ArticlePDF Available

Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit) in Mice

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swiss albino mice respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of A. heterophyllus were administered to the experimental animals among which the methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus leaves have shown to be exhibit significant analgesic and immunomodulator effect by paw licking and increasing the swimming or survival time (P<0.001) respectively in mice.
Content may be subject to copyright.
ISSN 2278- 4136
ZDB-Number: 2668735-5
IC Journal No: 8192
Volume 1 Issue 6
Online Available at www.phytojournal.com
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Vol. 1 No. 6 2013 www.phytojournal.com Page | 33
Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit) in Mice
Om Prakash *1, Jyoti 2, Amit Kumar 1, Pawan Kumar 1
1. Department of Pharmacy, Sagar Institute of Technology & Management, Barabanki, U.P. - 225001, India
[E-mail: opverma2007@gmail.com, Tel: +91-9412573776]
2. Advance Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research Kanpur, U.P. -209217, India
Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all
nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological
response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and
Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s
hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swiss albino
mice respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of A. heterophyllus were administered
to the experimental animals among which the methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus leaves have shown
to be exhibit significant analgesic and immunomodulator effect by paw licking and increasing the
swimming or survival time (P<0.001) respectively in mice.
Keyword: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Eddy's hot plate, Swimming endurance test, Analgesic, Immunomodulator
1. Introduction:
Immunomodulatory agents are used to either
suppress or stimulate the immune responsiveness
of an organism against the invading antigens.
Several plant products have been reported for
immunomodulatory activity and many
formulations of these plant products are available
to enhance the immune system. Plants are the
essential and integral part in complementary and
alternative medicine. Plants have the ability of the
formation of secondary metabolites like proteins,
flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and phenolic
substances which are in turn used to restore
health and heal many diseases [1, 2].
Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the
use of plants in treatment of various human
ailments. There are many plants, which are
having immunostimulatory where as other have
immunosuppressant activity [3]. The Artocarpus
heterophyllus Lam. is a species of tree of the
mulberry family Moraceae, known by other
names jackfruit. It is a large, evergreen tree, 10-
15m in height, indigenous to the evergreen forests
at altitude of 450-1,200m and cultivated
throughout the hotter parts of India. Artocarpus
heterophyllus Lam. is an important source of
compounds like morin, dihydromorin,
cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin,
cyloartocarpin, cycloheterophyllin (C30H30O7),
artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin,
artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone,
betulinic acid, artocarpanone and heterophylol [4,
5] which are useful in fever, boils, wounds, skin
diseases, convulsions, diuretic, constipation,
ophthalmic disorders and snake bite etc. The
leaves are useful in fever, ulcers, boils wounds,
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Vol. 1 No. 6 2013 www.phytojournal.com Page | 34
skin diseases, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic and as
immunomodulator. The ripe fruits are sweet,
cooling, laxative, aphrodisiac, and tonic. The
seeds are sweet, diuretic, aphrodisiac and
constipating [6]. The plant is reported to possess
antibacterial [7], anti-inflammatory [8], antidiabetic
[9], antioxidant [10], antifungal [11] and
immunomodulatory properties [12].
Artocapus heterophyllus Lam. is used as a
traditional medicine as analgesic and
immunomodulator. Immunomodulator activity
has been scientifically proved in fruits whereas
analgesic activity is not scientifically proved. The
aim of the present study is to investigate its
analgesic and immunomodulator activity on
leaves of A. heterophyllus in a scientific manner
which has not been carried out so far.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Collection of Plant Materials
The leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam
were collected from local area of Lucknow and
authenticated from Taxonomic division of
National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow
and a voucher specimen was deposited for future
references (ref. no.: NBRI/CIF/Re./08/2008/32).
2.2 Preparation of Extracts
The leaves were washed with tap water and then
with distilled water and dried in shade. Leaves
were comminuted to powder and extracted with
methanol and water. The extracts were
concentrated under reduced pressure using
rotavapour.
2.3 Animals
Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20 ± 5g,
six animals per group were used for the study.
The animals were housed under standard
laboratory conditions in polypropylene cages.
