Article

Resistance Training, Recovery and Genetics: AMPD1 the Gene for Recovery

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Genetics play a major role in every aspect of our lives; they determine our hair colour, eye colour, height, disease risks, gifts and some of our mannerisms. As such they also play a large function in our response to exercise and physical stressors. The gene AMPD1 is a protein coding gene, encoding adenosine monophosphate deminase 1. AMPD1 catalyses the deamination (the removal of an amine group from a molecule) of AMP to IMP in skeletal muscle, deficiency of the AMPD1 enzyme is a common cause of exercise-induced myopathy and probably the most common cause of metabolic myopathy. It appears that those with at least one T variant in AMPD1 (rs17602729) require longer rest periods between bouts of weight training, require longer between sessions and have increased perceived pain post training.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Samples were taken on iso-helix buccal swabs SK-1S and tested by an iso9001 certified lab. DNA data need only be gathered once in a person's lifetime due to the rigid nature of the genes analysed and the rarity of mutation (Collins, 2017). Due to this fact the timing of the swab samples and injury are of little importance, epigenetic data which may be changeable was not analysed in this study. ...
... This was also true for professional, semi-professional and amateur players. Although research on the association between AMPD1 and injury is limited, we have previously shown that weightlifters with CT or TT genotypes experience more pain following training sessions and needed longer recovery times (Collins, 2017). This suggests that soccer players with T variants might also require longer recovery between training sessions and matches, but are not given sufficient rest time and therefore have higher injury rates than players with the CC genotype. ...
... Common sense and the study shows that injuries are directly correlated to matches missed, which is highly costly for sports teams. The gene AMPD1 has been shown to be linked with a need for increased recovery after hard activity, and those who do take this rest actually perform better (Collins, 2017). By looking at the genes analysed here it would be possible to create a cost effective one time test that may help coaching staff personalise training and nutrition to help keep players injury free. ...
Preprint
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
... The AMPD1 gene (encoding the protein adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1) has been shown to be linked to a need for increased recovery after strenuous activity. Those who take this rest have better performance [3]. Indeed, this genetic variability determines the structure and function of tendons and ligaments, which influences and modifies the risk of injury for every human being. ...
Article
Background: Genomics is a science, which for decades has enabled us to study the variability of the genetic material of every living being. Using new Genome Sequencing Technologies (GWAS), research has demonstrated the impact of our genetic material on the risk of injury, especially in athletes. Methods: Variants of several genes and combinations of genes have been associated with an altered risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. An anterior cruciate ligament rupture would be twice as likely in a person with a family history of anterior cruciate ligament rupture. In this review of the literature, we attempted to establish a list of genes that would be involved in the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury and to understand how. Results: COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL12A1, GDF5, MMP, ELN, FBN-2, VEGFA, KDR, NGFB, HIF1A, ACAN, BGN, DCN, FMOD, LUM, Il-1B, Il-6 or even TNF, are as many genes or combinations of genes which code for proteins playing a role in the size and composition of muscle fibers, flexibility, structures and functions of tendons and ligaments but also in signaling pathways such as angiogenesis, inflammation and fibrillogenesis. Conclusion: This study also serves to focus on genetic screening for the follow-up, support and prevention of athlete injuries.
... This was also true for professional, semi-professional and amateur players. Although research on the association between AMPD1 and injury is limited, we have previously shown that weightlifters with CT or TT genotypes experience more pain following training sessions and needed longer recovery times (Collins, 2017). This suggests that soccer players with T variants might also require longer recovery between training sessions and matches, but are not given sufficient rest time and therefore have higher injury rates than players with the CC genotype. ...
Preprint
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
... Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) is a very important regulator of muscle energy metabolism during exercise playing a central role in the salvage of adenine nucleotides as well as the determination of energy charge. It has been shown that physical activity lowers skeletal muscle AMPD activity and part of the population who express the mutant AMPD1 T allele [2% of the Caucasian population are homozygous (TT genotype) and approximately 20% are heterozygous (CT genotype)] are vulnerable to muscular cramps, pain, and premature fatigue during exercises (Collins, 2017;Ginevi cien_ e et al., 2014). A nutrigenomic approach to people carrying almost a T allele in AMPD1 gene might involve carbohydrate drinks for endurance athletes and creatine monohydrate supplementation for strength athletes in order to reduce muscle soreness and to accelerate muscle recovery. ...
... Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) is a very important regulator of muscle energy metabolism during exercise playing a central role in the salvage of adenine nucleotides as well as the determination of energy charge. It has been shown that physical activity lowers skeletal muscle AMPD activity and part of the population who express the mutant AMPD1 T allele [2% of the Caucasian population are homozygous (TT genotype) and approximately 20% are heterozygous (CT genotype)] are vulnerable to muscular cramps, pain, and premature fatigue during exercises (Collins, 2017;Ginevi cien_ e et al., 2014). A nutrigenomic approach to people carrying almost a T allele in AMPD1 gene might involve carbohydrate drinks for endurance athletes and creatine monohydrate supplementation for strength athletes in order to reduce muscle soreness and to accelerate muscle recovery. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since ancient times, nutrition has always been considered an essential condition for maintaining good health. Hippocrates of Kos, the father of medicine, said in 460 BC: “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” His observations led to associative evidence between diet and health by highlighting how food is able to interfere with our body’s physiology by not only acting as an energy provider, but as a modulator of the health/disease balance in a different way for each individual (Tsiompanou and Marketos, 2013) depending on the personal characteristics. Somehow it can be considered a precursor of modern nutritional genomics. It is fundamental to consider that although nutrients act by modulating some physiologic functions in a dose-dependent manner, each individual responds differently depending on its genotypic and phenotypic characteristics (Ferguson et al., 2016). Therefore, the recommended daily doses suggested by the international nutrition guidelines, based on studies on large populations rather than specific genotypes or phenotypes, should be used with enough flexibility to account for the plethora of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributing to health and disease in each individual. Nutritional genomics is a new branch of nutritional medicine based on the concepts of functional genomics and personalized medicine. Empowering the individual biochemical data with genomic data allows the customization of a specific diet for each individual, based on the genotypic characteristics and the nutrients modulatory action on gene expression (Camp and Trujillo, 2014).
