Conference Paper

Escala estandarizada de fenología para quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) basada en el sistema de codificación de la BBCH

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Abstract

Antecedentes: La quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) es un pseudocereal nativo de la Región Andina de Sudamérica. Actualmente es considerada como una alternativa a los cultivos tradicionales en el escenario de cambio climático por su capacidad de adaptarse a suelos marginales, déficit hídrico y heladas. A pesar de sus destacadas características agronómicas y nutricionales, no existe un consenso internacional respecto a la medición de su fenología. Un criterio estandarizado para medir fenología podría unificar la información internacional, permitiendo una cooperación entre investigadores y mejoradores genéticos. Objetivo: desarrollar una escala de etapas fenológicas para quínoa basada en el sistema de codificación de dos dígitos de la BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie). Materiales y Métodos: El experimento fue realizado bajo condiciones de invernadero en la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Los registros de fenología usados fueron realizados en dos genotipos contrastantes de Chile, Ancovinto (AN, Ecotipo de Salar) y Chiloé (CH, Ecotipo de Costa), ambos obtenidos a través de selección de planta única. Las etapas de crecimiento fueron descritas usando el sistema de codificación decimal de la BBCH y figuras descriptivas fueron incorporadas en cada una de las etapas más representativas. Resultados y conclusiones: Se generó una escala de medición basada en el sistema de codificación de la BBCH, donde las etapas incompatibles con el cultivo de quínoa se omitieron sin adulterar la numeración de 0 a 9 establecida por la BBCH. De las 10 etapas descritas por la BBCH en la escala adaptada para quínoa, cuatro correspondieron a etapas vegetativas, tres fueron omitidas y tres describieron etapas reproductivas.

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Twenty-eight quinoa accessions collected from the northern highlands (Andes) of Chile were assessed using eleven morphological descriptors. A complementary analysis of multivariate tools permitted a fuller understanding of interrelationships within this germplasm as it was assessed in a lowland desert environment. Through a frequency distribution, it was possible to make a general classification of accessions which were represented by plants having medium height and low grain yield. The accessions BS2 and BS1 registered the highest yields with mean values of 993.89 and 820.56 kg ha)1 respectively. On the other hand, accession B13 stood out as having good forage potential, with relatively high values for plant weight (PW, 349 g DM) and plant height (PH) (1.91 cm). The first four principal components accounted for 70 % of the total variation among the accessions. The first PC (PC1), accounting for 36 % of the total variation, included stem diameter, PW and PH with high positive, and harvest index and leaf tooth number with high negative coefficients. Principal component 2 (PC2) contributed for an additional 19 % of the total variation and reflected the patterns of variation in leaf morphology all of which had high positive values. Cluster analysis allowed classification of the accessions into six discrete groups. The yield assessment in the Atacama Desert was considered low, probably due to the negative effects of the high-temperature stress around flowering. The data set presented in this study is the first report of quinoa assessed under lowland desert conditions and would assist in the development of new plant breeding programmes for quinoa in areas having similar agroclimatic factors as the Atacama Desert.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is traditionally grown in the mountain regions of the Andes where frost is common. However, the physiological mechanisms responsible for the frost resistance observed in quinoa are largely unknown. For this reason, a study on cultivars of quinoa originating from the Andean highlands and from the inter-Andean valleys was performed. Frost tolerance was determined by measuring the average lethal temperature of 50% of the leaf tissues (LT50) by ion leakage, and supercooling activity was assessed by thermal analysis using thermocouples. Quinoa demonstrated supercooling capacity (a mechanism that prevents immediate damage by freezing temperatures) of 5 °C. Ice nucleation temperature was always lower than the LT50. This indicates that the main survival mechanism of quinoa to frost is avoidance of ice formation by moderate supercooling. The study revealed that quinoa has a high soluble sugar content, which may cause a lowering of the freezing point and therefore contributing to lower the LT50. It is suggested that the content of proline and soluble sugars, such as sucrose, may serve as indicators of frost tolerance in quinoa breeding material.
In Curso taller, fenología de cultivos andinos y uso de la información agrometeorológica
  • A Mujica
  • A Canahua
Mujica A., Canahua A. (1989) Fases fenológicas del cultivo de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). In Curso taller, fenología de cultivos andinos y uso de la información agrometeorológica. Salcedo, 7-10th August, pp. 23-27. Puno, Peru: INIAA, EEZA-ILLPA, PICA, PISA.
persimmon tree (Diospyros kaki)
Ann Appl Biol 171 (2017) 117-124 persimmon tree (Diospyros kaki). Annals of Applied Biology, 141, 73-76.