Article

Dynamics of global forest area: Results from the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

The area of land covered by forest and trees is an important indicator of environmental condition. This study presents and analyses results from the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 (FRA 2015) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FRA 2015 was based on responses to surveys by individual countries using a common reporting framework, agreed definitions and reporting standards. Results indicated that total forest area declined by 3%, from 4128 M ha in 1990 to 3999 M ha in 2015. The annual rate of net forest loss halved from 7.3 M ha y−1 in the 1990s to 3.3 M ha y−1 between 2010 and 2015. Natural forest area declined from 3961 M ha to 3721 M ha between 1990 and 2015, while planted forest (including rubber plantations) increased from 168 M ha to 278 M ha. From 2010 to 2015, tropical forest area declined at a rate of 5.5 M ha y−1 – only 58% of the rate in the 1990s – while temperate forest area expanded at a rate of 2.2 M ha y−1. Boreal and sub-tropical forest areas showed little net change. Forest area expanded in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, East Asia, and Western-Central Asia, but declined in Central America, South America, South and Southeast Asia and all three regions in Africa. Analysis indicates that, between 1990 and 2015, 13 tropical countries may have either passed through their forest transitions from net forest loss to net forest expansion, or continued along the path of forest expansion that follows these transitions. Comparing FRA 2015 statistics with the findings of global and pan-tropical remote-sensing forest area surveys was challenging, due to differences in assessment periods, the definitions of forest and remote sensing methods. More investment in national and global forest monitoring is needed to provide better support for international initiatives to increase sustainable forest management and reduce forest loss, particularly in tropical countries.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This declaration urges humanity to limit climate change, achieve resilient and inclusive growth, and stop and reverse forest loss and land degradation through a sustainable land use transition (UNFCCC, 2002). This change may propel human activities that result in positive examples of forest cover change processes, such as forest succession and recovery (Keenan et al., 2015;Lambin & Meyfroidt, 2011). ...
... It represents a net increase in tree cover or tree density through natural successional processes on abandoned lands (i.e., passive recovery without human intervention) or through deliberative tree establishing activities through planting, seeding, or the humaninduced promotion of natural seed sources (i.e., active recovery or restoration or reforestation) (Honey-Roses et al., 2018;Keenan et al., 2015;Lambin & Meyfroidt, 2011) "The current fallow period in the Yucatán is often less than 12 years (Turner et al., 2001), half the time needed to recover 90% of mature forest levels" (Eaton & Lawrence, 2009, p. 956) ...
... The tendency to document deforestation is common in the global tropics (Borda-Niño et al., 2020). This trend can be explained by the alarming global forest loss (Gibbs et al., 2010;Keenan et al., 2015). However, the focus on deforestation can mask the presence or importance of other forest cover change processes, such as forest degradation in particular. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Research Aims Human activities seeking to satisfy various needs have resulted in deforestation and other forest cover change processes. The Natural Protected Areas are among the most efficient instruments to contain forest loss. The compensation from conservation is not sufficient to compete with land uses with higher economic rent, such as timber extraction and food production. This study summarizes the evidence and identifies research gaps on forest processes caused by productive activities in Mexico’s Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. Methods We systematically reviewed the scientific literature investigating forest processes caused by the productive activities in the Calakmul, including the transition zone. We calculated the frequencies of codes on forest processes and productive activities in the entire sample (53), evaluated each code’s significance in the qualitative synthesis and interpretation, and summarized the measurements of forest processes considering only the primary studies (46). Results Deforestation was the most commonly investigated process. Traditional agriculture initially caused deforestation, while livestock and conventional agriculture became more dominant recently with the agricultural intensification policies. Few articles investigated forest degradation experiencing a steady increase from fallow shortening and selective logging. Also, few studies identified forest recovery resulting from long fallows and core zone delimitation. No publications evaluated the forest cover impact of sustainable initiatives. Conclusion The tendency to quantify deforestation on a regional scale masks presence of other forest processes. The rural development programs in Calakmul did not include the environmental perspective, while participation in sustainable initiatives was low. The understanding of productive activities at the local level will allow differentiation of the long-term from temporary forest dynamic. Implications for Conservation To assure resilient and inclusive growth in Calakmul, the reduced-impact logging, sustainable agricultural intensification, improved fallows, and beekeeping should be supported with monetary resources that cover the transaction costs of unsustainable livestock breeding and industrial agriculture.
... Satellite imagery has been instrumental in monitoring changes in forest condition and cover due to natural or human disturbances and deforestation dynamics, particularly in old-growth forested areas that are difficult to access (Bullock et al., 2020;Keenan et al., 2015). For example, satellite data have been used to estimate tree mortality rate in tropical rainforests (Clark et al., 2004), and to detect windthrow and disturbance patterns in forests after tropical cyclone passage (Kislov and Korznikov, 2020;Negrón-Juárez et al., 2014). ...
... French Guiana, an overseas territory of France, is situated in equatorial South America, adjacent to Suriname and Brazil. 95% of its surface area is covered by old-growth tropical rainforests (Beck et al., 2018;Keenan et al., 2015), and inselberg features (isolated rock hills rising above the surrounding forest-covered lowlands) are common due to its geographical location within the Guiana Shield. Forests in French Guiana typically experience a long wet season from December to June (monthly precipitation 250-550 mm) and a dry season from July to November (monthly precipitation 100-180 mm). ...
... It has been used to monitor patterns and dynamics of natural and anthropogenic disturbance over large areas and at global scale (see e.g. Achard et al., 2010;Bullock et al., 2020;Keenan et al., 2015). With its medium spatial resolution and revisit period (30 m and 16 days, respectively) as well as extensive timespan (optical data continuously collected since 1972), the Landsat program has been pivotal to the development of a continuous monitoring system of forest cover change (Hansen et al., 2016(Hansen et al., , 2013Woodcock et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
Natural disturbances have an important influence on the structure, composition and functioning of tropical forests and a role in the regulation of biogeochemical cycles. The frequency and intensity of natural disturbances are modified by climate change: a better knowledge of their mechanism of action is necessary to predict the consequences of this modification. Modeling allows us to evaluate the role of each of the ecological processes and their link with environmental factors. Remote sensing tools inform us about the structure and functioning of forests at large scales, and can be useful for the calibration and validation of vegetation models. In this thesis, I employed both approaches to examine how tropical forests are shaped by natural disturbances, particularly wind, which is a major disturbance factor in many tropical regions. First, I evaluated the transferability of a spatially explicit, individual-based model via sensitivity testing and calibration of global parameters. The model correctly predicts forest structure at two contrasting sites, and its response is consistent with variations in climate forcing. Calibration of a small number of key parameters was required, including the parameter controlling mortality and crown allometry. To investigate the sensitivity of the model to mortality, I implemented a wind damage module based on biophysical principles and coupled with wind speed to model forest responses to extreme wind events. With increasing disturbance level, canopy height decreased steadily but biomass showed a non-linear response. Wind intensity had a strong impact on canopy height and biomass, but not the frequency of extreme wind events. Finally, I tested whether radar data from Sentinel-1 satellites could be used to detect gaps due to natural disturbances in French Guiana. The Sentinel-1 data detected more natural gaps above 0.2 ha than the optical satellite data, and they showed a spatial pattern consistent with the optical images. The level of disturbance did not vary with altitude. We found more disturbance during dry seasons, which could be due to the delayed response of precipitation rather than the direct response of drought. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates that the integration between modeling and remote sensing sheds light on the effects of natural disturbances on tropical forests. The resulting results can be used to study other types of disturbances and their interactions on a large scale.
... Forest transitions may sometimes respond to: (a) increasing non-farm jobs that pull farmers away from the land, with the subsequent regeneration of forest on former plots; or (b) The lack of forest products has encouraged state policy and landowners to plant trees. The Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA, 2015) demonstrated that total forest area dropped by 3 per cent, from 4,128 M ha in 1990 to 3,999 M ha in 2015 (Keenan et al., 2015). Whereas the forest area expanded in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, East Asia, and Western-Central Asia, it declined in Central America, South America, South and Southeast Asia and three regions in Africa. ...
... Whereas the forest area expanded in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, East Asia, and Western-Central Asia, it declined in Central America, South America, South and Southeast Asia and three regions in Africa. Keenan et al. (2015) further stress that thirteen tropical countries may have experienced different forms of forest transition from 1990 to 2015 (Keenan et al., 2015). ...
... Whereas the forest area expanded in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, East Asia, and Western-Central Asia, it declined in Central America, South America, South and Southeast Asia and three regions in Africa. Keenan et al. (2015) further stress that thirteen tropical countries may have experienced different forms of forest transition from 1990 to 2015 (Keenan et al., 2015). ...
Article
This article discusses Costa Rica’s policies and institutions created by the state to redistribute land during the 1960s and 1970s, when Latin American was implementing agrarian reforms. The paper also addresses the creation of the national parks system and forest conservation state policy supported by different scientific organisations during the same period. Within this context, this research seeks to explore the interface between the agrarian question (surrounding land and agrarian reform) and the ecological question (related to forest, national parks and conservation policies). The study examines how the transformations in land tenure and forest conservation have led to the structuring of a ‘new agrarian question’, which encompasses the concentration of land as well as the concentration of payments for environmental services.
... The historical vegetation loss rate observed in the area can be considered low (-0.14% y -1 ). During the period 2000-2015 countries with the highest deforestation rates reported -0.35% y -1 (Brazil) or -0.56% y -1 (Indonesia), whereas Costa Rica showed a net increase in its forest area of 1.06% y -1 (Keenan et al., 2015). Other studies indicate that this particular basin must be experiencing a forest recovery from 1986-2008, after years of experiencing forest loss (Stan and Sanchez-Azofeifa, 2019;Vallet et al., 2016). ...
... Using the loss rates observed (-0.14% y -1 ) and considering that observed past trends will be the same in the future (Goldman et al., 2017), it will take 196 years for this change to happen. Supported by comparisons of general deforestation rates in other tropical countries (Keenan et al., 2015), low changes observed in the same basin by other authors (Vallet et al., 2016), and future projections that predict a net forest recovery for Costa Rica (Stan and Sanchez-Azofeifa, 2019), it is assumed that the rates are low. The One important result of the model is that the most affected areas are located outside the PWA. ...
Thesis
The development of reliable tools to predict deforestation risk is key to demonstrate efficiency and additionality when targeting protected areas or designing programs of payments for environmental services (PES). It is also important to have a multidisciplinary approach that combines biophysical and socioeconomic sciences when analyzing the effect of environmental policies. In this research, a predictive model of deforestation risk using machine learning techniques was developed for a study site in Costa Rica based on the analysis of historical deforestation patterns throughout the period 2000-2018. Historical and predicted deforestation patterns were analyzed within protected areas and farms participating in the national PES program. The interpretation of the predictive model and drivers of deforestation was completed with socioeconomic information collected through semi-structured interviews from 67 farmers participating and not participating in the PES program. Finally, a methodological analysis of the remote sensing techniques employed to monitor vegetation revealed how topography is an important factor that may have implications when it comes to monitoring forest cover changes throughout time.The historical vegetation loss rate in the area was low (-0.14% y-1) compared with countries with the highest deforestation rates in the same period. Besides, most of the vegetation loss observed occurred outside protected areas. Regardless of whether the farms participated or not in the PES program, historical vegetation loss rates were very low as well. 94% of their forest remained undisturbed throughout the period 2000-2018. In general, deforestation was higher for farms not participating in the PES program and occurred due to small forest adjustments around productive areas, instead of land cover change due to extensive agricultural transformation. The results indicate that the low deforestation rates found in farms participating in the PES program could be explained because forest lands would be spatially biased towards lower pressure, where opportunity cost is low.The predictive model showed an accuracy of 0.89 in predicting vegetation loss in the study site. Additionally, it provides biophysical and spatially explicit information to understand the drivers of forest loss, and the locations where this is likely to occur, which can improve decisions taken when designing environmental policies. Topography and accessibility were the main factors influencing deforestation in the area due to the mountainous nature and irregular terrain where cloud forests are located. In general, forests are located far from main roads in complex terrain and they are under low threat of deforestation. Protected areas and farms that received PES are generally located in remote areas where the model predicts a low risk of deforestation and this should be used to question the efficiency and additionality of focusing economic resources on these areas. The interviews showed that the opportunity cost of transforming forests into a more profitable land use might be very low in remote areas and emergent forest uses such as ecotourism might also be preventing forest clearing.Finally, it was also found an important effect of the topography on the satellite sensors employed to monitor vegetation in mountainous areas, which can bias the estimates of important environmental services derived from the vegetation throughout time. A novel approach was developed to use Landsat temporal series to evaluate changes in the illumination conditions and vegetation indices in forested areas in irregular terrain.
