ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Accident don’t just happen, they are caused. In other words, every accident in relation transport is not just a mere occurrence but has been instituted as a result of one factor or the other. The increasing magnitude of fatal road traffic accident globally has been attributed to population explosion and increased level of motorization. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescent and people in the prime age. There has been an upsurge in the proportion and absolute number of traffic fatalities witnessed in a number of developing countries while the industrial nations are witnessing downward trend in the occurrence of accident by more than 20% [13]. This paper examines road traffic accident problems in Nigeria. The causes of accidents and their general preventive measures are discussed. There is need to view road traffic accident as a very serious issue requiring urgent attention aimed at preventing untimely deaths, reducing the health, social and economic impacts it portends to the average Nigerian.
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 40
TRANSPORT & LOGISTICS:
the International Journal
ISSN 2406-1069
Article history:
Received 04 February 2017
Accepted 30 March 2017
Available online 07 April 2017
Review paper
Article citation info: Afolabi, J. A. - Gbadamosi Kolawole, T., Road traffic crashes in Nigeria: Causes and
consequences. Transport & Logistics: the International Journal, 2017; Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017, ISSN
2406-1069
ROAD TRAFFIC CRASHES IN NIGERIA: CAUSES AND
CONSEQUENCES
Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi 1, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T. 2
1 Department of Management Technology, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Nigeria.,
+2348033687419, afolabiseyo@yahoo.com
2 Department of Transport Management Technology, Federal University of Technology,
Akure, Nigeria., +2348055438849, kt_bad@yahoo.com
INTRODUCTION
Transport is an important element in economic development and it affords the social
and political interaction that most people take for granted [8]. The provision of transport
infrastructure has grown extensively across the globe through a range of networks of modes
which have undergone technological improvements cutting across the motive power, the
tracks as well as the means which serve as compartment for passengers and goods. It is also a
key player in the transfer and distribution of goods from the input points through the
manufacturing line to the customers [2]. Perhaps, this led to the assertion by [12], that there is
no escape from transport since it is a key stone of civilization.
Abstract:
Accident don’t just happen, they are caused. In other words, every accident in relation
transport is not just a mere occurrence but has been instituted as a result of one factor or
the other. The increasing magnitude of fatal road traffic accident globally has been
attributed to population explosion and increased level of motorization. Motor vehicle
crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescent and people in the prime age. There has
been an upsurge in the proportion and absolute number of traffic fatalities witnessed in a
number of developing countries while the industrial nations are witnessing downward trend
in the occurrence of accident by more than 20% [13]. This paper examines road traffic
accident problems in Nigeria. The causes of accidents and their general preventive
measures are discussed. There is need to view road traffic accident as a very serious issue
requiring urgent attention aimed at preventing untimely deaths, reducing the health, social
and economic impacts it portends to the average Nigerian.
Key words:
Transport, Safety, Accident, Causes, Vehicle, Injury.
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 41
In Nigeria, road transport is the dominant mode of movement for both freight and
passenger traffic. The impact of the railway has been dwindling and it eventually collapses
about a decade ago. Air transport is unavailable to the urban poor while the potentials of water
for inland transportation have not been fully exploited. The mono transport mode nature of
urban mobility in the country has been responsible for the collapse of public transport and the
concomitant suffering of commuter in urban centres [7].
The consequential effect of the negative externalities of transport is accident with its
attendant injuries and fatalities capable of neutralizing its social and economic benefits if not
well managed. Traffic fatalities from automobile crashes have been known to be high in
developing countries in which Nigeria constitute an integral part despite the much lower
vehicle ownership in relation to population strength [14].
The consequential effect of the negative externalities of transport is accident with its
attendant injuries and fatalities capable of neutralizing its social and economic benefits if not
well managed. Traffic fatalities from automobile crashes have been known to be high in
developing countries in which Nigeria constitute an integral part despite the much lower
vehicle ownership in relation to population strength [11].
In Nigeria today, hardly a day goes by without the occurrence of a road traffic accident
leading to generally increasing incidence of morbidity and mortality rates as well as financial
cost to both society and the individual involved.
The aim of this research is to investigate into the possible causes of road traffic
accidents in Nigeria with the set objective of recommending general preventive measures.
1. AN OVERVIEW OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT OCCURRENCE IN
NIGERIA
Transport is a critical sector of the Nigerian economy, whose catalytic effect,
particularly on socio-economic development, cannot be, overemphasized. Over 80% of
transportation in Nigeria is done by road [16].
Transportation safety implies the prevention of accidents and the minimization of
accident losses. As Nigeria becomes more mobile, the possibility of accidents resulting in the
death of people and the destruction of property on our highway becomes more of a critical
factor. The consequences of accidents on our roads are immense. Accidents cause significant
losses to present and future productive manpower of our country, as well as, in many cases,
profound social problems, deaths or serious injury. Sometimes this results in loss of
breadwinners, pushing the affected family into poverty, and jeopardizing educational
upbringing of children. Accidents impose heavy costs on the health services [1].
The increasing magnitude of fatal road traffic accident globally has been attributed to
population explosion and increased level of motorization. Motor vehicle crashes are the
leading cause of death in adolescent and people in the prime age [5]. There has been an
upsurge in the proportion and absolute number of traffic fatalities witnessed in a number of
developing countries while the industrial nations are witnessing downward trend in the
occurrence of accident by more than 20% [9].
