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Abstract

Salinity is a complication towards evolving a sustainable food production system and habitat management throughout globe. Such problem has its origin from marine, geological and anthropogenic activities. Nature and properties of salinity has been reviewed on global extent with a view to its management in this regard.
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Studies on Nature and Properties of Salinity across Globe With
a View to its Management - A Review
By Yohannes Yihdego & Subhabrata Panda
Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation
Abstract-
Salinity is a complication towards evolving a sustainable food production system and
habitat management throughout globe. Such problem has its origin from marine, geological and
anthropogenic activities. Nature and properties of salinity has been reviewed on global extent
with a view to its management in this regard.
Keywords: salinity, sustainable, crop production, water harvesting, coastal area.
GJHSS-B Classification :
StudiesonNatureandPropertiesofSalinityacrossGlobeWithaViewtoitsManagementAReview
Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:
Online ISSN: 2249-460x &Print ISSN: 0975-587X
Global Journal of HUMAN-SOCIAL SCIENCE: B
Geography, Geo-Sciences, Environmental Science & Disaster
Management
Volume 17 Issue 1 Version 1.0 Year 2017
Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal
Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA)
FOR Code: 059999
Studies on Nature and Properties of Salinity
across Globe With a View to its Management
- A Review
Yohannes Yihdego α & Subhabrata Panda σ
Abstract-
Salinity is a complication towards evolving a
sustainable food production system and habitat management
throughout globe. Such problem has its origin from marine,
geological and anthropogenic activities. Nature and properties
of salinity has been reviewed on global extent with a view to its
management in this regard.
Keywords:
salinity, sustainable, crop production, water
harvesting, coastal area.
I.
Introduction
alinity across globe can be broadly grouped as
ocean and terrestrial salinity. Terrestrial salinity
has its manifestation on land surface and in
groundwater 33, 34, 35, 36. Salinity of ocean is most vividly
revealed and which hardly needs a classification,
though sea temperature is the crucial factor for which
salinity changes from place to place on oceans. Salinity
is the outcome of various geological factors in
association with atmospheric influence. Atmospheric
components along
with geological circumstances are
the determinants of salinity on land territories including
groundwater and in oceans.
properties of salinity, especially soil and groundwater
salinity, for its management with a view to effective
utilization of landmass and water bodies
and oceans for
a better scope for creation of dwelling places and
security of food, fodder and fibres in future for human
beings on a global scale. Here, groundwater, mouths of
rivers and coastal areas are interfaces between land
territory and ocean.
Salinity is the indication of property of both
water and soil. It is the saltiness characterized by
amount of dissolved salts present and expressed as
grams of salt present in one kilogram of water or soil
with a unit of parts per thousand or ppt or 0
00.
Dissolution of salts results in higher density of salty
water than freshwater. This property is used to measure
salinity of water by hydrometer. Similarly salty water
refracts more than freshwater and this property is the
reason for measuring salinity of water by refract meter.
As the property of variation of microwave emissivity with
temperature and salinity of sea surface, salinity sensor is
mounted on NASA’s Aquarius Instrument satellite (June
10, 2011) to measure changes in global sea water
salinity. Readings with that instrument can identify
roughness created by the shallow pools of freshwater
due to intense rainfall on ocean. Carrying capacity of
electrical charges by ions in water is employed to
measure salinity of water by electrical conductivity
meter. This meter is also used to measure salinity of 1:2
soil-water saturation extract. Apparent electrical
conductivity of bulk soil in field is done through
electrode probes or electromagnetic induction or time
domain reflection. Aquarius Instrument satellite also
measures global soil moisture status. With the another
instrument, Argentine built Microwave Radiometer
aboard, in future, that Aquarius will gauge intense rain
over ocean simultaneously to salinity readings. After
thorough refining microwave emissivity measurements
that salinity sensor may succeed in measuring accurate
soil salinity over the globe. There is another scope for
refining measurement soil moisture content with the help
of physical procedures or of certain bacteria like
Escherichia coli
and joint venture of this microbiological
method with the microwave emissivity salinity sensor
may lead to precise estimation of soil salinity. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9, 10
S
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The present review work is targeted to find out
nature and properties of salinity on global scale with a
view to its management, especially managing salinity for
sustainable food production through better agriculture
and aquaculture, building construction and fresh water
harvesting.
II. Materials and Methods
Literature survey is done on studies on
geographical expanse of salinity in water and in soil
under the various geological and atmospheric
influences. Native geological features, territorial water
bodies and streams and even oceans and seas are
influencers of soil salinity. Thus, literature survey will
target to find out those native factors including
atmospheric components to study the nature and
Author
σ
:AICRP on Agroforestry, Jhargram, BCKV, Paschim Medinipur
-721 507. West Bengal, India; and Department of Soil and Water
Conservation, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa vidyalaya, Mohanpur,
Nadia 741 252, West Bengal, India.
