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The Crassulaceae of Cusco, Peru: part I: subfamily Echeverioideae

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Six taxa of Echeveria (Crassulaceae) were found around the Sacred Valley in the Department of Cusco, Perú. (1) Echeveria cuscoensis, is a new, widespread species from the upper basin of the Sacred Valley (Vilcanota River) and is described from the ruins of P'isaq due to its abundance there. It has faceted rhomboid leaves, concave or canaliculate above, with obscurely incurved margins.(2) Echeveria decumbens is a small species with narrow green yellowish leaves and trailing horizontal inflorescences, it was described from plants cultivated in the Huntington Botanic Gardens collected by Baker in the 80's between Calca and Amparaes, but has never been found in habitat again. (3) Echeveria decumbens var. urubambensis is a new variety of this species with dark green leaves and fewer but larger flowers, growing westward from the locality of the type variety. (4) Echeveria laresensis is a new species close to E. decumbens but larger and with light glaucous leaves. In the lower basin of the Sacred Valley (Urubamba River) we found two species of Echeveria: (5) Echeveria ochoae, the largest of all new species, growing only at Pisqak'uchu, at the beginning of the Inca Trail towards Machu Picchu, with conspicuous stems and large obovate or spathulate glaucous leaves, and (6) Echeveria westii from Ollantaytambo, a small, few-flowered, purplish leaved species, discovered by Hutchison and described by Walther in the 50's, locally hard to find in this place. Some other new localities are mentioned. Six taxa of Echeveria (Crassulaceae) were found around the Sacred Valley in the Department of Cusco, Perú. (1) Echeveria cuscoensis, is a new, widespread species from the upper basin of the Sacred Valley (Vilcanota River) and is described from the ruins of P'isaq due to its abundance there. It has faceted rhomboid leaves, concave or canaliculate above, with obscurely incurved margins.(2) Echeveria decumbens is a small species with narrow green yellowish leaves and trailing horizontal inflorescences, it was described from plants cultivated in the Huntington Botanic Gardens collected by Baker in the 80's between Calca and Amparaes, but has never been found in habitat again. (3) Echeveria decumbens var. urubambensis is a new variety of this species with dark green leaves and fewer but larger flowers, growing westward from the locality of the type variety. (4) Echeveria laresensis is a new species close to E. decumbens but larger and with light glaucous leaves. In the lower basin of the Sacred Valley (Urubamba River) we found two species of Echeveria: (5) Echeveria ochoae, the largest of all new species, growing only at Pisqak'uchu, at the beginning of the Inca Trail towards Machu Picchu, with conspicuous stems and large obovate or spathulate glaucous leaves, and (6) Echeveria westii from Ollantaytambo, a small, few-flowered, purplish leaved species, discovered by Hutchison and described by Walther in the 50's, locally hard to find in this place. Some other new localities are mentioned.
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52 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
GUILLERMO PINO1*, WASHINGTON GALIANO2, PERCY NÚŇEZ VARGAS3 & BEN KAMM4
The Crassulaceae of Cusco, Peru
part I: subfamily Echeverioideae
Abstract. Six taxa of Echeveria (Crassulaceae) were found around the Sacred Valley in the Department of
Cusco, Perú. (1) Echeveria cuscoensis, is a new, widespread species from the upper basin of the Sacred Valley
(Vilcanota River) and is described from the ruins of P’isaq due to its abundance there. It has faceted rhomboid
leaves, concave or canaliculate above, with obscurely incurved margins.(2) Echeveria decumbens is a small spe-
cies with narrow green yellowish leaves and trailing horizontal inflorescences, it was described from plants cul-
tivated in the Huntington Botanic Gardens collected by Baker in the 80’s between Calca and Amparaes, but
has never been found in habitat again. (3) Echeveria decumbens var. urubambensis is a new variety of this species
with dark green leaves and fewer but larger flowers, growing westward from the locality of the type variety. (4)
Echeveria laresensis is a new species close to E. decumbens but larger and with light glaucous leaves. In the lower
basin of the Sacred Valley (Urubamba River) we found two species of Echeveria: (5) Echeveria ochoae, the largest
of all new species, growing only at Pisqak’uchu, at the beginning of the Inca Trail towards Machu Picchu, with
conspicuous stems and large obovate or spathulate glaucous leaves, and (6) Echeveria westii from Ollantaytam-
bo, a small, few-flowered, purplish leaved species, discovered by Hutchison and described by Walther in the 50’s,
locally hard to find in this place. Some other new localities are mentioned.
Keywords: Crassulaceae, Echeveria.
1. Echeveria cuscoensis
Pino, Galiano & Núñez sp. nova
Holotype: PERU: Dept. Cusco, Prov. Calca,
Dist. Pisac, Ruins of P’isaq, on cliffs of moun-
tain facing the ruins crossing Kitamayo stream,
3460 m, S13°24’30”, W71°50’45”, Nov 15, 2014,
G. Pino, W.H. Galiano, P. Núñez V. 2716 (USM
295252) (Fig. 1a).
A succulent glabrous, solitary or proliferous herb
eventually forming loose light clusters. Roots 4–10 or
more, fascicular and fibrous, 3–5 cm long, 1.5–2.5 mm
diam., light gray. Stem procumbent, usually unob-
served, subterranean or hidden among mosses, rarely
aerial in exposed sites, 0.4–2.5 cm diam., light green
to brownish, branching only from the base, decum-
bent up to 60 (–90) cm long in very old plants (Fig.
1b). Rosettes usually one at the end of stem, up to
6 in very old plants, (4–) 6–8 (–15) cm diam. (Fig.
1c). Leaves 18–32, sessile, rhomboid obovate to
sub-spathulate, slightly incurved at tip, 2–5 cm long,
1Guillermo Pino, Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Perú, 6 de
Agosto 1146, Lima 11, Peru; gpinoi@hotmail.com * corres-
ponding author. 2Washington Galiano, Universidad Nacional
San Antonio Abad del Cusco Perú; wgalianos2000@yahoo.
es 3Percy Núñez Vargas, Universidad Nacional San Antonio
Abad del Cusco Perú; mpercynunezva@gmail.com 4Ben
Kamm, Sacred Succulents, PO Box 781, Sebastopol, CA
95473 USA benkamm@monitor.net
0.6–0.9 cm wide at base, 0.9–1.5 cm wide 1 cm from
apex, 1.1–1.7 (–2.5) cm wide at middle, 6–9 mm thick,
(Fig. 1d) upper side concave to canaliculate, faceted
1–2 mm near margins, light olive green in the shade,
1a. Echeveria cuscoensis growing at Kitamayo gorge
in P’isaq. (B.K.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 53
purplish green when exposed, more reddish or pur-
plish in outer leaves or in dry exposed plants, central
nerve frequently prominent, with lighter stripes cor-
responding to central nerve and facet angles, margins
lighter in color, obscurely curved inwards, lower side
keeled or convex, light green to reddish where exposed,
redder at keel, apex acute to obtuse, rarely cuspidate,
with an acute slightly recurved hyaline mucro 1 mm
long at apex, base hyaline (Fig. 1e).
Flowering stem an oblique or horizontal raceme,
rarely 2, rachis 8–20 (–28) cm long, 3–4 mm diam.
at base, 2–3 mm diam. at apex, light green to pink
at proximal third, bright red at distal half or third
(Fig. 1f). Peduncular bracts 7–12, appearing from
the proximal third or half, spaced evenly 1–2 cm
apart, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, straight to slight-
ly recurved or incurved, tips acute, 1.3–2.3 cm long,
0.3–1 cm wide, 2–3 mm thick, upper side concave to
flat or convex, middle nerve sometimes conspicuously
lighter and prominent, lower side convex, olive green,
reddish at tip and margins, base hyaline. Flowers 3–6,
appearing from October to November, present only on
the distal fourth or fifth of the raceme, 1.4–1.6 cm
long and 0.6–0.7 cm in diam. Pedicels oblique, 1–2
cm long, 1.3–1.5 mm diam., red, with 0–1 lanceolate
or narrowly ovate bracteoles near calyx, when present
3–4 mm long and 0.5–1 mm wide, olive green. Calyx
lobes united at base, sepals unequal, narrowly ovate
acute, spreading in 45º, upper side slightly recurving,
7–11 mm long, 2–3.5 mm wide, olive green. Corol-
la urceolate, sub-pentagonal, 7–8 mm thick near base,
5–6 mm thick near apex, 1.4–1.6 cm long, petals lin-
ear lanceolate, acuminate, 1.5–1.6 cm long, 3–4 mm
wide, outer surface keeled, yellowish on apical half
and red orange on basal half, apex uncinate, recurving,
inner surface yellow on distal half, orange in basal half.
