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Food waste, a by-product of various industrial, agricultural, household and other food sector activities, is rising continuously due to increase in such activities. Various studies have indicated that different kind of food wastes obtained from fruits, vegetables, cereal and other food processing industries can be used as potential source of bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals which has significant application in treating various ailments. Different secondary metabolites, minerals and vitamins have been extracted from food waste, using various extraction approaches. In the next few years these approaches could provide an innovative approach to increase the production of specific compounds for use as nutraceuticals or as ingredients in the design of functional foods. In this review a comprehensive study of various techniques for extraction of bioactive components citing successful research work have been discussed. Further, their efficient utilization in development of nutraceutical products, health benefits, bioprocess development and value addition of food waste resources has also been discussed.
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... In contrast, the major food losses (around 40%) in industrialized countries are usually associated with the end of the supply chain (retail and consumption stages). The generation of byproducts in industrialized regions is also related to the highly demanding quality standards set by retailers and requested by consumers in terms of the shape, size, and color of products [15,16]. Therefore, the total amount of byproducts in industrialized countries is also significant, despite relatively low losses during post-harvest and processing of raw materials. ...
... They can be used to produce functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food additives and can be obtained from these sources. They can also be found in unprocessed foods, such as fruits and vegetables, which are the simplest form of functional foods [16]. Some bioactive compounds retain their ability to induce health-promoting activities in vitro and in vivo when extracted from their natural source and incorporated into other products. ...
... Some bioactive compounds retain their ability to induce health-promoting activities in vitro and in vivo when extracted from their natural source and incorporated into other products. For example, phenolic compounds obtained from fruits and vegetables are notable for their antioxidant activity, making them effective agents for the prevention of oxidation-mediated processes when incorporated into functional foods or nutraceuticals [19], and are therefore commonly used for this purpose [16]. ...
Article
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One of the biggest problems faced by food industries is the generation of large amounts of agro-industrial byproducts, such as those derived from fruit processing, as well as the negative effects of their inadequate management. Approximately 1/3 of the food produced worldwide is unused or is otherwise wasted along the chain, which represents a burden on the environment and an inefficiency of the system. Thus, there is growing interest in reintroducing agro-industrial byproducts (both from fruits and other sources) into the processing chain, either by adding them as such or utilizing them as sources of health-promoting bioactive compounds. The present work discusses recent scientific studies on the nutritional and bioactive composition of some agro-industrial byproducts derived from fruit processing, their applications as ingredients to supplement baked foods, and their main biological activities on the consumer’s health. Research shows that agro-industrial fruit byproducts can be incorporated into various baked foods, increasing their fiber content, bioactive profile, and antioxidant capacity, in addition to other positive effects such as reducing their glycemic impact and inducing satiety, all while maintaining good sensory acceptance. Using agro-industrial fruit byproducts as food ingredients avoids discarding them; it can promote some bioactivities and maintain or even improve sensory acceptance. This contributes to incorporating edible material back into the processing chain as part of a circular bioeconomy, which can significantly benefit primary producers, processing industries (particularly smaller ones), and the final consumer.
... Bioactive compounds from plants can be used in foods as health promoters, therapeutic agents, and for disease risk reduction. Further, nutraceuticals or even pharmaceutical products can be manufactured from the extracted bioactive compounds [48]. ...
... Characterization of bioactive compounds from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes is thoroughly described in the literature [46,[48][49][50].Plant biomass` lignocellulosic intertwined structure consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which are equivalent to be 30th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 9-12 May 2022, Online exploited in an integrated biorefinery. While cellulose and hemicellulose are mainly used for bioenergy or biofuelproduction, hemicellulose is a resource for lactic acid, xylitol, xylooligosaccharides, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and furfural production. ...
... Fermentative or enzyme-catalyzed extractions are generally performed at lower temperatures and without organic solvents. These milder processing conditions, i.e. from the enzymatic lowering of the activation energy, are considered to be more eco-friendly than conventional methods [48,61]. Additionally, the substrate and product specificity of enzymes is promising for industrial application [49]. ...
Conference Paper
Facing the challenge of growing demands for food and energy with a simultaneous decrease in arable land, alternative sources have to be focused on. Second-generation, lignocellulosic biorefineries are being established within the European Union to reduce the dependency on fossil resources by biofuel and bioenergy production. But to cover the demand for sustainably produced foods, energy, and nutraceutical products of biorefineries, the biomass supply needs to be diversified and enlarged. Research is refocusing on existing halophytic plants, which thrive in saline environments. The additional extraction of bioactive compounds can ensures the economic viability of the integrated biorefinery. This review provides an overview of opportunities and challenges faced in the design of integrated halophyte biorefineries, which combine the production of foods and bioenergy with the coproduction of value-added bioactive compounds from lignocellulosic biomass.
... Another undesirable constituent associated with peanut and their derived products, is aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus before, during and even after harvesting. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen (Kumar et al., 2017). It was reported that peanut press cake contained high amounts of fumonisins, ochratoxin, zearalenone, and cyclopiazonic acid. ...
... This might be one reason why food waste is currently exclusively transferred to anaerobic digestion, composting or burning. A rising number of academic publications that describe efficient, economic and green extractions indicate that first commercialization of food waste extractions might start in the upcoming years (Angiolillo et al., 2015;Baiano, A., 2014;Kumar et al., 2017;Sagar et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
The action plan on the 'circular economy' includes a number of actions in order to target market barriers in specific sectors or materials, such as food waste. Specifically, food waste is a significant concern in Europe: it is estimated that around 100 million tonnes of food is wasted annually in the European Union (EU). Food is lost or wasted along the whole food supply chain. Food waste reduction and waste treatment therefore are key issues, even in the recent Green Deal Strategy, which aims to achieve climate neutrality by 2050 and decouple economic growth from resource use, while ensuring the long-term competitiveness of the EU and leaving no one behind. The new Waste Framework Directives try to address the problems connected with the definition and the distinguishing between waste, by-product and end of waste. The production of second raw materials from the food waste treatment process and the consequent definition of end of waste is a central issue. European Food Law establishes the rights of consumers to safe food and to accurate and honest information. Whenever the recovery operation has transformed the waste into a food stuff, those rules apply to the end-of-waste new food product. The EU has progressively introduced legislation on these issues. The relevance of the different rules depends clearly on the different kinds of food stuff which has been produced by recycling the waste. In the legislative perspective there must be clear definitions of waste, by product and end-of-waste in order to invest for long term research and business programme.
