltage below pinch-off
The three capacitances Cg, Cs and Cd are given by triangle-star
transformation as given below
Cg = Cgs + Cgd + [(Cgs* Cgd)/ Cds] (1)
Cs = Cgs + Cds + [(Cgs* Cds)/ Cgd] (2)
Cd = Cds + Cgd + [(Cgd* Cds)/ Cgs] (3)
Input port and output port impedances can be expressed using
Z11 = Rg +Rs + j * [( Lg + Ls) (1/ ) { ( 1/Cg )+ (1/Cs)}] (4)
Z22 = Rd +Rs + j * [( Ld + Ls) (1/ ) { ( 1/Cd )+ (1/Cs)}] (5)
Input reflection coefficient and output reflection coefficient
Γin = ( Zin Z0 )/( Zin + Z0 ) (6)
ΓL = ( ZL Z0 )/( ZL + Z0 ) (7)
Equivalent input and output impedances can be expressed
in terms of two port Z parameters.
Pramod K B Rangaiah et al.
(IJEACS) International Journal of Engineering and Applied Computer Science
Volume: 02, Issue: 04, April 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-5-9
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0204/02
129
Zin = Z11 [(Z12* Z21)/( ZL + Z22 )] (8)
ZL = Z22 [(Z12* Z21)/( ZG + Z11 )] (9)
On the premise of the above arrangement numerical
conditions unmistakably reliance of Γin and ΓL furthermore
Zin and ZL on Cg, Cs and Cd which changes because of
progress in biasing conditions.
For the effective outcome, even after fabrication
implementations this proposed configuration will be conveyed
into two unique forms of the micro strip lines structure.
Figure 5. Shows the 2D layout of the complete proposed LNA design
This above figure 5 shows the complete 2D layout and
figure 6 shows 3D layout. This is the layout of proposed
changes in input matching stubs and output matching stubs for
the complete circuit which has displayed in figure 1. To avoid
the parasitic fringing effects the metal outer shape has been
provided and series vias are provided to remove or unnecessary
charges will be grounded immediately
Figure 6. Shows the 3D layout of the complete proposed LNA design
IV. NON-LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
This segment depicts the obtained quantities and the normal
estimation approaches. Despite the fact that the non-linear
measurements that much fundamental for the LNA in this
research proposed design measured to have better clarity [12-
14]. The first strategy measures all amounts identified with
power (scalar quantities) with huge band power meters and the
majority of the other vector quantities (reflection coefficients)
with a formerly adjusted VNA. As in all open loop control
systems, this setup is constrained in light of the fact that the
preparatory adjustment decides the nature of the results [15-
16].
A. AM to AM
In the figure 7 shows the measurement of AM to AM with
swept power from -30dBm to 30dBm for the proposed design
LNA with the specified options. This result shows a sample
AM to AM output data file of a 2-port circuit proposed LNA,
where Port 1 is the input port and Port 2 is the output port. The
input port is exited with variable power supply from -30dBm to
30dBm over all frequency swept.
Figure 7. AM to AM response with swept power (-10dBm t0 30dBm)
measurements from simulations.
B. AM to PM measurements
In the above figure 8 demonstrates the estimation of AM to
PM with cleared power from - 30dBm to 30dBm for the
proposed design LNA with the predetermined choices. When
Output Data Type is PM, the estimation composes the AM to
PM change of the circuit, registering the stage point of the
output voltage as a component of power in. where Port 1 is the
input port and Port 2 is the output port. The input port is left
with variable power supply from - 10dBm to 15dBm over all
frequency sweep.
Figure 8. AM to PM response with swept power (-10dBm 10 15dBm)
measurements from simulations.
Pramod K B Rangaiah et al.
(IJEACS) International Journal of Engineering and Applied Computer Science
Volume: 02, Issue: 04, April 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-5-9
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0204/02
130
C. Harmonics
Harmonics are a numerical method for portraying
mutilation to a voltage waveform. The term harmonic alludes
to a segment of a waveform that happens at a number different
of the essential fundamental frequency.
Figure 9. Shows the up to 3rd order harmonics for 3 frequency components
1, 3 and 5GHz.
The above figure 9 shows the harmonics responses of the
proposed LNA design for up to 3rd order for the three
fundamental frequencies 1, 3 and 5GHz and for the input
power is 10dBm. The output of fundamental components is
around 48, 33 dBm but harmonics is -370dBm. Which
concludes that harmonics can be easily filtered out.