Road traffic accident situation in Nigeria has been alarming and particularly disturbing
ever since the first auto crash was recorded. Nigeria’s effort at tackling the challenges of
safety on our roads commenced in 1913 with the promulgation of the first transport law- the
Highway (Motor Traffic) Ordinance whose main objective was “reducing the incidents of
road traffic accidents to the barest minimum” in the southern protectorate.” A nation-wide
ordinance followed in 1916 with the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorate
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 42
in 1914. Subsequently in 1940 and 1945, the country-wide law was reviewed and adapted
along the United Kingdom Road Traffic Act of 1930. Other legislations thereafter included
the Road Traffic Act, the Federal Highway Act, the Law of Carriage, and the Federal Road
Safety Commission Decree of 1988, which was later amended in 2007. But despite the several
revisions of the transport laws and notwithstanding the multiplicity of agencies, with states
having their traffic management agencies, the road traffic crashes kept increasing all over the
country.
Nigeria Traffic accidents in Nigeria vary by states. Nigeria has been consistently been
ranked as having the highest incidents of road traffic accidents in the world for obvious
reasons in addition to known causes of accidents across the globe which include very bad road
arising from poor maintenance culture and poor road management.
Tab. 1: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) Statistics in Nigeria 1990- 2012
Years
Total
Casuality
Total
Fatal
Serious
Minor
Killed
Injured
1990
6140
8796
6998
21934
8154
22786
30940
1991
6719
8982
6845
22546
9525
24508
34033
1992
6986
9324
6554
22864
9620
25759
35379
1993
6735
8443
6281
21459
9454
24146
33600
1994
5407
7522
5275
18204
7440
17938
25378
1995
4701
7276
5053
17030
6647
14561
21208
1996
4790
6964
6488
18242
6364
15290
21654
1997
4800
7701
4987
17488
6500
10786
17286
1998
4757
7081
4300
16138
6538
17341
23879
1999
4621
6888
4356
15865
6795
17728
24523
2000
5287
6820
4499
16606
8473
20677
29150
2001
6966
8185
5379
20530
9946
23249
33195
2002
4029
7190
3325
14544
7407
22112
29519
2003
3910
7882
2572
14364
6452
18116
24568
2004
3275
6949
4051
14275
5351
16897
22249
2005
2299
4143
2620
9062
4519
15779
20298
2006
2600
5550
964
9114
4944
17390
22334
2007
2162
4812
1503
8477
4673
17794
22467
2008
3024
5671
2646
11341
6661
27980
34641
2009
2460
6024
2370
10854
5693
27270
32963
2010
1178
2819
1333
5330
4065
18095
22160
2011
1764
2485
516
4765
4372
17464
21836
2012
1953
3106
1210
6269
4260
20757
25017
TOTAL
96563
150613
90125
337301
153853
454423
608277
Source [11]
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 43
1.1 Phases Of Accident
Accident as we all know are caused and as much they don’t just happen, the critical
evaluation of accident phenomenon clearly indicate three specific phases. The three phases is
the total consumption of an accident at any point when it is record. The phases as a matter of
fact are interwoven and occur sequently after each other. These phases are Pre-Accident
phase, the Accident phase, and the Post-Accident phase of highway safety.
i. Pre-Accident Phase:-The pre-crash phase groups together all preventive or
precautionary measures stages aimed at controlling or abating road accidents.
Under this phase, falls all the contributory factors like the environment, the
vehicle, the road users/persons, and the preventive or precautionary measures
taken to normally avert accident. It is an indication of several conditions that are
capable of causing accident. In other words, it implies all situations and
circumstances preceding the occurrence of an accident. We can as well evaluate
certain conditions that are capable of causing an accident before they are recorded.
In short, this phase is concerned with Accident avoidance.
ii. The Accident Phase:-Once the pre-crash phase cannot be averted, the crash phase
is the actual occurrence of the accident, when the mechanical device is involved in
actual collision resulting in an accident. The type of outcome from the accident to
the victim also belongs to this phase. Similarly, is the spot at which the accident
occurred and the time of the day, which are all major indices of the crash phase.
Research had demonstrated that up to 80% reduction in deaths of drivers and
passengers can be achieved through the use of safety belts alone. The focus of this
second phase, therefore, is on injury prevention.
The following actions should be taken during road traffic accident:
Assess the Situation:-
Locate the victim
Examine the victims quickly
Prevent further risk of fire, explosion, road traffic
Keep the vehicle stationary
Switch off engine, fuel and battery connection
Display warning signals
Send for help.
Care of the Victim:-
Rescue the trapped casualties
Look for breathing, heart function and consciousness
Care for unconscious cases first
Take care of bleeding and fractures
Use car first aid kit if available
Transport the casualty to nearest hospital.
Care of the Vehicle:-
Keep the vehicles immobilized and in safe custody
Protect the property from damage
Take help of local people
Inform police.
iii. Post-Accident Phase:- The post-crash phase can be described as the process of
evaluating or assessing the consequences of road accidents. Such evaluation is
based on socio-economic, environmental and political effects, using quantifiable
and qualitative analytical tools. In these phase, we are concerned with saving those
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 44
who need not die, with reducing hospitalization, permanent disability and
unnecessary deaths. Indeed, the focus is on accessibility to adequate and prompt
emergency communications, transportation and medical care, that determine the
livelihood of the continuing survival of the survivors of the crashes. Therefore, the
concern of this phase is on severity reduction, which would include the availability
and competence of ambulance drivers and attendants in handling victims at
accident scenes and the receptivity of hospital staff to accident victims who are not
accompanied by police officers.