... (Fokeng et al., 2019) [8] forest is the most threatened by anthropogenic driven deforestation investigated from the existing land use land cover class. Keenan et al., (2015) [9] determined decline at global level, in forest area by 3%, from 4128 million hectare in 1990 to 3999 million hectare in 2015. Annunzioin et al., (2015) [10] predicted that forest area is expected to continue in declining with distressing rates in some regions. ...
... (Fokeng et al., 2019) [8] forest is the most threatened by anthropogenic driven deforestation investigated from the existing land use land cover class. Keenan et al., (2015) [9] determined decline at global level, in forest area by 3%, from 4128 million hectare in 1990 to 3999 million hectare in 2015. Annunzioin et al., (2015) [10] predicted that forest area is expected to continue in declining with distressing rates in some regions. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
There have been tremendous change in the global forest cover in the past 50 years, which has directly or indirectly exerted significant impact on the global environment change. Quantitative analysis of forest cover change in a regional area is formulated by remote sensing and GIS from past four decades throughout the globe. The core scientific issues to quantitatively analyze are the major environmental problems alarming globally. This paper widely analyzed the importance of the healthy forest cover of a region, and then it shows the effects which progressively introduce the forest cover change. The vital role of monitoring the cover change has been conducted by the Remote Sensing and GIS. The primary scientific issues about the impacts of forests cover change on the regional climate and reviewed the progress in relevant researches. Finally, this paper discussed the application of the Remote Sensing using to detect the forest cover change and its regional impacts. Keywords: forest cover change, remote sensing, forest degradations effects, environmental impacts Introduction Forest means the large expansion territory that is mainly dominated by various types of trees and other shrubs. The forest survey of India (FSI) defines a forest cover. Forest is an important natural component that maintains the environmental and ecological balance (Liu et al., 2020; Yuan et al., 2020) by preventing unwanted climate change and keeping ecosystems balance between human beings, plants, animals, and other abiotic components. According to FSI, the forest is defined as the minimum 1 hectare of land area that covers more than 10% of tree canopy. Also Food and agricultural Organisation (FAO) has systematically defined that the land has at least 0.5 hectare area, minimum tree height should be 5m and covered with 10% tree canopy. With evolution of time, the definition of forest cover varies from country to country. According to Global Forest Resource Assessment (GFRA), the tropical region is being faced highest rate of deforestation due to very high population density along with high human interference over nature and natural resources in comparison to other climatic regions across the world. Forest plays a vital role in regulating climate change through sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide and mitigates global climate change (Deng et al., 2013; Geng et al., 2015; Lark et al., 2017; Gibson et al., 2018; Ru-Mucova et al., 2018; Lei and Zhu, 2018) [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Some significant research has been done to investigate the extent of land use land cover change (LULCC) in several countries at various times. (Fokeng et al., 2019) [8] forest is the most threatened by anthropogenic driven deforestation investigated from the existing land use land cover class. Keenan et al., (2015) [9] determined decline at global level, in forest area by 3%, from 4128 million hectare in 1990 to 3999 million hectare in 2015. Annunzioin et al., (2015) [10] predicted that forest area is expected to continue in declining with distressing rates in some regions. Fortunately in some places the forest coverage is slightly increased with new plantation by natural or manmade, while in other places the forest coverage indicate a declining trend. A forest cover change analysis was conducted in Google Earth Engine using a classification of Landsat 8 imagery with ground-truthed land cover points as training data. A multi-layer perceptron neural network model was performed to expect the potential spatial patterns and magnitude of forest loss based on the regional drivers of deforestation. The assessment indicates that the agricultural frontier will continue to enlarge into recently untouched forests, as well as predicts a decrease from 75.0% mature forest cover in 2016 to 71.9% in 2026 (C Voight et al., 2019) [45]. Deforestation increases flooding mainly for two reasons. First, The 'sponge' fills up earlier in wet season, causing additional precipitation to run off and increasing flood risk with a smaller 'tree fountain' effect, soils are more likely to be fully saturated with water. Second, deforestation often results in soil compaction unable to absorb rain. The potential of flash flooding caused by faster response of stream flow of rainfall (Chomitz et al., 2007) [11] .
... (Fokeng et al., 2019) [8] forest is the most threatened by anthropogenic driven deforestation investigated from the existing land use land cover class. Keenan et al., (2015) [9] determined decline at global level, in forest area by 3%, from 4128 million hectare in 1990 to 3999 million hectare in 2015. Annunzioin et al., (2015) [10] predicted that forest area is expected to continue in declining with distressing rates in some regions. ...
... (Fokeng et al., 2019) [8] forest is the most threatened by anthropogenic driven deforestation investigated from the existing land use land cover class. Keenan et al., (2015) [9] determined decline at global level, in forest area by 3%, from 4128 million hectare in 1990 to 3999 million hectare in 2015. Annunzioin et al., (2015) [10] predicted that forest area is expected to continue in declining with distressing rates in some regions. ...
Article
Full-text available
There have been tremendous change in the global forest cover in the past 50 years, which has directly or indirectly exerted significant impact on the global environment change. Quantitative analysis of forest cover change in a regional area is formulated by remote sensing and GIS from past four decades throughout the globe. The core scientific issues to quantitatively analyze are the major environmental problems alarming globally. This paper widely analyzed the importance of the healthy forest cover of a region, and then it shows the effects which progressively introduce the forest cover change. The vital role of monitoring the cover change has been conducted by the Remote Sensing and GIS. The primary scientific issues about the impacts of forests cover change on the regional climate and reviewed the progress in relevant researches. Finally, this paper discussed the application of the Remote Sensing using to detect the forest cover change and its regional impacts. Keywords: forest cover change, remote sensing, forest degradations effects, environmental impacts Introduction Forest means the large expansion territory that is mainly dominated by various types of trees and other shrubs. The forest survey of India (FSI) defines a forest cover. Forest is an important natural component that maintains the environmental and ecological balance (Liu et al., 2020; Yuan et al., 2020) by preventing unwanted climate change and keeping ecosystems balance between human beings, plants, animals, and other abiotic components. According to FSI, the forest is defined as the minimum 1 hectare of land area that covers more than 10% of tree canopy. Also Food and agricultural Organisation (FAO) has systematically defined that the land has at least 0.5 hectare area, minimum tree height should be 5m and covered with 10% tree canopy. With evolution of time, the definition of forest cover varies from country to country. According to Global Forest Resource Assessment (GFRA), the tropical region is being faced highest rate of deforestation due to very high population density along with high human interference over nature and natural resources in comparison to other climatic regions across the world. Forest plays a vital role in regulating climate change through sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide and mitigates global climate change (Deng et al., 2013; Geng et al., 2015; Lark et al., 2017; Gibson et al., 2018; Ru-Mucova et al., 2018; Lei and Zhu, 2018) [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Some significant research has been done to investigate the extent of land use land cover change (LULCC) in several countries at various times. (Fokeng et al., 2019) [8] forest is the most threatened by anthropogenic driven deforestation investigated from the existing land use land cover class. Keenan et al., (2015) [9] determined decline at global level, in forest area by 3%, from 4128 million hectare in 1990 to 3999 million hectare in 2015. Annunzioin et al., (2015) [10] predicted that forest area is expected to continue in declining with distressing rates in some regions. Fortunately in some places the forest coverage is slightly increased with new plantation by natural or manmade, while in other places the forest coverage indicate a declining trend. A forest cover change analysis was conducted in Google Earth Engine using a classification of Landsat 8 imagery with ground-truthed land cover points as training data. A multi-layer perceptron neural network model was performed to expect the potential spatial patterns and magnitude of forest loss based on the regional drivers of deforestation. The assessment indicates that the agricultural frontier will continue to enlarge into recently untouched forests, as well as predicts a decrease from 75.0% mature forest cover in 2016 to 71.9% in 2026 (C Voight et al., 2019) [45]. Deforestation increases flooding mainly for two reasons. First, The 'sponge' fills up earlier in wet season, causing additional precipitation to run off and increasing flood risk with a smaller 'tree fountain' effect, soils are more likely to be fully saturated with water. Second, deforestation often results in soil compaction unable to absorb rain. The potential of flash flooding caused by faster response of stream flow of rainfall (Chomitz et al., 2007) [11] .
... Deforestation has well-documented, devastating consequences on species survival [1], global warming [2], and zoonotic disease emergence [3,4]. This is particularly worrying in tropical forests, which lost 6% of in their global area between 1990 and 2015 [5]. For example, the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world's most biodiverse regions, occupies only 28% of its original extent [6]. ...
... Habitat patch area and protection status, but not degree of isolation or distance to source, have a measurable effect on the microbiome of bat flies, but less explanatory power than parasite species (Tables 2 and 3; Figs. [3][4][5]. While bacterial ASV richness does not vary following expectations of island biogeography theory (Fig. 3), examining both relative abundance and diversity of bacteria using PERMANOVA and bacterial association networks provided a clear statistical signal that habitat patch area (measured as area and protection status) is correlated with microbiome composition (Table 3; Fig. 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Suitable habitat fragment size, isolation, and distance from a source are important variables influencing community composition of plants and animals, but the role of these environmental factors in determining composition and variation of host-associated microbial communities is poorly known. In parasite-associated microbial communities, it is hypothesized that evolution and ecology of an arthropod parasite will influence its microbiome more than broader environmental factors, but this hypothesis has not been extensively tested. To examine the influence of the broader environment on the parasite microbiome, we applied high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of 16S rRNA to characterize the microbiome of 222 obligate ectoparasitic bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) collected from 155 bats (representing six species) from ten habitat fragments in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Parasite species identity is the strongest driver of microbiome composition. To a lesser extent, reduction in habitat fragment area, but not isolation, is associated with an increase in connectance and betweenness centrality of bacterial association networks driven by changes in the diversity of the parasite community. Controlling for the parasite community, bacterial network topology covaries with habitat patch area and exhibits parasite-species specific responses to environmental change. Taken together, habitat loss may have cascading consequences for communities of interacting macro- and microorgansims.
... Forest resources are essential for human well-being (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005;Bodeker and Burford, 2005;Nair, 2007), but tropical forests are being cleared at an annual rate of 5.5 million hectares (Keenan et al., 2015). Meanwhile, plantations can supplement natural forests by providing essential forest products to reduce forest clearing (Nair, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical data reporting forest pest damage on Khaya senegalensis have raised concerns over their potential economic impacts. Although the problem was also reported in Benin, scientific data on their economic impact on plantations are lacking. In this study, we combined dendrometry and survey data to estimate the economic impact of wood damage caused by pests in K. senegalensis plantations in Benin. We found that four major pest guilds cause damage to the plantations with severe wood production loss. Wood borers are the most economically damaging guild, mainly in mature plantations, while shoot borers and defoliators predispose trunks to bifurcation and deformation in young plantations. We estimated damage to 8.3 ± 5.4 m 3 ha-1 of wood production, corresponding to an economic loss of 825.5 ± 635.4 USD ha-1. Our findings suggest that pest management in K. senegalensis plantations should focus on the developmental stages and ecological interactions between host and pest to reduce the economic impacts of wood damage.
... Likely, these changes have been caused by rapid human population growth, agricultural expansion, infrastructure development, and forest clearance for timber and charcoal production [86,87]. Globally, a decline in forest cover has been associated with increased human population and decreased biodiversity [88][89][90], as was seen in our study. Furthermore, the intensification of agriculture is generally associated with human population growth in many African countries [91], which has led to an increase in food and higher income demands in rural areas of the LCF ecosystem [92]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The East-African lowland coastal forest (LCF) is one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, representing an important biodiversity hotspot. However, deforestation and forest degradation due to the high demand for fuelwood has reduced forest cover and diversity, with unknown consequences for associated terrestrial carbon stocks in this LCF system. Our study assessed spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes (LULC) in 1998, 2008, 2018 in the LCF ecosystem, Tanzania. In addition, we conducted a forest inventory survey and calculated associated carbon storage for this LCF ecosystem. Using methods of land use change evaluation plug-in in QGIS based on historical land use data, we modelled carbon stock trends post-2018 in associated LULC for the future 30 years. We found that agriculture and grassland combined increased substantially by 21.5% between the year 1998 and 2018 while forest cover declined by 29%. Furthermore, forest above-ground live biomass carbon (AGC) was 2.4 times higher in forest than in the bushland, 5.8 times in the agriculture with scattered settlement and 14.8 times higher than in the grassland. The estimated average soil organic carbon (SOC) was 76.03 ± 6.26 t/ha across the entire study area. Our study helps to identify land use impacts on ecosystem services, supporting decision-makers in future land-use planning.