Author
α
:Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC),
Sydney, New South Wales 2060, Australia.
e-mail: yohannesyihdego@gmail.com
III. Discussion
Nature of Salinity
Salinity is the accumulation of salts
above certain level in water or soil matrix and geological
formations. Sources of salinity can be broadly classified
into salinity of water and salinity of soil. Each has its
effect on the other. Thus, the two cannot be segregated
in nature. Besides climate has great binding on salinity
and, thus, there is soil-water –atmosphere continuum in
nature of salinity, studies of which will be effective in its
management, especially managing soil salinity. For the
purpose of clarity the whole discussion is divided into:
i) Ocean salinity
ii) Terrestrial salinity
a)
Ocean salinity
i.
Physical states of water
There are three physical states of water like
liquid, ice and vapour. Water, in its liquid state, dissolves
rocks and sediments and reacts with emissions from
volcanoes and hydrothermal vents. This results in
complex solution in ocean basins. Apart from that salts
with minerals are released in oceans as a result of
weathering of rocks. Other two states are salt
incompatible and, thus, formation of ice through
condensation and vapour formation through evaporation
are responsible for increase in salt concentration in
water.3, 10, 11, 12
ii.
Water Cycle
The globe is broadly composed off one third
parts of land and two third parts of water. Global 78%
precipitation and 86% evaporation occur over ocean.
This difference in fresh water input-output affects the
ocean dynamics, where ocean surface salinity is the key
factor. Tracking of that salinity helps to directly monitor
land runoff, sea ice freezing and melting; evaporation
and precipitation over ocean.
Formation of ice and evaporation are
responsible for increase in salt concentration in ocean.
Processes like input of fresh water from precipitation
(rain, snow), surface (river) and sub surface runoff (fresh
groundwater flow) and melting of ice are responsible for
continually decreasing salinity against different salinity
factors. Still it is of great concern that small variations in
salinity in ocean surface can eventually affect the
circulation in ocean and global water cycle.5, 7, 10, 11, 12
iii.
Ocean Circulation and Climate
Upper ocean circulation is driven by winds.
Deep below the surface the changes in sea water
density is the casual factor of ocean circulation, while
sea water density is dependent on salinity and
temperature.
On high latitude regions, such as on the North
Atlantic east of Greenland, cold surface ocean waters
becomes saltier due to evaporation and/or sea ice
formation. In those regions surface water turns dense
enough to sink to the ocean depths. That pumping of
surface water forces the deep ocean water to move
horizontally until it can find areas where it can move up
to the surface of ocean. That ocean current is called as
‘thermohaline circulation’, as that is caused by changes
in temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline). It is a very
large and slow current estimated to be on the order of
1000 years to complete a full circuit, also called the
‘Global Conveyer Belt’ as this works as an
interconnected system. Such studies can help to
emergency preparedness towards disaster
management with regard to cyclones, sustainable
fishing from seas and estuaries, etc.
Studies on salinity in coastal areas are helpful for
planning rain water harvesting for more crop
production.1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
iv.
Salinity Regions
- knowledge base for land salinity
management
a.
High Salinity
a) In centre of the ocean basins, away from the
mouths of rivers which input fresh waters.
b) In sub-tropical regions, due to high rates of
evaporation as a result clear skies,
c) little rain and prevailing winds. In landlocked seas in
arid regions.
b.
Low Salinity
a) In high latitudes due to lower evaporation rates and
melting of ice which dilutes sea water.
b) In tropical areas dominated by rain.
Such differences in salinity regions have a
significant impact on ocean circulation and the global
climate. 3, 4
v.
Sealand proximity and Geomorphology
knowledge base for land salinity management
The Bay of Bengal is less saline than the
Arabian Sea. Because Bay of Bengal is showered by
intense monsoon rains and gets fresh water discharges
from the Ganges and other large rivers, whereas the
Arabian Sea is laid up against dry Middle East.
Drift of sea water by winds is a major factor for
salinization of coastal soils. More sandy soils are less
affected by salinity. Large rivers, generally, form delta
near its mouth and carry sediments constituting clay
fractions in majority, which are susceptible to adhesion
of ions of salts,
i.e.
the cause of
salinity. For these
reasons the coastal soils by the Arabian Sea have less
saline area than the coastal soils of Bay of Bengal.
b)
Terrestrial Salinity
Terrestrial salinity may be due to one of the
following causes:
i. Marine origin,
ii. Natural terrestrial origin,
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Such examples can be cited for other places
which would be of much helpful for managing country
wise land salinity.
iii. Anthropogenic terrestrial origin.
iv. Mixed origin.
a)
Manifestations of Terrestrial Salinity
i. Soil salinity
a. Frozen Soil Salinity
b. Agricultural Soil Salinity
ii. Surface Water Salinity
iii. Groundwater Salinity
i.
Frozen Soil Salinity
Continental salinity is concerned mainly for soil
and water salinity affecting agriculture. Salinity is the
problem for building construction everywhere and
especially in arctic coasts for anomalous load bearing
property of frozen saline soils. Frozen saline soils are
also distributed in Central Siberia, where continental
salinization is caused by predominance of evaporation
over precipitation and that is characterized by
prevalence of sulphate and carbonate ions and such
soils are characterised by special engineering property
of low bearing capacity. Those soils possess property
between frozen and unfrozen soils because of their
freezing at lower temperature and contain more
unfrozen water than the same soil without salt. On such
soil test of bearing capacity should allow constant load
for construction of building.19
ii.