... Found in small quantities in plants (vegetables, cereals, fruits) and animals bioactive elements help in health and wellbeing, providing additional health benefits beyond the fundamental nutritional value of food. Food-derived bioactive compounds possess both nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical properties as these compounds have positive properties like free radical scavenging, antioxidant effect, controlled gene expression, enzyme activity inhibition while regulating the receptor-assisted metabolic process [82]. Bioactive substances have antioxidant, cardioprotective, immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial benefits. ...
... Bioactive substances have antioxidant, cardioprotective, immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial benefits. They are well known to decrease the risk of chronic diseases like diabetes and cancer thereby minimise the expenses on synthetic drugs cost to fight diseases [82]. ...
Article
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Various microbial treatments and value-added transformations to treat and manage wastes including food wastes (FW) from numerous sources have emerged as leading concepts. The ever-increasing FW from households, retail establishments and food service industry totals 931 MMT annually globally. Landfill, incineration and bioprocess of FW have their own advantages and drawback as a waste recycling and energy recovery solution. Bioconversion of FW to produce value chemicals and bioenergy forms through anaerobically operated semicontinuous bioprocessing after a systematic solid-liquid separation followed by pretreatment seems a viable solution. Thus, the FW properties and pretreatment strategies to enhance the recovery of biofuels as well as other value products need to be standardised. Various strategies investigated to valorise FW as value-added products to biofuel, bioactive compounds, bioplastics, etc., and generate revenue have their merits and demerits. FW generates higher volatile fatty acids that may lead to bioconversion process breakdown under acidic conditions, especially during a biological strategy. The Gram (-) Methanotrophs which are proteobacteria use methane as carbon source and energy to thrive. Methane, biologically repossessed by methanotrophs, is catalytically oxidised to methanol by methane monooxy-genase (MMO), an endogenous irreversible enzyme. The food waste biorefineries would ensure circular bioeconomy, the recovery of nutrient and energy. The review also discusses the circular economy strategies closing the energy loop through the food supply chain, in light of strong and weak sustainabilities. Innovative technologies through integrated biotechniques to realise valuable materials and bioenergy from FW with minimal waste generation are detailed.
... Contaminated leaching from these dumped by-products can pollute surface and groundwater, making it unsuitable for drinking and other consumption-based applications. Succeeding eutrophication slows down and decreases the growth of aquatic plants and animals, thus having a long-term effect on both the micro and macro ecosystems (Kumar et al. 2017). These by-products are the richest sources of many bioactive components, antioxidants, and fiber contents. ...
... Bioactive phytochemicals like sterols, tocopherols, carotenes, polyphenols, and terpenes extracted from different agrofood by-products contain considerable amounts of antioxidant properties. Therefore, these bioactive components are extracted from such residues/waste by using different extraction techniques, viz., solvent extraction (SE), subcritical water extraction (SCW), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using ultrasounds, enzymes, and microwave techniques to ensure the utilization of agrowaste and food security and safety (Kumar et al. 2017). Consequently, they can be used as natural antioxidants for the production of healthy food and nutraceuticals to enhance their shelf-life (Kalogeropoulos et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
Various industrial, agricultural, household, and other food sector food waste/residues are raising concern due to environmental pollution and raise a question regarding agricultural and food safety and security. They can be considered as vital sources of bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals which have a great potential to cure several diseases and disorders found in human. Food and medicines can be used as a vehicle for the delivery of bioactive compounds and micronutrients at suitable levels that provide health benefits. Demonstration of successful and effective incorporation of bioactive compounds into foods is essential for the commercialization of new bioactive ingredients and functional food ingredients. In the next few years, these approaches could provide an innovative approach to increase the production of specific compounds for use as nutraceuticals or as ingredients in the design of functional foods. The development of functional foods can go through the addition of bioactive compounds which can be of either plant or animal origin. Various technologies can be applied to fulfill the requirements, for example, microencapsulation, nanoencapsulation, emulsions coacervation, spray-drying, spray cooling, freeze-drying, fluid-bed coating, extrusion technologies, and edible coatings. They are useful tools to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds like minerals, vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, lycopene, phytosterols, and antioxidants into the foods. There has been an excellent increment in the number of food products containing bioactive components with health-promoting or disease-preventing effect. In this review, a comprehensive study of various techniques for addition of bioactive components citing successful research work has been discussed. Further, phenolic compounds, probiotics, prebiotics, and antioxidants were reviewed as model bioactive substances to demonstrate their efficient utilization in the development of functional ingredients, nutraceutical products, health benefits, and bioprocesses.. Value addition of food waste resources has also been discussed.KeywordsBioactiveFunctional foodPhenolicsMicroencapsulationAgriculture
... In recent years, byproduct generation has become a serious concern and waste valorization practices based on circular economy approaches have attracted great attention [1,2]. Almond shell (AS) is the lignocellulosic material of the almond husk, contributing around 35−75 wt% of the total fruit weight [3]. ...
... Five central points were added to evaluate the experimental error. Tests were carried out in a randomized order to evaluate the effects of four factors at three levels: extraction temperature (40, 60, 80 °C), irradiation time (15, 37.5, 60 min), ethanol:water concentration (40, 60, 80%, v/v), and solvent pH (2,7,12). HCl (1 mol L −1 ) was used to adjust pH = 2, whereas pH 7 and 12 were adjusted with phosphate buffer (pH = 7) and NaOH (1 mol L −1 ), respectively. ...
Article
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This work proposes the revalorization of almond shell (AS) wastes as an active additive for food packaging applications. A new microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method to obtain extracts rich in polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity was optimized. An experimental design to optimize the MAE procedure through response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box–Behnken design was proposed. The effects of extraction temperature, irradiation time, ethanol:water concentration, and solvent pH at three levels were evaluated in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). The optimal conditions found were 57 min, 80 °C, pH 8, and 70% (v/v) ethanol. Optimized MAE extracts showed low soluble protein content (0.43 mg BSA g−1) and were rich in TPC (5.64 mg GAE g−1), flavonoids (1.42 mg CE g−1), and polysaccharides (1.59 mg glucose g−1), with good antioxidant capacity (2.82 mg AAE acid g−1). These results suggest the potential application of these extracts in the food industry as active additives. This strategy opens new pathways to valorize almond shell residues, contributing to the circular economy.
... According to a crude estimation, about one-third of the food produced for human consumption globally i.e. ∼1.3 billion tonnes year −1 gets wasted (Ganguli and Chakraborty, 2021). Household activities generate ∼42% of food waste, whereas food manufacturing industry and food service sectors (ready to eat food, catering and restaurants) generate 39% and 14% food wastes respectively (Kumar et al., 2017). Among which, fruits and vegetables, including roots and tubers, have the highest wastage rates of any food . ...