... As the C residence time is longer in soils than in the vegetation biomass [2,3], the stable incorporation of C in soils is of great interest to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration in order to contribute to climate change mitigation [4][5][6]. Covering about 31% of the world's land surface, forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global C stock [7][8][9]. Indeed, C sequestration in forests, which performs a key role as CO2 sinks, can help mitigate the effects of climate change [4][5]10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Forest ecosystems are some of the largest carbon (C) reservoirs on earth. Pinus halepensis Mill., Quercus ilex L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. represent the dominant tree cover in the Mediterranean forests of southern France. However, their contributions to the French and global forest C and nitrogen (N) stocks are frequently overlooked and inaccurately quantified and little is known about to what extent the ongoing climate change can alter these stocks. We quantified the soil organic C (SOC) and N (SN) stocks in Mediterranean forests dominated by these tree species and evaluated to what extent an experimental precipitation reduction (about −30% yearly) affects these stocks and the litter decomposition efficiency. Litter mass losses were 55.7, 49.8 and 45.7% after 24 months of decomposition in Q. ilex, Q. pubescens and P. halepensis forests, respectively, and were 19% lower under drier climatic conditions. The SOC stocks were 14.0, 16.7 and 18.5 Mg ha−1 and the SN stocks were 0.70, 0.93 and 0.88 Mg ha−1 in Q. ilex, Q. pubescens and P. halepensis forests, respectively. The shallowness and stoniness of these Mediterranean forests could explain these limited stocks. By distinguishing the organic from the organo–mineral layer, we showed 74% less SOC in the organic layer of the P. halepensis forest under drier conditions, while no difference was detected in the organo–mineral layer or in the two oak forests. This last finding deserves further investigation and points out the necessity to distinguish the organic from the organo–mineral layer to detect the first impacts of climate change on SOC stocks.
... Based on the type of benefits provided, processes; the area is large enough to maintain its natural characteristics; there has been no known significant human intervention or the last significant human intervention was long enough ago to have allowed the natural species composition and processes to have become re-established." Primary forests cover 26% of the global forest area (FAO., 2015), although in the last 30 years this latter suffered a decrease by 2.5% (Keenan et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the research of ecosystem services valuation has seen an exponential growth with a consequent development, improvement, and spread of different qualitative and quantitative methods. The interest is due to the benefits that ecosystem services provide for human wellbeing. A large part of ecosystem services is provided by the so-called forest ecosystem services (FES) in both protected and non-protected areas. The aim of the present study is to investigate key variables driving the FES value at the global level. These include, other than socio-economic information, the ecosystem services' quality condition and the location of the study. The research uses a meta-regression of 478 observations from 57 studies in the time span 1992–2021 retrieved from the online Ecosystem Service Valuation Database (ESVD). The main results show that both the ES quality condition and spatial aspect are relevant factors in determining the estimated value of FES, suggesting the existence of a difference in the forest value from a North-South perspective. The investigation of an economic assessment of FES is advised as a key research trend in the immediate future. This allows to close the gap between the global North and South and favors the implementation of adequate socio-economic and environmental governance for an efficient forest management.
... Due to the mentioned roles of the forests, as well as the social and economic significances of them, it is revealed that they play a crucial role in the living quality of all human and animals. According to the Global Forest Resources Assessment (Keenan et al. 2015), the forests cover approximately 31% of our planet. This is the equivalent of 4000 million hectares. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the importance of the forest fire susceptibility zonation for proper management of this environmental hazard, this study presents two different hybrids of artificial neural network (ANN) for spatial analysis of forest fire in northern Iran. To this end, ant colony optimization (ACO) and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) evolutionary algorithms are synthesized with ANN to optimize its computational parameters. In this work, slope aspect, elevation, land use, wind speed, soil type, plan curvature, temperature, distance to river, distance from road, distance from village, slope degree, topographic wetness index, annual mean evaporation, annual mean rainfall, and normalized difference vegetation index are considered as the forest fire ignition factors. Notably, the frequency ratio model is used to demonstrate the spatial interaction between the forest fire and ignition factors. The findings showed that the BBO and ACO could improve the accuracy of the ANN from 81.3% to 84.0 and 83.9%, respectively. Moreover, the ranking results (obtained by applying mean square error, area under the curve, and mean absolute error indices) revealed the superiority of the BBO-ANN.
... Forest systems are generally persistent although their health and vigor are affected by natural disturbances such as fire, climatic events (e. g., wind and ice storms or drought), pests and diseases, which are likely to see intensification associated with global change. Together, increasing abiotic and biotic stresses can negatively affect forests and may contribute to the decline in global forest area (Keenan et al., 2015;Brack, 2019). The impacts of abiotic factorsboth natural and human initiated -on forest ecology are quite well known. ...
Article
Forests are important for climate regulation and provide wood and fiber to an increasing human population. Forest systems encompass a large part of the world’s land surface area and they are increasingly threatened by several abiotic and biotic factors, including invasive alien species. Generally, the management of damaging non-native forest insects relies strongly on classical biological control. This is because other Integrated Pest Management tactics may not be readily applicable in forests as these are typically long-lived and structurally complex systems. Given the marked increase in the arrival and establishment of alien forest insects, and the worldwide development of commercial forestry, there is a growing need for classical biological control to achieve persistent pest suppression and to bar the geographical spread of alien pests. Despite much progress in the identification, rearing capacity and release protocols of natural enemies, a limited understanding of pest population ecology and the underlying driving factors, can hinder the effectiveness of classical biological control programs. In this review, we explore the importance of population ecology of forest insects and highlight ecological hypotheses that can serve to lay the groundwork for improved pest management programs in the context of climatic change. While we emphasize the value of classical biological control to manage insect pests in forest systems, especially alien species in novel environments such as in commercial plantations, we draw attention to the need for a better understanding of the processes determining forest insect population dynamics, to secure successful and sustainable pest management programs.
... Every year African forest is declining 9.9 million acres (4 million hectares) of the forest, which is twice the global average of forest cover loss [19]. The current data from different literature explain that the forest area of Africa has been decreased through net forest area [20][21][22]. According to the FAO [23], the forest area from the total land area has declined by 3.5% from 1990 to 2015. ...
... Forests cover ~30% of the Earth's terrestrial surface (Keenan et al., 2015), sustain ecosystem services, regulate climate and rainfall, and host the majority of terrestrial biodiversity (FAO and UNEP, 2020). Natural disturbances, such as wildfire, windthrow, and insect outbreaks, are a key component of forest ecosystems and forest life cycles (Turner, 2010;Wohlgemuth et al., 2019). ...
Article
The response of biodiversity to natural and anthropogenic disturbances is a central topic in applied ecology. Climate change has altered forest disturbance regimes, resulting in global increases in stand-replacing disturbances, which are regularly followed by the removal of trees (salvage logging). Yet, the mid- to long-term effects of disturbances and salvage logging and the importance of species relative abundances on β-diversity remain unclear. We compared the β-diversity of 13 taxonomic groups in intact forest, unlogged windthrow, and salvage-logged windthrow plots 11 years after a windthrow. Hill numbers were used to quantify differences in between-treatment and within-treatment β-diversity for rare, common, and dominant species. We found that over a decade post-disturbance, both windthrow and salvage logging led to significant changes in between-treatment β-diversity of all 13 taxonomic groups. In addition, differences in between- and within-treatment β-diversity were more pronounced for rare species than for common and dominant ones. Windthrow led to the homogenization of communities of most saproxylic and half of the non-saproxylic studied groups. However, contrary to our expectation, salvage logging did not further increase community homogenization for any taxonomic group or Hill number. Moreover, salvage logging even reversed the community homogenization caused by the windthrow for saproxylic groups, leading to more heterogeneous communities. This effect was likely caused by the relatively high amount and diversity of deadwood found on the salvage-logged plots. Our study suggests that differences in within-treatment β-diversity between salvaged and unsalvaged windthrows tend to vanish over time, whereas differences between-treatments persisted, especially for saproxylic groups and rare species. This finding underlines the importance of preserving the characteristic communities in unsalvaged wind-disturbed forests in the mid- to long-term. Therefore, we recommend a management strategy that balances the amount of salvage-logged areas with that of set-aside areas.
... Carbon-substrate relations of microbial communities reflect their in situ activity and associated differences in the nature, abundance and bioavailability of carbon sources [5], [6]. Indian tropical forests accounts ~ 3.5 % of the tropical forest cover of the world [7] and the tropical dry deciduous forests of Vindhyan constitute ~ 53 % of total forest cover in India. This region have specific feature such as heterogeneous plant communities, marked seasonal chnages, varied topography, and variable patches of nutrient impoverished soils [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The soil microbial communities and factors therein play important role in maintaining nutrient turnover in forest ecosystem. A biolog ecoplate based approach was applied to a dry deciduous tropical forest to investigate metabolic profile of soil microbial communities in relation to topography and seasonality. Significant (p < 0.05) effect of seasonality on metabolic profile was observed. The average well color development (AWCD), rate of change (r) and metabolic diversity indices (functional diversity indices) were recorded maximum in rainy season followed by winter and summer indicating maximum microbial activity in rainy season. Principal component analysis revealed seasonality to be the major determinant of soil metabolic profile, a key aspect of ecosystem functioning.
... Nevertheless, forests are still being damaged all over the world, and North Korea is a representative example of current deforestation trends [8][9][10]. Huge areas of forest are constantly being damaged at any given time, with the Amazon in South America and the tropical forests of Indonesia and Congo being prime examples. ...
Article
Full-text available
In response to widespread deforestation, North Korea has restored forests through national policy over the past 10 years. Here, the entire process of forest degradation and restoration was evaluated through satellite-based vegetation monitoring, and its effects were also investigated. The vegetation dynamics of North Korea were characterized from 1986 to 2021 using the Landsat satellite 5–7, after which we evaluated the effect of vegetation shifts through changes in surface temperature since the 2000s. Vegetation greenness decreased significantly from the 1980s to the 2000s but increased in recent decades due to forest restoration. During the deforestation period, vegetation in all areas of North Korea tended to decrease, which was particularly noticeable in the provinces of Pyongannam-do and Hamgyongnam-do. During the forest restoration period, increases in vegetation greenness were evident in most regions except for some high-mountainous and developing regions, and the most prominent increase was seen in Pyongyang and Pyongannam-do. According to satellite-based analyses, the land surface temperature exhibited a clear upward trend (average slope = 0.13). However, large regional differences were identified when the analysis was shortened to encompass only the last 10 years. Particularly, the correlation between the area where vegetation improved and the area where the surface temperature decreased was high (−0.32). Moreover, the observed atmospheric temperature increased due to global warming, but only the surface temperature exhibited a decreasing trend, which could be understood by the effect of vegetation restoration. Our results suggest that forest restoration can affect various sectors beyond the thermal environment due to its role as an enhancer of ecosystem services.
... Silviculture is among the main human activities responsible for changes in the natural landscape (Pauchard et al. 2010;Kull et al. 2011;Simberloff et al. 2013;Zenni 2014). Between 1990 and 2015, planted forest areas increased by 66%, from 168 to 278 million ha worldwide (Keenan et al. 2015). Most of these planted forests in the northern hemisphere are composed of native species, and about 18% of the total area is formed by introduced exotic species (Payn et al. 2015). ...
Article
Silviculture is among the human activities that contribute most to fragmentation and habitat loss. The comprehension of the effects of such activity on the environment is crucial for conservation. Here, we assessed the effects of silviculture on the local distribution of Contomastix vacariensis, an endemic lizard from southern Brazil. We used a single‐season occupancy model in a Bayesian framework to estimate the occupancy probability of the species in 69 sites with different distances from silviculture areas. Our data showed a low probability of occupancy of C. vacariensis within a distance smaller than 1000 m from silviculture areas, while detection probability was negatively influenced by wind speed. This is the first work to demonstrate a gradual negative effect of exotic silviculture in lizards, which may be more intense inside planted areas and decrease as the distance from the exotic plantation increases. Such results may help delimit the size of conservation areas and management of exotic silviculture species within these areas. Studies with similar methods, considering the distance from the effects of environmental impacts, can be a helpful tool to make predictions based on the projected growth of silviculture in natural areas supporting threatened species.
... This indicator is critical in land reform programmes as it measures the role of agriculture in land degradation. It indicates how land redistribution can compound the challenge [53,54]. As poor agricultural methods contribute the most to land degradation, it is prudent to ensure that land redistribution does not exacerbate the challenge. ...
