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A Review on QR Code

Authors:
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 164 No 9, April 2017
17
A Review on QR Code
Aayushi Mishra
M.Tech Scholar
Dept. of Computer Science
MACERC, Jaipur
Manish Mathuria
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Computer Science
MACERC, Jaipur
ABSTRACT
A QR Code (abbreviated from Quick Response code) is a two-
dimensional (2-D) matrix barcode which is the latest variety
of barcode in two dimensional form (both the horizontal and
vertical direction) being invented by the Japanese corporation
Denso Wave and was designed to track the parts of the
vehicles during their manufacturing for the automotive
industry. It has a very huge information storage facility in
comparison with the conventional barcode.
The use of QR code is more captivating than that of the
traditional barcodes because of their extendibility and
diversity being offered by them. As compared to the
conventional barcode, the QR code can hold or signify the
same amount of data being symbolized by the barcode in
around one tenth of the space of barcode.
Keywords
QR (Quick Response) Code, Traditional Barcode, 2D matrix
barcode
1. INTRODUCTION
A Barcode is an optical explanation of evaluating the
information generated by the two-dimensional arrangement of
parallel black and white lines [2].
There are many varieties of barcode that exist for a wide area
of applications:
One-Dimensional (1D) Barcode :
One-dimensional (1D) barcodes, specifically corresponds to
the information by altering the width & the spacing of the
parallel black and white lines, and this can be described as the
linear or one-dimensional barcode[5]. These consist of a few
of the classic, and most well identified types of the barcode
like the UPC (Universal Product Code) and EAN
(International Article Number or European Article Number)
code.
Two-Dimensional (2D) Barcode :
Two-dimensional (2D) barcodes, specifically symbolizes the
data by the usage of the two-dimensional symbols and shapes.
They are analogous to the linear 1D barcodes, though they
depict more information per unit area[6]. These comprise of a
few of the newer types of barcode like the QR(Quick
Response) Code and PDF417 code.
2. QR CODE
A QR (Quick Response) code is the identification name for
the 2D barcode system. It make the usage of the four
standardized forms of encoding (numeric, alphanumeric, byte
/ binary, and kanji) to effectively store the information[1].
A QR Code imparts the following characteristics in
comparison with the traditional barcodes[3]:
High Capacity Encoding of Data
Though traditional barcodes are capable of gathering an
utmost of approximately 20 digits, the QR Code is capable of
managing quite a few dozen to more than hundred times more
information & data. It manages all forms of the information,
for instance numeric and alphabetic characters, binary, Kana,
Hiragana, Kanji, symbols and control codes[7]. Around 7,089
characters can be concealed in a particular symbol.
Table1: QR Code Data Capacity
Numeric only
Max. 7,089 characters
Alphanumeric
Max. 4,296 characters
Binary (8 bits)
Max. 2,953 bytes
Kanji, full-width Kana
Max. 1,817 characters
Kanji and Kana Capability
A QR Code is capable of concealing JIS (Japanese Industrial
Standard) Level 1 & Level 2 kanji characters[7]. With the QR
code, one Kana or Kanji character is conveniently concealed
in 13 bits, permitting it to possess more than 20% of the
information than the alternative 2D symbology.
Dirt and Damage Resistant
A QR Code has an error correction ability that is the data can
be fixed up even if the symbol is dirty or destructed to some
extent[10]. A maximum of 30% of the symbol words can be
fixed up.
Table 2: QR Error correction levels
Error level
Symbolic
constant
Error
correction
capacity
L
QRCapacity::ErrL
5%
M
QRCapacity::ErrM
15%
Q
QRCapacity::ErrQ
25%
H
QRCapacity::ErrH
30%
Readable from any direction in 360°
A QR Code is competent of Omni-directional reading. It
achieves this job by means of the position detection patterns
positioned at three corners of the QR code symbol. These
patterns ensure constant high speed reading, preventing the
unfavourable causes of the background intrusion.