Ambient temperature of 25±4°C, 55±2% relative
humidity and 12h dark and light cycle was
maintained. They were supplied with food and
water ad libitum. All groups of animals were
treated with normal saline water, standard and
test drugs for 21 days. Acute toxicity of all the
extracts was determined by LD50 values by
staircase method which was more than
3000mg/kg b.w. for the methanol and the
aqueous extracts of leaves [13]. All
pharmacological activities were carried out as per
CPCSEA norms, after obtaining the approval
(Ethical committee No.
BBDNITM/IAEC/Clear/03/2009) from the
Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of Babu
Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology &
Management, Lucknow, India.
2.4 Analgesic Activity
a. Eddy’s Hot Plate Method
The animals were divided into six groups of 6
animals each. Group I served as control. Group
VI served as standard and were injected
Diclofenac sodium (9.5mg/kg) intraperitonially.
Group II and III were treated orally with
methanolic extract of 250 and 500mg/kg body
weight respectively. Group IV and V were treated
orally with aqueous extract at a dose level of 250
and 500mg/kg body weight respectively. The
animals were individually placed on the hot plate
maintained at 55°C, one hour after their
respective treatments. The response time was
noted as the time at which animals reacted to the
pain stimulus either by paw licking or jump
response, whichever appeared first. The cut off
time for the reaction was 15 seconds [14, 15].
2.5 Immunomodulatory Activity
a. Swimming Endurance Test
Swimming endurance test was carried out on a
21st days according to method described by
standard monograph. Precaution was taken that
mice should not be at rest at any particular place
and should swim continuously. End point of the
test is considered to be the point of exhaustion,
when the animal remains floating passively in
water in an upright position, making only small
movements to maintain the head just above the
water level [16, 17].
3. Results and Discussion
The data reveals that the methanolic extract of A.
heterophyllus leaves at a dose of 500mg/kg
showed significant activity (P<0.001*, P<0.05**)
after 60 minutes. The results showed significant
analgesic activity against thermal stimuli. The
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Vol. 1 No. 6 2013 www.phytojournal.com Page | 35
analgesic studies revealed that the methanolic
extract of A. heterophyllus leaves exhibited
potent analgesic (central analgesic activity) and
also revealed that the extracts shows dose
dependent analgesic effect. On the basis of
swimming endurance test, the effect of
methanolic and aqueous extract of A.
heterophyllus Lam. leaves was compared
respectively. It was concluded that the methanolic
extract of leaves were having higher values with
respect to aqueous extract in increasing
swimming or survival time, hence methanolic
extract were found to exert more
immunomodulator effect than aqueous extract.
Thus, the results obtained in the present study
suggested that Artocapus heterophyllus exhibited
analgesic and immunomodulator activity and thus
supports the folk usage, it is highly desirable to
explore its mechanism of action further for
pharmacological justification to the use of the
plant extract by traditional medicine practitioners
as analgesic and immunomodulator action.
Table 1: Effect of Extracts on Pain Induced By Hot Plate
S.
No.
Groups
Eddy's hot plate, paw licking time in seconds after (Mean±SEM)
0 Min.
120 min
I.
Control (DMSO) 1 ml per oral
6.0±0.56
6.20±0.34
5.72±0.28
5.24±0.87
5.12±0.34*
II.
Methanolic extract (250mg/kg per oral)
6.2±0.36
12.55±0.34*
16.34
±
0.67*
15.44±0.18*
11.55±0.65*
III.
Methanolic extract (500mg/kg per oral)
6.0±0.58
19.67±0.86*
21.78±1.59*
20.53±0.78*
13.98±0.37*
IV.
Aqueous extract
(250mg/kgper oral)
6.4±0.76
10.67±0.98*
11.56±0.34*
8.98±0.67*
6.59±0.45**
V.
Aqueous extract (500mg/kg per oral)
6.5±0.46
15.89±0.45*
15.34±0.27*
11.54±0.39*
8.72±0.70*
VI.
Diclofenac Sod. (9.
5 mg/kg intra
peritoneally)
5.5±0.89
23.45±0.98*
24.52±0.65*
21.26±0.64*
18.40±0.45*
Values are expressed as mean±SEM, (n=6) (compared to control group) by using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
followed by Newman-Keuls test P<0.001*, P<0.05**.
Table 2: Effect of Jackfruit Extracts (Methanolic and Aqueous) On Swimming Endurance
Treatment groups (oral)
Dose (on the basis of
body weight) by oral route
Mean Swimming time
(in min.)