Article
Full-text available
: Land and water are vital resources for sustaining rural livelihoods and are critical for rural development as they form the basis of agriculture, the main economic activity for rural communities. Nevertheless, in most developing countries, land and water resources are unevenly distributed due to historical and socio-economic imbalances, hence the need for land reform policies to ad-dress these disparities. However, redistributing land without considering the interconnectedness of land and socio-ecological systems can compound existing food and water insecurity challenges. This study used a mixed research method, integrating both quantitative and qualitative data, to develop a framework to guide policy and decision-makers to formulate coherent strategies to-wards sustainable land redistribution programmes and achieve the desired outcomes. The approach was vital for integrating the broad and intricate interlinkages between water, land, and environmental resources. Therefore, the framework is based on transformative and circular models for informing strategic policy decisions towards sustainable land redistribution. The focus was on South Africa’s land redistribution plans and the implications on water and food security and rural development. The developed framework is designed to ensure the sustainability of agrarian reform and rural economic development. It is framed to address land and water accessibility inequalities, promote water and food security, and enhance rural development. A sustainable land redistribution increases the adaptive capacity of rural communities to climate change, enhances their resilience, and provides pathways towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
... Reducing deforestation is one of the most promising and cost-effective solutions to mitigate climate change and respond to the biodiversity crisis [1][2][3][4]. However, the world's forests continue to diminish at high rates, particularly across the tropics [5,6], driven by biophysical, socioeconomic, institutional, and political factors teleconnected across diverse geopolitical scales [7][8][9]. Increasingly, scholars and development organizations alike point to governance, or the interactions of diverse agents in devising institutions that shape behavior and influence both decision-making processes and outcomes [10], as a critical factor influencing forest outcomes [e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation continues at rapid rates despite global conservation efforts. Evidence suggests that governance may play a critical role in influencing deforestation, and while a number of studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between national-level governance and deforestation, much remains to be known about the relative importance of subnational governance to deforestation outcomes. With a focus on the Brazilian Amazon, this study aims to understand the relationship between governance and deforestation at the municipal level. Drawing on the World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) as a guiding conceptual framework, and incorporating the additional dimension of environmental governance, we identified a wide array of publicly available data sources related to governance indicators that we used to select relevant governance variables. We compiled a dataset of 22 municipal-level governance variables covering the 2005–2018 period for 457 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon. Using an econometric approach, we tested the relationship between governance variables and deforestation rates in a fixed-effects panel regression analysis. We found that municipalities with increasing numbers of agricultural companies tended to have higher rates of deforestation, municipalities with an environmental fund tended to have lower rates of deforestation, and municipalities that had previously elected a female mayor tended to have lower rates of deforestation. These results add to the wider conversation on the role of local-level governance, revealing that certain governance variables may contribute to halting deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.
... 1990-2020) ( [14,89]. Such a discrepancy between the FRA reports and other datasets, including HILDA+, is not uncommon [24,90,91] and can be due to a number of reasons, from the definition of forest to the data used and methods employed for forest classification [24,89,92]. The lack of spatially explicit data that is supposed to back up the FRA reports made us unable to perform a detailed comparison with HILDA+. ...
Article
Full-text available
Forest ecosystems play an indispensable role in addressing various pressing sustainability and social-ecological challenges such as climate change and biodiversity loss. However, global forest loss has been, and still is today, an important issue. Here, based on spatially explicit data, we show that over the past 60 years (1960–2019), the global forest area has declined by 81.7 million ha (i.e. 10% more than the size of the entire Borneo island), with forest loss (437.3 million ha) outweighing forest gain (355.6 million ha). With this forest decline and the population increase (4.68 billion) over the period, the global forest per capita has decreased by over 60%, from 1.4 ha in 1960 to 0.5 ha in 2019. The spatiotemporal pattern of forest change supports the forest transition theory, with forest losses occurring primarily in the lower income countries in the tropics and forest gains in the higher income countries in the extratropics. Furthermore, economic growth has a stronger association with net forest gain than with net forest loss. Our results highlight the need to strengthen the support given to lower income countries, especially in the tropics, to help improve their capacity to minimize or end their forest losses. To help address the displacement of forest losses to the lower income countries in the tropics, higher income nations need to reduce their dependence on imported tropical forest products.
... In contrast, on the southern Mediterranean shore, forest ecosystems are still at risk of fragmentation or disappearance due to human pressure from clearing and cultivation, overexploitation of firewood and overgrazing (Gauquelin et al. 1999;Croitoru 2007;Palahi et al. 2008;Djema and Messaoudene 2009;Masiero et al. 2013;FAO and Plan Bleu 2018). For example, Algerian forests decreased at a rate of 0.5% from 1990 to 2010 (FAO and Plan Bleu 2013) and a decrease rate of ~126,000 ha yr -1 across North Africa has been estimated over the last 25 years (Keenan et al. 2015). This degradation continues despite forest representing 22% of the protected land area in North African countries (FAO and Plan Bleu 2018). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Balzan MV, Hassoun AER, Aroua N, Baldy V, Bou Dagher M, Branquinho C, Dutay J-C, El Bour M, Médail F, Mojtahid M, Morán-Ordóñez A, Roggero PP, Rossi Heras S, Schatz B, Vogiatzakis IN, Zaimes GN, Ziveri P 2020 Ecosystems. In: Climate and Environmental Change in the Mediterranean Basin – Current Situation and Risks for the Future. First Mediterranean Assessment Report [Cramer W, Guiot J, Marini K (eds.)] Union for the Mediterranean, Plan Bleu, UNEP/MAP, Marseille, France, pp. 323-468.
... Terrestrial ecosystems represent an important carbon (C) pool, as well as a sink that is able to sequester a substantial percentage of the total CO 2 emitted to the atmosphere by humans (Soong et al., 2020;Friedlingstein et al., 2020). Forests cover 31% of the global land area and store an estimated stock of 861 Pg C, nearly half of which is contained in soil (Keenan et al., 2015;Pan et al., 2011). The understanding of processes that lead to C storage in forest soils is essential to estimate the role of soils in the global C budget, as well as their potential responses to global change (Chen et al., 2018). ...
Article
Forest soil processes carried out by microorganisms are critical for the global carbon (C) cycle and climate. Characterizing the utilization of differently recalcitrant C sources is an important step towards understanding the ecosystem-level function of microorganisms in temperate forest soils. Here, using stable-isotope probing (SIP), we tracked C incorporation into bacterial and fungal biomass by quantifying ¹³C incorporation into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA-SIP), its respiration (i.e., content in the produced CO2) and C accumulation by individual microbial taxa (DNA-SIP), following the addition of ¹³C-labelled substrates of different recalcitrance (citric acid, glucose, chitin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and plant biomass) in microcosms. The highest ¹³C respiration was observed after the addition of the low-molecular-mass substrates citric acid and glucose, while the highest ¹³C incorporation into microbial biomass was observed during growth on chitin. Communities of fungi and bacteria that incorporated ¹³C of various origins into their biomass differed from the original soil communities, as well as between treatments. The most distinct microbial community was observed in microcosms containing ¹³C-chitin, indicating its utilization by both fungi and bacteria. Bacterial taxa were more often versatile, incorporating C of various origins, while there was a higher share of fungi that were specialists. Together, our results show that low-molecular-mass compounds that belong to typical root exudates are more readily respired, while the C from biopolymers studied was relatively more incorporated into microbial biomass. Various C sources are targeted by distinct microbial communities, although their composition partly overlaps due to the existence of generalist bacteria and fungi that are capable of utilizing various C sources.
... Forests cover about a third of the Earth's land surface (Keenan et al. 2015) harbor as much as 80% of all terrestrial biodiversity, and the associated animals, plants, fungi and bacteria provide critical ecosystem services and invaluable economic benefits. However, many threats and stress factors degrade forest ecosystem and thus the overall forest health (Gauthier et al. 2015;Mate and Deshmukh 2016), which reflects the relative condition and resilience, productivity and sustainability of the forest ecosystem. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cork oak forests in Morocco are rich in resources and services thanks to their great biological diversity, playing an important ecological and socioeconomic role. Considerable degradation of the forests has been accentuated in recent years by significant human pressure and effects of climate change; hence, the health of the stands needs to be monitored. In this study, the Google Engine Earth platform was leveraged to extract the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil-adjusted vegetation index, from Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite images between 2015 and 2017 to assess the health of the Sibara Forest in Morocco. Our results highlight the importance of interannual variations in NDVI in forest monitoring; the variations had a significantly high relationship ( p < 0.001) with dieback severity. NDVI was positively and negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature with respective coefficients of 0.49 and − 0.67, highlighting its ability to predict phenotypic changes in forest species. Monthly interannual variation in NDVI between 2016 and 2017 seemed to confirm field observations of cork oak dieback in 2018, with the largest decreases in NDVI (up to − 38%) in December in the most-affected plots. Analysis of the influence of ecological factors on dieback highlighted the role of substrate as a driver of dieback, with the most severely affected plots characterized by granite-granodiorite substrates.
... Los ecosistemas forestales cubren alrededor del 30% de la superficie terrestre (Keenan et al. 2015) y pueden albergan más biodiversidad que cualquier otro ecosistema terrestre (Lindenmayer y Franklin 2002), pero al mismo tiempo son objeto cada vez de más presiones y amenazas que comprometen su distribución, estructura y funciones (Referowska-Chodak 2019). Existe así una responsabilidad ecológica y ética, y también política y administrativa, de priorizar esfuerzos en monitorizar el EC de este tipo de hábitats. ...
Article
Evaluar el estado de conservación (EC) de los tipos de Hábitats de Interés Comunitario (HICs) es un requerimiento de la Directiva Hábitats (92/43/CEE) que persigue salvaguardar su biodiversidad. Para ello se necesita un amplio conocimiento sobre la distribución, la estructura y función (E&F) y las condiciones de estos hábitats. El Inventario Forestal Nacional (IFN) puede representar una herramienta adecuada y precisa para caracterizar los hábitats forestales, al monitorizar decenalmente alrededor de 100 parámetros en más de 90 000 parcelas distribuidas en toda España. El objeto de este trabajo es valorar la idoneidad del IFN como fuente de datos para informar sobre el EC del parámetro E&F de los 22 HICs forestales españoles. Para ello se evaluó la representatividad de cada HIC en el IFN y se estimaron un total de 15 variables diagnóstico del parámetro E&F en las parcelas categorizadas dentro de cada HIC. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los HICs forestales de España están bien representados en el IFN pero que el EC del parámetro E&F fue principalmente ‘desfavorable-inadecuado’ (15 HICs) y ‘desfavorable-malo’ (6 HICs), lo que es acorde con evaluaciones previas. En concreto, acebedas (9380) y alcornocales (9330) mostraron el mayor porcentaje de parcelas en estado ‘favorable’, en contraste con los palmerales de Phoenix (9370) y los encinares y alsinares (9340). Este trabajo presenta un sistema de seguimiento estandarizado y optimizado para evaluar el EC del parámetro E&F de los hábitats forestales cuya fácil implementación podría guiar las estrategias europeas de monitorización y conservación de los mismos.
... Global forest area decreased 3% from 1990 to 2015 (4128 million ha to 3999 million ha). In Mexico, the forest loss net rate has halved from 190,000 ha annually during the 1990s to 92,000 ha between 2010-2015 [1], mainly due to the repurposing of land for agriculture [2]. Moreover, the Mexican land cover distribution between 2001-2014 changed due to an increase in woody vegetation and croplands, and a decrease in pastures [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Land use in Mexico has dramatically changed in recent decades since deforested lands have been repurposed for agriculture. We evaluated the amphibian taxonomic and functional diversity of a heterogeneous landscape with ten land cover/use types in west-central Mexico. Taxonomic diversity was evaluated with q-order indices, and functional diversity was calculated with three multivariate functional diversity indices by land cover/use. The relationship between amphibian diversity, habitat structure, and environmental variables was analyzed using multidimensional distance-based analyses. Our results showed that most native land cover types exhibited a similar species richness (low values) among the studied crops, except for the riparian habitat surrounded by tropical dry forest (high richness) and secondary vegetation (intermediate richness). Regarding functional diversity, the riparian habitat surrounded by tropical dry forest, sugar cane field, and secondary vegetation had the highest values. The secondary vegetation had more functional groups than other land cover/use types. Despite the lack of a clear spatial pattern of amphibian taxonomic and functional diversity, we determined that attributes such as herbaceous cover and water availability are essential to maintain both facets with high amphibian diversity in the land cover/use types (e.g., secondary vegetation and sugar cane).