1.2 Causes Of Road Traffic Accident
Accident is defined as anything which happens by chance, anything occurring
unexpectedly. Road traffic accident is therefore an unexpected phenomenon that occurs as a
result of the operation of vehicles [15]. Accidents can be fatal, resulting in the deaths of the
road user or minor. Accident don’t just happen, they are caused. In other words, every
accident in relation transport is not just a mere occurrence but has been instituted as a result of
one factor or the other. A good awareness and knowledge of causes of road traffic accidents
will help us to avoid them. Eventually this will bring about the desired goal of safety
consciousness of road users in our society.
The causes of road traffic accidents therefore fall under three major categories viz
Human factors, Mechanical factors and the Environmental factors.
Of these three categories, the human factors are said to be responsible for over 80
percent of all traffic crashes because the drivers’ operational ability is very critical to the
causes and prevention of traffic accidents.
i. The Human Factor: The human factors constitute about 80% of the cause of road
traffic accidents recorded in the country. The major components of human factor are
drivers, pedestrian, law enforcement agent and the engineer.
Most drivers on Nigeria road are very rude, discourteous and have scant regard for
human life. This has led to daily avoidable carnage on Nigeria roads with many losses of
lives. Almost to the point of indisputability is the fact that, of virtually all the significant
factors contributing to the alarming proportion of accidents on Nigeria roads, the human
factor tops the list. Indicators to verify the claim are evident:
(a) Prevalent disregard of road traffic signs by road users;
(b) Lack of proper training of drivers;
(c) Irresponsible driving habit particularly among teenage drivers;
(d) Inexperience and incompetent drivers;
(e) Over speeding, dangerous driving and total disrespect of traffic regulations especially
concerning speed limits;
(f) Drink driving and/ or driving under the influence of drugs including herbal
concoctions laced with spirit;
(g) Lack of respect / consideration for other road users;
(h) Impatience and negligence
(i) Overloading of vehicles;
(j) Fatigue;
(k) Poor vision.
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 45
Tab. 2 Haddon Matrix Model
FACTORS
PHASE
HUMAN
VEHICLE &
EQUIPMENT
ENVIRONMENT
Pre-crash
Crash
Prevention
Information
Attitude
Impairment
Police
Enforcement
Road
worthiness
Lighting
Braking
Handling
Speed
Management
Road design and
road layout Speed
limits Pedestrian
facilities
Crash
Injury
prevention
during the
Crash
Use of restraints
Impairment
Occupant
restraints
Other safety
devices
Crash-
protective
Design
Crash-protective
road side objects.
Post-crash
Life
Sustaining
First-Aid-Skill
Access
Medicals
Ease of access
Fire to
Risk
Rescue facilities
Congestion
Source [17]
ii. The Mechanical Factor: The vehicle also constitutes one of the major factors of road
traffic accident. Road safety however goes beyond periodic check or prompt repair of
vehicles. It should be a daily routine of care and check of all components of a vehicle.
The main vehicle factors are defects in tyres, brakes and inputs all arising from poor
maintenance of the vehicle. The global economic recession have badly affected the
quality of products in the Nigerian markets such that people now favour the use of
sub-standard products like Tokunbo tyres, spare parts and Tokunbo vehicles. These,
coupled with over speeding and reckless driving, negate the principles of safety when
considered against the phenomenon of used vehicles. Any of those parts malfunction
can eventually affect smooth driving, which in the end, can lead to serious accident.
The different component of mechanical factor that resulted into accident are:
(a) Brake failure;
(b) Burst tyres;
(c) Engine failure;
(d) Use of fake spare parts;
(e) Defective and Dazzling lights;
(f) Poorly maintain vehicles.
In essence, a deficient vehicle, an unserviceable car, or a poor maintained automobile
are all dangers with high probability to cause accidents on the highways.
iii. The Environment Factor: there is a strong debate within the context of Nigeria as to
whether the high incidence of road accidents should actually be attributed to bad
roads. Or, if they are not a paradoxical function of the good and modern highways that
the country invested on so much. The contention is against the backdrop that despite
the construction of new roads in the country, appreciable reduction has not been
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 46
witnessed in accidents rates but rather seem to be increasing. In other words, there is
need to focus on other factors, particularly the human elements contributing to the
disaster.
Environmental factor include:
(a) Bad road;
(b) Weather conditions;
(c) Dangerous bend;
(d) Broken down/ abandon vehicles
(e) Animals not under control
(f) Obstruction on the road.
2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT IN NIGERIA
Nigeria has one of the worst scenarios of accident occurrence as it ranked high as one
of the countries in Africa with high incidence of road traffic accidents. The level of fatality of
road traffic accident in Nigeria is quite worrisome considering the extent of human and
material losses suffered as a result of traffic accident fatalities. The situation with road traffic
accidents in Nigeria is uniquely high as a result of the overdependence of spatial mobility
demand of commuters on the road mode. The road transport sub sector has continued to grow
much more than other transport sub sectors in terms of motor vehicles in operation size of
road network. Not less than 90% of Nigerian mobility needs in terms of movement of goods
and services are satisfied through the mode at the expense of the potential contribution other
modes. The over reliance on the road system constitute the creation of unnecessary pressure
on the highway in the country which more often than not resulted in regular occurrence of
accidents, a situation that has been made worse by their deteriorating condition [11].