... Suitable methods of synthesis of these nutraceuticals from fruits and vegetables wastes will further add value to the disease modifying role associated with oxidative stress including allergy, Alzheimer, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, eye, immune, inflammatory and Parkinson's diseases. AgNPs mediated synthesis of these biomolecules revealed that synthesized AgNPs were nontoxic with same nutraceutical properties of synthesized compounds (Kumar et al., 2017). These contains vitamins A, C, and E, minerals, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, polyphenols, and pigments such as carotenes, among Dhanker et al. ...
Article
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The growing scale of human enterprise and lack of family-owned livestock are leading to lesser recycling and higher production of food wastes. The safe technology, for removal of pollutants and recovery of profitable goods and chemicals, is required to mitigate the agri and food waste mediated global crisis. The reuse of waste resources reduces the cost of fabrication and the vulnerability to hazardous chemicals, and promotes circularity and green synthesis. The green synthesis of metal nanoparticles and their oxide from food waste can be a new eco-friendly, cost-effective, and appropriate alternative to traditional methods. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is quick and executed at ambient temperature. The application of nanotechnology for the effective recycling of food waste have enormous potential in India, where only ∼30% of domestic wastes are recycled. The present paper reviews the available literature on characteristics and impacts of kitchen wastes, viable options for recovering nanoparticles through green synthesis, and explore the potential applications of nanoparticles synthesized from kitchen wastes. There is significant scope and prospect for further research in this emerging field. With suitable examples of metal nanoparticles recovered from the kitchen wastes, this review critically explores various applications of nanoparticles recovered from the vegetable and fruit wastes in wastewater treatment, antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, larvicidal, and other biomedical applications. Pointing to the contemporary constraints of ecosystem and human health the paper concludes suitable strategies for utilizing vegetable and fruit wastes for generation of nanoparticles, including recommendations for future developments.
... Small changes in pressure and temperature influence the density of the supercritical fluid, contributing to the dissolving power [96,97]. It is an environmentally friendly technology used for the extraction of bioactive compounds from cereal wastes such as catechin, epicatechin, flavonoids, polyphenols, procyanidin, and tocopherols [98,99]. One of the most commonly used solvent is CO2 due to its cost-efficiency and capacity to be easily removed; its critical temperature of 31.1 °C and pressure of 7.3 MPa makes it ideal for processing volatile compounds and it is extensively used in food industry because of its non-corrosive, non-toxic, colorless, and odorless properties [100]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, in the European Union more than 100 million tons of food are wasted, meanwhile, millions of people are starving. Food waste represents a serious and ever-growing issue which has gained researchers’ attention due to its economic, environmental, social, and ethical implications. The Sustainable Development Goal has as its main objective the reduction of food waste through several approaches such as the re-use of agro-industrial by-products and their exploitation through complete valorization of their bioactive compounds. The extraction of the bioactive compounds through conventional methods has been used for a long time, whilst the increasing demand and evolution for using more sustainable extraction techniques has led to the development of new, ecologically friendly, and high-efficiency technologies. Enzymatic and ultrasound-assisted extractions, microwave-assisted extraction, membrane fractionation, and pressure-based extraction techniques (supercritical fluid extraction, subcritical water extraction, and steam explosion) are the main debated green technologies in the present paper. This review aims to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the well-known conventional extraction methods and the advanced novel treatments and extraction techniques applied to release the bioactive compounds from cereal waste and by-products.
... Mostly grape skins are considered waste material in the juice industry, but they can be used as a by-product, which contains many bioactive compounds, one of which is anthocyanins which are very useful in treating cancer [62,63]. Grape skin powder was extracted for anthocyanins by using the ultrasound-assisted enzyme extraction method (USAEEM) using pectinase at 0.16 %, and the maximum yield was 3.01 ± 0.04 mg/g at 50 • C, 28 min, and ultrasonic power of 400 W. Further, 200 ml of anthocyanin extract obtained from under optimized conditions (AEOEC) were purified. ...
Article
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Foods incorporated with bioactive compounds, called nutraceuticals, can fight or prevent or alleviate diseases. The contribution of nutraceuticals or phytochemicals to non-invasive biomedical applications is increasing. Although there are many traditional methods for extracting bioactive compounds or secondary metabolites, these processes come with many disadvantages like lower yield, longer process time, high energy consumption, more usage of solvent, yielding low active principles with low efficacy against diseases, poor quality, poor mass transfer, higher extraction temperature, etc. However, nullifying all these disadvantages of a non-thermal technology, ultrasound has played a significant role in delivering them with higher yield and improved bio-efficacy. The physical and chemical effects of acoustic cavitation are the crux of the output. This review paper primarily discusses the ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) of bioactives in providing non-invasive prevention and cure to diseases and bodily dysfunctions in human and animal models. The outputs of non-invasive bioactive components in terms of yield and the clinical efficacy in either in vitro or in vitro conditions are discussed in detail. The non-invasive biomedical applications of USAE bioactives providing anticancer, antioxidant, cardiovascular health, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial benefits are analyzed in-depth and appraised. This review additionally highlights the improved performance of USAE compounds against conventionally extracted compounds. In addition, an exhaustive analysis is performed on the role and application of the food bioactives in vivo and in vitro systems, mainly for promoting these efficient USAE bioactives in non-invasive biomedical applications. Also, the review explores the recovery of bioactives from the less explored food sources like cactus pear fruit, ash gourd, sweet granadilla, basil, kokum, baobab, and the food processing industrial wastes like peel, pomace, propolis, wine residues, bran, etc., which is rare in literature.
... The high yield of P. bourneae leaf extract was derived from the ethanolic fraction. Similarly, Kumar et al. (2017) found that among various solvents tested in their investigation, ethanol was the most effective one and delivered the highest extraction yield. It was noted from our findings that alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids were strongly present in the ethanolic extract (Table 2), which possess antimalarial, antibacterial (Zhou and Huang 2021) and anticancer activities (Ahmad et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present investigation focuses on phytochemical screening and biological activities of Plectranthus bourneae, a medicinal plant species. Various solvents or ethanolic extract of leaf was used to investigate the phytochemicals by qualitative and quantitative methods, GC-MS, FTIR, and antioxidant activities. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, phytosterols, resins, phenols, tannins, diterpenes, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids. The highest concentrations of total phenolic content (50.10 ± 1.84 mg GAE/g) and tannins (83.03 µg/ml) was observed in ethanolic extracts. GC-MS results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds which are greatly known for their biological activities. The results of FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of different functional groups with peaks at 3347.74 cm− 1 (alcohols, phenols) and 2924.23 cm− 1 (alkanes). The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic leaf extract was found to be high in DPPH (441.27 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (22.4–74.4% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml) scavenging assays.