Stamens 10, the 5 epipetalous 7–8 mm long, the ante-
sepalous 10–11 mm long, filaments cream, 0.6 mm
thick at base, gradually tapering to 0.3 mm. Anthers
quadrate, yellow, 1.2–1.6 mm long and 0.9–1 mm
wide. Gynoecium turbinate, 10–12 mm long, 4–5 mm
thick. Carpels 5, cream. Styles 3–4 mm long, parallel,
1b. Echeveria cuscoensis ex situ from P’isaq showing
flower buds. (G.P.)
1c. Rosettes of Echeveria cuscoensis from P’isaq. (G.P.)
1d. General aspect of the leaves of Echeveria cus-
coensis from P’isaq. (G.P.)
1e. Detail of the facets of the leaves of Echeveria
cuscoensis (G.P.)
54 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
almost touching each other, greenish, stigma white.
Nectaries quadrate, pinkish white 1 × 1.6 mm (Fig.
1g). Fruit a dehiscent capsule 1–1.2 cm long, 1–1.5
cm diam. (spreading dry sepals), reddish brown (Fig.
1h).
Other localities: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov. Calca,
Dist. Pisac, Ruins of P’isaq, 3234 m, S 13°24’51”,
W 71°50’35”, August 10, 2002, Robert Maijer 225.
Rocky cliffs about 1 km outside of the modern town
of P’isaq, 3000 m, S 13°24’28”, W 71°50’01”, May
19, 2008, Ben Kamm 08519.2. Ruins of P’isaq, head-
ing down the main watershed from the Inca baths,
between the mountain the main ruins are on and
the mountain with all the tombs, hanging from rock
cliffs, within the Kitamayo gorge, 3300 m, S 13°24’32”,
W 71°50’43”, May 19, 2008, Ben Kamm 08519.10,
1f. Plant ex situ showing flowering stem (G.P.)
1g. From left to right: Bracts (3), sepals (3), sectioned flower showing gynoecium, petals (2), complete flower
with peduncular bracts. (G.P.)
1h. Dry fruit. (G.P.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 55
P’isaq ruins, on rocky cliffs on the north side of the
upper Kitamayo Gorge, 3480 m, S 13°24’22”, W
71°50’44”Apr 26, 2009, Ben Kamm 09426.1. Vertical
rock face above the tombs overlooking the Kitamayo
Gorge, on the mountain in back of the main ruins of
P’isaq, (Small, reddish plants) 3575 m, S 13º24’22”’ W
071º50’44”, May 18, 2008, Ben Kamm 08518.5. Ruins
of P’isaq, lower section Acchapata, on borders on ter-
races, 2975 m, Oct 24, 2016, G. Pino, J. Ochoa 2783
(USM). Dist, Calca, Between Sacred Valley and Calca,
3100 m, Feb 18, 1958, C.Vargas 012113 (CUZ 4795).
Prov. Urubamba, Dist. Huayllabamba, Near Huayl-
labamba, trail from Estate Huayoccari to the wood-
land near Yanacocha Lagoon and the stream, forest
of Cytharexylum, Polylepis, Ginoxys, Barnadesia, 3780
m, S 13º21’ W 072º03’, Jul 5, 1988, P. Núñez 9262
(CUZ 4797). Huaycollo, On the road between Haci-
enda Huayoccari and town of Huayllabamba, gorge
with a stream draining from Yanaqocha Lagoon,
2868 m, Oct 24, 2016, G. Pino, J. Ochoa 2784. (USM
295259) Trail from Yanacocha to Quellococha lagoon,
W. Galiano s/n. Dist. Chinchero, without locality.
This plant was probably discovered by Julio César
Vargas Calderón, the most well-known botanist and
pteridologist from Cusco in 1958 at an uncertain
point between the Vilcanota River (Willkamayu =
Sacred River) and Calca. His herbarium sheet con-
sists of only some flowers, but these match the size
of the inflorescence of this new species and is deter-
mined on the Herbarium sheet as Echeveria peruvi-
ana Meyen. The poor knowledge of E. peruviana
has led to many botanists to determine its presence
everywhere in Peru and even in the
neighboring countries.
Many years later, in 2002, the
expert Dutch succulent cultivator
Robert Maijer found this species dur-
ing his exploration of P’isaq ruins,
but we were not able to determine
it because of its lack of inflorescenc-
es. However, leaves were too broad to
match E. decumbens, and much larger
and of a lighter color than E. westii,
the two already described species
from the area.
The colonial town of P’isaq at
2950 m is nestled in the Vilcano-
ta Valley at the base of the moun-
tains next to the river. On the steep
ridge rising above the town there is
a majestic Inca citadel at over 3400
m. This site is claimed by some to
be laid out against the mountainside in the shape of
a condor (Elorrieta Salazar 2001). The ruins display
some of the finest Inca agricultural terracing, superb
stonework, ancient water shrines and an astronomical
observatory with fantastic views of the valley.
Ben Kamm from California has explored these
ruins many times, observing this Echeveria for the
first time in 2008 on the cliffs above the honey-
comb of plundered tombs overlooking the Kitamayo
Gorge and Hanan P’isaq. These were small red-pur-
ple rosettes to 2.5 cm that looked very much like E.
westii, growing on sun exposed rocks with lichens and
moss, at 3575 m (Fig. 1i). Then he descended into the
Kitamayo Gorge where it drops below Hanan P’isaq,
a very steep and dangerous route. While scrambling
down a 5 m cliff he found Echeveria plants grow-
ing in deep shade, bright blue-grey terminal rosettes
to 10 cm diameter on 2.5 cm diameter grey hanging
stems to nearly 1 m long. Next year he hiked above
the archaeological site and noted a population of
plants, from juveniles to mature specimens, in the
upper Kitamayo watershed growing on the steep rocky
mountainside facing east, 3480 m. Here the Echeve-
ria grow with Valeriana sp., Peperomia pseudoverruculo-
sa Mathieu, Peperomia aff. lanuginosa, Pilea serpyllacea,
“Qaqa wiq’ontoy” Tillandsia nana and usneoides, Villa-
dia virgata, Corryocactus erectus, “pinkupinku” Ephedra
americana, Salvia oppositiflora, Polypodium and Adian-
tum ferns, Bomarea sp., and young ·“Achupalla” Puya
ferruginea plants, in all stages of development grow-
ing on rock outcrops, cliffs and occasionally Inca walls
in the main archaeological site, both above and below
1i. Echeveria cuscoensis growing in P’isaq at very exposed site. (B.K.)
56 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
the Intiwatana section. About 1 km outside of the
modern town of Pisac, at 3000 m on rocky cliffs near
the mountain base, he found the largest, lushest plants
yet seen, olive-green to pale blue-grey rosettes to 15
cm diameter, growing again with several Tilland-
sia species, Pilea serpyllacea, Peperomia aff. lanuginosa,
“Hawaq’ollay” Trichocereus cuscoensis, “P’atakiska” Aus-
trocylindropuntia subulata subsp. exaltata, and Puya fer-
ruginea. It should be noted that at all locales Echeveria
grow with lichen and moss. These often appear to be
the substrate within which seed germinates and young
plants establish, and may play a key role in nutrient
availability for young Echeveria.
Local researchers Washington Galiano and Percy
Núñez, both from Universidad Nacional San Anto-
nio Abad del Cusco, have also found this species in
the eastern border of the province of Urubamba, also
in the upper basin of the Sacred Valley. It grows abun-
dantly around Lagoon Yanacocha, “Black lagoon”, a
240 m long and 14 m deep natural pool with a rath-
er dark bottom, reached after a four hour trek begin-
ning at Huayoccari Estate and surrounded by a for-
est of beautiful “Q’euña” Polylepis sp. trees (Fig. 1j).