The effects of Road Traffic Accidents cannot be over-emphasized. Nigeria has a bad
record of road traffic accident. Nigeria and Nigerians have had a fair share of losses in social
and economic terms from road traffic accidents. Road accidents have taken away so many
lives in Nigeria today that hardly does any single disease match its mortality prowess. People
have died prematurely and properties worth several millions of Naira have been lost as a
result of road traffic accident. While, losses arising from suffering, bereavement and social
disruptions, which may be difficult to measure in monetary terms, are regarded as part of the
basic social cost of accident. Social cost in terms of trauma i.e. loss of closed relatives,
associates, friends, father, mother etc. which eventually lead to psychological depression.
Other victims that might not have died may carry relics of handicaps such as loss of limbs,
blindness, or even bound to wheel-chair for life. Such victims and families suffer severe
psychological trauma, often from stigmatization or mental imbalances.
The negative chain reaction of road traffic accidents are of varied consequences. For
instance, a student may drop out of school for lack of fulfillment of basic human needs as a
result of the death of a breadwinner; the consequent reaction could lead to the child
developing negative social life by becoming an armed robber, assassin, dupe, hoodlum or
even advanced fraudster [9].
Consequences of Road traffic accidents range from the physical, social, and economic
impact it has on man to the economic impacts it has on the national economy and the impact it
has on the vehicle itself. Road transport has had a modest contribution to the Gross Domestic
Product of the economy over the years. It normally accounts for not less than 80% of the
portion to the GDP emanating from the transport sector as a whole [3].
Road accidents also sometimes lead to destruction of traffic infrastructure such as
bridges thereby destroying publicly provided transport infrastructure. Road traffic accidents
have also negatively affected Manpower resource of the country. Using accident cases
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 47
reported to the police, about one quarter of those involved in road accidents are killed while
the remaining three quarters sustain injuries.
Despite the overall impact of the human and material loss on road traffic accident it’s
unfortunate that the number keep increasing despite the effort make by the government in
curbing the exercise on road traffic accident.
Solving the problem of road traffic accident injuries require a multi-dimensional
approach which as a matter of fact will involve major stakeholders in the transport industry
with the government playing a key role.
3. STRATEGIES AT MINIMIZING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
3.1 Driver Education and Training
The driver of a vehicle is the most important single factor in road traffic crash. The
production of high quality drivers is consequently non-negotiable. The two basic requirements
in producing high quality motor vehicle drivers is proper training and licensing programmes.
Well-equipped driving schools should be licensed. Driving license should be issued only to
those that have been certified by approved driving schools. It is also important to note that
charges by Driving Schools should be kept within the means of the low or no-income earners.
If possible Federal and State Governments could consider providing grants to licensed driving
schools to encourage them to charge low and affordable fees.
3.2 Road Infrastructure
Just like vehicles, the condition of the road infrastructure is also very important when
thinking of improving road safety records in Nigeria. The state of the federal roads in Nigeria,
to say the least, is deplorable. Many lives have been lost due to bad roads. Moreover, the
Federal and State Ministry of Works, The Police Nigerian Force, the Federal Road Safety
Corps and other related agencies should regularly conduct surveys to identify and mark
prominent traffic spots and accident prone road sections (black spot). This would help install
advance warning signs to road users. Same goes for very dangerous pot holes especially on
the highways. All roads should be well marked and traffic signs appropriately located.
3.3 Enforcement
This is the bane of road safety in Nigeria because when enforcement of traffic
regulations is lax, violation of these regulations becomes a common practice and this could
lead to complete disregard for the regulation in the long run. Hence, for traffic laws to be
effective there must be enforcement. There is thus need to enforce the traffic regulations. But
not before the relevant agencies publicize the laws and regulations of the road and the
penalties for violating them. These must be adequate and known by the road users. Efforts
should be made to test for drunk driving. If possible motorists should be compelled by law to
buy and own their own breathalyzer as this will address the problem of non-compliance if a
common breathalyzer is to be used [4].
3.4 Research and Development
The engine propelling growth in any society, organization or institution that intends to
stay ahead in a way that makes it walk confidently into the future is research and
development. Keeping Nigeria roads safe and making them to remain so will demand
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 48
deliberate investment on research and development from which every agency can tap into,
and benefit from, whether at federal, state or local government level.
3.5 Effective Legislation
The lack of effective legislation and other regulations capable of ensuring safety on
Nigeria roads constitutes a major challenge in redressing the unnecessary carnage on the
country’s highways and roads. For example, the traffic laws are not only outdated but do not
reflect the contemporary safety needs of the public. There is an urgent need to update the
existing laws and regulations. Urgent changes required include those relating to social,
economic and political causative factors of road accidents.
3.6 Database Development and Information Sharing
Whilst each agency requires developing a data base for effective planning of its
operations, inter-agency collaboration and information sharing are also important to widen the
prism of evolving one big road safety net spread all over the country.