... Fruit and vegetable waste has an abundance of cellulose, carbohydrates, flavors, colorants, minerals, and antioxidants [7]. All these substances are useful and can be used to enhance the quality of other foodstuffs or be added into animal feed [8]. In addition, fruit and vegetable waste contains other extranutritional compounds that can be added to foodstuffs [9]. ...
Article
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The use of bio-based materials has become a focus of research nowadays. For the development of new generations of advanced resources, renewable and available resources must be combined with advanced technologies. Researchers have looked into biomass and waste cellulosic materials as sustainable sources for nano-crystalline cellulose extraction. Besides the different treatment methods suitable for various applications, this review aims to provide integrated details on the extraction methods and applications of cellulosic fibers and cellulose nanocrystals derived from wastes of different sources. There are numerous applications including building materials, electronics, furniture, automobiles, medical applications, sports goods, filtrations, water purification, and delivery systems of drugs which have been discussed.
... Biocatalytic methods can be used for converting biomass residues. The conventional methods used for the hydrolysis of residual oils and proteins from the oilseed cakes have certain disadvantages, such as the risk of thermal degradation or low selectivity [4][5][6]. In this field, enzymes are a useful alternative as they can efficiently catalyze the biotransformation of oils and proteins under mild reaction conditions [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a PoC (Proof of Concept) of a possible biomass valorization of flax and camelina oilseed press cakes was presented. Biocatalyzed hydrolysis of residual oils and proteins extracted from these wastes was studied. The biotransformation of oils was performed using commercial immobilized lipases, including Amano PS, Amano AK, and Candida Antarctica Lipase B (CALB). Acylglycerols were partially or fully hydrolyzed using Amano PS and AK. Triglycerides were not hydrolyzed by CALB, which behaved differently. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins extracted from these cakes was performed using commercial proteases, including Amano Protease P and Amano Protease M. This was the first study to quantify the amino acids in the reaction products. The results were also compared to the hydrolysates obtained using 6 M HCl. Some differences were observed in the amino acid profiles depending on the enzyme used and the protein sample.
... Some of the most valuable compounds from agri-food are polyphenols which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [2]. They have some essential beneficial health effects, such as the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. [1][2][3]. The concentration of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols from agro-industrial by-products, is significant for obtaining high-value-added products. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the preparation of hybrid nanofiltration membranes based on poly(1,4-phenylene ether ether sulfone), polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), and SBA-15 mesoporous silica. Laser treatment of polymeric solutions to enhance the hydrophilicity and performance of membranes was investigated. The membranes’ structure was characterized using scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopy and contact angle measurements. The addition of PAN in the casting solution produced significant changes in the membrane structure, from finger-like porous structures to sponge-like porous structures. Increased PAN concentration in the membrane composition enhanced the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface, which also accounted for the improvement in the antifouling capabilities. The permeation of apple pomace extract and the content of polyphenols and flavonoids were used to evaluate the efficacy of the hybrid membranes created. The results showed that the hybrid nanofiltration membranes based on PPEES/PAN/PVP/SBA-15: 15/5/1/1 and 17/3/1/1 exposed to laser for 5 min present a higher rejection coefficient to total polyphenols (78.6 ± 0.7% and 97.8 ± 0.9%, respectively) and flavonoids (28.7 ± 0.2% and 50.3 ± 0.4%, respectively) and are substantially better than a commercial membrane with MWCO 1000 Da or PPEES-PVP-based membrane.
... There is a need to perform potential valorization methods regarding the contents of food waste. Due to the valuable compounds (antioxidants, polyphenols, anthocyanins, and etc.) of fruits and vegetables, the wastes are potential raw material sources for various sectors such as pharmacology and food (Campos et al., 2020;El Barnossi et al., 2021;Kumar et al., 2017). On the other hand, considering the excellent contents of FW (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins), they are a potential source of substrates for microbial production processes (Awasthi et al., 2022a). ...
Article
Increases in population and urbanization leads to generation of a large amount of food waste (FW) and its effective waste management is a major concern. But putrescible nature andhigh moisture content is a major limiting factor for cost effective FW valorization. Bioconversion of FWfor the production of value added products is an eco-friendly and economically viable strategy for addressing these issues. Targeting on production of multiple products will solve these issues to greater extent. This article provides an overview of bioconversion of FW to different value added products.
... 3-hydroxytyrosol, rutin and oleuropein from olive mill wastes; gallic acid, syringic acid and hesperidin from winery wastes (Benincasa et al., 2019;Tapia-Quirós et al., 2020). The recovery of phenolic compounds from agri-food industry waste requires a first extraction stage, which can be carried out by various techniques, from the application of simple stirring, i.e. conventional solidliquid extraction (SLE), to the use of additional sources of energy, such as ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), or pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (Casagrande et al., 2019;Ferri et al., 2020;Kumar et al., 2017). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of phenolic compounds from olive mill and winery wastes by conventional solid-liquid extraction (SLE) using water as the extraction solvent. The studied variables were extraction time (5-15 min), temperature (25-90 °C), solid-to-liquid ratio (1:10-1:100 (kg/L)), pH (3-10) and application of multiple extractions (1-3). The extraction efficiency was evaluated in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), but also from the recovery of some representative phenolic compounds. The optimized conditions were one extraction step, 10 min, 25 °C, 1:30 (kg/L), pH 5 for olive pomace, and one extraction step, 10 min, 70 °C, 1:100 (kg/L), pH 5 for winery residues. The extraction method is simple and suitable for scaling-up in industry, and the aqueous extracts are fully compatible with further purification schemes based on the use of membranes or resins. The optimized technique was applied to a set of different representative residues from olive mill and winery industries, to assess their suitability as sources for phenolic compounds recovery. The phenolic content in the extracts was evaluated by chromatographic analysis and by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonat (ABTS), 2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Because of their high contents in phenolic compounds and great antioxidant capacity, olive pomace and lees filters were identified as especially suited sources for phenolic compounds recovery.
... In the recent decades, the number of studies recovering antioxidants and other bioactive compounds from agricultural waste has increased significantly, due to the variety of biological properties attributed to the compounds but also to give added value to these matrices [232]. Most of these studies are focused on the evaluation of biological properties of extracts and compounds obtained from diverse agricultural waste; the use of nonconventional techniques, the improvement of extraction yields, and the reduction of cost and environmental impact, comparing with the conventional techniques; and also optimize the extraction conditions of certain compounds [233][234][235]. However, although the scientific community has widely described the benefits of waste re-valorization strategies to obtain extracts rich in bioactive compounds to develop new industrial products, its application at industrial-scale is still limited by several aspects, some of them will be mentioned below. ...