Also Julio Ochoa has found recently this species clos-
er to the river Vilcanota at Huayccollo, Huayllabam-
ba, in a dry subtropical low montane forest watered
by a stream that drains from Yanaqocha, with subxe-
rophilous shrubs like “Chillka” Baccharis sp., “Pacha-
pacha” Ophrhyosporus peruvianus, “P’ispita” Acalypha
aronioides, Achupalla” Puya densiflora, “Wiq’ontoy”
Tillandsia sp., and trees like “Tara” Caesalpinia tinc-
torea, “Molle” Schinus molle and “Waranway” Tecoma
sambucifolia.
At the other side of the Willkamayu river fac-
ing Huayllabamba we find the quechua communi-
ty of Chinchero, a town of master weavers that have
done much to preserve and reclaim knowledge of this
skill that dates back to at least the pre Columbian
Inca era. Here Grimalda and Fidel Quispe are part
of this ancient lineage. They grow an Echeveria spe-
cies in their garden, not native but Mexican, proba-
bly E. secunda, likely purchased in the Cusco flower
market. They refer that the true native Echeveria used
to be common in Chinchero and around the upper
Sacred Valley and can still be found near Yucay and
Huayllabamba, although they are now very scarce, not
because of overcollecting, but because very few people
use them medicinally anymore and so no one “tends”
the wild plants and they are disappearing!
The Quispes say that the native Echeveria were
once a highly important medicine; 3 drops of fresh
juice squeezed between fingers from the leaf directly
into the eyes or after roasting were used for soreness,
infections and even cataracts. The juice from a leaf
heated with a match or boiled was squeezed into the
ears for earache. They shared that the Quechua name
for this plant in the Vilcanota River area is “Loray-
pu” which refers to the rhomboid shape of the leaves.
In ancient as well as contemporary weavings this dia-
mond shape is represented and is actually the “emblem
of Chinchero (Fig. 1k). The name is also used for cul-
tivated introduced Aeonium species and by extension
to all rosette forming Crassulaceae.
1j. Group of Echeveria cuscoensis at Yanacocha
Lagoon. (W.G.)
1k. “Loraypu” design in weaving representing
Echeveria cuscoensis. (B.K.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 57
2. Echeveria decumbens
Kimnach
Echeveria decumbens Kimnach , Cact. Succ.
J.(Los Angeles) 67(1): 3–5.
Holotype: PERU. Dept. Cusco. Prov. Calca.
15 km north of Calca on road to Amparaes,
3200 m, October 9, 1982. W. Baker 4143A HBG
75907 (HNT, holotype, US isotype) (Fig. 2a).
A succulent glabrous, proliferous herb. Roots 2–5
or more, fascicular, 2–4 cm long, 1.2–2 mm diam.,
light gray. Stem procumbent, up to 10 cm long, when
erect not more than 3–4 cm high, 0.3–0.5 (–0.8) cm
diam., brownish gray. Rosettes 1–3, 4–7 cm diam (Fig.
2b). Leaves 20–26, sessile, very narrow obovate to
oblanceolate, or narrow oblong at two proximal thirds,
then gradually expanding, (1.5–) 2–4 cm long, 0.5–
0.8 cm wide at base, 0.7–1.2 cm wide 1 cm from apex,
0.5–0.7 cm wide at middle, 2–3 mm thick, upper side
flat to slightly concave, light green when young, then
olive- yellowish-green, somewhat reddish on apical
half where exposed to light, lower side convex, some-
what keeled, light green, acute to sub-cuspidate, with
a slightly recurved hyaline mucro 2 mm long at apex,
base bi-lobed hyaline (Fig. 2c).
Flowering stem a raceme, rarely erect, horizontal
or declining, rachis 12–30 cm long, 2–4 mm diam. at
base, 1.5–3 mm diam. at apex, light green to pink at
distal third or where exposed (Fig. 2d). Peduncular
bracts 16–26, appearing from the base, the lower ones
spaced 1–2.5 cm apart, the upper ones more crowd-
ed to 0.5 cm, somewhat recurved, narrow oblanceo-
late, 0.6–1.2 cm long, 0.4–0.6 cm wide, 2.5–3.5 mm
thick, same color as leaves, with a tri-lobed, transpar-
ent spur at base ca. 1 mm long. Flowers 9–20, appear-
ing from May to November, present only on the dis-
tal third of the raceme, 1–1.3 cm long and 0.4–0.5 cm
in diam. Pedicels ascending to sub-horizontal, sinu-
ous, 1–2.5 cm long, 1–1.5 mm diam., pinkish, with
2–3 linear-deltoid bracteoles on apical half, 2–3 mm
long and 0.5–0.6 mm wide, pinkish. Calyx lobes
united at base 1 mm, sepals unequal linear lanceo-
late, acuminate, adpressed to corolla or separated in
a right angle, apices slightly recurving, (3–) 5–8 mm
long, 1.5–3 mm wide, olive green. Corolla urceolate,
sub-pentagonal, 4.5–6 mm thick near base, 3.5–5 mm
thick near apex, 1–1.3 cm long, petals linear lanceo-
late, acuminate, acute, 0.9–1 cm long, 2.5–3.5 mm
wide, outer surface red, keeled, slightly yellowish on
apical half and on keel, apex uncinate, recurving, inner
surface red, yellowish on basal half. Stamens 10, the 5
epipetalous 5–6 mm long, the antesepalous 6–7.5 mm
long, filaments cream, 0.6 mm thick at base, gradually
tapering to 0.3 mm. Anthers quadrate, yellow, 0.8–1.2
mm long and 0.7–0.8 mm wide. Gynoecium turbi-
nate, 7–9 mm long, 4–5 mm thick. Carpels 5, cream.
Styles 1.5–2.5 mm long, parallel, almost touching
each other, greenish or reddish at apex, stigma white.
2a. Echeveria decumbens, a cultivated plant from the
type clone. (G.P)
2b. Rosette of Echeveria decumbens cultivated by
Silvia Choquehuanca at Yanahuara. (G.P)
58 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
Nectaries quadrate, whitish. Chromosome number =175+-5 (accord-
ing to Uhl and Kimnach) (Fig. 2e).
Other localities: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov. Calca, Dist, Calca,
Dist, Lares, Yerbabuenayoc, on rocks, 3200 m, Jan 30, 1958, C. Vargas
011966 (CUZ 4796)(Probable).
This species was probably first collected by César Vargas in 1958
at Yerbabuenayoc and determined erroneously as Echeveria peruviana
Meyen, in his herbarium sheet. Notes written by hand on the plate
remark the small size of the leaves and flowers. This species remained undescribed until the Californian Gar-
dener William Baker collected the type plant in October 1982 at a rocky, grassy, shaded slope between Calca
and Amparaes, a locality yet unknown exactly, while travelling with amaryllid specialists William Gielow and
Karyn Ecker. Some samples were brought to the United States and Myron Kimnach described it in 1995 from
plants cultivated at the Huntington Botanical Garden, naming it “decumbens” because of its almost horizontal
flowering stem. It has been extensively searched for in the type locality and also around Lares but never found
again in habitat. It is likely to occur in more southern and eastern locations.
2c. Detail of leaves of Echeveria decumbens. (G.P)
2d. Inflorescence of Echeveria decum-
bens. (G.P)
2e. From left to right: bracts (3), sepals (2), petals (3), complete flower, sectioned flower showing gynoecium,
above: Flower with pedicel and peduncular bracts. (G.P.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 59
3. Echeveria decumbens
Kimnach var. urubambensis
Pino, Núñez & Kamm var. nova
Holotype: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov.