... In line with previous recommendations [235,236,244], it is suggested that practitioners implement 2-to 5-min rest intervals when training to improve strength-power characteristics. However, it should be noted that the rest interval length range may be determined by the prescribed training loads, an athlete's training age [240], fiber type, and genetics [245]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete’s training status and the dose–response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete’s training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should investigate how best to implement accentuated eccentric loading and variable resistance training and examine how initial strength affects an athlete’s ability to improve their performance following various training methods.
Article
La génomique est une science qui nous permet depuis des décen-nies d'étudier la variabilité du matériel génétique de chaque être vivant. À l'aide des nouvelles technologies de séquençage du génome (GWAS), la recherche a démontré l'impact de notre matériel génétique sur le risque de blessure, en particulier chez les athlètes. Des variantes de plusieurs gènes et combinaisons de gènes ont été associées à un risque modi é de lésion du ligament croisé antérieur. Une rupture du ligament croisé antérieur serait deux fois plus probable chez une personne ayant des antécédents familiaux de rupture du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA). Dans cette revue de la littérature, nous avons tenté d'établir une liste de gènes qui seraient impliqués dans le risque de lésion du ligament croisé antérieur et de comprendre comment. COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL12A1, GDF5, MMP, ELN, FBN-2, VEGFA, KDR, NGFB, HIF1A, ACAN, BGN, DCN, FMOD, LUM, Il-1B, Il-6 ou encore TNF, sont autant les gènes ou combinaisons de gènes codant pour des protéines jouant un rôle dans la taille et la composition des bres musculaires, la exibilité, les structures et les fonctions des tendons et ligaments mais aussi dans les voies de signalisation telles que l'angiogenèse, l'in ammation et la brillogenèse. Cette étude sert également à se concentrer sur le dépistage génétique pour le suivi, le soutien et la prévention des blessures des athlètes. Genomics is a science, which for decades has enabled us to study the variability of the genetic material of every living being. Using new genome sequencing technologies (GWAS), research has demonstrated the impact of our genetic material on the risk of injury, especially in athletes. Variants of several genes and combinations of genes have been associated with an altered risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. An anterior cruciate ligament rupture would be twice as likely in a person with a family history of anterior cruciate ligament rupture. In this review of the literature, we attempted to establish a list of genes that would be involved in the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury and to understand how. COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL12A1, GDF5, MMP, ELN, FBN-2, VEGFA, KDR, NGFB, HIF1A, ACAN, BGN, DCN, FMOD, LUM, Il-1B, Il-6 or even TNF, are as many genes or combinations of genes which code for proteins playing a role in the size and composition of muscle bers, exibility, structures and functions of tendons and ligaments but also in signaling pathways such as angiogenesis, in ammation and brillogenesis. This study also serves to focus on genetic screening for the follow-up, support and prevention of athlete injuries. Nicolas BECHAUD Centre Orthosport Domont (95) Florian FORELLI CDFAS Centre médical et de Recherche pour la haute performance sportive Eaubonne (95) Les auteurs déclarent ne pas avoir un intérêt avec un organisme privé industriel ou commercial en relation avec le sujet présenté DESCRIPTION DE L'IMPACT DE LA GÉNÉTIQUE DANS LE RISQUE DE BLESSURES La génomique est une science, qui depuis des décennies, nous a permis d'étudier la variabilité du matériel génétique de chaque être vivant. De multiples facteurs, comme l'entraînement, la nutrition, la motivation, mais également la génétique et l'épigénétique, sont à l'origine de la performance d'un athlète. Ce n'est plus à démontrer, notre passeport génétique infl uence la force, la puissance, l'endurance (notamment les gènes ACE et ACTN-3) mais aussi la taille et la composition des fi bres musculaires, la fl exibi-lité, la coordination neuromusculaire, le tempé-rament et d'autres phénotypes [1]. Dans son étude, McCabe et al. [2] déterminent que certains gènes sont liés à l'apparition de blessures et ce quel que soit le niveau sportif. Il a été démontré que le gène AMPD-1 (codant pour la protéine adénosine monophosphate désaminase 1) est lié à un besoin de récupéra-tion accrue après une activité intense. Ceux qui prennent ce repos ont de meilleures performances [3]. En eff et, cette variabilité génétique détermine la structure et la fonction des tendons et ligaments, ce qui infl uence et modifi e le risque de blessure de chaque être humain. Certaines associations de variantes génétiques (de protéines, comme le collagène, qui jouent des rôles structurels et fonctionnels dans les tendons et les ligaments) et la susceptibilité à KS-635.indd 27 28/09/2021 13:37
Article
Full-text available
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players, including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players, were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT (nucleobase) genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT (nucleobase) genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG (nucleobase) genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.