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Measurement of Environmental Pollution: Types and Techniques
Since the onset of industrial revolution is up till the recent surge in technological processes, environmental pollution has grown at an alarming rate causing distress to living beings and irreplaceable damage to the earth. With the recognition of the severity of this environmental damage and increase in interest of using technological advancement, a number of successful pollution control strategies have emerged over the years. However, the measurement and quantification of environmental pollution is the most pragmatic first step for identifying various management and mitigation strategies to control environmental pollution. This chapter aims to study a range of proven measurement techniques for quantitatively determining the concentration of various environmental pollutants in the atmosphere. This is particularly important in the formulation of cost-effective control measures and strategies for environmental pollution. Furthermore, to elucidate the concept of pollution measurement, certain parameters which are considered of high importance for environmental monitoring and reflect the quality of a healthy (or unhealthy) environment, especially with respect to soil, water and air, are also discussed in the initial parts of the chapter.