Urubamba, Dist. Ollantaytambo, Patacancha
Valley, Bridge crossing after the town of Huilloc,
3550 m, S13°12’ 05”, W72°12’ 08”, Nov 15, 2014,
G. Pino 2720 (USM 295253) (Fig. 3a).
A succulent glabrous, proliferous herb, eventually
forming clusters of 30–40 cm diam. Roots many, fas-
cicular. Stem procumbent, up to 20 cm long and up to
5 cm high, 0.5–1.5 cm diam., brownish gray. Rosettes,
1–8 (-30), 3–7 cm diam. Leaves 18–22, sessile, very
narrow obovate to narrow sub-spathulate, 2.5–3.5 cm
long, 0.3–0.6 cm wide at base, 0.8–1.4 cm wide 1 cm
from apex, 0.6–0.9 cm wide at middle, 2–3 mm thick,
upper side flat to slightly concave, slightly convex and
obscurely keeled in the rainy season, glaucous to olive
green, intense green in the rainy season, somewhat
reddish on apical half where exposed to light, lower
side convex, somewhat keeled, olive green, acute, with
a slightly recurved hyaline mucro 2 mm long at apex,
base bi-lobed hyaline (Fig. 3b).
Flowering stem a horizontal or declining raceme,
rachis 8–15 cm long, 2–3 mm diam. at base, 1.5–2.5
mm diam. at apex, light green, pink at distal third.
Peduncular bracts 8–12, appearing from the base,
spaced 0.5–1 cm apart, elliptic to narrow obovate,
1–1.7 cm long, 0.4–0.8 cm wide, 2–3 mm thick, apex
acute, both sides convex, same color as leaves (Fig.
3c). Flowers 1–3, appearing from May to November,
present only on the distal third of the raceme, 1.5–
1.8 cm long and 0.8–1 cm in diam. Pedicels sub-hor-
izontal, straight, 0.5–1.5 cm long, 1–1.5 mm diam.,
pale green to pinkish, with 0–1 bracteoles on apical
half, same as peduncular bracts. Calyx lobes united
at base 1 mm, sepals unequal linear lanceolate, obtuse,
adpressed to corolla or separate in a right angle, 8–12
3a. Echeveria decumbens var. urubambensis at type locality. (B.K.)
3b. Leaves of Echeveria decumbens var. urubamben-
sis. (G.P.)
60 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
3c. Plant ex situ showing flowering stem of Echeveria
decumbens var. urubambensis. (G.P.)
3d. From left to right: flower of Echeveria decum-
bens var. urubambensis with pedicel and peduncular
bracts, bracts (2), sepals (2). (G.P.)
3e. Echeveria decumbens var. urubambensis at
Pumahuanca. (P.N.)
3f. Right: Echeveria decumbens and left: var. urubambensis, cultivated by Silvia Choquehuanca at Yanahuara.
(G.P)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 61
mm long, 2–3.5 mm wide, olive green. Corolla urce-
olate, sub-pentagonal, 0.9–1 cm thick near base, 0.8–
0.9 cm thick near apex, 1.6–1.8 cm long, petals linear
lanceolate, acuminate, acute, 1.6–1.8 cm long, 3.5–4.5
mm wide, outer surface keeled, cream yellow on apical
half and reddish on basal half and keel, apex uncinate,
recurving, inner surface yellow (Fig. 3d).
Other localities: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov.
Urubamba, Dist. Ollantaytambo, Patacancha Val-
ley (above Ollantaytambo). Rock outcrops and cliffs
just past the town of Huilloc, 3800 m, S 13°09’06”,
W 72°26’ 17”, Apr 24, 2010, Ben Kamm 10427.1. Dist.
Urubamba, Road from Urubamba to Pumahuan-
ca, Andean Montane forest, 3200 m, Apr 21, 2015, P.
Núnez V. R. Sánchez G.
The typical E. decumbens has never been found
in habitat again. Plants with similar leaves but larger
flowers were found west of the type locality by Ben
Kamm in May 2010, while he explored the Patakan-
cha watershed above Ollantaytambo. This stream is
an affluent of the Urubamba River, which is no more
than the same Vilcanota River after crossing the town
of Urubamba. The lower section of the Patakancha
valley, such as Muskapukyu, was a region of intense
agriculture, with vast terraces ascending far up the
mountain sides. These are some of the most exten-
sively terraced slopes observed in the Andes. Above
this area of the Patakancha stream, past Huilloc, near
3800 m, an impressive population of Echeveria grows
in the crevices of rock outcrops and cliffs along with
Tillandsia species, a shrubby form of Oxalis peduncu-
laris, and a Dendropanax shrub. Here Echeveria forms
small clusters to very large mounding clusters 60 cm
across, growing at partial shade. This happens to be
a much lusher, cooler region than the lower Patakan-
cha valley near the ruins. In year 2015, Percy Núñez
also found plants of this variety at about 6 km on a
straight line Southeast of Huilloc, on the trail from
the town of Pumahuanca to the (Pumawank’a or
Yukay) peak standing at 5318 m. This is a lush narrow
var. decumbens var. urubambensis
Overall habit Not seen in nature Forms clusters of up to 40 cm diam.
Rosettes
number 1–3 1–8 (–30)
diameter 4–7 cm 3–7 cm
number of leaves 20–26 18–22
Leaves
shape Narrow obovate to oblanceolate, apex
sub cuspidate to acute.
Narrow obovate to sub-spathulate,
apex mostly acute
size
(1.5–) 2–4 cm long
0.5–0.8 cm wide at base
0.5–0.7 cm wide at middle
2–3 mm thick
2.5–3.5 cm long
0.3–0.6 cm wide at base
0.6–0.9 cm wide at middle
2–3 mm thick
color light green when young, then olive-
yellowish green.
glaucous to olive green, intense green
in the rainy season.
Flowering stem length (cm) 12–30 8–15
Peduncular
bracts
16–26, narrow oblanceolate
0.6–1.2 cm long, 0.4–0.6 cm wide
2.5–3.5mm thick
8–12, elliptic to narrow obovate,
1–1.7 cm long, 0.4–0.8 cm wide,
2–3mm thick
Flowers
number 9–20 1–3
dimensions 1–1.3 cm long
0.4–0.5 cm diam.
1.5–1.8 cm long
0.8–1 cm in diam.
pedicels ascending to sub-horizontal, sinuous,
1–2.5 cm long
sub-horizontal, straight, 0.5–1.5 cm
long
sepals
linear lanceolate, acuminate
5–8 mm long
1.5–3 mm wide
linear lanceolate, obtuse
8–12 mm long
2–3.5 mm wide
Corolla
shape urceolate sub-pentagonal
dimensions 4.5–6 mm thick near base, 3.5–5 mm
thick near apex, 1–1.3 cm long
0.9–1 cm thick near base, 0.8–0.9 cm
thick near apex, 1.6–1.8 cm long
Petals
0.9–1 cm long, 2.5–3.5 mm wide
outer surface red, keeled, slightly yel-
lowish on apical half and on keel. inner
surface red, yellowish on basal half.
1.6–1.8 cm long, 3.5–4.5 mm wide
outer surface cream-yellow on apical
half, reddish on basal half and keel.
inner surface yellow.
Table I. Comparison of features of Echeveria decumbens var. decumbens and var. urubambensis.
62 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
path that follows a crystal clear stream
which trickles down from the Puma-
huanca glacier, an almost dark gully all
surrounded by vegetation (Fig. 3e).
Careful inspection of these plants
reveals some differences with vari-
ety decumbens that deserve describing
a new variety (Table I). Vegetative-
ly, plants from the type locality form
rosettes with some more leaves, that
have a more yellowish or brownish
hue compared with the dark or intense
green of the new variety. Both variet-
ies can show glaucous leaves in the dry
period but this is more noticeable in
variety urubambensis (Fig. 3d). The
main difference is the inflorescence,
which is longer and many flowered
in variety decumbens, but with small-
er and redder flowers, with longer and
sinuous pedicels. The new variety has
few flowers, is larger in size, more
yellowish and with straight, shorter
pedicels.
The name of this new variety refers
to its occurrence within the province
of Urubamba, which is also the name
of the river that irrigates the lower
basin of the Sacred Valley of the Incas.
Both varieties seem to be scarce in the
area and they usually grow in shad-
ed, moist places, at higher elevations
than the other local species of the val-
ley, where they get more rainfall and
drizzle.