Figure 10. Shows the up to 3rd order harmonics for the frequency components
3GHz
The above figure 10 demonstrates the harmonics responses
of the proposed LNA design for up to 3rd order for the
fundamental frequency 3GHz and for the input power is
10dBm. The output of fundamental components is around 33
dBm but harmonics is -370dBm. Which presumes that
harmonics will be effortlessly filtered out by using buffer filter
banks.
D. Power charactereistcis
The collective figures 11 to 13 displays the power
characteristics of the design LNA.
Figure 11. Shows the output power components for the power swept
throughout the frequency band
Figure 12. Shows the power gain of the proposed LNA
Figure 13. Shows power characteristics linearity test
Pramod K B Rangaiah et al.
(IJEACS) International Journal of Engineering and Applied Computer Science
Volume: 02, Issue: 04, April 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-5-9
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0204/02
131
V. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
The section includes the linear measurements of the
proposed LNA design
Figure 14. Shows Stability factors: Rollet Factor K and B1 of the proposed
LNA design
Figure 15. Shows Noise Figure characteristics of the proposed LNA design
The above demonstrated figure 14 shows the stability
factors which incorporates Rollet Factors K should greater than
1 and B1 auxiliary factors greater than 0 which is prevailing
through the band 1-5GHz. In the figure 15 which is plotted the
Noise Figure measurements which is less than 2dB up to 4GHz
Figure 16. Shows Gain in dB of complete design of the proposed LNA design
Figure 17. Shows Return loss at both Input and Output Port of the proposed
LNA design
In the above figure 16 demonstrates the transducer gain
(S21) which is having preferred esteem having more over 20dB
up to 4GHz however it is differing from 20dB to 38dB. In the
region of the interest between 2-4GHz it is having average of
23dB. Same lines figure 17 shows the very good return loss
(S11 and S22) is less than -12dB between 2-4GHz.
VI. CONCLUSION
This work concludes that, with linear S-parameters
measurements the nonlinear measurements likewise as critical
part in the estimations of the LNA. In this proposed work, the
attempt has made to address nonlinear and linear measurements
to the wide band LNA with the assistance of rectangular
display sort with basic estimations like linear measurements
Gain, NF, RL and stability. The nonlinear measurements like
AM-AM, AM-PM, Power spectrum, Power Gain and
harmonics are simulated. The work gave the required
information about LNA configuration by using different
improvement estimation strategies and key qualities. Finally,
author expounds and clarifies the linear, nonlinear estimations
request of LNA design to acknowledge and work at microwave
frequencies.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work is upheld and maintained by MCT's Rajiv
Gandhi Institute of Technology, Mumbai moreover authors
might need to express appreciation toward Dr. Udhav Bhosle,
Principal of RGIT, Chairman, IETE Mumbai division, for basic
support and comfort for this investigation work. The authors
may need to one of a kind an obligation of appreciation is all
together for Mr. Manjunatha Reddy H. V Technical Manager,
RF and μW division, Icon Design Automation Pvt. Ltd., and
Dr. Krishna Venkatesh Jain University.
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Pramod K B Rangaiah et al.
(IJEACS) International Journal of Engineering and Applied Computer Science
Volume: 02, Issue: 04, April 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-5-9
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0204/02
132
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AUTHOR PROFILE
Mr. Pramod K B Rangaiah was born in
Mysore, Karnataka, India in 1989. He is
currently working as Assistant Professor in
MCT’s RGIT, Mumbai and also working
towards Ph.D. degree at JAIN University,
Bangalore in Electronics Engineering. He
received his B.E degree in Electronics and
Communication from Dr. Ambedkar Institute of
Technology, Bangalore Visvesvaraya
Technological University in 2010, M.Tech
degree in R F Communication from Jain
University, Bangalore, in 2012 and He worked
as R F Design trainee at Icon Design and
Automation Pvt LTD. and as visiting research
scholar at University of Concordia, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. His research
includes Design, Characterization And Optimization Of RF Passive Devices,
Board Level Tuning And Optimization Of Matching Networks, Low Noise
Amplifier, Power Amplifier, Circuit Linearization And High-Efficiency Design
Techniques, Circuit Instability and Strategies.
Prof. Dr. Kumaraswamy H.V is currently
working as Dean CAT in the Dept. of
Telecommunication Engineering, RVCE,
Bangalore. His research interests are Digital
Signal Processing, Adaptive Signal Processing
and Communication. He has got Ph.D. from
Visvesvaraya Technological University for the
research work on Smart antenna System using
Dielectric lens. He is the author of the book titled
"Signals & Systems" Published by: Scitech
Publication, Chennai, ISB No.8188429260.
© 2017 by the author(s); licensee Empirical Research Press Ltd. United Kingdom. This is an open access article
distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license.
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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