Agricultural Soil Salinity
Agricultural Soil Salinity is the manifestation of
both the soil and water (surface and ground) salinity, as
water is a useful input in irrigated agriculture. In case of
non-irrigated agriculture question of water salinity is not
concerned.
During the process of weathering of rocks and
parent material salts are released which makes the soil
saline
in situ
and through transportation by surface and
sub-surface runoff salinized azonal soils are formed.
For such origin of salinity rainfall, sheet, rill, gullies,
streams, rivers and groundwater flows are causing
factors. Due to work of wind, moving glaciers, lakes,
river, ocean various azonal soils (e.g. alluvial, colluvial)
are formed. Contamination of those forceful geomorphic
agents is also the cause of origin of saline soils on
various parts of the globe. For example, coastal saline
soils originated due to closeness of the coasts with the
sea. Such geographical situation also affects the salinity
of groundwater. Incidental flooding by sea water and
high tides in the sea and drifts from seawater by wind
are causes of salinity of coastal rivers and groundwater.
Impeded drainage condition due to impervious or
negligibly permeable soil layer at depth cause collection
of salts in soil layers and on drying of surface causes
salts to rise up and makes the soil saline which is
usually characterised by salt efflorescence which is
named in different parts of the globe differently like
reh
in India. Dissolution of calcium from clay complex turned
the saline soil sodic (alkali) soil.23, 24, 25, 26, 27
b)
Management of Terrestrial Salinity
Management of land salinity requires area
specific characterisation of salinity both in water and soil
as well. Because either the salinity of soil or water
cannot be separated like dilemma of differentiating flesh
and blood. Groundwater is also an important
component which needs attention in managing
continent salinity, and, thereby using the vast saline tract
for useful purpose for growing food mainly through
agriculture and aquaculture.
From the generic point of view, as sodic soils
are non-separable from saline areas, management of
salinity in soils should take care of alkalinity of soil while
planning for drainage of saline land. 26, 27, 28, 29
c)
Precautions for Drainage of Saline Soil for
Conservation of Agricultural Lands
Through judicious practice of art and science of
land drainage, drainage of saline soils can accomplish
considerable achievements in conserving agricultural
lands, in improving marginal agricultural lands, and in
mitigating effects of other lands and water development
projects.30 This can be explained with the following six
examples.
Example 1: Drainage of pilot area of Chacupe, in the
arid coastal area of Peru.
For the reclamation of that strongly salinized
sodic soil following were done:
i. Preparation of water and salt balance,
ii. Preparation of Leaching Curve,
iii. Estimation of required Leaching Time,
iv. Estimation of Lime Requirement of soil for
application of necessary Ca amendments.
Example 2: Drainage for sugarcane cultivation in coastal
low lands of Guyana.
Establishing a critical value of the seasonal
Number of days with a High Water Level in open
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Anthropogenic activities are causes of salinity in
every parts of the globe right from the snow covered
territory to shoreline of the hot continent. Those can be
classified as anthropogenic pollutants like road salt
(applied in winter in cold countries), fertilizers, domestic,
industrial and agricultural effluents spilled oil and gas
filled brines and brines from desalination plants and ice
making plants, etc. Apart from those over pumping of
groundwater in coastal areas may cause saline water
ingress in groundwater. Ponding of saline river water or
sea water for inland prawn culture, application of saline
water for irrigation cause soil salinity. Construction of
railways, roads and dams for canal irrigation are some
of cause of impeded drainage condition leading to soil
salinity. Construction of such canals was identified as
main cause of increase in areas of saline as well as
sodic (alkali) soils in India.26, 27, 28, 29
collector drains (NHW
The critical NHW value was found to be 7 days,
below which production was not affected and above
which production showed a declining trend.
, above 90cm below soil surface),
by relating it to production of sugarcane.
That example showed a good use of water level
(instead of discharge flow) as a criterion for land
drainage.
Establishment of that criterion helped to
determine corresponding discharge by standard
hydrological procedures.
Such criterion helped to classify estates with
excessive, good and deficient drainage systems and to
recommend required remedial measures.
Example 3: Subsurface drainage for water logging and
salinity in the Nile Delta, Egypt.
Thatstudies in Mashtul Pilot area showed that
i. Examining the modestly deep water table (about
0.8m as a seasonal average) sufficient to control
soil salinity at a safe level as well good crop
production,
ii. Imposing deeper water level for intensive drainage
would have the negative side effects towards higher
drainage losses as well as lower irrigation efficiency,
iii. Merit of such drainage criterion was found to be
also effective in areas under crops other than rice.
Example 4: Subsurface drainage for water logging and
salinity control in northwest India.
To reclaim seriously salinized soil in Sampla
Pilot area, Karnal, Haryana with upward seepage of salty
groundwater a subsurface drainage was commissioned
manually.
i. Collection of drained water in a sump from the
system, which is ultimately pumped out into the
open drain.
ii. Drainage of salty water is done only during the rainy
season (monsoon period, June-September), when
rivers and canals carry a large amount of fresh
water, so that mixing of that water will do no harm.