Control (Normal Saline)
2 ml
280.60±1.39
Standard (AP
-
3000)
30 mg/kg
355.50±1.4**
Methanolic extract
250 mg/kg
318.70±0.88***
Methanolic extract
500mg/kg
329.0±0.97***
Aqueous extract
250 mg/kg
307.0±0.51***
Aqueous extract
500mg/kg
318.0±1.16***
Values are expressed as mean±SEM (n=6) One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls test P*
<0.05, P**<0.01, P***<0.001.
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Vol. 1 No. 6 2013 www.phytojournal.com Page | 36
4. Conclusion
The above studies indicate that the methanolic
extract of the leaves of Artocapus heterophyllus
possess analgesic and immunomodulator activity
up to significant level which is justified by Eddy's
hot plate and Swimming endurance test. Further
studies are desirable to isolate the active
constituents responsible for this activity.
5. Acknowledgements
Authors are thankful to the Director, Department
of Pharmacy, Babu Banarasi Das National
Institute of Technology & Management, Dr.
Akhilesh Das Nagar, Faizabad Road, Lucknow
for allowing us to conduct animal studies.
6. References
1. Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Ayurveda and
contempory scientific thought. Trends in
Pharmacological Sciences 1986; (7): 247–249.
2. Chakraborthy GS, Patil V, Kaushik KN.
Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of
Aesculus indica. Journal of Pharmacy Research
2009; 2(3): 385-387.
3. Oladunmoye MK. The Immunostimulatory Effects
of Ethanolic Extract of Assia alata Immuno
System of Albino rats Dosed with Staphylococus
aureus. Journal of Pharmacology and Technology
2007; 2(2): 200-204.
4. Chun NL, Chai ML. Heterophylol, a phenolic
compound with novel skeleton from Artocarpus
heterophyllus. Tetrahedron Letters 1993; 34(17):
8249-8250.
5. Rama RAV, Varadan M. Venkataraman.
Colouring matter of the A. hetetophyllus. Indian J.
Chem.1973; 11: 298-299.
6. Anonymous. The Wealth of India. A dictionary of
Indian raw materials and industrial products.
Publication and Information Directorate CSIR,
New Delhi, 1985, 445-453.
7. Khan MR, Omoloso, Kihara M. Antibacterial
activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Fitoterapia
2003; 74(5): 501-505.
8. Fang SC, Hsu CL, Yen GC. Anti-inflammatory
effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the
fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. J Agric Food
Chemistry 2008; 56(12): 4463-4468.
9. Fernando MR, Nalinie Wickramasinghe SMD,
Thabrew MI, Ariyananda PL, Karunanayake EH.
Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and
Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in
normal human subjects and in maturity-onset
diabetic patients. J. Ethnopharmacology 1991;
31(3): 277-282
10. Ko FN, Cheng ZJ, Lin CN, Teng CM. Scavenger
and antioxidant properties of Prenylflavones
isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Free
Radic Biol Med. 1998; 25(2): 160-168.
11. Trindade MB, Lopes JL, Costa AS, Monteiro
Moreira AC, Moreira RA, Oliva ML et al.
Structural characterization of novel chitin-binding
lectins from the genus Artocarpus and their
antifungal activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;
1764(1): 146-52.
12. Kabir S. Jacalin, a jackfruit (Artocarpus
heterophyllus) seed-derived lectin of versatile
applications in Immunobiological research.
Journal of Immunological Method 1998; 212(2):
193-211.
13. Van den Heuvel MJ, Clark DG, Fielder RJ,
Koundakjian PP, Oliver GJA, Pelling D et al. The
international validation of a fixed-dose procedure
as an alternative to the classical LD50 test. Fd
Chem Toxicology 1990; 28:469-482.
14. Eddy NB, Leimbach DJ. Synthetic analgesics: II
Dithienyl butenyl and Dithienyl butylamines
(Retracted by Turner RA. Screening methods in
Pharmacology I)
Edn. 1, London Academic Press, New York, 1965,
105-109.
15. Nikajoo LT. Analgesic activity of aqueous and
alcohol root extracts of Pergularia daemia (forsk.)
Chiov. International journal of pharmacy and
pharmaceutical sciences 2009; 1(1): 33-37.
