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Growth performance of pigs on dietary cocoa bean shell meal

Authors:
  • Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria

Abstract

The performance of weaner pigs (n=50; initial live weight 10kg) fed increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) of cocoa bean shell meal replacing maize was investigated in a twelve week feeding trial. Feed intake was not affected but live weight gain decreased when the cocoa shell meal exceeded 20% of the diet. Feed conversion was poorer when the cocoa shell meal exceeded 10% of the diet.
Livestock Research for Rural
Development 29(1) 2017
Growth performance of pigs on dietary cocoa bean shell
meal
M H Ogunsipe, I Ibidapo, O D Oloruntola1 and J O Agbede2
Animal Production Unit, Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education,
Ondo, Nigeria
moogunsipe2009@gmail.com
1 Department of Agricultural Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
2 Department of Animal Production and Health, The Federal University of Technology,
Akure, Nigeria
Abstract
The performance of weaner pigs (n=50; initial live weight 10kg) fed increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30
and 40%) of cocoa bean shell meal replacing maize was investigated in a twelve week feeding trial.
Feed intake was not affected but live weight gain decreased when the cocoa shell meal exceeded
20% of the diet. Feed conversion was poorer when the cocoa shell meal exceeded 10% of the diet.
Keywords: fish meal, maize, palm kernel cake
Introduction
One of the major challenges responsible for high cost of intensive pig production in Nigeria is the
dependency on maize as the major energy source in the diet. Maize, the 3rd most produced food crop
in Nigeria after cassava and yam in Nigeria still experience fluctuation in its production from
8,878,456 in 2011 to 8,422,620 in 2013, increasing to 10,790,600 in 2014 and decreasing
to7,200,475 metric tonnes in 2016 (USDA 2016; World Data Atlas 2014). Pathetically, about 95%
of maize produced in Nigeria is consumed with the remaining 5% for industrial purpose and as
animal feed ingredient. Thus, about 3,000,000 metric tonnes of maize are imported annually (from
2014 to 2016) to the country. In spite of the importation, supply is still short of demand leaving the
livestock sub sector at the receiving end. To sustain the livestock sub sector, the need to source for
alternatives to maize as energy source in their diet becomes imperative. Studies had been conducted
on the utilization of agro-based wastes such as cassava wastes (Akinfala and Tewe 2004;
Adesehinwa et al 2008), brewer’s wastes (Aguilera-Soto et al 2008), sugar beet wastes (Martine et
al 2015), food wastes (Saika and Bhar 2010), palm kernel meal (Fatufe et al 2007) among others in
pigs diets. Of all these wastes, none has been universally accepted as alternative to maize as energy
source in pig diet.
Another agro waste of importance is cocoa bean shell. Cocoa bean shell (CBS), a by-product of
cocoa bean in chocolate, beverage and cocoa factories, is estimated at about 10,500 metric tonnes
per annum and forms about 70% of the waste (FAO, 2002). This product is presently of no
economic benefit and thus constitutes waste and environmental concern to the factory and host
community. Thus, the present study assessed the feed intake and weight gain of weaner pigs on
dietary inclusion of cocoa bean shell meal with the aim to mitigate the environmental concerns
occasioned by the unwholesome dumping of these waste to the immediate environment.
Materials and methods
Experimental site
This research was carried out at the Pig Unit, Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College
of Education, Ondo lies between latitude 070 051N and 040551E in the forest zone of Nigeria with
temperature ranged from 22-350CC and annual rain fall 1800-3600 mm, spreading between March
and October.
Collection and processing of cocoa bean shell
The cocoa bean shells (CBS) were collected from Stamack Cocoa Processing Industries, Ondo,
Nigeria. They were bagged and stored in a cool dry place prior use.
Chemical composition determination
The dried and milled CBS were analyzed for dry matter (DM) by oven drying method, ash by
muffle furnace, crude protein (CP) by kjedahl method, ether extract (EE) by soxhlet fat analysis,
crude fibre (CF) by acid and alkaline hydrolysis as described by AOAC (2002). Theobromine
determination was by the method of Gerritsma and Koers (1953). Gross energy (GE) was by the
Gallenkamp Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter (Model CBB-330-0104).
Feed preparation
The experimental diets (Table 1) were prepared in College Feed Mill. Five diets were formulated
such that diet 1 which is the basal diet contained 0% CBS meal while diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained
10, 20, 30 and 40% dietary CBS meal, respectively.
Table 1. Gross composition of experimental diets
Cocoa bean shell meal, % in the diet
0 10 20 30 40
Ingredients, kg
Maize 56.2 50.6 45.0 39.3 33.7
Cocoa
bean
shell
- 5.6 11.2 16.9 22.5
Wheat
offal
9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00
Soybean
meal
14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00
Groundn
ut cake
8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00
Palm
kernel
cake
7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00
Fish
meal
2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Bone
meal
1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
Oyster
shell
0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Premix 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Lysine 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Methioni
ne
0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Total 100 100 100 100 100
Experimental design
The experimental design was the completely randomized CRD with five treatments replicated ten
times with one weanling pig per treatment/replicate.
Management of the animals
Fifty weaner pigs of crossbreed and mixed sexes were used for the feeding trial. The pigs were
given one week period of adaptation during which they were fed commercial grower diet and