During that season almost all the river water
(Yamuna river, a tributary of the Ganges) reaches
the sea (Bay of Bengal).
iii. Draining huge amount of salty drainage water in dry
season, was cautioned to be more harmful for
surrounding soil. On the other hand irrigation water,
being scarce in that season, salty drained water is
used for irrigation, having no danger of undue
salinization of soil, as once in two or three years the
monsoon gives sufficient rainfall to leach the soils
and to evacuate the accumulated salinity.
iv. This is the example of a restrained operation of
drainage system, where water table is permitted to
be as shallow as possible and it is environment
friendly with savings for irrigation water and
operational costs as well.
Example 5: Subsurface drainage of acid sulphate and
muck soils in southwest India.
That drainage system was installed in farmers’
fields to improve acid sulphate and muck (peat) soils in
La poder area, 1 to 2m below mean sea level, in Kerala.
i. Traditionally only surface drainage is practised for
that purpose,
ii. Due to high rainfall (about 3000mm/year) with plenty
of fresh water in ring canals the area maintained
almost permanently under water to yield two rice
crops a year, with duck rearing in between.
iii. Temporary lowering of water table in the December
(dry month) helps
a) to increase crop yield from 1.5 t/ha to about 2.5t/ha,
b) to wash down acids and toxic elements to deeper
depth with the next flooding of the field,
c) to contribute to better aeration of the soil, with a
subsequent improvement of the quality of the
organic matter.
Similar phenomenon, by tradition, is possibly
occurring in restrictively drained areas of Pulau Petak,
south Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Example 6: Subsurface drainage in winter for wheat
production in England.
In a pilot area near Drayton, England following
were observed:
i. Winter wheat is sown in previous autumn.
ii. Summer production of winter wheat was correlated
with depth of water table in Winter.
iii. In summer there is no problem of water logging due
to higher evaporation.
iv. Production only decreased when the average depth
of the water table in winter was less than about
0.5m.
v. With the deeper water table production was not
affected.
vi. Conclusions
i. Studies on marine and estuarine and coastal salinities
have good bearing on sustaining food production.31, 32
ii. Management of salinity needs location specific
establishment of criteria for reclamation and/or
drainage to obtain higher efficiencies both for drainage
and irrigation with regard to crop cultivation.
iii. Aquaculture should also take of judicious application of
science of soil and water salinity management as per
need.
iv. Construction of building on frozen saline soil must
undertake tests of bearing with fixed load in contrast to
increasing load.
v. Environment friendly approach should aim at lowering
operational cost for managing salinity for increasing
production of food through agriculture and
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Such area specific studies on identifying
minimum average depth of water table is helpful for
designing suitable drainage system for better crop
production.
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aquaculture, which would ultimately take care of
minimizing salinity pollution from anthropogenic
activities.
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Volume XVII Issue I Version I
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Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Science, Technology and
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Melbourne, Australia, May 2010.
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Australia. A co-operative research project between
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the groundwater level rising? A case study using
HARTT to simulate groundwater level dynamics.
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and prediction of saline sea water transport in
groundwater using using 3-D numerical modelling.
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... Different factors have affected soils that caused salinity. Such factors are the geographical situation of lands, incidental flooding of seawaters, high tides, and drifts by wind, impeded drainage conditions due to negligibly permeable soil layer, and anthropogenic activities through the release of pollutants that causes salinity in every parts of the globe (Yihdego and Panda, 2017). ...
Research
Full-text available
Salinity is a significant problem in the agricultural industry that profoundly affects soil and crop productivity. With the rising demand for food safety, reclamation of salt-affected soils is one way to improve crop productivity and continuously supply the hungry world. Salinity has already degraded and affected a vast amount of cultivated and irrigated land, and climate change hastened and worsened the effects. The use of soil amendments improves the soil properties to be suitable for crop production. This study aims to determine the potential decrease in salinity through biochar application and to determine also its effects on the growth performance of lettuce under different levels of saline water.
... The changing climate has multiplied the adverse effects of salinity which seriously deteriorate crops productivity and nutritional quality across the world [1,2]. Salinity causes abrupt decline in the assimilation of essential nutrients which leads to specific ions toxicity and significant reduction in crops growth and yield [3,4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring food security under climate change scenario requisites amending degraded soils and sustainably boost staple crops yield in a biologically viable way through effective plant nutrition management strategies. Two multi-year lysimeter experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of soil organic substances and foliar application of some nano-nutrients on soil properties and wheat yield under saline conditions. The experiment was executed in split plot with three replications. Treatments included organic amendments (molasses, compost tea, K-humate, molasses+ compost tea, mo-lasses+K-humate, compost tea+ K-humate and mo-lasses+K-humate+Compost tea and control) in main plots, while sub plots had nano-micronutrients (nano-selenium, nano-manganese and nano-silica) and a control treatment. The results showed that physio-chemical properties (bulk density, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity etc.) of the soil were significantly influenced by all organic amendments; however, co-application of molas-ses+K-humate+compost tea remained unmatched. The same treatment combination also remained effective in boosting nitrogen uptake and recovery along with wheat yield during both seasons. Among foliage applied nano micronutrients, silicon remained superior by recording the highest yield attributes and grain yield of wheat. Therefore, it is inferred that co-application of organic amendments and foliage applied nano-fertilization management could be developed as an effective approach to restore and conserve the soil and increase wheat productivity under saline environment of arid and semi-arid regions.