4. CONCLUSIONS
Accident is a common phenomenon. It does not segregate on the basis of time and
place of occurrence. Road traffic accident in Nigeria is a very serious issue requiring a holistic
attention and approach towards curbing its occurrence considering the magnitude of the
problem it presents to every Nigerian road users.
Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that human, mechanical and
environmental characteristics are the salient factors that are responsible for road traffic
crashes in Nigeria.
[10] To reduce and or prevent traffic accident occurrence in the country the following
may be considered as part of a meaningful approach: There should be total enforcement of
traffic rules and regulation to correct erring drivers and the Government and affected
institutions should take the issue of road construction and maintenance more seriously.
Driving schools should be made compulsory so that driving license holders will have a full
knowledge of traffic rules.
[6] The idea of depending on a mode of transport for physical distribution/logistics
and general mobility can no longer sustain economic development and transformation of the
country. The idea of multi-modality consideration will assist in melting down the incidence of
traffic menace in the Nigeria cities. The importance of safety in road transport industry
warrants that the human elements should be given serious attention in Nigeria and beyond.
O. J. Afolabi, Gbadamosi Kolawole, T.- Road traffic crashes in Nigeria T&L
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Volume 17, Issue 42, April 2017 49
References
[1] Afolabi, J. O., 2009, “Topical Issues on Road Safety in Nigeria”.
[2] Afolabi, J. O., 2014, “Passenger Satisfaction in Public Bus Transport in Nigeria,”
Unpublished M.Sc Dissertation. OOU Ago-Iwoye.
[3] Agbonkhese, E. G., 2013, “Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria,” Causes and
Preventive Measures,”Civil and Environmental Research Journal.
[4] Akpoghomeh, O. S., 2011, “The Terror of Transport and the Transportation of
Terror,”Inaugural Lecture, University of Port-Harcourt.
[5] Atunbi, A. O., 2009 “Urban Transportation,” An Appraisal of Features and Problems
in Nigerin Sociaty International Journal of Geography and Regional Planning , Vol . No.
1
[6] Badejo, B. A., 2007, “Multi-modal Transportation System,” The Future of
Sustainable Transport. A paper presented at National Conference on Transport
Development. Sheraton Hotels and Towers. Abuja.
[7] Badejo, B. A., 2011, “Transportation,” Removing the Clogs to the Nigeria’s
Development,” Anchorage Press and Publisher, Lagos Nigeria.
[8] Button K. J., and Hensher., 2001, “Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic
Control” Pergamon United Kingdom.
[9] Emenike, G. C., and Ogbole, A., 2008, “Accidents and the Road Transport Industry
in Nigeria,”Journal of the International Centre for Constructive Research (ICCR).
[10] Gbadamosi, K. T., 2005, “Road Traffic Accidents,” An Impediments to Social
Interaction in Oyekanmi F.D. (eds) Development Crisis and Social Change. A
publication of the Department of Sociology University of Lagos.
[11] Gbadamosi, K. T., 2015, “Spatial Trend and Management of Road Traffic Fatalities
in Nigeria,”Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary StudiesMCSER Publishing, Rome-
Italy
[12] Mumby D. L., 1968, “Transport,” Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
[13] Odeleye, J. A., 2007, “Improved Road Traffic Environment for Better Child Safety
in Nigeria,”Proceeding from 14thICTCT workshop.
[14] Ogunsanya, A. A., 2002, “Maker and Breaker of Cities 59th Inaugural Lecture,”
University of Ilorin.
[15] Onakomaiya, S. O., 1988, “Unsafe at any Speed,” Toward Road transportation
survival, Inaugural Lecture, University of Ilorin.
[16] Oni, S.I., and Okanlawon, K.R., 2010, “Transportation Education in Nigeria,” A
publication of the Department of Sociology University of Lagos.
[17] W.H.O, and World Bank, 2004, “Report on Road Traffic Prevention,”-Summary.
... Nigeria alone records 10,050 road accident death cases yearly, with an average of 27 death cases per day [2,3]. Afolabi and Gbadamosi [4] traced the significance of morbidity and mortality cases from road traffic crashes to population growth flight as well as an increased level of motorization. However, the record of road traffic accidents in the developing countries where vehicles are relatively few is proportionately upsurging but surprising declining in the industrialized nations [5]. ...
... Road vehicles and their operations play a significant role in road traffic accidents [4]. The features representing road vehicles in road traffic crashes includes defective tyres, faulty braking system, dysfunctional steering system, etc. these factors are directly or indirectly connected to the functions tyres offer in an on-road vehicle which includes acceleration, cornering, braking, and steerability. ...
Article
Standard effectual directive on tyre safety management operations on its own is nothing without appropriate compliance and application. Deliberate oversight and neglect of safety precautionary measures may result in an accident and eventually be classified as an unforeseen event. This study on safety knowledge and its implication for on-road vehicle tyre safety compliance was conducted among one hundred and thirteen private vehicle owners in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Data collection for this study was done using subjective and physical measurement procedures. The analysis of data obtained showed that sixty-eight participants (60.2%) of the participants had a fair knowledge of road vehicle tyre safety, followed by those that had good knowledge 39 (34.5%). No participant had poor or excellent knowledge. Overall operational tyre safety and compliance with the specifics for tyre standard condition showed that 1 (0.9%) of the assessed vehicles were of very high safe and appropriate compliance status. Forty-three (38.1%) of the assessed vehicles owned and used by the participants were of very low operational tyre safety and practices. This was followed by average safe and appropriate practice 39 (34.5%). Pearson's chi-square test analysis was used to check if there is an association between tyre safety knowledge and safe and appropriate compliance status variables gave χ2 = 1.135 and p = 0.769. This implies that there is no statistically significant association between the two variables.