... For example, expansion of rail and barge transportation from the Midwest to the Northeast U.S. in the middle of the 19 th century contributed to the widespread abandonment of farmland and subsequent regrowth of forest (Whitney 1994). More recent contractions of farmland have resulted in expansion of forests in Europe, Central and South America, the Caribbean and other locations (Keenan et al. 2015;Chazdon et al. 2000;Grau et al. 2000). Future retirement of farmlands presents opportunities for restoration of historic or targeted plant communities. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Retirement of cultivated croplands creates potential for ecosystem and wetland restoration, but vegetation and soil legacies of cropping influence the development of post-agriculture vegetation. In low-lying coastal watersheds of southeastern Massachusetts, cranberries ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) are cultivated in commercial "bogs" largely on diked, leveled and sanded bog beds created from historic wetlands. Current low cranberry prices and expanding cranberry production elsewhere now increase the likelihood of cranberry farmland retirement. We quantified the trajectories of plant species richness and cover, and plant characteristics (life form, native or non-native, wetland or non-wetland) in a chronosequence of cranberry bog beds that spanned from cultivated bog beds to those retired from cropping and revegetated for 90 years with no post-cropping management. Species richness increased from active bog beds to 10-20 year-old bog beds and subsequently decreased. Post-retirement species richness was overwhelmingly dominated by native species. Shrub and tree richness and cover increased steadily over time. The richness of wetland, upland and facultative species all increased quickly after retirement and then declined in the oldest retired bog beds. The basal area and canopy cover of red maple ( Acer rubrum ) and pitch pine ( Pinus rigida ) increased over time. Vegetation followed a relatively predictable succession trajectory and the plant community after five to nine decades was predominantly forested and dominated by non-wetland plants. Encouragement of long-term persistence of greater diversity and cover of wetland plant species on retired cranberry farms will likely require active hydrological and soil modifications that decrease sand depth and raise water tables.
... The global forest loss between 1990 and 2015 (3%) had a direct impact on the hydrological cycle, soil resources and provision of ecosystem services (6,8). In the context of climate change and environmental hazards, the protection of soil and water resources becomes a central issue (13). ...
... The rotation length in forest plantations is governed by the maximization of the current annual increment 11 . The forest plantation area is initialized based on the Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) national-level data on planted forests 21,65,66 . During the land-use optimization stage of our model, a forest plantation can be converted to cropland. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using engineered wood for construction has been discussed for climate change mitigation. It remains unclear where and in which way the additional demand for wooden construction material shall be fulfilled. Here we assess the global and regional impacts of increased demand for engineered wood on land use and associated CO 2 emissions until 2100 using an open-source land system model. We show that if 90% of the new urban population would be housed in newly built urban mid-rise buildings with wooden constructions, 106 Gt of additional CO 2 could be saved by 2100. Forest plantations would need to expand by up to 149 Mha by 2100 and harvests from unprotected natural forests would increase. Our results indicate that expansion of timber plantations for wooden buildings is possible without major repercussions on agricultural production. Strong governance and careful planning are required to ensure a sustainable transition to timber cities even if frontier forests and biodiversity hotspots are protected.
... Degradation maps will therefore help to quantify concerns about extinction rates [14,15] and to target measures aimed at protecting the high diversity of life found in tropical forest ecosystems [16,17]. The tropics have experienced, and are experiencing, rapid rates of land use change [18][19][20] as they are an important source of timber, rubber, minerals and food products to the world economy [21][22][23][24]. There are pledges to halt and reverse deforestation and forest degradation made by nations as part of their Paris Agreement commitments, including plans by developed countries to fund this transition [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Selective logging is a major cause of forest degradation in the tropics, but its precise scale, location and timing are not known as wide-area, automated remote sensing methods are not yet available at this scale. This limits the abilities of governments to police illegal logging, or monitor (and thus receive payments for) reductions in degradation. Sentinel-1, a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite mission with a 12-day repeat time across the tropics, is a promising tool for this due to the known appearance of shadows in images where canopy trees are removed. However, previous work has relied on optical satellite data for calibration and validation, which has inherent uncertainties, leaving unanswered questions about the minimum magnitude and area of canopy loss this method can detect. Here, we use a novel bi-temporal LiDAR dataset in a forest degradation experiment in Gabon to show that canopy gaps as small as 0.02 ha (two 10 m × 10 m pixels) can be detected by Sentinel-1. The accuracy of our algorithm was highest when using a timeseries of 50 images over 20 months and no multilooking. With these parameters, canopy gaps in our study site were detected with a false alarm rate of 6.2%, a missed detection rate of 12.2%, and were assigned disturbance dates that were a good qualitative match to logging records. The presence of geolocation errors and false alarms makes this method unsuitable for confirming individual disturbances. However, we found a linear relationship (r2=0.74) between the area of detected Sentinel-1 shadow and LiDAR-based canopy loss at a scale of 1 hectare. By applying our method to three years’ worth of imagery over Gabon, we produce the first national scale map of small-magnitude canopy cover loss. We estimate a total gross canopy cover loss of 0.31 Mha, or 1.3% of Gabon’s forested area, which is a far larger area of change than shown in currently available forest loss alert systems using Landsat (0.022 Mha) and Sentinel-1 (0.019 Mha). Our results, which are made accessible through Google Earth Engine, suggest that this approach could be used to quantify the magnitude and timing of degradation more widely across tropical forests.
... Forestry residue is another lignocellulosic waste source (30,34,35). Global forest resources amount to 600,066 megatonnes/year and comprise of above and below-ground biomass, plus 67,000 megatonnes/year of deadwood. ...
... Similarly, Zhuang et al. [42] reported that a longer growing season and high temperature are positively correlated with radial growth. The extension of the growing season is directly linked with the temperature increase, which ultimately results in higher annual radial growth [43]. Moreover, Xu et al. [44] reported that water stress in the summer season might severely degrade the growth of coniferous trees because of higher evapotranspiration. ...
Article
Full-text available
A changing climate and global warming have adversely affected Pakistan’s moist and dry temperate vegetation. Abies pindrow (fir) (Royle ex D.Don) Royle and Picea smithiana (spruce) Wall.) Boiss are the two major representative species of the moist and dry temperate forests in Northern Pakistan. The dendroclimatic study of both species is crucial for the assessment of climate variability at various spatial and temporal scales. This study examined the dendroclimatology of fir and spruce, and analyzed the growth–climate relationship along the latitudinal gradient. Two hundred and nineteen samples (ring cores) of the two species were collected from five different sites (Shogran (SHG), Upper Dir (UDS), Bahrain Swat (BSG), Astore Gilgit (NPKA), and Sharan Kaghan (SHA)) in Northern Pakistan. The cores were cross-dated, and chronologies were generated for the species and climatic data (precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)) correlated with radial growth. The interspecies correlations for fir were calculated as 0.54, 0.49, 0.52, 0.60, and 0.48 for SHG, UDS, BSG, NPKA, and SHA, respectively, whereas in the case of spruce, the interspecies correlations were 0.44 for SHG, 0.55 for UDS, and 0.49 for BSG. Climate variability was observed in the samples of both species, which showed significant drought and humid years at specific intervals. With respect to the correlation between tree-ring width and climatic factors, a positive correlation was observed between fir growth and summer season precipitation, mean temperature, and PDSI in the spring, summer, and autumn seasons. Similarly, the growth of spruce was positively correlated with precipitation (in February, September, and May) and PDSI (in the summer and autumn seasons); however, no correlation was observed between monthly temperature and spruce growth. The relationship of fir and spruce growth with seasonal precipitation and PDSI showed a change from a negative to a positive correlation after 1980, following rapid warming. During the winter and spring, the correlation coefficient between fir radial growth and seasonal temperature showed an initial upward trend followed by a progressive decrease along with increasing latitude. Seasonal variations were observed regarding the correlation coefficient between spruce radial growth and increasing latitude (increasing in winter; a decreasing trend in spring and summer; an initial increase and then a decrease in autumn). In the same way, the correlation of seasonal temperature and PDSI with the radial growth of both species showed increasing trends with increasing latitude, except in the autumn season
... Forestry residue is another lignocellulosic waste source (30,34,35). Global forest resources amount to 600,066 megatonnes/year and comprise of above and below-ground biomass, plus 67,000 megatonnes/year of deadwood. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
A waste-to-protein system that integrates a range of waste-to-protein upgrading technologies has the potential to converge innovations on zero-waste and protein security to ensure a sustainable protein future. We present a global overview of food-safe and feed-safe waste resource potential and technologies to sort and transform such waste streams with compositional quality characteristics into food-grade or feed-grade protein. The identified streams are rich in carbon and nutrients and absent of pathogens and hazardous contaminants, including food waste streams, lignocellulosic waste from agricultural residues and forestry, and contaminant-free waste from the food and drink industry. A wide range of chemical, physical, and biological treatments can be applied to extract nutrients and convert waste-carbon to fermentable sugars or other platform chemicals for subsequent conversion to protein. Our quantitative analyses suggest that the waste-to-protein system has the potential to maximise recovery of various low-value resources and catalyse the transformative solutions toward a sustainable protein future. However, novel protein regulation processes remain expensive and resource intensive in many countries, with protracted timelines for approval. This poses a significant barrier to market expansion, despite accelerated research and development in waste-to-protein technologies and novel protein sources. Thus, the waste-to-protein system is an important initiative to promote metabolic health across the lifespan and tackle the global hunger crisis.
... Agro-ecology and climate are among the natural factors (Alemu et al., 2015); whereas, economic, political and social issues are among the human induced factors (Aramde et al., 2014;Whiteman et al., 2015). The human induced factor increasingly recognized as dominant (Keenan et al., 2015;Mekonnen et al., 2016;Payn et al., 2015) because its influence is short and immediate compared with natural factors (Rédei et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research was conducted in the northwest Ethiopia to investigate the land use/cover dynamics and its driving forces. ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine software’s were used for spatial analysis, land use classification and change detection. The field experiment was designed in three treatments (land use types) with four replications. The treatments were; (i) Eucalyptus globulus plantation land use, (ii) crop based land use, and (iii) grazing based land use. Plantation land use showed extensive expansion for the last three decades, due to its higher economic return compared with other land uses. The net income gained from Eucalyptus globulus land use was a multiple of 1.5 and 13.5 from cultivated and grazing land uses, respectively. Land use productivity was also influenced by agro-ecology as higher Wheat grain yield was obtained from the lower elevation than the higher elevations agro-ecologies. On the contrary, the productivity of plantation land use was high on high elevation than lower elevation agro-ecologies. In general, income and agro-ecology were found to influences land use changes. Hence, Eucalyptus globulus plantation is recommended in the high elevation agro-ecologies and Wheat cultivation in the lower elevation agro-ecologies.
Preprint
Full-text available
Human actions compromise the many life-supporting functions of the global freshwater cycle. Yet, an encompassing analysis of humanity’s aggregate impact on the freshwater cycle is still missing. We compare the current state of the freshwater cycle against a stable reference state by estimating the global area experiencing streamflow and soil moisture deviations beyond pre-industrial variability range. We propose replacing the current freshwater use planetary boundary (PB) with our thus-defined freshwater change PB. Our analysis indicates unprecedented change: locally, the impacts of e.g. climate change, land use, and dams, are clearly visible. Globally, we find 70% and 44% increases in areas experiencing streamflow and soil moisture deviations. This suggests a transgression of the PB, calling for urgent actions to reduce human disturbance of the freshwater cycle.
Article
One of the crucial components in improving the quality of forests is post-fire vegetation regrowth monitoring. This is done by analyzing the time series of satellite data and studying the severity of forest fires to improve the ability to monitor the dynamic changes of the forest. This study investigates the regeneration process of existing vegetation types in different severities of The Rim fire in Sierra Nevada, California, using the time series of vegetation indices obtained from the MODIS sensor. The Vegetation Return Period (VRP) and the Recovery Rate (RR) after the fire were evaluated to monitor the regrowth of vegetation types. According to the results, the VRP values of the species for low, moderate, and high severity were estimated to be between 22 to 33 months, 33 to 47 months, and about 5 years, in this area. The 8-year changes in the time series of vegetation indices confirm that some vegetation types in this region have not fully recovered. In addition, spatio-temporal variations of the burned regions were examined with Landsat images at 2-year post-fire intervals until 2021. The results showed that in three 2-year periods after the fire, 16,074 hectares, 48,722 hectares, and 27,391 hectares of land were, respectively, converted into unburned areas, and until 2019, about 60% of the burned areas were recovered. Researchers and land managers can use the results of such studies to identify areas that need more attention after a fire.
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest around the world in more effectively linking public payments to the provision of public goods from agriculture. However, published evidence syntheses suggest mixed, weak or uncertain evidence for many agri-environment scheme options. To inform any future “public money for public goods” based policy, further synthesis work is needed to assess the evidence-base for the full range of interventions currently funded under agri-environment schemes. Further empirical research and trials should then focus on interventions for which there is mixed or limited evidence. Furthermore, to ensure the data collected is comparable and can be synthesised effectively, it is necessary to reach agreement on essential variables and methods that can be prioritised by those conducting research and monitoring. Future policy could then prioritise public money for the public goods that can most reliably be delivered, offering better value for taxpayers and improving the provision of ecosystem services from agricultural landscapes.