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 164 No 9, April 2017
18
Structured Append Feature
A QR Code can be categorized into several data section. On
the contrary, data collected in many QR Code can be
reformed as a particular data symbol[10]. A single data
symbol can be categorized into 16 symbols, permitting
printing in a thin section.
3. STRUCTURE OF QR CODE
QR code consist of the function patterns. These are the shapes
which must be positioned in the particular areas of the QR
code to make sure that the QR code scanners scan correctly to
recognize and adjust the code for deciphering.
Quiet Zone
This is an area 4X broad that is free of all other naming,
enclosing the symbol on all four surfaces. The X referenced
over indicates to the width of the dark module.
Finder pattern
These are the patterns which appear at the top left, top right,
and bottom left in the corners of the QR code and they are the
same as each other. The core purpose of this pattern is to
precisely describe the position and rotational orientation of the
symbol.
Timing pattern
The Finder patterns are being connected by the dotted lines
called the timing patterns. In this pattern, to find out the
coordinates, white and black modules are organized
alternatively.
Figure 1: Structure of QR Code
Separator :
These are the sections of whitespace alongside the finder
patterns. It comprises of one-module width of the light
modules & is positioned between the encoding region and
each of the finder patterns. Its core functionality is to separate
both of them[8].
Alignment pattern
These are analogous to the finder patterns, on the contrary
they are smaller in size. Its position is dependent on the
version of the QR code. Due to the movement of modules
because of the alteration then this pattern is used for the
recognition of the position.
Data and error correction codeword :
Data and Error correction codes are stored in 8 bit parts
(called code words) in the data section & in the error
correction section respectively.
Format information :
This comprises of 15 bits alongside the separators & it stores
the information regarding error rectification level and the
selected masking pattern of the QR Code.
Version information :
QR Code symbols has version 1 to version 40[4].
Figure 2: Version of QR Code
4. TYPES OF QR CODE
The QR Code is categorized into five categories which are as
follows[9]:
i. QR Code Model 1 & Model 2 :
As per the AIMI standard, the QR Code Model 1 & Model 2
imparts two alternative on the structure of a QR Code.
The Model 1 is the prototype of the Model 2. It supports up to
14 versions of dimension like 21 * 21 or 25 * 25. Because of
the alignment pattern being carried by the Model 2 for the
better position alteration which makes it possible for its larger
information capacity in comparison to the Model 1. Model 2
supports 1 to 40 versions.
ii. Micro QR Code :
A Micro QR Code has just a single position detection pattern
that reduces the size of the QR code. Because of its reduced
size, this can be utilized where the area for the barcode is
strictly restricted.
iii. iQR Code :
It is a matrix-type 2D code permitting a wide size area of
codes than the conventional QR Code and Micro QR Code
which can gather more information.
iv. SQRC :
SQRC abbreviated as Secured Quick Response Code & is
developed to safeguard the secret and the confidential
information from the device which scans the QR Code.
v. Frame QR :
This is a recently developed 2D code & it has blank “canvas
area” to hold the design and data.
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887)
Volume 164 No 9, April 2017
19
5. QR CODE V/S BAR CODE
Features
Barcode
Capacity
These are 1D
numeric codes
capable of
holding data up
to 20 characters.
Arena of
data storage
They store the
amount of data
and information
in more space.
Data
restoration
If the barcodes
are damaged, it
cannot recover
the damaged
data & even
cannot be
scanned.
Speed and
precision
When the
barcodes are
scanned , the
position has to
be in ideal
position for
scanning the
code, otherwise
it will not scan
the code and
will slow down
the speed.
Figure 3: QR Code v/s Barcode
6. CONCLUSION
This paper presents the blueprint regarding the QR Code. It
explain what exactly is the QR code, its structure, the different
types of QR Code, how QR code is different from the barcode
and its size effectiveness, ease of reading and identifiable
format has made it a clear preference for the barcode format.
7. REFERENCES
[1] QR Code features. Denso-Wave. Archived from the
original on 2012-09-15. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
[2] Sharu Goel, Ajay Kumar Singh. QR Code Implementation
in Photo I-Card for Photo and Text Credentials using
.NET. International Journal of Computer Applications
(0975 8887).