... These leads to accidents on Nigeria roads which lead the national emergency agency NEMA to put up a programme that engaged the competent hands from other stake holders such as the Nigerian police, Nigerian army, Nigerian security and civil defense corps, federal road safety commission, National air space management authority, Nigerian red cross, the states ministries of health and environment. For the programme, national and state emergency agencies were to train the volunteers [3]. [3] stated that Nigerian roads were death traps. ...
... For the programme, national and state emergency agencies were to train the volunteers [3]. [3] stated that Nigerian roads were death traps. In the developing world which includes Nigeria, road network is the most developed transport mode and the vastest in usage. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the causes, effects and remedies to defects on highway as it affects quality along Pipeline road in Kamazo, Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The methods used in data collection are, GIS used in mapping the congested area, use of questionnaire and oral interview. One hundred (100) copies of questionnaires were administered to drivers and passengers using the road, in which Cross-Tabulation and 5-point Likert Scale was used for the analysis. Common defects observed are: Potholes, cracks, silt deposit on roadway, honey combs, depression, grasses on shoulders, scouring, fade markings, road signs, vegetation in hydraulic structures, structural failure of hydraulic structures, loss of materials, failed pavement, etc. Common causes of quality defects on highways are: High volume and frequency of heavy duty trucks; roadway as predominant mode of transportation; Lack of maintenance culture; Poor budget allocation for maintenance. Poor funding; defective Design; Poor construction; Defective constructional materials; Poor supervision; Poor drainage system; Defective implementation of QC/QA protocols; Age of road, etc. Common effects of quality defects on highways are: Defective road quality; Inability to forecast travel time; Fuel consumption; Induces stress on road users; Frequent vehicle breakdown on the roadway; High cost of transportation fare indices for inflation; Loss of time on the roads; Accident; Defective distribution of goods and services; Defective security emergency response, etc. Possible remedies to these defects are: provision of adequate funding to maintenance agencies; collate data from monitoring and evaluation; schedule and plan for maintenance; diversify travel modes; improve on QA/QC required for roadwork; provide coordinated and computerized weigh bridge and regular collection of axle loads data; tax vehicles according to axle load beyond certain boundaries to generate fund required to maintain roads; road markings and furniture to be in place; provision of lightings; quality supervision; use of quality materials to required standard & specifications; adopt build-operate-transfer (road retainer ship).
... Excessive speed (Gonzales et al., 2005;Lam, 2003), driving carelessly (Lam, 2003), and traffic offences (Gonzales et al., 2005), as well as drugs and alcohol (Bingham et al., 2008), have all been associated to accidents involving young drivers. Lack of respect/concern for other motorists, impatience and negligence, overloading of cars, fatigue, poor vision, and frequent disobedience of road traffic signs by road users are also some of the reasons for motor accidents, according to Afolabi and Gbadamosi (2017). More than 12,000 MVC fatalities comprised motorists with positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in 2017. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reduction of automobile crash death was ever amongst the best health achievement of the 20 th century. However, quite 32,000 are killed and a couple of million are injured annually from automobile crashes. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyse motor vehicle crash fatality rate in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of Alabama. Data obtained from the US Department of Health and Human Services, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and US Department of Transportation between 2005 to 2018. Regression analysis was used in this study to identify the relationships between MVT fatality rate and various factors like speed driving, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gender, age, and role of daytime, night-time, weekdays, and weekends. It helps understand the fictional interaction and accuracy between factors or variables. The multivariate linear regression analysis is performed to investigate the effect of individual factors in this study. Descriptive analysis is also used to understand the MVT fatality rate of metropolitan and non-metropolitan populations of Alabama from 2005 to 2019. The result reveals that out of the total motor vehicle fatality which occurred during the period of review, 63% was from non-metropolitan (rural), 36.4% from metropolitan (urban) while 0.23% was unknown. Conclusively, over speeding, driving under influence of alcohol, driver-inexperience, breaking roadway rules and regulations are some of the major causes of high motor vehicle fatality rate in the state. There is need to implement more stringent policy to encourage drivers in enforcing traffic regulation to reduce loss of property and lives.
... It is not surprising that rapid growth in public service vehicles has been accompanied by an equal increase in road accidents, associated fatalities and injuries, and a consequent high cost in productivity and health care (Ipingbemi, 2008). As a result, most household means of livelihood are disrupted when the breadwinner is involved in a fatal road accident, leading to family disorganisation (Afolabi & Gbadamosi, 2017). In recognition of the roles transportation plays in the overall development of any society and the desire to promote socio-economic development, an adequate, reliable and efficient transport system is a critical factor in achieving infrastructural development (Isa & Siyan, 2016). ...