... Biolipolysis is a process in which lipases are incorporated to remove the fat present in the meat during their processing, to obtain lean meat, and is frequently used in fish meat. Furthermore, microbial lipases are used to refine the flavor of rice, and lipase can also be used in the production of omega-3 [185]. ...
Article
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Enzymes are extensively used in biotechnological processes in several areas of industry. They are sustainable and safe, and their specificity is another characteristic that improves the performance in the process. Among enzymes, lipase is relevant due to the ability to play different roles in the industry and the possibility of collecting them from microbial sources that are found in industrial residues. This can reduce the costs of enzyme production. In relation to that, lipase immobilization is an interesting process that allows the enzymes to be reused and improves enzyme robustness. Among them, the cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) methodology is attractive due to its simplicity, low cost (given the absence of support), and greater interaction with the substrate. Thus, in this review, we discussed the potential of lipase. We reviewed the traditional and new sources of obtaining lipases, along with the ways of improving production, activity, and application in the industry.
... The synthesis of chitin and chitosan from food waste (crustacean canning) has proven to be both ecologically and economically viable, especially when carotenoids are recovered. The wastes include significant chitin levels, which is sold as a fish food ingredient (Arvanitoyannis and Kassaveti 2008 ;Kumar et al. 2017 ). ...
Chapter
Food waste nowadays has reached one-third of the entire food production. Considering this fact, if food waste was a country, its impact could have been third on global warming, after China and the USA. Several catalysts result in food waste, such as household-generated waste, overproduction, lack of facilities to store and preserve for a longer duration, lack of cold chain facilities, food processing industry and food trade losses, post-harvest losses due to mechanical infrastructure, and automation in handling and packaging. Waste minimization is a primary step for waste management in the food industries and has the potential to save millions of economic resources. Waste minimization practices such as increased machinery performance, the better quality of the fresh produce, reuse of trimmed products, specialized packaging for particular produce, appropriate product disposal, and well-analysed market demand could significantly reduce waste. Moreover, waste management includes several basic steps such as reducing waste, reusing the discarded resources while ensuring customer safety, recovery of the health-promoting bioactive and food additives from produced waste, and desirable measures for disposal of the waste to minimize waste any hazards towards life and the environment. Hence, the primary implementation of waste minimization and management operations could reduce waste production in food industries and protect the resources from unwanted disposal and economic loss. Additionally, it will also protect the environment and life on our planet.
... In this field, fruits and vegetables emerge as important products that contain essential compounds to promote health. A nutraceutical can be defined as a compound derived from a food or part of it capable of providing benefits to human health, classified as antioxidant, dietary fiber, fatty acids, or polyphenols, among others [161], to which different promising bioactivities in the nutraceutical industry are attributed [193,[197][198][199]. These bioactive ingredients can be extracted from different agri-food SWL, such as fruits and vegetables, and integrated into different food products, thus providing biodynamic attributes. ...
Article
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Ensuring a sustainable supply of food for the world’s fast growing population is a major challenge in today’s economy, as modern lifestyle and increasing consumer concern with maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet is an important challenge for the agricultural sector worldwide. This market niche for healthier products, especially fruits and vegetables, has increased their production, consequently resulting in increased amounts of agri-food surplus, waste, and loss (SWL) generated during crop production, transportation, storage, and processing. Although many of these materials are not utilized, negatively affecting the environmental, economic, and social segments, they are a rich source of valuable compounds that could be used for different purposes, thus preventing the losses of natural resources and boosting a circular economy. This review aimed to give insights on the efficient management of agri-food SWL, considering conventional and emerging recovery and reuse techniques. Particularly, we explored and summarized the chemical composition of three worldwide cultivated and consumed vegetables (carrots, broccoli and lettuce) and evaluate the potential of their residues as a sustainable alternative for extracting value-added ingredients for the development of new biodynamic products.
... To achieve the study's objectives, various measurement items were adopted and modified from existing literature to measure constructs. Precisely, the two TPB constructs used, attitude and subjective norms, were adapted from (Kumar et al., 2017b;. The TPB constructs had five measurement items each, but one attitude item was deleted due to low factor loadings. ...
The amount of food wasted globally and its proper management is a great concern for authorities and researchers to help curb the menace. The more food is wasted, the greater insecurity the world faces with accompanying environmental problems. In addressing this issue, the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior are combined to assess retailers’ fruits and vegetable waste management behavior. With empirical data from 376 respondents in Kumasi - Ghana, analysis was made using partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The study found that subjective norm affects attitude and intention positively. Also, attitude towards fruit and vegetable waste behavior was identified to influence intention positively. There was a positive influence from both awareness of consequence and ascription of responsibility on personal norms. Personal norms positively influence retailers’ intentions. Knowledge positively affects both intention and behavior towards fruits and vegetable waste. Behavioral intention influenced behavior strongly. These findings and their suggested policy implications provide great insights into fruits and vegetable waste management.
... Human and animal bodies require an optimal nutritional balance. According to existing research, human metabolism requires 49 essential nutrients to maintain health and wellbeing, including 16 mineral microelements and 13 vitamins [81][82][83]. Cereal waste and by-products are a valuable source of vitamins and microelements. The majority of micronutrients are present in bran, especially in the aleurone layer, and in cereal germs [15]. ...
Article
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Cereal processing generates around 12.9% of all food waste globally. Wheat bran, wheat germ, rice bran, rice germ, corn germ, corn bran, barley bran, and brewery spent grain are just a few examples of wastes that may be exploited to recover bioactive compounds. As a result, a long-term strategy for developing novel food products and ingredients is encouraged. High-value compounds like proteins, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, ferulic acid, and other phenols, tocopherols, or β-glucans are found in cereal by-products. This review aims to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of current knowledge regarding the bioactive compounds recovered from cereal by-products, emphasizing their functional values and potential human health benefits.
... 25 On the other hand, novel "green" methods are recently emerged in the literature, which can be listed as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). 26 In spite of their ecofriendly operation mechanisms, these novel technologies are known for their high investment costs; however, a low operation cost and high yields can eliminate this major disadvantage. Regarding this, Pingret et al. 27 examined the possible extraction of phenolic compounds from apple peels by using UAE, with a solvent−solute ratio of 1:500 in a pilot tank with 30 L capacity, with an ultrasound output at 25 kHz and 200 W. Results showed that the UAE method was 15% more effective when compared to conventional extraction methods. ...