[3] Prof. Sandeep Ponde, Dr. Anand Muley, Dr. R. A.
Mankar. QR code and its application in business. NCRD
Technical review: e- journal Volume 2, Issue 2. ISSN:
2455-166X.
[4] Kinjal H. Pandya, Hiren J. Galiyawala. A Survey on QR
Codes: in context of Research and Application.
International Journal of Emerging Technology and
Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO
9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 3, March
2014).
[5] Garcia- Betances , Monica K. Huerta. A review of
automatic patient identification options for public health
care centers with restricted budgets. Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp.
1-17, 2012.
[6] Jerry Gao, Vijay Kulkarni , Himanshu Ranavat, Lee Chang
San Jose State university San Josa, USA. A 2D Barcode
based Mobile payment system. pp. 1-10.
[7] Xiaofei Feng, Herong Zheng. Design and Realization of
2D Color Barcode with High Compression Ratio.
International Conference On Computer Design And
Appliations, Vol. 1, 2010.
[8] Sharu Goel, Ajay Kumar Singh. A Secure and Optimal QR
Code. International Journal Of Engineering Research &
Management Technology. September- 2014 Volume 1,
Issue-5.
[9] Anjali Singh, Dr. Parvinder Singh. A review: QR codes
and its image pre-processing method. International
Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology
Research (IJSETR) Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2016. ISSN:
2278 7798.
[10] Abhijeet Booba, Ajinkya Shindeb, Dhiraj Rathodc,
Amruta Gaikwad. Qr Code Based Mobile App and
Business Process Integration. International Journal of
Multidisciplinary and Current Research. Vol.2 (Sept/Oct
2014 issue).
IJCATM : www.ijcaonline.org
... The information embedded in a QR code, such as text, website address, or other data, is encrypted in a square layout consisting of black and white modules, position detection patterns, timing patterns, format information, data area, and an error correction code, usually on a white background [ Fig. 1(a)], which can be read by imaging devices such as QR readers, scanners, and smartphones. (23) Among the variants of QR codes, the FrameQR ® code has been designed to display customized images (e.g., company logo) or a text in a special zone called the canvas area. The canvas area can be modified without affecting the QR graphic contents and hence does not require error correction. ...
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QR Code Implementation in Photo I-Card for Photo and Text Credentials using
  • Sharu Goel
  • Ajay Kumar Singh
Sharu Goel, Ajay Kumar Singh. QR Code Implementation in Photo I-Card for Photo and Text Credentials using .NET. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 -8887).
QR code and its application in business
  • Prof
  • Dr Sandeep Ponde
  • Dr R A Muley
  • Mankar
Prof. Sandeep Ponde, Dr. Anand Muley, Dr. R. A. Mankar. QR code and its application in business. NCRD Technical review: e-journal Volume 2, Issue 2. ISSN: 2455-166X.
A Survey on QR Codes: in context of Research and Application
  • H Kinjal
  • Hiren J Pandya
  • Galiyawala
Kinjal H. Pandya, Hiren J. Galiyawala. A Survey on QR Codes: in context of Research and Application. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2014).
A Secure and Optimal QR Code
  • Sharu Goel
  • Ajay Kumar Singh
Sharu Goel, Ajay Kumar Singh. A Secure and Optimal QR Code. International Journal Of Engineering Research & Management Technology. September-2014 Volume 1, Issue-5.
A review: QR codes and its image pre-processing method
  • Anjali Singh
  • Dr Parvinder Singh
Anjali Singh, Dr. Parvinder Singh. A review: QR codes and its image pre-processing method. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2016. ISSN: 2278 -7798.
Qr Code Based Mobile App and Business Process Integration
  • Abhijeet Booba
  • Ajinkya Shindeb
  • Dhiraj Rathodc
  • Amruta Gaikwad
Abhijeet Booba, Ajinkya Shindeb, Dhiraj Rathodc, Amruta Gaikwad. Qr Code Based Mobile App and Business Process Integration. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research. Vol.2 (Sept/Oct 2014 issue).