treated against parasitic infection by 0.5ml Ivermectin injected intramuscularly. After the adaptation
period, they were randomly assigned to their respective diets. The animals were fed at 5% body
weight with water served ad-libitum throughout the 84 days feeding trial.
Data collection and analysis
Data on feed intake, weight change and feed conversion were analyzed by one way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 2006. Where significant differences existed, the means were
separated using Duncan new Multiple Range Test (Duncan 1955).
Results and discussion
Chemical composition
Compared with maize, the cocoa bean shell has about 50% higher levels of crude protein and twice
the level of ether extract, but twenty times the level of crude fiber (Table 2)
Table 2. Chemical composition of cocoa bean shell
compared with maize (% in DM, unless indicated
otherwise)
Cocoa bean
shell
Maize
grain #
Dry matter 93.5
Crude protein 15.4 9.4
Crude fiber 39.3 2.5
Ether extract 8.49 4.3
Ash 5.17 1.4
Theobromine
(g/kg)
2.88
# http://feedipedia.org/node/556
Performance indices
Feed intake was not affected by increasing levels of cocoa shell meal replacing maize indicating
that the former was palatable, perhaps because of the chocolate odor and crispy texture (Odunsi and
Longe 1995).
Final live weight and average weight gain decreased when the level of cocoa bean shell exceeded
20% of the diet, replacing maize (Table 3). Feed conversion was poorer on all diets with more than
10% cocoa shell meal. The presence of theobromine has been implicated as a factor limiting the
feeding value of cocoa shell meal (Day and Dilworth 1984; Adamafio 2013), but it is more likely
that the depression in growth rate and feed conversion was due to reduced digestibility as crude
fiber in the cocoa shell meal replaced the starch in maize grain. This depression in growth rate could
be connected with the dilution of the nutrients occasioned by successive inclusion of fibrous cocoa
bean shell meal in place of maize (Ojewola et al 2006).
Table 3. Mean values for feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion for pigs fed
increasing levels of cocoa bean shell meal replacing maize
Cocoa bean shell meal, % in the diet SEM p
0 10 20 30 40
Performance characteristics
Live weight, kg
Initial 9.98 9.97 10.10 9.93 9.93 0.17 0.52
Final 44.8a45.3a43.6a38.5b39.5b3.05 <0.003
Daily gain 0.415a0.421a0.399a0.340b0.352b0.04 <0.001
Feed intake, kg/d 1.10 1.14 1.14 1.09 1.07 0.03 0.19
Feed conversion 2.69a2.71a2.83b3.22c3.07d0.32 <0.002
abcde Means without common superscripts along the same row differ at P< 0.05
Conclusions
Result shows that 20% was the optimal biological level of CBS meal as energy substitute for
maize in pig diet.
Pig farmers in this part of the world where CBS abound are encouraged to utilize this waste
in pig diet.
References
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Received Accepted Published
2 November
2016
11 November
2016
1 January
2017
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Preprint
Full-text available
This study looked at the effects of processed kola nut husks meal (PKHM) utilization as a feed ingredient on broiler chicken in a 42-day feeding trial. Kola nut pod husks were processed into a PKHM using ash treatment and rumen liquor fermentation. Three experimental diets were developed at both the starter and finisher phases, with PKHM included at 0, 4, and 8%, and dubbed diets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In a fully randomised design, 240 Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three treatments (10 birds per replicate). Except for the significantly improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens fed diets 2 and 3 at the grower phase (22-42 days) and overall (0-42 days), the performance indices were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by PKHM dietary inclusion. Broiler chicken carcass characteristics and relative internal organ weights remained constant (P>0.05) through diets. The serum glutathione concentration in broiler chickens fed an 8 percent PKHM inclusive diet increased significantly (P<0.05) than those on the control diet and 4 percent PKHM inclusive diet. When broiler chickens fed an 8 percent PKHM inclusive diet were compared to those fed a control diet, the serum catalase concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05). The total serum protein, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transferase, and cholesterol levels remained constant (P>0.05) regardless of dietary treatment. Dietary PKHM inclusion of up to 8% enhanced improved feed efficiency and increased antioxidant enzyme concentration and did not affect the serum biochemical indices concentration. Statement of Novelty Kola nut husk is one of the agro-wastes that contributes to environmental deterioration due to its underutilization. The kola nut husk is underutilised in broiler production due to its chemical constitution, minimal nutritional value, and poor digestion. In this research, kola nut husk meal was ash treated and rumen liquor fermented before being integrated at varying levels in the experimental diets and the performance characteristics, antioxidant status, serum protein, enzymes and biochemical were evaluated. The findings of this study could aid in the development of an agro-waste-based, low-cost functional feed for broiler chicks that incorporates the underutilised kola nut husk and other abundant agrowastes as macro-ingredients.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents an exhaustive review of the research that has been carried out in recent years, in which proper management of cocoa waste is proposed to produce a versatile list of value-added products, whose commercialization on a large scale can contribute to the economy of cocoa producers and improve their welfare. The latter is principally meaningful in producing regions at different levels (local to industrial), in which the bioactivity, health benefits, and enhanced functionalities reported for cocoa and its waste, could reinforce the profit of the entire process by means of their application in different economic sectors.
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