... Notwithstanding, the saline nature of the water in some parts of the city usually discourage people from drilling boreholes. Salinity is the concentration of dissolved salts in water [1]. Based on the mode of formation, it could be primary, secondary and tertiary. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have shown that there are high salinity values in the groundwater quality in certain areas within Port Harcourt city. However, a detailed investigation on the cause is not yet documented hence, this research investigated the factors governing the hydro-geochemistry of the said area. This was achieved by analysing concentrations of 7 ions (both cations and anions) and total dissolved solids (TDS) in water samples obtained from 26 drilled boreholes and 4 hand dug wells, evenly distributed within the study area. The examined ions are Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl–, HCO3 – and SO4 2–. Laboratory results were plotted on Piper trilinear and Gibbs diagrams through Aquachem 5.1 software package and it was revealed that 63.33% of the total samples fell in Na-Cl hydrochemical facies while the remaining 36.67% occurred in Ca-Cl facies. It was also revealed that the controlling factors for formation of the analysed ions were precipitation and rock weathering on 76.67% and 23.33% respectively. Hence, it was concluded that Na-Cl facies is the dominance hydrochemical facies in the study area while the main factor governing the formation of ions is precipitation. However, it was recommended that the rate of pumping out water from wells in certain parts of the study area should be reduced in other to avoid seawater intrusion.
... Drought impacts initially affect agriculture through decreases in soil moisture and through high rates of evapotranspiration, as indicated by Cook et al. (2016). Due to extended periods of dryness, soil moisture can be depleted rapidly; surface and subsurface waters are usually the last to be affected from extended dry periods (Sönmez et al. 2005;Yihdego and Panda 2017). However, if the water table in aquifers is shallow and if evapotraspiration rates are high, the aquifers' groundwater storage will also be affected, leading to a lowering of the water table. ...
Article
Full-text available
FOR CITATION: Yihdego, Y., Salem, H.S., and Muhammed, H.H. 2019. Agricultural pest management policies during drought: Case studies in Australia and the State of Palestine. February 2019, Natural Hazards Review, 20(1-February): 1–10. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston (ASCE), Reston, VA, USA). DOI: 05018010. https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000312 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342110444_Agricultural_Pest_Management_Policies_during_Drought_Case_Studies_in_Australia_and_the_State_of_Palestine_Full_Paper and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327905147_Agricultural_Pest_Management_Policies_during_Drought_Case_Studies_in_Australia_and_the_State_of_Palestine_In_Natural_Hazards_Review_American_Society_of_Civil_Engineers_ASCE_VA_USA ABSTRACT: Due to increases in water demand—caused by escalating increases in population and water deficiency and scarcity—and due to the increase in climate change and global warming impacts, much focus has been directed to regional and national drought policies related, particularly, to water resources and agriculture. This paper aims to review the consequences and impacts of droughts on pest outbreaks. The approaches presented herein demonstrate various actions to be taken in order to limit drought outcomes and the impacts of pests. In Australia alone, the analyses showed that drought caused approximately a $7.4 billion drop in the agricultural sector. Accordingly, drought can be considered as one of the major causes of agricultural pests. To manage them, biological controls and self-reliance for drought are the best and most inexpensive approaches to be taken within the framework of an integrated pest management scheme. Australia and the State of Palestine were selected as case studies for investigation in this study, because both regions have common problems related to water resources and water scarcity. In addition, although both regions suffer droughts, they have developed different adaptation measures, which are affected by different political and socioeconomic influences, with the aim of supporting farmers, who are unable to maintain feed to their livestock and take care of their agricultural crops and yields (plant production). Breakthrough offers new hopes for global food security, as parts of wheat that relate to coeliac disease and other allergies can now be tracked. Some solutions are suggested in this study, and the national drought policies in both regions are investigated and analyzed. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000312. © 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers. KEYWORDS: Drought;Water deficiency and scarcity; Agriculture; Pest breakout; Climate change; Global warming; National drought policy; Australia; The State of Palestine.