4. Echeveria laresensis
sp. nova Pino & Kamm
Holotype: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov. Calca,
Dist. Lares, On cliffs, trail upward hill cross-
ing bridge after Lares hot springs, 3270 m, S
13°06’38”, W 72°03’24”, Nov 16, 2014, G. Pino
2736 (USM 295254) (Fig. 4a).
A succulent glabrous, proliferous herb eventual-
ly forming clusters to 25 cm diameter with up to 10
rosettes. Roots many, fascicular and fibrous, 3–5 cm
long, 0.5–0.6 mm diam., light gray, growing mostly
from each node of semi-stoloniferous stems. Stems
procumbent, 6–20 cm long or more, 0.4–0.6 cm
diam., scarcely branching from the base, branches 1–6,
decumbent in very old plants, with nodes every 3.5–
4.5 cm with remaining leaves of dry rosettes. Rosettes
1, usually at the end of main stem or branch, (2–) 3–8
(–11) cm diam. (Fig. 4b). Leaves 16–20, sessile, nar-
rowly obovate, acute to cuspidate, 1.5–4.5 (–7) cm
long, 0.5–0.7 cm wide at base, 1–1.4 cm wide 1 cm
from apex, 0.8.–1.2 cm wide at middle, 2–3 mm thick,
upper side flat to slightly concave, light glaucous
green, pruinose with lighter areas, margins whitish,
lower side convex, sub-carinate, light glaucous green
or purplish in the sun, with a 0.5 mm mucro at apex,
base hyaline (Fig. 4c).
Flowering stem an oblique or horizontal raceme,
rachis 12–18 cm long, 2.5–3.5 mm diam. at base,
1.8–2 mm diam. at apex, light glaucous green, turn-
ing pink since proximal third or half. Peduncular
bracts 7–13, spaced evenly 0.8–1.8 cm apart, narrow-
ly ovate, 1.3–2 (–3.5) cm long, 0.5–0.9 cm wide, 3–4
4a. Echeveria laresensis at the type locality. (B.K.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 63
mm thick, glaucous green, carinate and somewhat red-
dish at the outer side (Fig. 4d). Flowers 3–6, appear-
ing from October to March, present only on the dis-
tal fourth of the raceme, 1–1.7 cm long and 0.8–0.9
cm in diam. Pedicels ascending or oblique, 0.8–1 cm
long, 1.7–2 mm diam., pink, with 1–2 lanceolate or
narrowly ovate bracteoles near calyx, 1–1.4 cm long
and 3–4 mm wide, olive green. Calyx lobes united at
base, sepals unequal ovate acute, connate or spreading
in a right angle, upper side slightly recurving, 4–5 mm
long, 1.5–2 mm wide, olive green. Corolla urceolate,
sub-pentagonal, 7–8 mm thick near base, 4–5 mm
thick near apex, 1–1.7cm long, petals linear lanceo-
late, acuminate, 1–1.2 cm long, 3.5–4 mm wide, outer
surface keeled, yellowish on apical half and reddish on
basal half, apex uncinate, recurving, inner surface yel-
low on distal half, orange in basal half. Stamens 10,
the 5 epipetalous 7–8 mm long, the antesepalous 9–11
mm long, filaments cream, 0.8 mm thick at base, grad-
ually tapering to 0.3 mm. Anthers quadrate, yellow,
0.8–1.2 mm long and 0.7–0.8 mm wide. Gynoecium
turbinate, 10–12 mm long, 5–6 mm thick. Carpels 5,
yellow. Styles 2–3 mm long, parallel, almost touching
each other, greenish, stigma white. Nectaries quadrate,
whitish, 1 × 2 mm. Fruit a dehiscent capsule 1–1.2 cm
long, 0.8–1.2 cm diam. dark brown (Fig. 4e).
Other localities: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov. Calca,
Dist, Lares, Steep mountainside across from Lares
Hotsprings, growing with Tillandsia sp., Peperomia
sp. and Oxalis sp. 3425 m, April 28, 2010, Ben Kamm
10428.10.
This species has only been found in Lares
Hotsprings, a well-known resort crossing the moun-
tain range east of the Urubamba Valley. Lares is
reached by car from the Vilcanota Valley in Calca,
(Khallka) crossing important ruins like Anqasmarka
up over the 4461 m Willkapunku pass then descend-
ing after Pampacorral to Lares Hotsprings near 3250
m. Alternatively it can be reached by trekking from
the Patacancha Valley up over the 4400 m Ipsayqo-
cha pass then descending through the weaving town
of Huacahuasi. Lares is a much warmer, somewhat
dryer region than the Patacancha Valley. These Ech-
everia appear as solitary plants to small mounds of
a few rosettes growing on rocky overhangs all along
the trail to the hot spring entrance. These are far out
of reach, usually directly underneath Puya sp., Cori-
aria ruscifolia v. microphylla, and Tecoma sambucifolia
shrubs. Plants are also planted on the roof of the hot
4b. Echeveria laresensis ex situ showing stems. (G.P)
4c. Detail of the leaves of Echeveria laresensis. (G.P)
64 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
springs entrance building and on the clay walls of a
shop belonging to Lino Alanya, a local enthusiast who
collects plants from all around and takes good care of
them (Fig. 4f). Plants at first glance look like enor-
mous, glaucous Echeveria decumbens (Fig. 4g). Cross-
ing over the Rio Trapiche, directly across from the hot
springs, there are plants growing on the steep rocky
mountainside with several Tillandsia species, Pepero-
mia rotundata, Peperomia galioides, succulent Oxalis
sp., Puya sp., Myrteola sp., Elaphoglossum sp. and sev-
eral other ferns. Most plants here make small 4–14 cm
loose clusters of just 2–5 rosettes. The largest cluster
observed there was 14 cm in diameter, made up of 10
rosettes.
4f. Plant of Echeveria laresensis grown on wall by Lino
Alanya. (G.P)
4e. From left to right: sepals (2), petals (2), sectioned flower showing
gynoecium, bracts (2). (G.P.)
4g. Plant of Echeveria laresensis in habitat. (G.P)
4d. Inflorescence of Echeveria
laresensis. (G.P)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 65
5. Echeveria ochoae
Pino & Galiano sp. nova
Holotype: PERU: Dept. Cusco, Prov. Uru-
bamba, Dist. Ollantaytambo, Yawar waqaq,
beginning of Inca Trail to Machupicchu, 200 m
crossing after Pisqak’uchu train station at km 82,
on very loose rocky slope facing east the Uru-
bamba river, in the buffer zone of the Historical
Sanctuary of Machupicchu, 2670 m, S 13°13’19”,
W 72°24’04”, May 12, 2016, G. Pino, W.H. Galia-
no, J.Ochoa. 2773 (USM 295256) (Fig. 5a).
A succulent glabrous, solitary or proliferous herb.
Roots many, born from base of rosettes and along
creeping stems at nodes, fascicular and fibrous, 3–5
(–15) cm long, 0.5–2 mm diam., light grayish brown.
Stem erect in young plants, then procumbent, 0.5–
1.5 cm diam., light brown, becoming light glaucous
green near tips, scarcely 2–3 branching only from the
base, main stem or branches up to 50 cm long in very
old plants, with slightly enlarged nodes every 6–12
cm, prominent transverse leaf scars 4–6 mm long
every 4–10 mm, more crowded at nodes; dry leaves
and roots frequently attached to the stem at nodes
and near distal rosette (Fig. 5b). Rosettes generally
one at the end of stem or branch that then becomes
erect, 4–12 (–18) cm diam., cupuliform (Fig. 5c, 5d).
Leaves 18–36, sessile, wide obovate to spathulate, 2–8
cm long, 0.5–1.4 cm wide at base, 1.4–2.5 cm wide 1 5a. Echeveria ochoae in habitat at Pisqak’uchu. (J.O)
5b. Echeveria ochoae ex situ showing trailing stem with persistent dry leaves. (G.P.)
66 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
5c. Lateral view of rosette of Echeveria ochoae. (G.P.)
5d. Young plants of Echeveria ochoae. (G.P.)
5e. Leaves of Echeveria ochoae. (G.P.)