Article
The Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) as a law enforcement agency was established to reduce increasing road accidents and fatalities and make road users comply with road traffic regulations in Nigeria. Relying on existing literature, this study examined the road transport worker's compliance with FRSC regulations in Nigeria tthrough the lens of social control theory. Findings established that since the creation of FRSC till date, there is no significant difference regarding the amount of road accidents recorded on Nigerian roads. Also, there is little or no information regarding FRSC regulations available to road transport worker, there is a wrong driving culture among road transport workers, bad roads and low level of enforcement by FRSC. The paper recommends that the government should improve road infrastructures and FRSC regulations should be stricter and free of favouritism and bribery in order to further ensure compliance and minimise the waves of road accidents in Nigeria.
... This makes the highways aesthetically bankrupt and uncomfortable for transportation of human and goods. Failed sections along Nigerian highways have been reported to be a leading cause of road accidents in the country [2], [3], [4] showed that traffic injuries are the 8th leading causes of death globally, with Africa having the highest rates. The development of any country is closely linked to the stability of her highway pavements. ...
Article
Full-text available
Incessant failure of the Gbongan-Ode Omu highway flexible pavement calls for investigation of the responsible factors. Soil samples from the stable (S) and unstable (U) sections of the highway were evaluated so as to determine their suitability as highway subgrade soils. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to investigate the mineral composition while X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to access their geochemistry. Geotechnical properties investigated include specific gravity, grainsize distribution, consistency limits, moisture dry density relationship, soaked and unsoaked California bearing ratio (CBR), shear strength, permeability, and consolidation. Results showed that the schist derived lateritic soil (S) is made up of 26% iron oxide (goethite and hematite), 21% quartz, 16% amphibole, 15% kaolinite and 15 % epidote. The banded gneiss derived lateritic soil (U) soil contains 54% quartz and 21 % kaolinite while, feldspars and mica make up the remaining 25% of the soil. All the soil samples rated as fair to poor subgrade according to AASHTO classification. The S soils classify as low plasticity soils-CL while most of the U soils classify as high plasticity soils-CH. Soaked and unsoaked CBR ranged between 9% and 18% and 18% and 23% respectively for the U soils. It ranged between 16% and 23% and 19% to 28 % for the S soils. All the soil samples are rich in fines with low compressibility and permeability. The presence of significant of iron oxides in the S soil is believed to impact their physical properties.
... Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) can occur as a result of a conjunction of human error, road-related conditions and vehicle defects. 1,2 Globally, road traffic accidents account for approximately 1.27 million deaths worldwide per year, making them the 11th leading cause of death. 3 Deaths due to RTIs are predicted to have declined by 27-30% in high-income countries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine the main characteristics, reasons and patterns of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in a tertiary care public hospital of Karachi. Methods: It was a hospital based cross sectional study conducted in a public tertiary care hospital emergency department with a sample size 425 selected conveniently. Participants included the consenting victims or caretaking attendants of road traffic injuries (RTIs) from 25th May to 28th June in 2019. A structured questionnaire was developed after literature review and was translated into "Urdu" language. The questionnaire collected detailed information on socio-demographic characteristics, possible reasons of RTI's such as condition of vehicle, over speeding and breaking traffic rules. Data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 20. Results: Almost half of RTI victims (43.1%) belonged to the age group 18-29. Majority of the victims were males (86.6%). The most common vehicle involved was motorbike (87.50%) followed by Rickshaw (6.8%) and Car (2.4%). Majority of RTIs occurred on main road (75.30%). The most common sites of injuries were lower limb (64%), upper limb (37.60%) and head (32.2%). The severe injuries were significantly more likely to happen in events in which direct collision with other vehicle/thing was involved, road conditions were wet and pedestrian were crossing the road. Conclusion: Motorbikes were involved in majority of RTIs. Main reasons of RTIs included irresponsible road behaviors including over-speeding, careless road crossing, breaking the signal and riding on wet roads which lead to moderate to severe injuries in almost two thirds of participants.
... However, road transportation is associated with road crashes and accidents causing injuries and deaths (Afolabi and Gbadamosi, 2017). Road traffic injuries are a severe public health and development concern that is expected to worsen if member states do not sufficiently address road safety (World Health Organization, 2004). ...
... The 2018 WHO Global Status Report on Road Safety puts Nigeria among the nineteen countries in the world with the highest number of estimated road traffic deaths, along with China, India, the United States, Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, Russia and others. Researches have noted the alarming situation of road traffic safety in the country, the inadequate efforts to combat it and the scanty local studies [4,5]. ...