... The second challenge is the optimal management of sustainability, because sustainable development involves consideration of a myriad of effects over a wide range of systems through space and time. The third major challenge is the inherent uncertainty associated with sustainability analysis (Seghezzo 2009;Yihdego and Drury 2016;Yihdego and Paffard 2016;Yihdego et al. 2016a;Yihdego et al. 2016b;Shirazi and Keivani 2017;Yihdego 2017;Yihdego and Khalil 2017;Yihdego and Panda 2017). Decision makers should deal with various unquantifiable, imprecise, and vague sources of information during sustainability analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
The third paper, authored by Yohannes Yihdego et al., titled: "Green Energy: Wind Farm Perspectives. The Continent of Africa as a Case Study," brings into focus that true sustainability can be achieved only through technologies that are socially responsible and environmentally appealing. URL: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/josee.2017.5.issue-4/jsee.2017.629521/jsee.2017.629521.xml?format=INT The fifth paper, authored by Yohannes Yihdego et al., titled: "The Challenges of Sustainability: Perspective of Ecology," deals with the ecological footprints as an indicator. The methodology for the ecology footprint is extended based on many factors with respect to sustainability. The paper will contribute to a broadening of the understanding of the spatial and temporal aspects of urban land-use policies, processes, and practices and their relationship to sustainable development. URL: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/josee.2017.5.issue-4/jsee.2017.629519/jsee.2017.629519.xml In summary, this special issue of Journal of Sustainable Energy Engineering has brought into focus major economic issues involving energy management. Of course, not all questions are answered and, in fact, these papers have raised key questions that continue to elude researchers. However, raising those questions are exactly what is needed in order to add true knowledge to the annals of Economics of Energy. Future research articles will certainly benefit from this issue and hopefully will answer some of the key questions raised.
... The second challenge is the optimal management of sustainability, because sustainable development involves consideration of a myriad of effects over a wide range of systems through space and time. The third major challenge is the inherent uncertainty associated with sustainability analysis (Seghezzo 2009;Yihdego and Drury 2016;Yihdego and Paffard 2016;Yihdego et al. 2016a;Yihdego et al. 2016b;Shirazi and Keivani 2017;Yihdego 2017;Yihdego and Khalil 2017;Yihdego and Panda 2017). Decision makers should deal with various unquantifiable, imprecise, and vague sources of information during sustainability analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
The third paper, authored by Hilmi S. Salem et al., titled: "Green Energy: Wind Farm Perspectives. The Continent of Africa as a Case Study," brings into focus that true sustainability can be achieved only through technologies that are socially responsible and environmentally appealing. The fifth paper, authored by Hilmi S. Salem et al., titled: "The Challenges of Sustainability: Perspective of Ecology," deals with the ecological footprints as an indicator. The methodology for the ecology footprint is extended based on many factors with respect to sustainability. The paper will contribute to a broadening of the understanding of the spatial and temporal aspects of urban land-use policies, processes, and practices and their relationship to sustainable development. In summary, this special issue of JSEE has brought into focus major economic issues involving energy management. Of course, not all questions are answered and, in fact, these papers have raised key questions that continue to elude researchers. However, raising those questions are exactly what is needed in order to add true knowledge to the annals of Economics of Energy. Future research articles will certainly benefit from this issue and hopefully will answer some of the key questions raised.
... Salinity in groundwater is a major quality hazard that limits its usage and affects the productivity of agricultural areas that depend on irrigation from groundwater wells [6]. The nature and properties of salinity were reviewed with a view to its management in Reference [7]. In coastal aquifers, such as the NDA, the salinity in groundwater is influenced by human interventions through excessive groundwater extraction, while saltwater intrusion (SWI) induced by sea-level rise (SLR) is also anticipated [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
As Egypt's population increases, the demand for fresh groundwater extraction will intensify. Consequently, the groundwater quality will deteriorate, including an increase in salinization. On the other hand, salinization caused by saltwater intrusion in the coastal Nile Delta Aquifer (NDA) is also threatening the groundwater resources. The aim of this article is to assess the situation in 2010 (since this is when most data is sufficiently available) regarding the available fresh groundwater resources and to evaluate future salinization in the NDA using a 3D variable-density groundwater flow model coupled with salt transport that was developed with SEAWAT. This is achieved by examining six future scenarios that combine two driving forces: increased extraction and sea level rise (SLR). Given the prognosis of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), the scenarios are used to assess the impact of groundwater extraction versus SLR on the seawater intrusion in the Delta and evaluate their contributions to increased groundwater salinization. The results show that groundwater extraction has a greater impact on salinization of the NDA than SLR, while the two factors combined cause the largest reduction of available fresh groundwater resources. The significant findings of this research are the determination of the groundwater volumes of fresh water, brackish, light brackish and saline water in the NDA as a whole and in each governorate and the identification of the governorates that are most vulnerable to salinization. It is highly recommended that the results of this analysis are considered in future mitigation and/or adaptation plans.
