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The problem of psychophysical agency in the classical Sāmkhya and Yoga - www.argument-journal.eu

Authors:
  • Pedagogical University of Krakow

Abstract

the paper discusses the issue of psychophysical agency in the context of Indian philosophy, focusing on the oldest preserved texts of the classical tradition of Sāṃkhya­Yoga. the author raises three major questions: What is action in terms of Sāṃkhyakārikā (ca. fifth century CE) and Yogasūtra (ca. third century CE)? Whose action is it, or what makes one an agent? What is a right and morally good action? the first part of the paper reconsiders a general idea of action — including actions that are deliberately done and those that 'merely' happen — identified by Patañjali and Ῑśvarakṛṣṇa as a permanent change or transformation (pariṇāma) determined by the universal principle of causation (satkārya). then, a threefold categorization of actions according to their causes is presented, i.e. internal agency (ādhyātmika), external agency (ādhi­ bhautika) and 'divine' agency (ādhidaivika). the second part of the paper undertakes the prob­ lem of the agent's autonomy and the doer' s psychophysical integrity. the main issues that are exposed in this context include the relationship between an agent and the agent's capacity for perception and cognition, as well as the crucial Sāṃkhya­Yoga distinction between 'a doer' and 'the self '. the agent's self­awareness and his or her moral self­esteem are also briefly examined. moreover, the efficiency of action in present and future is discussed (i.e. karman, karmāśaya, saṃskāra, vāsanā), along with the criteria of a right act accomplished through meditative in­ sight (samādhi) and moral discipline (yama).
www.argument-journal.eu Published online: 21.12.2015 (revised: 4.05.2016)
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



The problem of psychophysical agency
in the classical Sāmkhya and Yoga
*



Sāṃkhyakārikā
Yogasūtra


pariṇāma
satkārya
i.e.ādhyātmikaādhi
bhautikaādhidaivika



 
i.e.karmankarmāśaya
saṃskāravāsanā
samādhiyama

karman
.
 Marzenna JAKUBCZAK




darśanas
Sāṃkhyakārikā Yogasūtra


      
   

    













 
 



     
darśanas
             

i.e.Yogasūtra
i.e.Sāṃkhyakārikā 
       

Yuktidīpikā 


           
                    
                                
The problem of psychophysical agency in the classical… 
Yo
gasūtraSāṃkhyakārikā 


    
pariṇāma

           



Yogasūtrabhāṣya
                 
dharmas     dharmin
dravya
dharmas 
 dharmapariṇāma
       
i.e.dharminlakṣanapariṇāma
  avasthāpariṇāma
        
dharmas
 bhāva 
 satkārya





avyaktavyakta
satkāryavāda


              
   


          



 physis  
      
triguṇasprakṛti
 Marzenna JAKUBCZAK

pariṇāma

kāraṇakāryavibhāga

guṇas
sattva     
rajas
tamas 


        
 prakṛti
                




triguṇic
           
pariṇāma
            
  
kartṛtva

karman
   
karman   
    karman




             
MaitrīUpaniṣadtriguṇa
bhedapariṇāmavatvātChāndogyaUpaniṣadguṇas 
rajassattvatamas
Chāndogya
 sarvasya trivṛtkṛtatvāt sarvatra sarvopapatteḥ     
guṇas Chāndogya
The principal Upaniṣads 
karman

The problem of psychophysical agency in the classical… 




karman
 karmic 


           


saṃskāra
cittavṛtti

saṃskāra




             

  rāga dveṣa  



 
saṃskāras
etc
  
karmic
avidyā

 
kaivalyai.e.
saṃsārictriguṇic

    saṃskāra   

        
               
                  
                    

 Marzenna JAKUBCZAK
 






prāṇas



sattvic
rajasictamasic

bhogakarikā

       
duḥkhatraya
karman

 GauḍapādabhāṣyaSāṃkhyakārikā
of ĪśvarakṛṣṇaSuvarṇasaptati
duḥkhatraya
ādhyātmika
ādhibhautika
ādhidaivika      
śārīraetc.

mānasa

          

           

  
Tattvakaumudī







The problem of psychophysical agency in the classical… 
     The Tattvakaumudī  
 
avyaktavyakta

i.e.puruṣa
     

      puruṣa

     citta    antaḥkaraṇa     
prakṛti

karman
karman
ahaṃkāra

i.e.abhimāna
asmitāmamakāra

cittadharmin
paridṛṣtaaparidṛṣ
tacittadharmas
puruṣa 
 
puruṣabhoktṛ
  guṇas triguṇādviparyayād adhiṣṭānāt 
puruṣa


puruṣavikalpa

caitanyapuruṣa
cit
puruṣai.e.svarūpa 
puruṣaadharmin
citta
sattvic dharmascitta
cittavṛtti
akliṣṭapramāṇa
kaivalyaduḥkhaavidyā



 Marzenna JAKUBCZAK

         



YogasūtraSāṃkhyakarikākriyā
karmankriyā 
   guṇa rajaskarman
puṇya
spuṇyakarman
   saṃskāra

kleśas
 
karmāśayas
jātiāyus
bhoga

  karmāśayas  
   aniya
tavipākavedanīya
niyatavipāka

vāsanā


karman
pratipakṣa bhāvana
 pramāṇakarmaśaya 



yama
    
  niyama       jāpa  



karman      
karmaśayavāsanā


The problem of psychophysical agency in the classical… 

aśuklakṛṣṇa
yogin

puruṣārtha
    

ahaṃkāra
yogin
kaivalyasaṃsāra


 
          
puruṣa cit ahaṃ citta




darśanas








ahaṃ
   mamakāra  




 Gauḍapādabhāṣya  Sāṃkhyakārikā of Īśvarakṛṣṇa  

The principal Upaniṣads 
  Sāṃkhyakārikā of Īśvarakṛṣṇa          Classical
Sāṃkhya. An interpretation of its history and meaning
 Marzenna JAKUBCZAK
SāṃkhyaPravacanaBhāṣya  