Article
As in the whole world, abandoned mining sites and their immediate surroundings stands as a major environmental problem in Turkey. This study aims to reveal the factors affecting the utilization opportunities of the wetlands and their immediate surroundings in the abandoned mining sites in Istanbul through a multidimensional approach. In the study, a 34-variable factor analysis was performed, and approximately 75% of the respondents’ opinions were explained with seven factors by taking 24 variables as a basis at the end of the reliability analysis. These factors are listed according to their significance level: (1) utilization for recreational purposes, (2) utilization for functional purposes, (3) management and operation, (4) utilization as water reserve areas, (5) utilization as disposal sites, (6) legal framework, principles, and procedures, and (7) contribution to employment and economy. Afterwards, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to investigate whether there was a statistically significant and important difference between the various socio-economic variables (gender, occupation, workplace and experience) of the groups identified within the scope of the questionnaire. According to these results, thanks to the interdisciplinary and multi-functional planning of these sites after mining activities and their correct and effective management, the local people will be ensured to benefit from these sites at the highest level and the ecological balance will be re-established. The previous economic and ecological value of the abandoned mining sites should at least be restored and/or developed further. There are various criteria and indicators for this. In order to carry out and follow up the works in these areas in a successful way without interruption, it is important that legal arrangements to be made include not only forest areas but also all areas that require nature restoration such as agriculture, industry, solid waste, mines and quarries. In this sense, it should be ensured that all relevant persons and institutions cooperate with each other. As a result, in terms of sustainable land use, this study revealed an approach regarding the correct and effective management of damaged areas remaining after mining and its importance.
Article
Full-text available
The degradation of natural forests is a problem that threatens life on the planet and must be understood and addressed at all scales of territorial analysis, especially at the municipal or small-scale level, where the most impactful mitigation and recovery interventions can be developed. However, the available deforestation reports are presented on a national and regional approximation scale, which become informative rather than operative instruments. On the other hand, in Colombia, 87% of the municipalities have few resources for investment, which implies that they have access restrictions for the purchase of satellite images, as well as for the hiring of specialized human resources for their processing. The article develops a model of easy and economic implementation, for the estimation of deforestation processes at small scale (1:10000), and indirectly for the estimation of atmospheric emissions of CO2 equivalent associated to this phenomenon, by means of a multitemporal analysis using satellite images acquired in the Google Earth Engine® platform, free of charge. The deforestation process is described using the supervised classification by the maximum likelihood method, forest and non-forest areas are quantified.
Article
The biogeochemical cycling of trace elements (TEs) in forest ecosystems is important because it plays a role in providing essential nutrients to plants and soils and because it can potentially have toxic effects. In this study, we investigated the concentration of TEs in atmospheric wet deposition, vegetation and soil in Qinghai spruce (QS) and Qilian juniper (QJ) forests of the Qilian Mountains. Our results show that the average concentrations of Cu in rainwater in QS and QJ forests were 10.30 and 5.35 μg L⁻¹, respectively, the highest concentrations of all TEs in these environments. We suggest that the particulate matter present in the air was the main contributor of TEs in atmospheric wet deposition, which is affected by element specificity, regional factors, and the scavenging process during rainfall events. Most vegetation and tissues had high concentrations of Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu, suggesting that these elements have accumulated in plants. The Zn, Pb, and Ni levels in forest plants may be correlated with those in forest soils. Our study highlights the role that atmospheric wet deposition can play in affecting TEs cycling across forest ecosystems. Managers need to further reduce TEs levels in emissions from surrounding sources and improve long-term observation of TEs in forest ecosystems.
Article
Full-text available
Incidences of forest fires have increased in recent decades largely as a result of climate change and human factors, resulting in great environmental and socioeconomic losses. Post-fire forest restoration is therefore indispensable for maintaining forest ecological integrity and for the sustainability of the affected forest landscapes. In this study, we conduct a systematic review of the available literature on forest restoration in the past two decades (2002–2022) and propose a comprehensive framework for consideration in forest restoration after the occurrence of forest fires. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) model was adopted for this study, where three academic literature databases (Scopus, CAB Direct, Web of Science), the Google Scholar search engine, and specialized websites were used for literature searches. A final list of 36 records from the initial 732 was considered for this study after the screening stage and subsequent inclusion/exclusion of articles as per the stipulated eligibility criteria. The study findings reveal a dearth of information in the field of post-fire forest restoration in an integrated, balanced, and comprehensive manner, as there was no single methodology or unified protocol that guides post-fire forest restoration. There was also a notable bias in the geographical distribution of the relevant studies in restoration as influenced by economic prosperity, political stability, and scientific and technical advancement. This study recommends a 6-criteria comprehensive framework with 29 indicators for post-fire forest restoration based on the reviewed studies. The criteria integrate environmental, economic, social, cultural and aesthetic, management, infrastructure, and education objectives in their design and implementation for better outcomes in achieving the restoration goals.
Article
Silvopastoral systems (SPS) represent an alternative to the environmental impact and biodiversity decline caused by extensive livestock practices. We evaluate the transformation of a conventional pasture parcel into a SPS, and how it alters the diversity of dung beetles, fundamental organisms in these ecosystems. Transects with pitfall traps, baited with excrement were established in SPS, pasture, and forest ecosystems. Differences in the structure of communities were compared through Whittaker curves, the incidence of functional groups, and non-parametric multidimensional scaling. The completeness of the sampling was estimated and the magnitude of change in qD diversity of the SPS concerning pasture and forest ecosystem was calculated for each season. A total of 7446 beetles belonging to twelve genera, fifteen species, and seven morphospecies were collected. The SPS was the environment with the greatest diversity of qD and functional groups after the forest ecosystem. It was more diverse than pasture, 30 % to 50 % richer in species and 10 % to 50 % more diverse in JD and 2D. It is concluded that the conversion of the conventional pastures to SPS led to changes in the composition and structure of the beetle community, making the SPS a more diverse environment than the pasture in all seasons including the dry one, when conditions are the most adverse. These results suggest that the implementation of SPS is an important measure to preserve and increase the diversity of forest dung beetles in the livestock areas of the country.
Article
Full-text available
As the topic of gender and forests gains international attention through programs related to addressing the Sustainable Development Goals, we focus on a case study of the African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) in the savannah landscape of northern Ghana. Although this tree holds high cultural significance for Dagomba women, it is unfortunately becoming scarcer in our study area near Tamale. We investigate the reasons for this decline in relation to the agricultural, ecological, and cultural landscape and discuss the gendered impacts of these changes. Research in these communities was conducted between 2018 and 2021 as part of a transdisciplinary action research approach to process underutilized species with women’s groups. The research started with a survey that included 27 women’s groups in 13 communities with 524 women participants. Out of a selected number of groups, our research team has worked more intensively with three women’s groups near Nyankpala, which selected for their processing focus the African Locust Bean, locally known as dawadawa. More than 45 group sessions were organized with seven groups in a collaborative learning process in 2019. Additionally, the three groups in Kpachi who chose to process the African Locust Bean sustained facilitation of group activities until the end of 2021. Specifically, on the topic of the decline of this tree, 19 semistructured interviews were conducted in August 2020 with 8 female farmers, 7 male farmers and 4 chiefs in the local governance system. Our results show the cultural significance of the African Locust Bean for women in the Dagomba culture as well as practical uses of all parts of the tree. Specifically, the seeds are used for making a fermented condiment and tea. Although seeds of the African Locust Bean are considered a women’s crop, their access to this tree is mediated by the local chiefs and often male land-users. Most farmers interviewed reported a reduction in trees in their fields. The reasons for the decrease can be summarized in six different categories, (1) aging tree populations, (2) challenge caring for saplings until maturity, (3) agricultural changes with increased mechanization and pesticide use, (4) over-use as a firewood resource, (5) usufruct rights between traditional chiefs, male land-owners, and women who should be granted access to the trees according to Dagomba cultural values, and (6) reduced water availability inhibits seed yield. In conclusion, there is an urgent need for action to protect and restore the African Locust Bean within northern Ghana’s savannah landscape to ensure continued access and benefits of the tree to women in the region.
Book
Full-text available
Buku ini diterbitkan didasari oleh keprihatinan penulis atas berbagai faktor kerusakan sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan akibat erosi tanah, banjir dan longsor. Penyebab umum dari kerusakan tersebut, karena terjadinya erosi yang dipercepat (accelerated erosion) atau kerusakan tanah yang terjadi karena tanah rusak lebih cepat dari proses pembentukannya. Erosi yang dipercepat tersebut, terjadi karena faktor kelalaian manusia yang mengabaikan prinsip-prinsip kaidah konservasi tanah dan air. Salah satu yang menyebabkan timbulnya erosi yang dipercepat adalah karena faktor kurangnya informasi akan pentingnya konservasi tanah dan air, dimana salah satu tujuannya adalah pencegahan erosi, memperbaiki tanah yang rusak, memelihara dan meningkatkan produktivitas tanah agar dapat dimanfaatkan secara berkelanjutan bagi kepentingan kehidupan masyarakat.
Article
Deforestation is one of the incredible difficulties confronting mankind. The extraction of woods remains one of the main drivers of deforestation in Malaysia. Relatively, rising in timber values may lead to enlarge in the net advantages of clearing land. Thus, this study is written to assess the process and underlying causes of forest cover change in Malaysia from 1997 to 2016. After assessed the discusses it on the impact of direct drivers with different management scenarios on deforestation in Malaysia. The research design, data, and method also performed by using System Simulation Model. Model validation and sensitivity tests was carried out after the simulation model is implemented to check the correctness in line with the real system. The simulation analysis was carried out with three different simulation periods together with the impact of two main policies: (1) controlling threshold profit; (2) discounted rate. The result of the study indicates that the most suitable policy combination to manage the deforestation is scenario 2 (policy 2B) with the RM650 per/ha threshold profit coupled with interest rate r=4% within 50 years period.
Article
Forest plantation areas have expanded around the world over the past few decades. In parallel, pressure from the market for the sustainability of the sector’s development has also increased. Forest certification has emerged as an alternative to attest that organizations and communities that manage forests are committed to the sustainability of the process. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the certification of forest plantation management in the countries of the Southern Cone of America and its main difficulties in conforming to the requirements of the Forest Stewardship Council standard. We used descriptive analysis to assess the FSC criteria and principles that received the most non-conformities. We used the Pareto Chart to identify the FSC principles that are responsible for 80% of the challenges faced by certified Forest Management Units. We collected the NCs data from the reports made available by the FSC between January 2012 and March 2016. We classified the Forest Management Units by size into: large (> 10,000 ha), medium (1001 ha to 10,000 ha), and small (< 1000 ha). We found that the FSC principles with higher frequencies of NCs varied according to the size class of the certified FMU indicating that the FMUs’ size may be an influencing factor of difficulty in complying with some principles of forest management certification. Our study concluded that the main challenges are focused on meeting FSC standard principles 4 (Community relations and workers' rights), 6 (Environmental impact), 7 (Management plan), and 8 (Monitoring and evaluation); these four principles received the highest number of NCs and showed the greatest relative importance. Although these FSC principles entail management and control of collaborative environmental, and social impacts caused by forestry activities, they have also proved to have difficulties being adapted to by the forest management units. The findings of this study can be used by policymakers, stakeholders, and certificate holders to increase productivity and aid decision-making in the FSC forest management system.
Article
Full-text available
Subnational initiatives to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance carbon stocks (REDD+) have been implemented across the tropics over the last decade. Such initiatives are often embedded within pre-existing conservation policies, such as forest law enforcement, making it challenging to disentangle attributable impacts. In this article, we analyze a new REDD+ project implemented in Brazil nut concessions in the southeastern Peruvian Amazon. Public law enforcement to verify compliance with Peru's Forest Law was already ongoing and intensified locally during our study period. Thus, we combine longitudinal data from remote sensing and household surveys of 197 concessionaires in a before-after control-intervention (BACI) study design to: a) evaluate the project's impacts during the 2012-2018 period on deforestation, forest degradation, and the participants' wellbeing and b) assess how the law-enforcing field inspections may have complemented the project effects. Our results show that the REDD+ initiative had insignificant effects on deforestation and forest degradation, but confirm the curbing effects of the field inspection measures on forest loss. The non-significance of the REDD+ effects may reflect delays in cash incentive payments to enrolled concessionaires, lack of careful alignment of benefit provision with project participants, and limited enforcement of project conditionalities. Most REDD+ participants reported a reduced subjective wellbeing, which may reflect the frustrated expectations associated with project implementation. We discuss the implications of our results and outline lessons for similar tropical forest conservation initiatives.
Chapter
Full-text available
Ülke genelinde yaşanan orman alanı artışı ormanlardaki ağaç serveti ve cari artıma da yansımaktadır. Bu artışların odun üretimine yansıması olağandır. Ancak, özellikle son yıllarda odun üretim miktarlarında yaşanan artışlar alan, servet ve artımda yaşanan artışların çok üzerine çıkmış durumdadır.***** The increase in forest area throughout the country is also reflected in the growing stock and current increment in the forests. It is normal for these increases to be reflected in wood production. However, the increases in wood production, especially in recent years, have far exceeded the increases in area, growing stock and current increment.