5f. Top view of rosette of Echeveria ochoae to show
its leaves. (G.P.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 67
cm from apex, 2–4 cm wide at middle, 3–4 mm thick,
upper side flat to concave, curved inwards, light olive
green to glaucous green, reddish near margins and in
outer leaves, margins obscurely curved inwards, lower
side flat to obscurely carinate, light green to reddish
where exposed, apex acute to cuspidate, with an acute
slightly recurved hyaline mucro 1 mm long at apex,
base hyaline (Fig. 5e, 5f ).
Flowering stem 1–3 erect or upcurving racemes
lateral from each rosette, rachis 15–20 (–30) cm long,
4–6 mm diam. at base, 2–3 mm diam. at apex, white
to pinkish in proximal third, intense pink in two dis-
tal thirds (Fig. 5g). Peduncular bracts 7–9, crowded
on the proximal half, spaced every 0.3–0.6 cm near
base and 0.6–1 cm or deciduous towards tip, narrowly
ovate, straight and adpressed to the scape, tips acumi-
nate, 1.2–2.6 cm long, 0.4–1 cm wide, 4–5 mm thick,
inner side canaliculate, outer side keeled, same color
as leaves. Flowers 6–12, appearing from September to
October, present only on the distal third of the raceme,
1.5–1.8 cm long and 0.9–1 cm in diam. Pedicels
oblique, 0.8–2.5 cm long, 1.8–2.2 mm diam., intense
pink, with a normal bracteole at the base and anoth-
er slender bracteole near calyx, 0.5–0.9 cm long, 1.5–
2.5 mm wide, very narrowly ovate to linear, reddish
green, outer side convex, inner side curved inwards
and concave, apex incurvate or uncinate. Calyx lobes
united at base, sepals unequal ovate acute to triangu-
lar, adpressed to corolla, 5–6 mm long, 3–4 mm wide,
reddish green. Corolla urceolate, sub-pentagonal, 8–9
mm thick near base, 5–6 mm thick near apex, 1.7–1.9
cm long, petals linear lanceolate, acuminate, 1.4–1.6
cm long, 2–2.5 mm wide, outer surface keeled, pale
yellowish on apical third and pinkish on basal two
thirds, apex uncinate, recurving, inner surface yel-
low on distal half, light pink in basal half. Stamens
10, the 5 epipetalous 7–9 mm long, the antesepalous
9–10mm long, filaments cream, 0.7–1 mm thick at
base, gradually tapering to 0.3 mm. Anthers ovoid,
intense yellow, 1–1.5 mm long and 0.6–0.8 mm wide.
Gynoecium turbinate, 10–12 mm long, 4–5 mm thick.
Carpels 5, white. Styles 3–4 mm long, parallel, almost
touching each other, greenish, stigma white. Nec-
taries reniform, cream, 1 × 2.2 mm (Fig. 5h). Fruit a
dehiscent capsule 1.2–1.5 cm long, 0.8–1.6 cm diam.
(spreading dry petals), dark brown, appearing from
November to January.
5g. Flowering stem of Echeveria ochoae in anthesis
(J.O.)
5h. From left to right: Flower, sectioned flower showing gynoecium, bracts (2, above), sepals (3, below),
gynoecium, petals (3), dry fruit. (G.P.)
68 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
The Inca trail is the most famous hike in Peru
and perhaps all of South America. This arduous,
four day walk begins at the river Urubamba bank,
the floor of the Sacred Valley. It then climbs up
at least three steep high mountain passes — one
of which reaches an elevation of 4,200 m — and
passes through cloud forests and jungle, visit-
ing some breath-taking Tambo ancient ruins like
Wayllabamba, Phuyupatamarka and Wiñaywayna.
After 40 km it finally arrives at the Intipunku (Sun
Gate) from where you can get a glimpse of the
emerald peak of the magical mountain of Wayna
Picchu. At its base the mystical mist-shrouded ter-
raced lost city of the Incas, Machu Picchu, can be
found.
This citadel was rediscovered more than one
century ago by the American explorer Hiram
Bingham, at a hidden place at 2400 m, 80 km
north of Cusco city. It was probably built in the
15th century in the time of Inca emperor Pacha-
kutiq and then abandoned a century later at the
time of the Spanish conquest. It was never found
by the Spaniards, who thus did not destroy it, as
they did with other Inca buildings. It is made of
polished stones so skillfully cut to fit one another,
that not even a needle could fit in the gap between
them. The area surrounding the ruins (326 km2)
was declared a Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a
UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. An inter-
national poll voted it as one of the New Seven Won-
ders of the World in 2007.
At km 82 of the railroad to Machu Picchu, Julio
Gustavo Ochoa Estrada, a local biologist and grad-
uate of the University San Antonio Abad of Cusco,
found this plant at Yawar waqaq, the beginning of
the Inca Trail, just crossing Pisqak’uchu train station,
on a very steep slope with loose rocks facing east the
Urubamba river, in the buffer zone of the Historical
Sanctuary. Here this Echeveria grows in a relative-
ly dry subtropical low montane forest. This is a sec-
ondary woodland highly modified by human activity
since ca. 800 BC, with sub-xerophilous thorny shrubs
like “Pikipiki” Baccharis boliviensis, “Cheqchi” Berber-
is dryandriphylla, “Chamana” Dodonaea viscosa, “Llaul-
li Barnadesia macbridei, “Chuchaw” Furcraea andina;
cacti like “Hawaq’ollay” Echinopsis cuzcoensis and Cor-
ryocactus squarrosus, many bromeliads like “Achupalla”
Puya ferruginea and densiflora, “Wiq’ontoy” Tillandsia
nana, usneoides, paleacea and capillaris, and occasion-
al low trees like “Tara” Caesalpinia tinctorea, “Molle”
Schinus molle and “Waranway” Tecoma sambucifolia.
Here the mean annual maximum temperature is 18.1
ºC. and the minimum 11.7 ºC. Mean total rainfall per
year is about 1124.7 mm.
In the Urubamba River area, locals call these
plants “Lurapu” and claim that its sap is effective
against deafness. This species is named after its dis-
coverer, Ochoa, who is the national scientific consul-
tant for the program of inventory management for the
conservation of biodiversity of the Historical Sanc-
tuary of Machu Picchu. He reported the rediscovery
of the Machu Picchu arboreal chinchilla rat Cusco-
mys oblativus in 2009, a beautiful cat-sized rodent that
may have been a pet for the Incas (Ochoa 2012). For
the last 20 years, he has directed the Program of Con-
servation and Biocultural management of the Nation-
al Archaeological Park of Machu Picchu of the Min-
istry of Culture of Cusco.
Echeveria ochoae is closer to E. cuscoensis than the
other species here described, however, plants show
conspicuous stems with larger rosettes and looser,
wider and lighter colored leaves, producing more erect
and densely flowered inflorescences, and they thrive in
a drier and lower environment, blooming almost one
month before this species.
6a. Echeveria westii in habitat at Ollantaytambo. (B.K.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 69
6. Echeveria westii Walther
Echeveria westii Walther. in Echeveria, p. 361, 1972.
Holotype: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov. Urubamba, Dist.
Ollantaytambo, On arid rock outcrops among mosses and
species of Peperomia and Tillandsia at Ollantaytambo ruins,
3000 m, 9 Nov 1957, Paul Hutchison 1959/1800 (UC
1200467) (Fig. 6a).
A succulent glabrous herb. Roots many, fascicular, 3–5
(–8) cm long, 1–1.5 mm diam., light grayish brown. Stem
short, erect, usually unobserved, when noticeable, 1–6 cm
long, subterranean or aerial, 0.5–1.5 (–2) cm diam., brown.
Rosettes 1 usually at the end of stem, rarely up to 3, 3–4.5
(–8) cm diam. (Fig. 6b). Leaves 12–18 (–26), sessile, rhom-
boid-obovate when young, narrow obovate in mature plants,
cuneate at base, blunt acute, occasionally acuminate, (1–)
2–3.5 (–4) cm long, 0.3–0.5 cm wide at base, 1–1.4 cm wide
1 cm from apex, 1–1.5 cm wide at middle, 3–5 mm thick,
upper side flat to slightly concave or canaliculate in old plants, recurved when in flower, olive green to purplish
green, sometimes orangish and even glaucous in old flowering plants, margins blunt, obscurely incurved in old
plants, lower side obscurely keeled, convex to carinate, purplish or reddish, apex redder or brownish, rarely with
a 1 mm mucro, slightly incurved, base hyaline pinkish (Fig. 6c).