Article
Road traffic accident (RTA) is a growing critical issue globally, resulting in high casualties and fatalities, especially in developing countries. This study examines the magnitude and trend of RTA and the effectiveness of road traffic safety measures in Osun State, South West Nigeria. Data on road traffic accidents from 1992 to 2016 was obtained from Nigeria's Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) coupled with primary data acquired from 2,209 sampled households in six hierarchically selected cities through a multi-stage stratified random procedure. The study reveals a very high positive correlation (r = 0.97; p = 0.001) between road traffic accidents and the size of the cities. Trend analysis shows a gradual decline in accident and mortality rates but increasing injury rates. The study observed a relatively higher male involvement than females in RTA at the ratio of 3:1 and a relatively higher occurrence among civil servants (38.2%) and traders (27.6%) than other occupational groups. The study concludes that the incidence of road traffic accidents varies spatially, temporally, across gender and occupational divide and that safety measures employed do not have a significant impact in preventing its occurrence in the study area. It is recommended that safety culture should be encouraged among road users apart from strengthening the institutional framework responsible for transport safety.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The continuous increase in the rate of road crashes and the high casualty rate is worrisome, especially in the low-income countries, there has been local and global effort at stemming the tide of the increase to minimize socio-economic loses arising from it. This study aims to evaluate ten years (2010-2019) record of road crashes in Lagos State with the objectives to determine the rate of casualty and identify categories of vehicles involved in road crashes. Accident record of Federal Road Safety Corps, Lagos State Command was obtained and analysed using descriptive statistics. Result revealed that there are 8.9% fatal crashes, 41.3% serious and 49.8% are minor crashes. It was also discovered that most of the vehicles involves are commercial vehicles which account for 56%. The study concluded that road crashes casualty is on the increase and that there is little difference between the rate of involvement by commercials and private vehicle, hence it is recommended that a continuous and holistic intervention programmes should be planned and implemented across the users of all categories of vehicle, public enlightenment and awareness through education on road safety should be made available at all levels of education (driving schools included), Strict enforcement of road safety laws without compromise by relevant agencies, Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), Lagos sector command should improve on their scope of data coverage to capture each Local Government Area in the state and NDLEA and NAFDAC should rise up to their duty and continue to campaign against sales/intake of alcohol/psychotic substances within major parks in Lagos State as the study shows that the rate of accident are more among the commercial drivers.
Article
Full-text available
Nigeria has an unenviable record of road accident fatalities when statistics of road traffic accident across the globe are contrasted. The magnitude of road traffic accident in Nigeria has been known to vary significantly among the various traffic corridors located in all the states of the federation. The occurrence of accident is somewhat influenced by the level of economic and social development at the state level. This paper attempt to provide an insight to the spatial and geographical dimension of Road Traffic Accident in Nigeria over time. Adequate attempt has been made to examine the relative impact of the Federal Road Safety Commission in its effort to achieving its mandate. The methodology of study involved the ranking of the states of the federation and federal capital territory using available records of road accident fatalities. This is with a view to provide insight to the need for variation in the application of accidents prevention strategies across the states of the federation. The paper advocated for the application of accident prevention strategies with due consideration of the uniqueness of the distinctive spatial attributes of each states. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v4n1p25
Article
Full-text available
The deplorable and unsafe state of road traffic environment in Nigeria renders children the most helpless, vulnerable and endangered class of road users in the country. Practically, other road users such as the motorists and cyclists are psychologically reckless and unmindful of children safety. Also, the pronounce disorderliness in the admixture of various components of road traffic units such as motor-vehicles, bicycles, tricycles, motorcycles, pedestrians on narrowed, poorly maintained road network further aggravates the confusion, tension, danger and crisis experienced by children. These problems, however persist because of the divergent focus of the feeble and ineffective national transport policy and road safety framework, as well as the poorly integrated institutional arrangement in road safety apparatus; and the spatio-temporal discontinuity trend in road design, maintenance and classification. Also the disintegrated state of traffic system management, especially in the urban centres, as well as the inexistence of rural road traffic environmental integration, man agreement and planning further complicates the unsafe state of road traffic environment in Nigeria. This paper, consequently agitates for the application of users-friendly road traffic environmental concepts like sustainable traffic system management, enhanced and integrated road traffic environment (design, supply and maintenance) prioritization of road traffic safety educational programmes; introduction of road safety fund, with emphasis on children, as well as a functional and dynamic national road safety policy. This is with a view to maintaining a safer road traffic environment for children, aged and disabled in Nigeria, in this millennium.
Article
This study reports on the development in road traffic accidents in Nigeria since 1994. The preliminary survey took Edo state, one of the 36 constituent States of Nigeria, as a case study. An intervention model, which is a combination of an ARIMA noise and dichotomous models, was employed in analyzing a seven-year monthly accident time series obtained from the Federal Office of Statistics and the Federal Road Safety Corps of Nigeria. The Durbin Watson's test statistic, used to ascertain the adequacy of our ARIMA predictive model, suggested that the intervention model adopted has a good fit. The study points up a significant reduction in the rate of road traffic accidents through multiple policy interventions of Nigeria.
Topical Issues on Road Safety in Nigeria
  • J O Afolabi
Afolabi, J. O., 2009, "Topical Issues on Road Safety in Nigeria".
Passenger Satisfaction in Public Bus Transport in Nigeria
  • J O Afolabi
Afolabi, J. O., 2014, "Passenger Satisfaction in Public Bus Transport in Nigeria," Unpublished M.Sc Dissertation. OOU Ago-Iwoye.
The Terror of Transport and the Transportation of Terror
  • O S Akpoghomeh
Akpoghomeh, O. S., 2011, "The Terror of Transport and the Transportation of Terror,"Inaugural Lecture, University of Port-Harcourt.
Urban Transportation An Appraisal of Features and Problems in Nigerin Sociaty
  • A O Atunbi
Atunbi, A. O., 2009 " Urban Transportation, " An Appraisal of Features and Problems in Nigerin Sociaty International Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Vol. No. 1
Multi-modal Transportation System
  • B A Badejo
Badejo, B. A., 2007, "Multi-modal Transportation System," The Future of Sustainable Transport. A paper presented at National Conference on Transport Development. Sheraton Hotels and Towers. Abuja.
Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic Control
  • K J Button
Button K. J., and Hensher., 2001, "Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic Control" Pergamon United Kingdom.