Article
Full-text available
Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and organic phosphorus (P) cycling may help sustain plant productivity under elevated CO2 (eCO2) and low-P conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their role in P-acquisition and SOM decomposition may become more relevant in these conditions. Yet, experimental evidence of AM fungi and P availability interactive effects on soil carbon (C) cycling under eCO2 is scarce with the potential mechanisms of this control being poorly understood. We performed a pot experiment with soil and a grass from a low-P ecosystem where plant biomass and soil C cycling have been mostly unresponsive to eCO2. We manipulated AM fungi, P, and CO2 levels and assessed their impacts on soil C cycling and plant growth using continuous ¹³C plant labelling to isolate and measure short-term changes in total and SOM-derived fractions of respired CO2, dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass (MBC), as relevant components of the soil C cycle. Increases in SOM decomposition and microbial C use were hypothesised to support plant growth under eCO2 and low-P with AM fungi intensifying this effect. However, we did not detect simultaneous significant impacts of the three experimental factors. We observed instead increased root biomass and nutrient uptake with eCO2 and AM presence and lower SOM-derived DOC and MBC with low-P, decreasing further with AM inoculation. Taken together, our findings in this model plant-soil system suggest that, AM fungi can support root biomass growth and nutrient uptake under eCO2 and protect the SOM pool against decomposition even in low-P conditions. Contrary to reports from N-limited ecosystems, our results allow us to conclude that C and P biogeochemical cycles may not become coupled to sustain an eCO2 fertilisation effect and that the role of AM fungi protecting the SOM pool is likely driven by competitive interactions with saprotrophic communities over nutrients.
Article
Full-text available
The global community has recognized the importance of forests for biodiversity, and has prioritized the preservation of forest biodiversity and ecosystem functions through multiple multilateral agreements and processes such as the Convention on Biodiversity’s Aichi Targets and the Millennium Development Goals. The Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) provides one mechanism for tracking progress toward such goals in three particular areas: primary forest area, protected forest areas, and areas designated for the conservation of biodiversity. In this paper, we quantify current area and trends in forest areas designated for the conservation of biodiversity, protected forest areas, and primary forests by country and biome; and examine the association between total forest area and measures of protection, per-capita income, and population. The overall findings suggest that countries are increasingly protecting forests of ecological significance at the global scale (7.7% of forests were protected in 1990 rising to 16.3% in 2015), with a strong upward trend in protected areas in the tropical domain (from 12% in 1990 to 26.3% in 2015). However, primary forest area has declined by 2.5% globally and by 10% in the tropics over the period 1990–2015 (using data for countries that reported in all years). Given that many species in the tropics are endemic to primary forests, losses in that climatic domain continue to be of concern, although the rate of decline appears to be slowing.
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a Special Issue of Forest Ecology and Management that includes a collection of analytical results from the 2015 Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA 2015) covering 25 years of forest change (1990-2015). FRA 2015 builds on a series of global assessments that began in 1948 and covers change in forest area and type, volume, biomass and carbon stocking, measures of sustainable forest management, biodiversity and conservation, soil and water protective functions, wood production and a number of socio-economic variables. It covers 234 countries and territories with an emphasis on forest resource change over a twenty-five year period (1990-2015) and also looks forward to anticipated forest change - both as government targets for forest area and projected change (to 2030) to global production and conservation forest area (to the year 2050). This paper describes important contributions of global forest resource estimates to forest management, the methods used in the collection and analysis of FRA 2015 data and provides links to additional information resources. It discusses some of the limitations of this global dataset, some of the steps taken to improve quality and the characteristics that make this type of global data most useful. While forest area change dominates public use of the FRA, the state of the forest resource and management is critical to understanding the ecological and social values of the forest and forestry. Country level reporting not only provides insights that are only possible through national reporting but also provides greater national-level understanding and discussion of forest resource change. The papers that follow in this Special Issue provide analyses of FRA 2015 data covering a wide range of topics related to sustainable forest management and forest change.
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of our study was to provide consistent information on land cover changes between the years 1990 and 2010 for the Cerrado and Caatinga Brazilian seasonal biomes. These areas have been overlooked in terms of land cover change assessment if compared with efforts in monitoring the Amazon rain forest. For each of the target years (1990, 2000 and 2010) land cover information was obtained through an object-based classification approach for 243 sample units (10 km × 10 km size), using (E)TM Landsat images systematically located at each full degree confluence of latitude and longitude. The images were automatically pre-processed, segmented and labelled according to the following legend: Tree Cover (TC), Tree Cover Mosaic (TCM), Other Wooded Land (OWL), Other Land Cover (OLC) and Water (W). Our results indicate the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes lost (gross loss) respectively 265,595 km2 and 89,656 km2 of natural vegetation (TC + OWL) between 1990 and 2010. In the same period, these areas also experienced gain of TC and OWL. By 2010, the percentage of natural vegetation cover remaining in the Cerrado was 47% and in the Caatinga 63%. The annual (net) rate of natural vegetation cover loss in the Cerrado slowed down from −0.79% yr−1 to −0.44% yr−1 from the 1990s to the 2000s, while in the Caatinga for the same periods the rate increased from −0.19% yr−1 to −0.44% yr−1. In summary, these Brazilian biomes experienced both loss and gains of Tree Cover and Other Wooded Land; however a continued net loss of natural vegetation was observed for both biomes between 1990 and 2010. The average annual rate of change in this period was higher in the Cerrado (−0.6% yr−1) than in the Caatinga (−0.3% yr−1).
Article
Full-text available
Using a consistent, twenty-year series of high- (30-m) resolution, satellite-based maps of forest cover, we estimate forest area and its changes from 1990 to 2010 in 34 tropical countries that account for the majority of the global area of humid tropical forests. Our estimates indicate a 62% acceleration in net deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s, contradicting a 25% reduction reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resource Assessment (FRA). Net loss of forest cover peaked from 2000 to 2005. Gross gains accelerated slowly and uniformly between 1990-2000, 2000-2005 and 2005-2010. However, the gains were overwhelmed by gross losses, which peaked from 2000-2005 and decelerated afterward. The acceleration of humid tropical deforestation we report contradicts the assertion that losses decelerated from the 1990s to the 2000s.
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying the amount of forest and change in the amount of forest are key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to maintain the array of ecosystem services provided by forests. There are a range of analytical techniques and data available to estimate these forest parameters, however, not all ‘forest’ is the same and various components of change have been presented. Forest as defined by use and forest as defined by cover are different, although it is common for scientists and policy makers to infer one from the other. We compare and contrast estimates of forest land cover, forest land use, extent and change at policy-relevant scales in the southeastern US. We found that estimates of forest land use extent and forest land cover extent were not significantly correlated. Estimates of net change based on forest land cover and forest land use were only moderately correlated and net change estimates were independent of gross forest cover loss estimates.
Article
Full-text available
P o P u l at i o n a n d d e v e l o P m e n t r e v i e w 3 8 (S u P P l e m e n t) : 2 2 1 – 2 4 2 (2 0 1 2) 2 2 1 expecting that more and richer people will demand more from the land, cultivating wider fields, logging more forests, and pressing nature, comes naturally. the past half-century of disciplined and dematerializing demand and more intense and efficient land use encourage a rational hope that humanity's pressure will not overwhelm nature. Beginning with the examples of crops in the large and fast-developing countries of india and China as well as the united States, we examine the recent half-century. we also look back over the past 150 years when regions like europe and the united States became the maiden beneficiaries of chemical, biological, and mechanical innovations in agriculture from the industrial revolution. organizing our analysis with the ImPACT identity, we examine the elements contributing to the use of land for crop production, including population, affluence, diet, and the performance of agricultural producers. India and China in 1960 the population of india was about 450 million. in 1961, indian affluence , as measured by GdP, equaled about 65 billion recent uS dollars (world Bank 2012). the average indian consumed 2,030 food calories (kilocalories) per day, a level that approaches minimum calorie thresholds for hunger. 1 indian farmers tilled 161 million hectares (mHa) of land to grow crops, while the country imported a net 4 million to 10 million tons 2 a year of cereal grains, over 6 percent of its demand on average during the decade of the 1960s (Food and agriculture organization [Fao] 2012). in the united States in 1960, youngsters were admonished to finish their peas and be grateful that theirs was not the lot of the hungry children in india.
Article
Full-text available
Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil's well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change.
Article
Full-text available
This study provides regional estimates of forest cover in dry African ecoregions and the changes in forest cover that occurred there between 1990 and 2000, using a systematic sample of medium-resolution satellite imagery which was processed consistently across the continent. The study area corresponds to the dry forests and woodlands of Africa between the humid forests and the semi-arid regions. This area covers the Sudanian and Zambezian ecoregions. A systematic sample of 1600 Landsat satellite imagery subsets, each 20 km × 20 km in size, were analysed for two reference years: 1990 and 2000. At each sample site and for both years, dense tree cover, open tree cover, other wooded land and other vegetation cover were identified from the analysis of satellite imagery, which comprised multidate segmentation and automatic classification steps followed by visual control by national forestry experts. Land cover and land-cover changes were estimated at continental and ecoregion scales and compared with existing pan-continental, regional and local studies. The overall accuracy of our land-cover maps was estimated at 87%. Between 1990 and 2000, 3.3 million hectares (Mha) of dense tree cover, 5.8 Mha of open tree cover and 8.9 Mha of other wooded land were lost, with a further 3.9 Mha degraded from dense to open tree cover. These results are substantially lower than the 34 Mha of forest loss reported in the FAO's 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment for the same period and area. Our method generates the first consistent and robust estimates of forest cover and change in dry Africa with known statistical precision at continental and ecoregion scales. These results reduce the uncertainty regarding vegetation cover and its dynamics in these previously poorly studied ecosystems and provide crucial information for both science and environmental policies.
Article
Full-text available
Reducing atmospheric carbon emissions from tropical deforestation is at present considered a cost-effective option for mitigating climate change. However, the forces associated with tropical forest loss are uncertain. Here we use satellite-based estimates of forest loss for 2000 to 2005 (ref. 2) to assess economic, agricultural and demographic correlates across 41 countries in the humid tropics. Two methods of analysis-linear regression and regression tree-show that forest loss is positively correlated with urban population growth and exports of agricultural products for this time period. Rural population growth is not associated with forest loss, indicating the importance of urban-based and international demands for agricultural products as drivers of deforestation. The strong trend in movement of people to cities in the tropics is, counter-intuitively, likely to be associated with greater pressures for clearing tropical forests. We therefore suggest that policies to reduce deforestation among local, rural populations will not address the main cause of deforestation in the future. Rather, efforts need to focus on reducing deforestation for industrial-scale, export-oriented agricultural production, concomitant with efforts to increase yields in non-forested lands to satisfy demands for agricultural products. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Abstract Text Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints
Article
Full-text available
Global forest assessments provide information on development, changes or progress in forests and forestry required for decision-making by international fora and by countries. For this purpose it is not enough to quantify forest resources; assessments increasingly aim to address all benefits from forests - i.e. the use of the resources. Yet much of the necessary information at the country level is lacking. Few countries have forest inventories that give the basic data required. Of 137 developing countries, only 22 have repeated inventories, 54 have relied on a single inventory, 33 have partial forest inventory and 28 countries have no inventory (FAO, 2001). Very few developing countries have up-to-date information on their forest resources, and even fewer have national capacity for generating such information. This problem is not limited to the developing world; the situation is also less than satisfactory in several industrialized countries. The absence of reliable source data, in turn, has an impact on the reliability of global assessments. This article describes the evolution in scope and methods of global and national forest assessments and attempts to define a conceptual platform for future global forest assessments.
Article
Full-text available
Countries are encouraged to identify drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in the development of national strategies and action plans for REDD+. In this letter we provide an assessment of proximate drivers of deforestation and forest degradation by synthesizing empirical data reported by countries as part of their REDD+ readiness activities, CIFOR country profiles, UNFCCC national communications and scientific literature. Based on deforestation rate and remaining forest cover 100 (sub) tropical non-Annex I countries were grouped into four forest transition phases. Driver data of 46 countries were summarized for each phase and by continent, and were used as a proxy to estimate drivers for the countries with missing data. The deforestation drivers are similar in Africa and Asia, while degradation drivers are more similar in Latin America and Asia. Commercial agriculture is the most important driver of deforestation, followed by subsistence agriculture. Timber extraction and logging drives most of the degradation, followed by fuelwood collection and charcoal production, uncontrolled fire and livestock grazing. The results reflect the most up to date and comprehensive overview of current national-level data availability on drivers, which is expected to improve over time within the frame of the UNFCCC REDD+ process.