Article
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Food processing sustainability, as well as waste minimization, are key concerns for the modern food industry. A significant amount of waste is generated by the fruit juice industry each year. In addition to the economic losses caused by the removal of these wastes, its impact on the environment is undeniable. Therefore, researchers have focused on recovering the bioactive components from fruit juice processing, in which a great number of phytochemicals still exist in the agro-industrial wastes, to help minimize the waste burden as well as provide new sources of bioactive compounds, which are believed to be protective agents against certain diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Although these wastes contain non-negligible amounts of bioactive compounds, information on the utilization of these byproducts in functional ingredient/food production and their impact on the sensory quality of food products is still scarce. In this regard, this review summarizes the most recent literature on bioactive compounds present in the wastes of apple, citrus fruits, berries, stoned fruits, melons, and tropical fruit juices, together with their extraction techniques and valorization approaches. Besides, on the one hand, examples of different current food applications with the use of these wastes are provided. On the other hand, the challenges with respect to economic, sensory, and safety issues are also discussed.
... Another study by Barreca et al., [99] showed how antioxidants can be extracted from pistachio waste; Only by using organic solvents was it possible to extract about 20 compounds with cytoprotective and antioxidant properties from the ripe pistachio shell [100]. They are catechin, gallic acid, isoehamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and naringin [101]. In addition, nectarines, olive leaves, and tomato skins were considered, since the new claims of nutraceuticals and additives [102] have currently been detected in the polyphenolic extracts from these food wastes, which confirmed a specific positive activity in insulinemia and postprandial glycemia [103]. ...
Article
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Bioactive components such as polyphenolics, flavonoids, bioactive peptides, pigments, and essential fatty acids were known to ward off some deadliest diseases. Nutraceuticals are those beneficial compounds that may be food or part of food that has come up with medical or health benefits. Nanoencapsulation and nanofabricated delivery systems are an imminent approach in the field of food sciences. The sustainable fabrication of nutraceuticals and biocompatible active components indisputably enhances the food grade and promotes good health. Nanofabricated delivery systems include carbohydrates-based, lipids (solid and liquid), and proteins-based delivery systems. Solid nano-delivery systems include lipid nanoparticles. Liquid nano-delivery systems include nanoliposomes and nanoemulsions. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as size, charge, hydrophobicity, and targeting molecules affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of nano delivery systems. Advance research in toxicity studies is necessary to ensure the safety of the nanofabricated delivery systems, as the safety of nano delivery systems for use in food applications is unknown. Therefore, improved nanotechnology could play a pivotal role in developing functional foods, a contemporary concept assuring the consumers to provide programmed , high-priced, and high-quality research toward nanofabricated delivery systems.
... This offers opportunities for biorefining with recovery of high-value compounds, energy (as biogas, after AD), and soil amender (digestate from anaerobic treatment or through composting). In particular, individual or mixed fruit and vegetable waste has been comprehensively examined for phytochemicals [7][8][9] and/or energy recovery. There is extensive literature available on AD of fruit and vegetable waste. ...
Article
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This work examines the biorefining potential of mixed fruit and vegetable waste generated in hotels targeting recovery of high-value bioactive phytochemicals, biogas, and soil amender. Through a primary survey of 15 number of star-category hotels in the National Capital Region (NCR) in India, the organic waste management options being practiced were compiled. Phytochemicals recovery from the mixed fruit and vegetable waste was done employing a previously optimized solvent extraction process; this was followed by anaerobic digestion (AD) of the solid residue. Three different waste samples were tested for AD viz. without phytochemicals removal (NT), phytochemicals removal without dichloromethane (DCM) treatment (T-1), and phytochemicals removal with DCM treatment (T-2). The survey indicated that organic waste management practices in NCR hotels are variable covering a broad range—from complete in-house handling of the waste to disposal of the entire amount to urban local bodies. Removal of bioactive phytochemicals from mixed fruit and vegetable waste enhanced the AD process with shorter time lag in gas generation and increased production of biogas with higher methane (CH4) content. The biomethanation potential (L/g VS) and CH4 content (%) were, respectively, 0.198 ± 0.06 and 41 ± 3 (NT), 0.275 ± 0.36 and 57 ± 3 (T-1), and 0.303 ± 0.39 and 62 ± 3 (T-2); thus, the best AD performance was obtained with sample T-2. A combination of phytochemicals removal followed by AD is thus an alternative, biorefinery-based concept for managing mixed fruit and vegetable waste from hotels. The proposed process would involve a combination of physico-mechanical (shredding, drying), physico-chemical (solvent extraction, ultrasonication, centrifugation, filtration, vacuum distillation), and biochemical (AD) steps. Besides the option of upcycling the anaerobic digestion streams (CH4, CO2 and nutrients) in a bioeconomy approach, this scheme enables the recovery of high-value phytochemicals. A preliminary resource recovery estimate (per year per hotel) for sample T-2 is as follows: phytochemicals 6.2 metric tons (MT), biogas 890 m³, and digestate 78 MT. Overall, this study is expected to contribute towards efforts in the eventual transition to a sustainable biobased circular economy. Graphical abstract
... Subcritical water has a temperature between 100 and 374 °C and high enough pressure to make it liquid (below the critical pressure of 22 MPa). Less time is spent extracting, less solvent is used, the extraction quality is greater, and SCW is more environmentally friendly than other traditional extraction methods [218,219]. Using SWE to process agricultural biomass at lower temperatures simultaneously catalyzes chemical processes such as the gradual breakdown of polysaccharides into xylooligomers, xylose-monomers, and other degradation products [220]. SWE is used to bleach the ground, recovering free fatty acids and oils. ...
Article
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Fruit waste contains several bioactive components such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and numerous other phytochemicals including pigments. Furthermore, new financial opportunities are created by using fruit ‘leftovers’ as a basis for bioactivities that may serve as new foods or food ingredients, strengthening the circular economy's properties. From a technical standpoint, organic phenolic substances have become more appealing to the industry, in addition to their application as nutritional supplements or functional meals. Several extraction methods for recovering phenolic compounds from fruit wastes were already published, most of which involve use of different organic solvents. However, there is a growing demand for eco-friendly and sustainable techniques that result in phenolic-rich extracts with little ecological impact. Utilizing these new and advanced green extraction techniques will reduce a global crisis caused by fruit waste management. Using modern techniques, fruit residue is degraded to sub-zero scales, yielding bio-based commodities such as bioactive elements. This review highlights the most favorable and creative methods of separating bioactive materials from fruit residue. Extraction techniques based on environmentally friendly technologies such as bioreactors, enzyme-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and their combination are specifically covered.