... Drought impacts initially affect agriculture through decreases in soil moisture and through high rates of evapotranspiration, as indicated by Cook et al. (2016). Due to extended periods of dryness, soil moisture can be depleted rapidly; surface and subsurface waters are usually the last to be affected from extended dry periods (Sönmez et al. 2005;Yihdego and Panda 2017). However, if the water table in aquifers is shallow and if evapotraspiration rates are high, the aquifers' groundwater storage will also be affected, leading to a lowering of the water table. ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Due to increases in water demand—caused by escalating increases in population and water deficiency and scarcity—and due to the increase in climate change and global warming impacts, much focus has been directed to regional and national drought policies related, particularly, to water resources and agriculture. This paper aims to review the consequences and impacts of droughts on pest outbreaks. The approaches presented herein demonstrate various actions to be taken in order to limit drought outcomes and the impacts of pests. In Australia alone, the analyses showed that drought caused approximately a $7.4 billion drop in the agricultural sector. Accordingly, drought can be considered as one of the major causes of agricultural pests. To manage them, biological controls and self-reliance for drought are the best and most inexpensive approaches to be taken within the framework of an integrated pest management scheme. Australia and the State of Palestine were selected as case studies for investigation in this study, because both regions have common problems related to water resources and water scarcity. In addition, although both regions suffer droughts, they have developed different adaptation measures, which are affected by different political and socioeconomic influences, with the aim of supporting farmers, who are unable to maintain feed to their livestock and take care of their agricultural crops and yields (plant production). Breakthrough offers new hopes for global food security, as parts of wheat that relate to coeliac disease and other allergies can now be tracked. Some solutions are suggested in this study, and the national drought policies in both regions are investigated and analyzed. FOR CITATION: Yihdego, Y., Salem, H.S., and Muhammed, H.H., 2019. Agricultural Pest Management Policies during Drought: Case Studies in Australia and the State of Palestine. Natural Hazards Review, Vol. 20, Issue 1, PP: 1-10, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston (ASCE), Reston, VA, USA. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000312. https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000312 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327905409_Agricultural_Pest_Management_Policies_during_Drought_Case_Studies_in_Australia_and_the_State_of_Palestine?_sg=JvLA-IcWV-U5Ev-6CzJKb6Kflw-TFMZf33KyAzxDK8Qlw-obNh6VppUxJsH9MovucpLqBpcfjwxco941YtZHfc-ZFtrzKQBH64ESbMS7.3udPiRxENzw-DVMphTliOLQwsXRK22JTeo8DHvpUjBatA8UV46h8DShNq_EBPPrwamPl4B5fZK4p_FU2-RzVYQ
... Salinity of soils and irrigation water are the major problems affecting nearly 20% of the world's cultivated area and nearly half of the world's irrigated lands ( Bünemann et al., 2018;Larsen et al., 2017;Munns and Gilliham. 2015;Yihdego, 2017). Salinity affects agricultural production, water and nutrient uptake and metabolic activities in plant leading to drastic losses both in term of reduced economic yield and deteriorated quality of agricultural products ( Egamberdieva et al., 2017;Geilfus, 2018;Rogers et al. 1995;Rouphael et al., 2018;Yousfi et al., 2007). ...
Article
Lysimeter experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of sea water irrigation on plant growth and grain yield traits of 15 Egyptian barley cultivars. Irrigation treatments with saline water showed significant effects of irrigation on plant growth and yield and its components. Salt stress indices were calculated based on grain yield; data showed that MP, GMP and STI were more effective in identifying high yielding cultivars under study. The highest mean values for all studied traits under the treatments had detected in Giza 2000, Giza 131, Giza 136 and Giza 123 which they had a positive and highest values of first principle component analysis. Ten sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers amplified 98 fragments and me5+em5 gave the highest polymorphism (100 %). The percentage of polymorphic loci of fifteen cultivars ranged from 71.43% to 91.64%. Shannon's information index ranged from 4.21 to 4.50. The dendrogram of SRAP markers had clustered all cultivars in to four groups each group include the most closed cultivars together according their response to salinity stress. Results showed that SRAP marker could be efficiently used to assess genetic variation among Egyptian barley and their ability for tolerance to salinity stress. Cite this article as: Samah, M.A., M.A. Aiad and I.A. Khatab. 2017. Genetic diversity and phenotypic association with salinity tolerance in Egyptian barley cultivars using SRAP markers. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 13: 51-66.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of waterbodies (sea, river or canal) on the electrical conductivity of the piezo-water at high and low tide is analysed. It is found that quality of twelve piezo-water samples upto a depth of 160 330 m is not dependent on the quality of surface waterbodies like rivers or canals.
Article
Full-text available
Mounding often occurs beneath engineering structures designed to infiltrate reuse water. AQTESOLV software and a spreadsheet solution for Hantush, together with soil moisture water balance (SWAGMAN farm model), were used for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding underground to assess the groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from a hypothetical irrigation site. Horizontal and vertical permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, and basin geometry are among the aquifer and recharge properties inputs. For 2.2 ha sites, the maximum heights of the simulated groundwater mound ranges up to 0.29 m. The maximum areal extent of groundwater mounding measured from the edge of the infiltration basins of 0.24 m ranges from 0 to 75 m. Additionally, the simulated height and extent of the groundwater mounding associated with a hypothetical irrigation infiltration basin for 2.2 ha development may be applicable to sites of different sizes, using the recharge rate estimated from the SWAGMAN farm model. For example, for a 2.2 ha site with a 0.0002 m/day recharge rate, the irrigation infiltration basin design capacity (and associated groundwater mound) would be the same as for a 1.1 ha site with a 0.0004 m/day recharge rate if the physical characteristics of the aquifer are unchanged. The study claimed that the present modelling approach overcomes the complications of solving the Hantush equation for transient flow. The approach utilised in this study can be applied for other purposes such as measuring the feasibility of infiltrating water, attenuation zone, risk mitigation essential for decision-makers and planning regulators in terms of environmental effects and water use efficiency.