Article
Full-text available
We develop a consistent and comprehensive theoretical framework for assessing whether economic growth is compatible with sustaining well-being over time. The framework focuses on whether a comprehensive measure of wealth – one that accounts for natural capital and human capital as well as reproducible capital – is maintained through time. Our framework also integrates population growth, technological change, and changes in health. We apply the framework to five countries that differ significantly in stages of development and resource bases: the United States, China, Brazil, India, and Venezuela. With the exception of Venezuela, significant increases in human capital enable comprehensive wealth to be maintained (and sustainability to be achieved) despite significant reductions in the natural resource base. We find that the value of “health capital” is very large relative to other forms of capital. As a result, its growth rate critically influences the growth rate of per-capita comprehensive wealth.Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at www.nber.org.
Article
Full-text available
The Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change asks countries to report and provide data on human-induced land use change and forestry activities limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation. The terms `afforestation, reforestation and deforestation' have different meanings — country-to-country and from practicing foresters to the general public. The USDA Forest Service and the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations' Working Unit 6.03.02 on Trends in Forest Terminology commissioned a study to be undertaken to gain a better understanding of the terms in use. This study concentrates on the terms deforestation, afforestation and reforestation, but it also examined related terms of land use, land cover, forest, tree, regeneration and degradation. The paper reports on the results of that study and makes some general recommendations for consideration by the Conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for standardization of key terms.
Article
Full-text available
Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are better supported by case study evidence. Cases reviewed support the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone constitute the sole and major underlying causes of land-cover change worldwide. Rather, peoples' responses to economic opportunities, as mediated by institutional factors, drive land-cover changes. Opportunities and
Article
Full-text available
A recently completed research program (TREES) employing the global imaging capabilities of Earth-observing satellites provides updated information on the status of the world's humid tropical forest cover. Between 1990 and 1997, 5.8 ± 1.4 million hectares of humid tropical forest were lost each year, with a further 2.3 ± 0.7 million hectares of forest visibly degraded. These figures indicate that the global net rate of change in forest cover for the humid tropics is 23% lower than the generally accepted rate. This result affects the calculation of carbon fluxes in the global budget and means that the terrestrial sink is smaller than previously inferred.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of the world's humid tropical forests, our knowledge concerning their rates of change remains limited. Two recent programmes (FAO 2000 Forest Resources Assessment and TREES II), exploiting the global imaging capabilities of Earth observing satellites, have recently been completed to provide information on the dynamics of tropical forest cover. The results from these independent studies show a high degree of conformity and provide a good understanding of trends at the pan-tropical level. In 1990 there were some 1150 million ha of tropical rain forest with the area of the humid tropics deforested annually estimated at 5.8 million ha (approximately twice the size of Belgium). A further 2.3 million ha of humid forest is apparently degraded annually through fragmentation, logging and/or fires. In the sub-humid and dry tropics, annual deforestation of tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry forests comes to 2.2 and 0.7 million ha, respectively. Southeast Asia is the region where forests are under the highest pressure with an annual change rate of −0.8 to −0.9%. The annual area deforested in Latin America is large, but the relative rate (−0.4 to −0.5%) is lower, owing to the vast area covered by the remaining Amazonian forests. The humid forests of Africa are being converted at a similar rate to those of Latin America (−0.4 to −0.5% per year). During this period, secondary forests have also been established, through re-growth on abandoned land and forest plantations, but with different ecological, biophysical and economic characteristics compared with primary forests. These trends are significant in all regions, but the extent of new forest cover has proven difficult to establish. These results, as well as the lack of more detailed knowledge, clearly demonstrate the need to improve sound scientific evidence to support policy. The two projects provide useful guidance for future monitoring efforts in the context of multilateral environmental agreements and of international aid, trade and development partnerships. Methodologically, the use of high-resolution remote sensing in representative samples has been shown to be cost-effective. Close collaboration between tropical institutions and inter-governmental organizations proved to be a fruitful arrangement in the different projects. To properly assist decision-making, monitoring and assessments should primarily be addressed at the national level, which also corresponds to the ratification level of the multilateral environmental agreements. The Forest Resources Assessment 2000 deforestation statistics from countries are consistent with the satellite-based estimates in Asia and America, but are significantly different in Africa, highlighting the particular need for long-term capacity-building activities in this continent.
Article
Full-text available
Investigations of land use/land cover (LULC) change and forest management are limited by a lack of understanding of how socioeconomic factors affect land use. This lack also constrains the predictions of future deforestation, which is especially important in the Amazon basin, where large tracts of natural forest are being converted to managed uses. Research presented in this article was conducted to address this lack of understanding. Its objectives are (a) to quantify deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) during the periods 1986-1996 and 1996-2002; and (b) to determine the significance and magnitude of the effects of socioeconomic factors on deforestation rates at both the parroquia (parish) and finca (farm) levels. Annual deforestation rates were quantified via satellite image processing and geographic information systems. Linear spatial lag regression analyses were then used to explore relationships between socioeconomic factors and deforestation. Socioeconomic factors were obtained, at the finca level, from a detailed household survey carried out in 1990 and 1999, and at the parroquia level from data in the 1990 and 2001 Ecuadorian censuses of population. We found that the average annual deforestation rate was 2.5% and 1.8%/year for 1986-1996 and 1996-2002, respectively. At the parroquia level, variables representing demographic factors (i.e., population density) and accessibility factors (i.e., road density), among others, were found to be significantly related to deforestation. At the farm level, the factors related to deforestation were household size, distance by road to main cities, education, and hired labor. The findings of this research demonstrate both the severity of deforestation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon and the array of factors affecting deforestation in the tropics.
Article
Summarizes global data, insofar as can be estimated, concerning area and location of forests, the volume of wood they contain, and current changes therein. Generally the tropical forests are being reduced, while man-made and Northern latitude forests are, on balance, increasing slowly.-Author
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Monitoring of forest cover and forest functions provides information necessary to support policies and decisions to conserve, protect and sustainably manage forests. Especially in the tropics where forests are declining at a rapid rate, national forest monitoring systems capable of reliably estimating forest cover, forest cover change and carbon stock change are of vital importance. As a large number of tropical countries had limited capacity in the past to implement such a system, capacity building efforts are now ongoing to strengthen the technical and political skillsets necessary to implement national forest monitoring at institutional levels. This paper assesses the current status and recent changes in national forest monitoring and reporting capacities in 99 tropical countries, using the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) 2015 data, complemented with FRA 2010 and FRA 2005 data. Three indicators "Forest area change monitoring and remote sensing capacities", "Forest inventory capacities" and "Carbon pool reporting capacities" were used to assess the countries' capacities for the years 2005, 2010 and 2015 and the change in capacities between 2005-2010 and 2010-2015. Forest area change monitoring and remote sensing capacities improved considerably between 2005 and 2015. The total tropical forest area that is monitored with good to very good forest area change monitoring and remote sensing capacities increased from 69% in 2005 to 83% in 2015. This corresponds to 1435. million. ha in 2005 and 1699. million. ha in 2015. This effect is related to more free and open remote sensing data and availability of techniques to improve forest area change monitoring. The total tropical forest area that is monitored with good to very good forest inventory capacities increased from 38% in 2005 to 66% in 2015. This corresponds to 785. million. ha in 2005 and 1350. million. ha in 2015. Carbon pool reporting capacities did not show as much improvement and the majority of countries still report at Tier 1 level. This indicates the need for greater emphasis on producing accurate emission factors at Tier 2 or Tier 3 level and improved greenhouse gases reporting. It is further shown that there was a positive adjustment in the net change in forest area where countries with lower capacities in the past had the tendency to overestimate the area of forest loss. The results emphasized the effectiveness of capacity building programmes (such as those by FAO and REDD+ readiness) but also the need for continued capacity development efforts. It is important for countries to maintain their forest monitoring system and update their inventories on a regular basis. This will further improve accuracy and reliability of data and information on forest resources and will provide countries with the necessary input to refine policies and decisions and to further improve forest management.
Article
For international reporting purposes, information on forest resources often has to be supplied according to international definitions. Nevertheless, the country reports of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 indicate that countries either prefer to use their own forest definitions or use national classes of forest and other biomes as a basis for reclassification to resolve the discrepancy between national and international forest definitions. These preferences are due to the complexity encountered when dealing with the problem of transforming national estimates into estimates according to an international definition but are also due to the lack of a methodological foundation. In view of the multitude of existing national forest definitions and the increasing international reporting requirements, a thorough methodological consideration of the problem appears to be particularly necessary. Therefore, a mathematical approach for comparing national definitions to an international definition is developed. After formalization of definitions and illustration of the peculiarities in national forest definitions, the basics of set theory and simple logic are applied to derive six relevant cases that describe how national definitions of forest are distinct from that of FAO. As a result, we are able to assign each country to a specific case and thus provide a basis for further analyses. We also reflect on the reclassification problem and describe two examples that illustrate the influence of assessment methods in the aim to report according to a common definition.
Article
Forest monitoring has received increasing attention over the past decades from various international initiatives, among them the REDD+ program which crafts an incentive-based mechanism for reducing deforestation and forest degradation rates. The success of REDD+ depends also on effective monitoring systems that can produce credible and comparable forest cover estimates. If remote sensing technologies are to be involved, methods need to be developed to implement the politically negotiated forest definitions into the technical process of image analysis. We present here a new framework for translating elements of the currently discussed forest definitions into the analysis of satellite images. The framework is based on a hierarchical classification scheme which separates the process of image classification from the application of a specific forest definition. We test this approach for two contrasting tropical regions on RapidEye images which are classified using the Random Forests algorithm. The results show that the developed framework can be operationally applied on a project level and results in standardized forest cover maps with high accuracies. Furthermore, it can serve as a research tool for analyzing consequences of political decisions regarding the forest definitions as it readily enables the user to produce forest maps and estimate forest cover for different underlying forest definitions.
Article
The concept of the forest transition or forest-area transition is discussed in terms of the change from decreasing to expanding forest areas that has taken place in many developed countries. Similarities between historical deforestation in now-developed countries and current deforestation in developing countries are outlined. The question of why and how the forest transition takes place is posed, and some preliminary discussion of the variables that may influence it is presented. Prospects for a forest transition in the tropical world and the world as a whole are considered. -Author
Article
The article focuses primarily on comments related to forest area and forest area change over time, because these issues proved to be of greatest concern to the users surveyed. Although users welcomed FAO's increasing emphasis on qualitative forest information, they also expressed concern that this emphasis may spread too thinly the resources available for FAO's programme in forest resources assessment. It was implied that expansion of FRA could make new or broadened institutional arrangements necessary, probably involving more use of partnerships. Users were sensitive to the political and cultural issues surrounding any global monitoring exercise involving the collection and analysis of data on national resources. However, many respondents doubted that the current approach, based primarily on national data sources, can adequately serve the needs of global scientific research and policy-making. The article closes with a set of suggested options for achieving the "new vision and approach" called for by FAO for the next Global Forest Resources Assessment.
Article
The proposed launch of a Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) scheme by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change provides a new incentive to improve global forest monitoring. By evaluating the state-of-the-art in government and scientific monitoring this paper shows that enhancements and new standards are needed for three key monitoring roles – measurement, reporting and verification – for governments at national scale and scientists at global scale. It outlines a new knowledge exchange matrix framework that can match different organizations to monitoring roles. Conversion of data into useful knowledge is represented by a knowledge exchange chain comprising a series of cycles, each divided into data collection, information production, reporting, verification and synthesis stages. Each stage potentially involves operational, facilitating and coordinating functions at local to global scales. Combining stages, functions and scales forms the knowledge exchange matrix. Organizations are matched to cells in the matrix by their competence and rules governing their operation. Applying the matrix to global forest monitoring shows that existing organizations can contribute complementary facilitating and coordinating functions to support REDD+. Yet none can harness satellite data operationally to produce information at the required spatial and temporal resolution. Two empty national and global operational niches could be filled by new national measurement, reporting and verification systems, operated by governments and facilitated by the Group on Earth Observations and other bodies; and an autonomous science-based World Forest Observatory whose information base could advance global change science and help to verify national REDD+ reports.
Article
En los últimes tiempos, China, la India y Vietnam han experimentado un proceso de transitión forestal similar al proceso vivido en el pasado por muchos países europeos y estados norteamericanos, con una transitión entre la deforestatión neta y la reforestatión neta. Una teoría de transición forestal embriónica tiene como objetivo explicar este fenómeno. Tres casos recientes en Asia parecen indicar que resulta posible que en los países del Sur tendencias establecidas que se consideran normalmente como representativas de la degradatión ambientalse se detengan y se inviertan. Los parecidos y las diferencias entre los casos en cuestión confirman la necesidad de perfeccionar la teoría existente de transición forestal, como por ejemplo en el reconocimiento del papel importante que desempeñan los gobiernos.