16. Mathew S, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory and
antitumor activities of Tinospora cordifolia.
Fitoterapia 1999; 70: 35.
17. Chaudhary M, Sharma AK, Kumar R, Chauhan B,
Kaushik K, Agarwal V, Comparative
Immunomodulator activity of leaves and bark of
Albizia lebbeck (linn.) Benth. International Journal
of Research and Development in Pharmacy and
Life Sciences 2012; 1(1): 25-27.
... The presence of various therapeutic phytomolecules like squalene, cyclotrisiloxane and isophytol in this could be the reason for increase in humoral mediated immunity especially in treated broilers. The previous studies of Om Prakash et al. (2013) [13] on the immunomodulatory effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. leaves extract for the treatment of opportunistic infections with the suspect of having immunomodulatory properties was proved in this study. ...
... The presence of various therapeutic phytomolecules like squalene, cyclotrisiloxane and isophytol in this could be the reason for increase in humoral mediated immunity especially in treated broilers. The previous studies of Om Prakash et al. (2013) [13] on the immunomodulatory effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. leaves extract for the treatment of opportunistic infections with the suspect of having immunomodulatory properties was proved in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
In poultry, utilization of immunomodulatory drugs are considered as an important solution and accepted widely, since they improve the immunity and decrease the susceptibility to pathogenic diseases along with good management practices including proper vaccination. Vaccination is an alternate, but not an effective measure at all times. Also, search on our traditional herbal medicine has increased in recent times to find out alternatives as immunomodulators against infectious diseases and stressor agents. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jackfruit) used traditionally for having immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The crude leaf powder of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam at 1% inclusion level in feed was studied to explore the immunomodulatory and growth promoting potentials in immunized and immunosuppressed broilers. The trial was conducted with four control groups as normal, positive (levamisole treated), negative (cyclophosphamide treated) and combined (levamisole and cyclophosphamide) and two treatment groups as Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. leaf powder at 1% level in both immunized and immunosuppressed birds. Weekly assessment of cumulative feed intake, body weight gain, feed Conversion Ratio and HI titre against La Sota antigen was done to assess growth promoting and humoral mediated immunity in broilers. In immunized broilers, this herb showed significant growth promoting and immunomodulatory effect than normal birds and equal to the standard immunostimulant drug-levamisole and even in immunosuppressed group the herb showed better results than immunosuppressant control birds. Significant level of immunomodulatory phytochemicals like isophytol, squalene and cyclotrisiloxane in Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. might be the reason for its promising immunomodulating potentials in turn for its growth promoting potentials in broilers and this study recommends the usage of this herb with further detailed studies.
... The plant is reported to have wide ethnomedical uses. The plant shows hypoglycaemic [2][3][4][5][6] , antipyretic, analgesic, immune modulatory [7] , antioxidant [4] , anti inflammatory [8] , and anti tumour activities which are scientifically proven. Also it is bestowed with the capacity to cure diarrhea, asthma, convulsions, wound, inflammations etc. ...
... respectively in mice. [7] ...
Article
Full-text available
Panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam), the well known jackfruit tree is widely distributed all over the world. It is a treasure trove of various ethnomedical uses which are yet to be proven scientifically. Its fruit is very delicious and its leaves, root, latex, seed and wood are reported to have many medicinal properties. Though the plant is renowned for its nutritive values, the useful parts of the plant with rich medicinal values are less utilized for medicinal purposes. The plant is well described in Ayurvedic classics where prime importance has been given to its fruit whereas least references are available concerned to its other useful parts especially the leaf. This forms the literature gap concerned with this drug that hinders its further clinical researches. A compiled review of the classical literature of Panasa is not yet available as a ready reference. Hence it is a herculean task for the researcher to compile the literature which is scattered in various classical books of different era. In this work focus has been made to compile the literature of the plant Panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) from the Ayurvedic classics. As this work provides the literature of this plant under a single roof it will be helpful for the scholars in future research works.
... The ethanolic extract shows a statistically significant correlation towards the analgesic activity in both the methods namely hot plate method and writhing method. This result is also similar to study on a different plant extract by Om Prakash et al [3]. ...