6b. Plants of Echeveria westii at different ages. (G.P.)
6c. Leaves of Echeveria westii. (G.P.)
6d. Ex situ plants of Echeveria westii in anthesis.
(G.P.)
70 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
Flowering stem an oblique raceme, rachis 5–20
cm long, 2–4 mm diam. at base, 1.5–3 mm diam. at
apex, deep red. Peduncular bracts 8–14 , proximally
rapidly deciduous or absent, appearing only on distal
third, there crowded evenly 0.2–0.4 cm apart, narrow
obovate-elliptic, acute, 0.8–1.6 cm long, 0.5–0.9 cm
wide, 2–3 mm thick, light glaucous green to purplish,
apex and distal half redder, both sides convex, pro-
ducing axillary plantlets from the bracts, even when
still attached to the plant (Fig. 6d, 6e). Flowers 1–2
(–3), appearing from November to December, pres-
ent only on the end of the raceme, 1.1–1.3 cm long
and 0.5–0.7 cm in diam. Pedicels oblique, 0.4–0.9
(–1.6) cm long, 1.5–2 mm diam., dark pink, with one
6e. From left to right: peduncular bracts (3), some of them rooting, bracteole, tip of inflorescence with flower-
ing bud of Echeveria westii (G.P.)
6f. Detail of the flowers of Echeveria westii: sepals (3), flower, sectioned flower showing gynoecium, petals (2).
Inset: detail of gynoecium, anthers and nectaries. (G.P.)
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 71
oblong-linear incurvate bracteole at the base, 0.6–0.9
cm long and 1.5–2 mm wide, acute, sub-terete, same
color as bracts. Calyx lobes united at base, sepals
unequal narrowly ovate acute, adpressed to corolla or
in acute angle, 7–10 mm long, 2–3 mm wide, same
color as leaves (Fig. 6e). Corolla urceolate, sub-pen-
tagonal, 5–7 mm thick near base, 3–5 mm thick near
apex, 1.1–1.3 cm long, petals linear lanceolate, acu-
minate, 1–1.2 cm long, 2–2.5 mm wide, outer surface
keeled, light yellow, orange-pink on base, apex recurv-
ing, inner surface yellow. Stamens 10, the 5 epipet-
alous 6–7 mm long, the antesepalous 7–9 mm long,
filaments cream, 0.4–0.7 mm thick at base, gradually
tapering to 0.2 mm. Anthers quadrate, yellow, 1–1.5
mm long and 0.4–0.6 mm wide. Gynoecium turbi-
nate, 6–8 mm long, 3–4 mm thick. Carpels 5, yellow.
Styles 2–3 mm long, parallel, almost touching each
other, greenish white, stigma reddish (Fig. 6f ). Nec-
taries reniform, deep yellow, 1 × 2 mm. Fruit a dehis-
cent capsule 1–1.1 cm long, 1–1.4 cm diam., reddish
brown (Fig. 6g).
Other localities: PERU. Dept. Cusco, Prov.
Urubamba, Dist. Ollantaytambo, On rock out-
crops around the back of the main ruins, facing the
Urubamba River, growing with Peperomia hartwe-
giana Miq, Cheilanthes sp, and Villadia virgata, 2500
m, S 13º15’22” W 072º16’02”, May 21, 2008, Ben
Kamm 08521.7. On rocks on Pinkuylluna mountain,
above the town of Ollantaytambo, 3150 m, May 22,
2008, Ben Kamm 08522.2. On the trail to Pinkuylluna
ruins, among rocks, 2900 m, S 13°15’26”, W 72°15’43”,
May 12, 2016, G. Pino, W.H. Galiano, J.Ochoa. 2779
(USM 295257). Sacred Valley, road from Yanahuara to
Ollantaytambo, rocky slopes in front of Bridge to Pau-
carbamba, Maras, 2600 m, S 13°16’58”, W 72°12’02”,
May 12, 2016, G. Pino, W.H. Galiano, J.Ochoa. 2782
(USM 295258).
This species was originally described by Walther
in the 1950s from plants collected by Hutchison, on
the ruins of Ollantaytambo. Since then it has hardly
been collected, probably because of its location on the
almost inaccessible cliffs above the complex, and per-
haps also protected by the custody of this archaeologi-
cal place.
The town of Ollantaytambo and its adjacent
archaeological site lie at 2800–2900 m, just where the
Patakancha river drains into the Urubamba river in
the northern part of the Sacred Valley. The ruins with
their massive terraces are claimed by pop-researchers
to be laid out against the mountainside in the profile
of a llama (Elorrieta Salazar 2001), but this is contest-
ed by others (Dean 2010). Once the royal estate of the
Inca Pachakutiq, this was the last place of Inca resis-
tance to the Spaniards in the rebellion of 1536, before
their flight to their final stronghold of Vilcabamba.
6g. Dry fruits of Echeveria westii. (G.P.)
6h. Echeveria westii at Pinkuylluna with similar pur-
plish colored Oxalis and Pilea sp. (G.P.)
72 CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL
E. cuscoensis E. laresensis E. ochoae E. westii
Rosette
diameter
(cm) 6–8 3–8 4–12 3–4.5
number of
leaves 18–32 16–20 18–36 12–18
Leaves
shape rhomboid obovate to
sub-spathulate
narrowly obovate, acute
to cuspidate obovate to spathulate
rhomboid-obovate
when young, narrow-
obovate when old
dimensions 2–5 cm long, 1.1–1.7 cm
wide at middle
1.5–4.5 cm long, 0.8.–1.2
cm wide at middle,
2–8 cm long,, 2–4 cm
wide at middle,
1–3.5 cm long,1–1.5
cm wide at middle,
thickness
(mm) 6–9 2–3 3–4 3–5
adaxial
surface
concave to canaliculate,
faceted, light olive green
in the shade, reddish
when exposed or dry
at to slightly concave,
light glaucous green,
pruinose with lighter
areas
at to concave, in-
curved, light olive
green to glaucous
green, reddish near
margins and in outer
leaves
at to slightly concave,
recurved when in
ower, olive green to
purplish green
margins lighter, obscurely curved
inwards whitish obscurely curved
inwards blunt
abaxial
surface keeled or convex
convex, sub-carinate,
light glaucous green or
purplish in the sun
at to obscurely
carinate, light green
to reddish where
exposed
obscurely keeled,
convex to carinate,
purplish or reddish
Inorescence
number &
disposition
1 oblique or horizontal
raceme
1 -2 oblique or horizon-
tal raceme
1–3 erect or upcurving
raceme 1 oblique raceme
dimensions
8–20 (–28) cm long, 3–4
mm diam. at base, 2–3
mm diam. at apex
12–18 cm long, 2.5–3.5
mm diam. at base, 1.8–2
mm diam. at apex
15–20 (–30) cm long,
4–6 mm diam. at base,
2–3 mm diam. at apex
15–20 (–30) cm long,
4–6 mm diam. at base,
2–3 mm diam. at apex
color
light green to pink at
proximal third, bright red
at distal half or third
light glaucous green,
turning pink since proxi-
mal third or half.
white to pinkish in
proximal third, intense
pink in distal thirds
deep red
Flowers
number
3–6, present only on the
distal quarter or fth of
the raceme
3–6, present only on
the distal quarter of the
raceme
6–12, present only on
the distal third of the
raceme
1–2 (–3), present only
on the end of the
raceme
dimensions 1.4–1.6 cm long, 0.6–0.7
cm in diam.
1–1.7 cm long, 0.8–0.9
cm in diam.
1.5–1.8 cm long, 0.9–1
cm in diam.
