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Measurement of Environmental Pollution: Types and Techniques

  • Maharaja Agrasen University


Since the onset of industrial revolution is up till the recent surge in technological processes, environmental pollution has grown at an alarming rate causing distress to living beings and irreplaceable damage to the earth. With the recognition of the severity of this environmental damage and increase in interest of using technological advancement, a number of successful pollution control strategies have emerged over the years. However, the measurement and quantification of environmental pollution is the most pragmatic first step for identifying various management and mitigation strategies to control environmental pollution. This chapter aims to study a range of proven measurement techniques for quantitatively determining the concentration of various environmental pollutants in the atmosphere. This is particularly important in the formulation of cost-effective control measures and strategies for environmental pollution. Furthermore, to elucidate the concept of pollution measurement, certain parameters which are considered of high importance for environmental monitoring and reflect the quality of a healthy (or unhealthy) environment, especially with respect to soil, water and air, are also discussed in the initial parts of the chapter.
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... Conventional sensors can identify the pollutants in biological samples, air, water, soil, and chemical compounds. They are also capable of detecting industrial products at low levels up to ppm and ppb (Kumar et al. 2017). ...
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In recent years, there is a growing demand to use green approaches for industrial processes. Nanomaterials manufactured through microbial nanotechnology could be very useful in degradation of pollutants. Recently, there are promising researches, which spot the light on the potential of using microbial nanobiotechnology in degradation of pollutants such as industrial dyes, nitrophenol, chlorinated aromatic compounds, and heavy metals ions. Pollutant sensing is very important to safeguard the environment from the detrimental effects of contaminants. The traditional sensing methods require time-consuming, expensive, and laborious steps. Determining the precise nature and composition of the pollutant under field circumstances with the traditional sensors will be challenging. Conventional sensors can detect the pollutants in biological samples, air, soil, water, and chemical component at low levels up to ppm and ppb. With the advancement of nanotechnology, these detection levels could be remarkably enhanced. Even at very low concentrations, nanoparticle sensors could detect microbial pathogens, heavy metals, and organic compounds. We found that microbial nanobiotechnology has great potential in nanocatalysis, especially in degradation of pollutants and sensing applications.
Electrochemical enzyme biosensors based on various modified electrodes have been developed for bisphenol A detection. However, enzyme activity loss and high cost limit their application. In this study, an electrochemical biosensor was developed for bisphenol A detection by displaying tyrosinase on the surface of Escherichia coli cells, followed by adsorption onto a glassy-carbon electrode. The biosensor exhibited a linear relationship between the concentration range of 0.01-100 nM BPA (R² = 0.9958) and the current peak. The detection limit was 0.01 nM, which is higher than that of other chemically modified tyrosinase biosensors. For the detection of bisphenol A in tea and juice samples, the fabricated biosensor presented respectable accuracy comparable to that of high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, high recovery rates (97.78%-100.32%) were obtained. Therefore, this biosensor could be a promising and reliable analytical tool for the detection of bisphenol A.
This book is based on a conference of the same title held in Alexandria, Egypt in March 2002. The conference reviewed the state of the art in relation to the applications of biosciences in human health, food and agriculture and the environment, and addressed the ethical, institutional, regulatory and socioeconomic issues that affect their use. The goal was to identify ways and means by which the new life sciences could be mobilized in the service of humanity and especially to improve the livelihoods of poor people. Twenty-nine contributions have been selected for inclusion in this book, together with a synthesis of the findings and recommendations of the participants on the ways forward. The book will appeal to those working within biotechnology and agricultural development. It has a subject index.
Foreword. Acknowledgments. 1. Introduction. 2. An Overview of Microbial Transformations. 3. The Cycling of Elements in Relation to Environmental Biotechnology. 4. Genetic Exchange in the Environment. 5. Bioremediation. 6. Composting and Solid Waste Management. 7. Sewage and Wastewater Treatment. 8. Novel Trends in Waste Water Management. 9. Detection Methods for Water Borne Pathogens. 10. Environmental Biotechnology of Fossil Fuels. 11. Biological Approach to Solving Air Pollution Problems. 12. Biofuels. 13. Environmental Biotechnology of Mineral Processing. 14. Environmental Biotechnology in the Paper Industry. 15. Environmental Biotechnology in Agriculture. 16. Environmental Biotechnology of the Built Environment. 17. Pollution-Effects on Microorganisms and Microbial Processes in the Environment. 18. Index.
A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences indicated that man’s activities definitely have an impact on the face of the Earth. Ten percent of the entire land surface is used for cultivation to grow crops and 30 percent of the Earth’s land surface is under some form of use by man. Prior to the dawn of the industrial age when we substituted machines for human and animal power, our ability to influence our global neighbors was limited but at the time of the industrial revolution and at an accelerating pace since then, our activities can influence our neighbors thousands of kilometers away from us.
The background of the new Unified Nomenclature for Chromatography just accepted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is explained and selected highlights of the new rules are elaborated.