... The aqueous extract also shows a statistically significant correlation towards the analgesic activity in both the methods namely hot plate method and writhing method. This result is also similar to study on a different plant extract by Om Prakash et al [3]. The presence of antioxidant activity by both the methods was similar to the study conducted by Omar HS et al [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Traditional Indian medicine has always found its way for the treatment of multiple diseases and conditions. Artocarpus heterophyllus is a common plant and can easily be exploited for its rich medical heritage. Methods: Two leaf extracts were made. Both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening. Analgesic property was established with the help of Eddys hot plate,acetic acid induced writhing,Tail Flick methods. One way ANOVA was used to correlate the significance p<0.005. Antioxidant properties were evaluated with DPPH and Nitric oxide scavenging activity. Results: The ethanolic extract shows a statistically significant (p<0.005) correlation towards the analgesic activity in both the methods namely hot plate method and writhing method. The ethanolic leaf extracts showed the following phytochemicals—Flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, saponins, steroids while the aqueous extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, saponins and steroids. Both the extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Conclusion: This study shows the Phytochemical evaluation and analgesic activities of both the extracts. Hence further studies should be made to isolate the necessary constituent for both the activities.
... It grows wildly in the tropics especially in India and Malaysia [12]. Jackfruit tree produce large fruits which weighs up to 35 kg [13,14]. The back of the fruits are green and spiny while the leaves are dark green in colour, obviate with smooth edges. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of this research is to study the combined effects of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Annona muricata and Artocarpus heterophyllus on the reproductive parameters of type II diabetic wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six (56) male wistar albino rats were induced with Type II diabetes mellitus using high fat diet and 35 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin (HFD-STZ). Results: The result obtained showed a decreased testosterone level 0.78±.06 ng/ml on the diabetic group while the non-diabetic group had testosterone level of 1.90±.09 ng/ml. Treatment with combined ethanol leaf extract of A. muricata and A. heterophyllus led to a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the testosterone level of the treated groups. The motility, viability and the sperm density were also normalised in the treated groups.The result obtained from the present research showed that combined ethanolic leaf extracts of A. muricata and A. heterophyllus has ameliorative effect of the reproductive parameters of type II diabetic male wistar albino rats.
... This is a preclinical test using Nenas Bongsai extract for limph and uterus organs. The lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response including antigens coming outside from the body (Fitmawati et al, 2017;Liao et al., 2016, Prakash et al., 2013, and plays an important role in homeostasis by controlling extracellular fluid volume and in combating infection (Margaris et al., 2012). The uterus is the major female reproductive organ of mammals, including humans. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nanas Bongsai (Ananas comosus var. microstachys L.) is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine by local people of Muara Lembu district as a potion to reduce pain while menstruation period for a women. The present work was designed to investigate its probable side effects on the histopathologic changes in limph and uterus tissues after treated with A. comosus var. microstachys L extract in female white rats. This is an experimental research consisted of five treatments and three repetitions. Treatment composed of two controls (P0 and P+) and given Nanas Bongsai extract with three different dosages. Histology result of lymph show that all treatments given with Nanas Bongsai with three different dosages have different diameter average of white pulp and there is no significant changes with normal control. While observation towards histology structure of endometrium thickness with dosage P1, dosage P2, dosage P3 is 206.333±33.486; 215.667±33.486; 197.667±60.871 respectively. The most thin endometrium layer found in treatment with dosage P3 compared to control P0. From this study showed that there is no toxic effect on uterus and lymph function of of Nanas Bonsai (A. comosus var. microstachys L.) at different doses, so the plant is secure for consumption by the community.