... In line with the circular economy concept, fruit and vegetable waste might be turned into a valuable resource as a natural and unlimited supply of biologically active compounds, including vitamins, polyphenols, dietary fibers, glucosinolates, essential oils, and organic acids, among the others, with an enormous economic potential as nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and agro-pharmaceutical ingredients [3,4]. However, to maintain the green connotation, the recovery of natural bioactive compounds from discarded agro-food materials must rely on methods which (i) do not generate more polluting waste than the disposal of the raw biomass itself, (ii) are safe for the final product, and (iii) guarantee high revenues for the entire value chain [5]. ...
Article
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The market for nutraceutical molecules is growing at an impressive pace in all Western countries. A convenient source of bioactive compounds is found in vegetable waste products, and their re-use for the recovery of healthy biomolecules would increase the sustainability of the food production system. However, safe, cheap, and sustainable technologies should be applied for the recovery of these beneficial molecules, avoiding the use of toxic organic solvents or expensive equipment. The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is naturally endowed with several enzymes targeting complex vegetable polymers. In this work, a raw bacterial culture supernatant was used to assist in the extraction of bioactives using isothermal pressurization cycles. Besides a wild-type Bacillus subtilis strain, a new strain showing increased secretion of cellulases and xylanases, pivotal enzymes for the digestion of the plant cell wall, was also used. Results indicate that the recovery of compounds correlates with the amount of cellulolytic enzymes applied, demonstrating that the pretreatment with non-purified culture broth effectively promotes the release of bioactives from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, this approach is a valid and sustainable procedure for the recovery of bioactive compounds from food waste.
... The following supporting information can be downloaded online, Figure S1: Common bioactive compound extraction techniques used in the agriculture industry (adapted from [100]); Table S1: Summary of advantages, disadvantages and extracted compounds in tomatoes by different methods. Refs. ...
Article
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Tomato producing and processing industries present undoubted potential for industrial discarded products valorization whether due to the overproduction of fresh tomatoes or to the loss during processing. Although tomato by-products are not yet considered a raw material, several studies have suggested innovative and profitable applications. It is often referred to as “tomato pomace” and is quite rich in a variety of bioactive compounds. Lycopene, vitamin C, β-carotene, phenolic compounds, and tocopherol are some of the bioactives herein discussed. Tomato by-products are also rich in minerals. Many of these compounds are powerful antioxidants with anti-inflammatory properties besides modulating the immune system. Several researchers have focused on the possible application of natural ingredients, especially those extracted from foods, and their physiological and pharmacological effects. Herein, the effects of processing and further applications of the bioactive compounds present in tomato by-products were carefully reviewed, especially regarding the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. The aim of this review was thus to highlight the existing opportunities to create profitable and innovative applications for tomato by-products in health context.
... This might be one reason why food waste is currently exclusively transferred to anaerobic digestion, composting or burning. A rising number of academic publications that describe efficient, economic and green extractions indicate that first commercialization of food waste extractions might start in the upcoming years (Angiolillo et al., 2015;Baiano, A., 2014;Kumar et al., 2017;Sagar et al., 2018). ...
... In particular, the bioactive compounds are mainly concentrated in the hull portion [22,23], the outermost part of the legume seeds which is obtained as processing waste from the decortication process, and it is normally discarded. Therefore, the recovery of these high-added-value components from lentil seed coats has become the subject of growing interest to reduce the environmental impact that is caused by this agro-industrial waste [24]. To the best of our knowledge, only a few studies report on the extraction of bioactive compounds from lentil hulls, and ultrasound-assisted extraction is the only emerging extraction technique that has been applied so far. ...
Article
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The recovery of industrial by-products is part of the zero-waste circular economy. Lentil seed coats are generally considered to be a waste by-product. However, this low-value by-product is rich in bioactive compounds and may be considered an eco-friendly source of health-promoting phytochemicals. For the first time, a sustainable microwave-assisted extraction technique was applied, and a solvent screening was carried out to enhance the bioactive compound content and the antioxidant activity of green and red lentil hull extracts. With respect to green lentil hull extracts that were obtained with different solvents, the aqueous extract of the red lentil seed coats showed the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content (TPC = 28.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g dry weight, TFC = 1.89 ± 0.01 mg CE/100 mg dry weight, respectively), as well as the highest antioxidant activity, both in terms of the free radical scavenging activity (ABTS, 39.06 ± 0.73 mg TE/g dry weight; DPPH, IC50 = 0.39 μg/mL) and the protection of the neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y, IC50 = 10.1 ± 0.6 μg/mL), the latter of which has never been investigated so far. Furthermore, a metabolite discovery analysis was for the first time performed on the aqueous extracts of both cultivars using an HPLC separation which was coupled with an Orbitrap-based high-Resolution Mass Spectrometry technique.
... This might be attributed to water polarity at 60% concentration might would have augmented the dielectric constant of solvent as well as enriched solute solubility and diffusivity at lower solvent/feed ratio. At lower solvent/feed ratios, the high contact area of solvent and cell matrix might have improved which in turn enhanced the diffusion of polyphenols (secondary metabolites) bound to the cell wall polysaccharides into the solvent through the crakes and pores of shell powder that are created by cell wall disintegration [27,28]. This is directly related to amplitude delivered and extraction time. ...
Article
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The wood apple shells (Limonia acidissima) are often discarded as waste creating environmental hazards due to the limited knowledge of the beneficiaries of functional compounds. The current research aims to develop a process methodology to enhance the extraction efficacy of the bioactive compounds from wood apple shell using specific and combined multi-pin discharge atmospheric cold plasma (CP) and pulse ultrasound–assisted (US) extraction techniques. The numerically optimized process parameters for individual treatment of CP (15 kV voltage and 20 min time) and US (50% amplitude, 5 ml/g solvent/feed ratio) has been considered for the combined process. The CP treatment (20 min) prior to US extraction (15 min) has a significantly higher enhancement of antioxidant activity (90 DPPH% and 93 ABTS%), phenols (63.84 mg GAE/g DW), and flavonoids (6.03 mg quecertine/g DW) content compared to specific extraction techniques, i.e., CP (37.34 mg GAE/g extract DW and 77.97 DPPH%) and US (41.39 mg GAE/g extract DW and 83.56 DPPH%) that are elucidated by numerous pores and cracks noticed on the surface of CP-US extract in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The characterization of shell extract detected better thermal stability (DSC), relative crystallinity (XRD), and diverse significant peaks (FTIR), corresponding to functional groups like polyphenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant compounds for combined process. The combined CP-US is an eco-friendly and sustainable extraction method for byproduct utilization of wood apple shell with maximum antioxidant potential that is advantageous in functional, pharmaceutical, and nutraceuticals formulations. Graphical abstract
... In contrast, the developing world loses its produce mainly at the earlier stages of the food supply chain: extreme climatic conditions, lack of transport, poor harvesting technologies, and storage capacities are some predominant factors [1,7,8]. Although various attempts have been made to extract bioactive compounds/nutraceuticals from food waste, the processes are not worked upon on a larger scale [9]. ...