1.1–1.3 cm long 0.5–
0.7 cm in diam.
blooming
period October to November October to March September to October November to Decem-
ber
Sepals
shape narrowly ovate acute,
spreading at 45º
ovate acute, connate
or spreading at right
angles
ovate, acute to trian-
gular, adpressed to
corolla
narrowly ovate acute,
adpressed to corolla or
at acute angle
dimensions
(L × W, mm) 7–11 × 2–3.5 4–5 × 1.5–2 5–6 × 3–4 7–10 × 2–3
Petals
dimensions
(L × W) 1.5–1.6 cm × 3–4 mm 1–1.2 cm × 3.5–4 mm 1.4–1.6 cm × 2–2.5 mm 1–1.2 cm × 2–2.5 mm
color
yellowish on apical half
and red orange on basal
half
yellowish on apical half
and reddish on basal
half
pale yellowish on api-
cal third and pinkish
on basal two thirds
light yellow, orange-
pink on base
Table II. Comparison of plants of Echeveria cuscoensis, E. laresensis, E.ochoae and E. westii.
2017 VOLUME 89 NUMBER 2 73
The village of Ollantaytambo retains its original Inca
layout of narrow cobblestone streets with their intact
irrigation systems still nourishing the town.
Only a few people have observed this species
growing in the wild since its discovery, such as Ben
Kamm from California, who found it beyond the back
of the main ruins, just outside the so-called “defensive
wall”, around the side of the mountain to where the
slopes face west towards the Urubamba River on its
way to Machu Picchu, where a path leads up to the
Intiwatana above the archaeological site and is closed
to the public up to date. This is just beyond the resi-
dential complex of the ruins, and here they grow in
abundance on rock outcrops often in the shade of a
bunch grass (Stipa?), Cheilanthes bonariensis ferns,
Puya sp., several Tillandsia species, the occasional
Agave cordillerensis or small shrubs (Solanum sp., Cro-
ton sp., Abutilon sp., and Salvia oppositiflora). Plants
in strong exposed light are very compact and have a
beautiful red-purple color. Interestingly many other
succulent species growing alongside them in this sea-
sonally arid, warm end of the Urubamba Valley take
on similar reddish hues—Peperomia hartwegiana, Pilea
serpyllacea, Oxalis peduncularis and a lithophytic orchid
species (Fig. 6h). Echeveria in the shade tend to be
a little larger and even glaucous blue-grey, beginning
to look similar to Echeveria cuscoensis but not as large
Table II presents a comparison of all the Echeveria
species growing in the Urubamba area. Other associ-
ated vegetation growing here are Peperomia nivalis var.
lepadiphylla, an orange flowered Mentzelia sp., Corryo-
cactus erectus, Austrocylindropuntia subulata subsp. exal-
tata, and Villadia virgata.
Echeveria westii also grows on the Intipunku,
above the town and on the rock outcrops and cliffs on
Pinkuylluna mountain in front of the ruins, near the
Inca Qolqas (masterfully engineered storage facilities/
granaries) above the town of Ollantaytambo at 3100
m and above. Plants here get a lot of exposure and
tend toward being smaller and more compact, reddish
to even orangeish in color, in all stages of develop-
ment. They grow here with the same companion spe-
cies matrix as the other populations along with a larg-
er terrestrial orchid species. Some plants can also be
found on the rocky slopes between the town of Yana-
huara and Ollantaytambo, growing high far out of
reach.
A short walk back the Patakancha Valley from the
main ruins leads to the mysterious Inkamisana Sanc-
tuary, this is an archaeological site–strange ceremoni-
al/astronomical carvings within the living rock of the
cliffs. Here Kamm has observed a few E. westii plants
growing on the cliffs out of reach.
Plants from the type locality were taken to Califor-
nia and grown for years by Myron Kimnach. Observ-
ing these plants, Pilbeam (2008) comments that with-
out flowers, it could be easily mistaken for a rosette-
forming Sedum or a Sedum / Echeveria hybrid. Also,
flowering stems when born are reminiscent of some
Pachyphytum in the fact of having a bare stem and
congested bractlets at the tip, but then they produce
typical Echeveria flowers, although very few, some-
times only one.
Acknowledgements
We thank Myron Kimnach for providing liv-
ing plants of Echeveria decumbens, Marie Stephanie
Samain for logistics and support with data bibliogra-
phy, Robert Maijer from the Netherlands for interest-
ing data and collecting plants, Esteban Martinez from
the UNAM Mexico for his support in Mexico, D.F.,
Jerónimo Reyes from the UNAM Mexico for provid-
ing important cultivation tips for Echeveria, making
possible to cultivate the Peruvian species at sea level,
Ed Dunin-Wasowicz from England for supplying liv-
ing plants and bibliography, Silvia Choquehuanca and
her daughter Camila for cultivating the new species
near habitat at Yanahuara, Urubamba, Lino Alanya
for supplying Echeveria laresensis, Grimalda and Fidel
Quispe from Chincheros for sharing their knowledge
about Echeveria cuscoensis. Luisa Infante and Merly
Saavedra for their help with plants cultivated in Lima,
Emilio Pereyra Debernardi for his assistance at field
trips and very specially Julio Gustavo Ochoa Estrada
for his field assistance in Cusco and his unconditional
help collecting plants whenever required. Key to pho-
tographers: G.P. = Guillermo Pino, W.G. = Washing-
ton Galiano, P.N. = Percy Núñez, B.K. = Ben Kamm,
J.O. = Julio Ochoa.
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Dean, C. 2010 A Culture of Stone: Inka Perspectives on Rock. Durham, NC:
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Elorrieta Salazar, F. E., and Elorrieta Salazar, E. 2001 Cusco and the Sacred
Valley of the Incas. Translated by Beverly Nelson Elder. Cusco: Tanpu.
Kimnach, M. 1995. Echeveria decumbens, a new species from Peru. Cact.
Succ. J. (Los Angeles), 67 (1)3–5.
Ochoa J. 2012. Biodiversidad del Santuario Histórico de Machupicchu.
El Antoniano 22(121): 107–119.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
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The author shows how pollen and oribatid mites recovered from the small lake of Marcacocha provide a detailed proxy record of agro-pastoralism over the last 4200 years in the central Andes. The introduction of highland maize and weeding practices 2700 years ago corresponds with major settlement development, as well as evidence for large herds of llamas not only facilitating trade but supplying abundant fertilizer and fuel in the form of excrement. Prolonged droughts and pre-Colombian epidemics probably influenced many of the social changes observed.
Article
Full-text available
Six little-known Crassulaceae from central Peru are discussed. (1) Echeveria excelsa, the largest species of this genus in Peru, is found for the first time at its type locality since Weberbauer's visit in 1906, and a new type is designated for it; (2) Sedum andinum is perhaps the smallest Sedum species in Peru; it has almost spherical leaves, and its red-and-white flowers are difficult to observe. (3) Sedum incarum (Ball) Pino is a new combination for Villadia incarum; its inflorescence is an obscure and variable cyme, which earlier may have been misinterpreted as a raceme. (4) Sedum decipiens has been recollected for the first time since its discovery. It is rare in habitat and has a distinctive inflorescence forming a diffuse monochasium. (5) Sedum renzopalmae Pino is presented as a new species with yellow flowers. (6) Villadia virgata remains as the only valid species of Villadia in Peru, though there is evidence that other species may exist.
Biodiversidad del Santuario Histórico de Machupicchu
  • J Ochoa
Ochoa J. 2012. Biodiversidad del Santuario Histórico de Machupicchu. El Antoniano 22(121): 107-119.
The Genus Echeveria. The British Cactus and Succulent Society
  • J Pilbeam
Pilbeam J. 2008. The Genus Echeveria. The British Cactus and Succulent Society, Essex, UK. P 101, 102, 299-300.
Echeveria. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences
  • E Walther
Walther E. 1972. Echeveria. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
Key to photographers
  • G P Pino
  • W G Washington Galiano
  • P N Percy Núñez
  • B K Ben Kamm
  • Julio Ochoa
his field assistance in Cusco and his unconditional help collecting plants whenever required. Key to photographers: G.P. = Guillermo Pino, W.G. = Washington Galiano, P.N. = Percy Núñez, B.K. = Ben Kamm, J.O. = Julio Ochoa. Literature cited