... The immune system is a mechanisms of body defense which palys role to respond any antigents coming outside from the body (Prakash et al., 2013;Chakraborthy, 2009). When the body attacked, the common antigents of our body will automatically stimulate the immune system (Subowo, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
p class="IsiAbstrakIndo"> Obat pahit has been generally known and believed by Lingga Malay society as anti-aging agent. However, the study of Obat pahit is not scientifically proven. This research was aimed to prove immunomodulatory ability of Obat pahit potion from Lingga, Riau Archipelago. This study used white rats as an animal modelling, and Staphylococcus aureus as bacteria tester. The rats had been treated with aqueous Obat pahit extract from three TMPs on dose scales of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mL/200g of body weight through oral administration for 7 days. Furthermore, on the 8<sup>th</sup> days, the experiment animals were injected by the preparation of bacteria tester through intraperitoneal administration in the amount of 0.5 mL/200 gram of body weigth and subsequently incubated for 1 hour after the injection. There were 2 observed parameters on this study, i.e efectivity and capacity of phagocytosis by leukocytes. The observation of leukocytes-phagocytocis activity was carried out by making a smear preparat samples of peritoneum fluid from rats. After the observation under microscope on a magnification of 100 times. The result was obtained the Obat pahit from Kalan PMT swere more effective on dose 2, while from SP4 and Linau TMPs were much more effective on dose 1. It is therefore, using these data of the results, the advanced doses scale of this Obat pahit would not be necessary. Obat pahit potion from Malay Lingga Malay Ethnic could become raw materials of immunomodulatory herbal medicine based on traditional knowledge. It also potentially as a standardized herbal. </p
... It is also said to possess anti-diabetic and antiinflammatory properties. The seeds are constipating in nature [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] . Ayurvedic literature has mentioned the use of seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus as a diuretic agent 16 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Panasa (Artocarpus hetrophyllus Lam.), the well known jackfruit tree, is a tree with wide ethnomedicinal uses. It is a drug used by the traditional Ayurveda physicians of Kerala for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Hypoglycaemic effect of leaves of Artocarpus hetrophyllus Lam. is experimentally proven through in vitro and in vivo studies. Estimates shows that by the year 2025, the number of people suffering from diabetes in the world will be 350 million, of which 70 million will be in India. As diabetic patients have to take lifelong medication the medicines chosen should be safe, cost effective and free from side effects. So it is the need of the hour to find out a safer and cost effective medicine for diabetes. The present study is on the hypoglycemic effect of leaf decoction of Panasa (Atrocarpus hetrophyllus Lam.) in type 2 diabetic patients. The clinical trial was undertaken as a before and after trial with 30 patients for a period of 30 days. The trial drug showed a highly significant effect in reducing the Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS, P<0.001), Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS, P=0.001) & total cholesterol (P<0.001). Also it showed a significant role in relieving associated symptoms like Polyuria, polyphagia, Polydipsia, lassitude, joint pain, excessive sweating and dryness of mouth. This study throws light into the scope of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam in future researches as it is a drug available in various parts of the world, which is cost effective and proven to be safe for diabetes mellitus.
Article
Phytochemicals content and antimicrobial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cyclosorus extensa, Oldendia corymbosa and Alpinia malaccensis were investigated. Maximum alkaloids and terpenoids were found in A. heterophyllus; tannins and saponins in C. extensa; flavonoids, polyphenols and phytosterols in O. corymbosa and anthraquinone, glycosides and anthocyaninin A. malaccensis. Aqueous, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts were prepared from all the leaves. Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectrophotometric (ATR-FTIR) analysis revealed that alkanes and alkyl halides were prevalent in all the extracts and the ethyl acetate extracts contained comparatively higher number of functional groups, which were also more effective against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of A. malaccensis against the tested pathogens were found to be lesser than the other species.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the immunomodulatory effect of Aesculus indica in rats. Aesculus indica was administered orally at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg to healthy rats divided into five groups consisting of six animals each. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity was carried out by testing the humoral (antibody titre) and cellular (foot pad swelling) immune responses to the antigenic challenge by sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion test. On oral administration of the extract, a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion and delayed type hypersensitivity response whereas the humoral response to sheep RBCs was unaffected. Thus Aesculus indica significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the foot pad thickness responses to the sheep RBCs in sensitized rats. With a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg the DTH response (mean ± S.D. % increase in paw volume). The responses were statistically significant when they were compared with the control. The study stated that Aesculus indica shows a significant stimulation of the cell mediated immunity and no effects on the humoral immunity.
Article
Full-text available
Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all non specific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life & to re-establish the normal state. Immunomodulator activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of Albizia lebbeck Benth. were investigated in Swiss albino mice by using swim endurance test and acetic acid induced writhing test model. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of Albizia lebbeck were administered to the experimental animals among which the ethanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck leaves have shown to be exhibit strong immunomodulator effect by increasing the swimming or survival time (P<0.001) and also decreased the writhing produced by glacial acetic acid (P<.001). The maximum increase in swimming or survival time was noted in mice receiving test and standard drugs which were significantly more than the control group animals. Test and standard drugs offered maximum protection against acetic acid induced writhes by reducing frequency of writhes per minute.