Suvarṇasaptati.  Samkhya Karika  
        

 Tattvakaumudī The Tattvakaumudī: Vācaspati Miśra’s commentary on the Sāmkhyakārikā

Vācaspatimiśras Tattvakaumudī 

YogasūtraYogasūtrabhāṣya The YogaSūtra of Patañjali. A new translation and
commentary
 Yuktidīpikā. An ancient commentary on the SāṃkhyaKārikā of Īśvarakṛṣṇa  

Yuktidīpikā. The most signicant commentary on the Sāṃkhyakārikā 


Free will, agency, and
selfhood in Indian philosophy
Essays in actions and events 
Essays on eedom and action

Essays in actions and events 
Moral concepts

The concealed art of the soul 
A companion to the philosophy of mind

Yoga philosophy of Patañjali with Bhāsvatī

     et al Powszechna encyklopedia lozoi


ahamkaraasmitaArgument: Biannual Philosophical Journal, 1
The Sāṁkhya system: A history of the Samkhya philosophy

Classical Sāṃkhya: An interpretation of its history and meaning


Philosophical Perspectives 14
             
Selfdeception unmasked 
      Donald Davidson 

   
A companion to the world philosophies
Uniing Hinduism
Hindu ethics: A philosophical study
saṃskāraJournal of Indian Philosophy
33
Article
Full-text available
The author of this paper discusses some major points vital for two classical Indian schools of philosophy: (1) a significant feature of linguistic analysis in the Yoga tradition; (2) the role of the religious practice (iśvara-pranidhana) in the search for true self-identity in Samkhya and Yoga darśanas with special reference to their gnoseological purposes; and (3) some possible readings of ‘ahamkara’ and ‘asmita’ displayed in the context of Samkhya-Yoga phenomenology and metaphysics. The collision of language and metaphysics refers to the risk of paralogism caused by the common linguistic procedures making the subject define its identity within the semantic order (i.e. verbal conventions and grammatical rules) which does not reflect the actual metaphysical situation of the self, though it determines one’s self-understanding in the empirical sense. Whereas, Samkhya-Yoga aims at recognizing, reorganizing and, finally, going beyond these procedures regarded as the obstacles on the path towards self-knowledge and liberation form metaphysical ignorance. Keywords: ahamkara ; asmita ; ego ; Hindu philosophy ; Indian philosophy ; language ; grammar and philosophy ; liberation ; metaphysics ; paralogism ; Patanjali ; Samkhya ; Sankhya ; self ; self-knowledge ; subjectivity ; Yoga.
Book
This philosophical study offers a representation of the logical structure of classical Hindu ethics and argues for the availability of at least the core of this ethical system to Westerners. The chapter titles are: (1) Facts, Values and the Bhagavadgīta, (2) Saints and the Supramoral, (3) Living Right and Living Well in Hindu Ethics, and (4) The Law of Karma.
Chapter
Actions, as Davidson understands them, are analogous to money and sunburns in one noteworthy respect. The piece of paper with which I just purchased a drink is a genuine U. S. dollar bill partly in virtue of its having been produced (in the right way) by the U. S. Treasury Department. The burn on my back is a sunburn partly in virtue of its having been produced by exposure to the sun's rays. A duplicate bill produced with plates and paper stolen from the Treasury Department is a counterfeit dollar bill, not a genuine one. A burn that looks and feels just like the one on my back is not a sunburn if it was produced by exposure to a heat lamp rather than to the sun. Similarly, on Davidson's view of action, a certain event is my buying a drink – an action – partly in virtue of its having been appropriately produced by reasons that I had for buying one, reasons being understood as complexes of beliefs and desires (Davidson 1980 [1963]; 1980a [1971]; 1980a [1973]; 1987b).
Article
This volume collects Davidson's seminal contributions to the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of action. Its overarching thesis is that the ordinary concept of causality we employ to render physical processes intelligible should also be employed in describing and explaining human action. In the first of three subsections into which the papers are thematically organized, Davidson uses causality to give novel analyses of acting for a reason, of intending, weakness of will, and freedom of will. The second section provides the formal and ontological framework for those analyses. In particular, the logical form and attending ontology of action sentences and causal statements is explored. To uphold the analyses, Davidson urges us to accept the existence of non‐recurrent particulars, events, along with that of persons and other objects. The final section employs this ontology of events to provide an anti‐reductionist answer to the mind/matter debate that Davidson labels ‘anomalous monism’. Events enter causal relations regardless of how we describe them but can, for the sake of different explanatory purposes, be subsumed under mutually irreducible descriptions, claims Davidson. Events qualify as mental if caused and rationalized by reasons, but can be so described only if we subsume them under considerations that are not amenable to codification into strict laws. We abandon those considerations, collectively labelled the ‘constitutive ideal of rationality’, if we want to explain the physical occurrence of those very same events; in which case we have to describe them as governed by strict laws. The impossibility of intertranslating the two idioms by means of psychophysical laws blocks any analytically reductive relation between them. The mental and the physical would thus disintegrate were it not for causality, which is operative in both realms through a shared ontology of events.
the Samkhya Karika studied in the light of its Chinese version
  • Svs Suvarṇasaptati
SVS — Suvarṇasaptati. the Samkhya Karika studied in the light of its Chinese version (1932).