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Wortstellung des Präteritum-Auxiliars in der alttschechischen Olmützer Bibel

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... Předložený článek se zabývá slovosledem pronominálních enklitik v nejstarším úplném staročeském biblickém překladu. Je jedním z výsledků dlouhodobě realizovaného výzkumu slovosledu vývoje českých enklitik (Kosek 2011(Kosek , 2017 -zde i další literatura). V současné době je tento výzkum zaměřen na slovosled českých pronominálních enklitik ve vybraných biblických překladech historické češtiny (od staročeské bible 1. redakce po Bibli svatováclavskou (viz Kosek et al. 2018a,b;Kosek et al. v tisku). ...
... Zjištěné formy Celkem jsme shromáždili více než tři tisíce dokladů zkoumaných forem, z nichž více než dva a půl tisíce dokladů tvoří případy enklitik závislých na VF. Frekvence analyzovaných forem se ovšem vyznačuje významnými rozdíly, jak ukazuje následující tabulka 1, 15) ve které je četnost jednotlivých forem rozdělena podle gramatického statusu jejich řídícího výrazu: 12/ Tato anotace byla užita v dřívějším výzkumu slovosledu českých enklitik (Kosek 2011(Kosek , 2017. 13/ Pozice iniciální = na začátku klauze, pozice postiniciální = na druhém místě v klauzi (doklady 1a. ...
... Z tabulky 4 je ovšem patrné, že ačkoli je počet dokladů obou pozic v BiblOl a BiblLitTřeb při-19/ To ovšem platí pro starší češtinu obecně, srov. Kosek (2011Kosek ( , 2017. Vše nasvědčuje tomu, že právě v takových případech, kdy se v první pozici klauze vyskytují dvě slova a více, se enklitikon vyhýbá postiniciální pozici a namísto ní inklinuje k "nepostiniciálním" pozicím v bezprostřední blízkosti svého regenta (srov. ...
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The paper is focused on the short pronominal forms that have status of so called stálá enklitika (‘permanent enclitics’ or enclitica tantum) in Modern Czech: mi ‘me’, ti ‘to you’, si ‘to myself / to yourself etc.’, sě (> se) ‘myself / yourself etc.’, tě ‘you’, ho ‘him’, mu ‘to him’. The analysis is based on the material gained from the selected books of the oldest complete Czech Bible translation from the half of the 14th century. The first part of the study deals with the frequency of the analyzed forms, especially with the lack of the forms si, ti and the low frequency of the short forms ho, mu (developed from the disyllabic forms jeho > jho > ho, jemu > jmu > mu). The next part is focused on the word order properties of the analyzed pronominal forms that are dependent on a finite verb. The article interprets them in the light of the main competing positions of Czech enclitics during the development of the language: 1. the postinitial position, i.e. when an enclitic is located after first word / phrase; 2. the contact (verb-adjacent) position, i.e. when an enclitic is located immediately before (preverbal position) or after (postverbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item. In the last part of the article, the question of the change of the previously orthotonic forms sě, tě into the permanent enclitic forms is examined.
... The frequencies of annotated word order positions are presented in Table 1 This annotation system was used in previous research into the word order of Czech enclitics (Kosek 2011(Kosek , 2017. ...
... In this situation we can choose other prosodically relevant units which enable us to draw conclusions about the duration of these elements on the basis of contemporary Czech. It would be possible to choose the number of syllables, as proposed in Kosek (2017); however, this would cause syllables of different lengths to be counted as if they were the same length, e.g. the monosyllabic words stkvěl, vzmohl would be quantified in the same way as dá, jie. We therefore decided to choose the grapheme as the basic unit; the contemporary Czech transcription does not take into account all the aspects of the Old Czech phonological system, nevertheless the phoneme-grapheme relation gives a fairly good level of correspondence with the phonemic structure of a word. ...
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In this part of the paper, the distribution of clause positions of the reflexive pronoun sě is analyzed statistically. Specifically, the impact of both stylistic factors and the length of the element in the initial position are investigated. The authors also discuss the possible influence of the word order of the Latin pretext (the Vulgate) on the Old Czech translation. 1. Annotation of the examples It is clear from Part I of this paper that in order to describe the word order positions of (en)clitics, it is necessary to use a classification which combines two perspectives:
... 2. The pronominal and verbal (en)clitics: a) pronominal forms mi , si , ti ; ho , mu (> se) (ACC); b) preterite auxiliary forms (AuxP) Sg 1Ps (nesl) jsem , 2Ps (nesl) ; c) conditional auxiliary forms (AuxC) Sg 1Ps (nesl) bych , 2Ps (nesl) . The two groups display different properties as far as word order is concerned (for more detail see the encyclopedia by Karlík et al., 2017, specifically the entry klitik, or Kosek, 2017); in this paper we therefore focus solely on (en)clitics from the second group. This group of (en)clitics is distinctly heterogeneous because it contains forms that differ in their origin and grammatical status. ...
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The presented study deals with the historical development of Czech (en)clitics (AuxP). Based on the data from the previous research (Kosek, 2015a,b, 2017), it focuses on the development of one group the Czech (en)clitics on the preterite auxiliary forms. In the article, three hypotheses are formulated and then tested on the data gained from selected parts of historical Czech Bible trans-lations. The suggest that there were two significant word order positions of historical Czech (en)clitics: 1. the post-initial position, i.e. after first word / phrase, 2. the contact position, i.e. an (en)clitic is located immediately before (pre-verbal position) or after (post-verbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item (the post-verbal position is the more frequent variant of the both variants of the contact positions). Since the time when the oldest analyzed text was translated, the post-initial position has had the status of the basic word order position of the Czech (en)clitic, while the contact position has had the status of a stylistically, pragmatically or textually motivated position. It seems that the contact position begins to retreat only in 19th century and hence the definitive historical change of Czech auxiliary (en)clitics in the sole second position clitics was realized not before 19th or 20th century.
Article
The aim of the paper is to analyze word-order positions of preterite auxiliary forms (AuxP) in the Old Czech prosaic texts from the 14th and 15th centuries, e. g. in Pasionál (‘Passional’), in Život Krista Pána (‘Life of Christ the Lord’), in Životy sv. Otců (‘Life of Holy Fathers’/ ‘Vitae Patrum’) and in Tkadleček (‘The Weaver’/ A Czech version of Ackermann aus Böhmen). The aim of the paper is to detect all possible word-order positions of these auxiliary forms in analyzed texts. The analysis demonstrates that the AuxP maintains some properties of an orthothonic word in several rare cases. However, the overwhelming majority of examples give evidence that the Old Czech AuxP was an enclitic. According to the explored data it seems that the post-initial (2P) word-ordering of the Czech enclitic became established in Old Czech as a prototypical word-order pattern of Czech enclitic forms and that verb-adjacent (VA) word-ordering had a quality relating to style.
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