Article
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Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological / land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores, excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2175/106143017X14839994523785
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In western Victoria, the water table has been declining for the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to either the low rainfall over this time and/or a substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations. Part of this study aimed to increase the understanding of salinity on the basalt plains by modelling the seasonal and decadal fluctuations in water table across the basalt plains. Two manifestations of groundwater were considered: water table and lake level. To determine the relative impact of climate and land use on the water table, hydrographs from 82 observation bores in three aquifers were subjected to time series modelling using two programs, PIRFICT and HARTT. Most of the groundwater level fluctuations are explained by climatic variables (r2 = 90%, on average), but there is a small downward non-climatic trend in the groundwater levels (averaging -0.04 m/yr). There is no evidence of any rise in groundwater level due to clearing of native forests during European settlement in the mid to late nineteenth century, when increased groundwater recharge is believed to have resulted from replacement of deep-rooted trees by shallow-rooted pasture and crops. This is as expected, given that the PIRFICT modelling calculated that impacts of recharge on groundwater level stay in the system only 4.85 years on average. The average downward non-climate trend is most likely due to the widespread replacement of dry land pasture by wheat and canola, as these crops use more water than pasture. However, the much more substantial non-climatic trend (-0.30 m/yr) for bores in the Condah irrigation area is largely related to groundwater extraction. In the study area, a large number of lakes are scattered across the volcanic plains, many of which have problems with increasing salinity. To identify the hydrologic components behind this problem, four lakes have been examined here through the construction of detailed water and salt budgets. The models predict the recession in lake level accurately, and modelled and measured lake levels compare favourably (r2 ranges from 0.78 to 0.94). The modelling results show that the lake level fluctuations are primarily driven by the surface water inflows and direct rainfall during wetter months and evaporation during drier periods, while groundwater inflow/outflow accounts for only < 2% on average, except for Lakes Burrumbeet and Purrumbete. The course of lake level is predominantly explained by climate fluctuations and show little evidence of land use change. These lakes provide no opportunity to discriminate human impacts from climate variables. Stream flow modelling was carried out on 37 stream gauges to assess whether or not the impact of land use change could be detected by a change in the magnitude of the resulting runoff. There were substantial decreases in stream flow in the 1970s-1980s, probably related to increasing livestock densities in the region. Smaller decreases in stream flow in the 1990s match spatially and temporally the negative non-climatic trend in groundwater level identified in bore hydrograph modelling, and are probably due to the widespread replacement of grazing land by wheat and canola. This demonstrates that although changes in land use can have significant impacts on groundwater and surface water resources, the impacts of climate variability on lake systems often overprint any effects of land use change. This study provides a valuable series of models that will assist the Catchment Management Authorities with management of the water resources of the region. Overall, the results of the modelling allow the impacts of climate variables and land management change on groundwater/lake resources and dry land salinity to be more reliably predicted and therefore better managed. https://primo-direct-apac.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_gale_ofa346162306&context=PC&vid=LATROBE&search_scope=All&tab=default_tab&lang=en_US https://primo-direct-apac.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=Almalu21177879990002146&context=L&vid=LATROBE&lang=en_US&search_scope=All&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,Yohannes%20Yihdego&sortby=rank
Technical Report
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http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/~/media/Publications/Yihdego%202008%20Lake%20Purrumbete%20report%20updated%202010.pdf
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itle-VUEESC La Trobe 2007 : 25th September 2007, La Trobe University / [editors, Sarah Hegarty, Dale McKenzie, Yohannes Yihdego]. Creator-Victorian -Universities Earth and Environmental Sciences Conference (21th : 2007 : Wodonga, Victoria) Other Creators Hegarty, Sarah. McKenzie, Dale. Yihdego, Yohannes. La Trobe University Geological Society of Australia Published Sydney : Geological Society of Australia, 2007. Physical Description 43 p. ; 30 cm. Series Abstracts (Geological Society of Australia), 0729-011X ; no. 88 Abstracts (Geological Society of Australia) ; no. 88 Language English Identifiers Libraries Australia ID 42377513 Contributed by Libraries Australia https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/35072836
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This chapter aims to identify some of the drought and groundwater quality issues from the perspective of coastal area. Coastal area is among the prime focus of delicate hydrological cycle susceptible during extreme climatic condition (including drought). The impacts of drought on water availability and groundwater quality in the coastal area will affect many sectors, including energy production, infrastructure, human health, agriculture, and ecosystems. The quality of coastal beaches and other water bodies that are used for swimming, fishing, and other recreational activities can be affected by changes in precipitation, increases in temperature, and sea level rise. Changes in the availability and quality of groundwater are also major concerns for countries where water resources are already stressed along the coastal area. Countries will confront the challenge of a changing groundwater quality. They will likely adopt a variety of adaptation practices, designed to better conserve our groundwater supplies and develop alternative strategies for coastal area groundwater management. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315226781 https://www.crcpress.com/Handbook-of-Drought-and-Water-Scarcity-Environmental-Impacts-and-Analysis/Eslamian-Eslamian/p/book/9781498731041
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