Article
Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. (Asclepiadaceae) is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of inflammation, fever, strangury, asthma, diseases of vata and kapha. It is known as Uttaravaruni and Yugaphala in Sanskrit. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic activity of the aqueous and alcohol root extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. using eddy's hot plate and heat conduction method. In eddy's hot plate method the aqueous extract showed significant analgesic activity at the doses of 500 mg/kg (p<0.01) and 1000 mg/kg (p<0.001) and alcohol extract showed significant analgesic activity at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg (p<0.001). In heat conduction method both extracts showed significant analgesic activity at the doses of 500 & 1000 mg/kg (p<0.001) as compared to control group, when analyzed statistically by Tukey Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. The result obtained show that the aqueous and alcohol root extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. possesses significant analgesic activity which confirms the traditional claims of the plant mentioned in Ayurveda.
Article
From the root bark of Artocarpus Heterophyllus, a novel phenolic compound, heterophylol, was isolated and determined by spectroscopic methods.
Article
Guidelines for submitting commentsPolicy: Comments that contribute to the discussion of the article will be posted within approximately three business days. We do not accept anonymous comments. Please include your email address; the address will not be displayed in the posted comment. Cell Press Editors will screen the comments to ensure that they are relevant and appropriate but comments will not be edited. The ultimate decision on publication of an online comment is at the Editors' discretion. Formatting: Please include a title for the comment and your affiliation. Note that symbols (e.g. Greek letters) may not transmit properly in this form due to potential software compatibility issues. Please spell out the words in place of the symbols (e.g. replace “α” with “alpha”). Comments should be no more than 8,000 characters (including spaces ) in length. References may be included when necessary but should be kept to a minimum. Be careful if copying and pasting from a Word document. Smart quotes can cause problems in the form. If you experience difficulties, please convert to a plain text file and then copy and paste into the form.
Article
Administration of Tinospora cordifolia stem methanolic extract to BALB/c mice (200 mg/kg, i.p, daily for 5 days) increased the total white blood cell count significantly (P<0.001). It also increased bone marrow cellularity (18.16×106/femur) and α-esterase positive cells (1423/4000 cells) in bone marrow indicating increased maturation of stem cells. Administration of the extract was also found to significantly increase humoral immune response, as seen from the increase in plaque-forming cells in the spleen (1575 PFC/106 spleen cells) and circulating antibody titre (256), and to produce an enhancement (129%) in macrophage activation. Tinospora extract reduced solid tumour growth and synergistically acted with cyclophosphamide in reducing (83%) the animal tumours.
Article
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of hot-water extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves and Asteracanthus longifolia whole plant material on the glucose tolerance of normal human subjects and maturity-onset diabetic patients. The extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg of starting material.
Article
In an international study involving 33 laboratories in 11 countries, the acute oral toxicity to the rat of 20 substances and preparations was evaluated using a fixed-dose procedure and the results compared with those obtained for the test materials using the classical LD50 test. The study has shown that the fixed-dose approach to acute oral toxicity testing: (1) produces consistent results that are not substantially affected by inter-laboratory variations; (2) provides adequate information for risk assessment purposes on signs of toxicity, including their nature, time to onset, duration and outcome; (3) uses fewer animals than the current internationally agreed OECD procedure (Guideline 401-revised); (4) subjects animals to less pain and distress than the classical LD50 test and causes less compound-related mortality; and (5) enables substances and preparations to be ranked according to the EEC classification system on the basis of their acute oral toxicity, such ranking being compatible with that allocated by the results of classical LD50 studies.
Article
The antioxidant properties of prenylflavones, isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., was evaluated in this study. Among them, artocarpine, artocarpetin, artocarpetin A, and cycloheterophyllin diacetate and peracetate had no effect on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. They also did not scavenge the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. In contrast, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. They also scavenged peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and the Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. However, they did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, carbon radical, or peroxyl radicals derived from 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) in hexane. Moreover, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and conjugated-diene formations and electrophoretic mobility. It is concluded that cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B serve as powerful antioxidants against lipid peroxidation when biomembranes are exposed to oxygen radicals.