Article
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The objective of this study is to evaluate food wastage attitudes and the impact of social media among the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population. A questionnaire was distributed via social network applications (n = 525). The majority of the respondents were females (84%) and social media users (99%). Most of the respondents were well aware of the problem of food wastage (96%). Half of the respondents (53.7 and 48.8%) reported taking some form of action on an ‘often’ basis to reduce food wastage, and buying food as per their needs, respectively. Two-thirds (66.7%) of the respondents stated that their family did not throw away anything from their last meal. A majority (82.3%) felt uncomfortable upon discarding food. A mixed response was observed in terms of food wastage and social media usage. On one hand, using social media was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with measuring the exact quantity of ingredients prior to preparation, lower overall family wastage, eating leftovers, and composting. On the other hand, less-frequent social media users significantly (p < 0.05) had fewer leftovers, checked expiry dates, were more serious about food wastage, and planned to minimize it. Social media should be used with prudence as it may not have a very significant impact on food wastage reduction.
... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2030 agenda for sustainable development reflects the requirements of increasing global awareness of that problem, where the annual loss reported to be onethird of food production (Lipinski et al., 2013). It is worthy to note that fruits are the most popular food globally because of their nutritional value (Kumar, Yadav, Kumar, Vyas, & Dhaliwal, 2017). As far as fruits by-products are concerned, to yield several value-added resources is highly attractive to ensure that production processes are environmentally sound and economically viable (Santana-Méridas, González-Coloma, & Sánchez-Vioque, 2012). ...
Article
Food industries are yielding annually plentiful by-products worldwide, these concomitants could be an excellent source of natural functional ingredients. Hence, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of pomegranate husk were examined and chromatographic analyzes were applied for isolation of the bioactive compounds. Lignans; isohydroxymatairesinol, punicatannin C, flavonoids; phloretin, quercetin glycoside, indolamine; punigratane, and phenolic acid; coutaric acid were identified for the first time from pomegranate pericarp, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compared to isolated compounds, which showed a weak cy-totoxic effects, punicatannin C induced a moderate cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines. Phloretin and coutaric acid exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, while punigratane possesses the most substantial antimicrobial effect on Micrococcus kristinae. In conclusion, pomegranate agrifood by-product; phloretin, punigratane, and coutaric acid display remarkable microbicide effects and could be used in medical, cosmetic, and food industries purposes as a safe, and economical alternative to synthetic agents.
Chapter
The current production and linear consumption model that ends in disposal needs to be urgently rethought given the huge amount of waste generated in a wide range of industrial processes. There are possible solutions, such as reintroducing these residues back into the production chains, based on the circular economy model as they can be valuable sources of interesting compounds, such as proteins – the primary constituents of living beings. Combining urgent issues such as the increasing scarcity of natural resources; a large amount of food and waste by‐products; an increase in the human population expected in the coming years; and the problem of hunger and malnutrition affecting millions of people, new sources of protein directed to human nutrition – as well as animal and other human applications – must be developed, in addition to conventional (meat from livestock) and even alternative sources (plant‐based protein, from crops). Considering this scenario, this chapter aims at discussing the processes to obtain proteins from food waste, and analyzing conventional and novel protein extraction methods. Thus, obtaining proteins from food waste, a major residue stream with high chemical potential that is currently being used for low‐value applications, could promote an even greener and more sustainable food chain.
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Although the fishing and wine industries undoubtedly contribute significantly to the economy, they also generate large waste streams with considerable repercussions on both economic and environmental levels. Scientific literature has shown products can be extracted from these streams which have properties of interest to the cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industries. Antimicrobial activity is undoubtedly among the most interesting of these properties, and particularly useful in the production of food packaging to increase the shelf life of food products. In this study, film for food packaging was produced for the first time using chitosan extracted from the exoskeletons of red shrimp (Aristomorpha foliacea) and oil obtained from red grape seeds (Vitis vinifera). The antimicrobial activity of two films was analyzed: chitosan-only film and chitosan film with the addition of red grape seed oil at two different concentrations (0.5 mL and 1 mL). Our results showed noteworthy antimicrobial activity resulting from functionalized chitosan films; no activity was observed against pathogen and spoilage Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, although the antimicrobial effects observed were species-dependent. The preliminary results of this study could contribute to developing the circular economy, helping to promote the reuse of waste to produce innovative films for food packaging.
Chapter
In this chapter an overview of the bioactive extraction techniques by the combination of membrane processes and coupling it with new emerging technologies is provided. The main classes of bio actives, their classification with their potential health benefits is discussed. The importance of food bio actives, increasing consumer awareness and their economical extraction processes without significant loss in their original characteristics are highlighted. Specific applications of different membrane unit operations and their multi stage integration in certain selected areas of bioactive extraction of natural sources (artichoke waters, olive oil mill waters, blood orange Juice, Pomegranate juice, whey waters) are also reviewed and discussed, The potential of membrane techniques with respect to the separation, concentration and retention of high-added-value compounds such as Phenolics flavonoids, polyphenols, lactoferrin and their vital role in food quality improvement and reduction of environmental foot print are analyzed in detail.
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Over the last few decades, the globe is facing tremendous effects due to the unnecessary piling of municipal solid waste among which food waste holds a greater portion. This practice not only affects the environment in terms of generating greenhouse gas emissions but when left dumped in landfills will also trigger poverty and malnutrition. This review focuses on the global trend in food waste management strategies involved in the effective utilization of food waste to produce various value-added products in a microbiology aspect, thereby diminishing the negative impacts caused by the unnecessary side effects of non-renewable energy sources. The review also detailed the efficiency of microorganisms in the production of various bio-energies as well. Further, recent attempts to the exploitation of genetically modified microorganisms in producing value-added products were enlisted. This also attempted to address food waste valorization techniques, the combined applications of various processes for an enhanced yield of different compounds, and addressed various challenges. Further, the current challenges involved in various processes and the effective measures to tackle them in the future have been addressed. Thus, the present review has successfully addressed the circular bio-economy in food waste valorization.
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The risk faced by the drug-resistant pathogens, research, and development for viable alternative medicine is gaining traction. This study aims to utilize agricultural waste beneficially, by investigating the methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, and hexane extracts of black gram pods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis to identify metabolites and functional groups and to evaluate its antibacterial and anti-biofilm potential on various fish disease-causing drug resistant pathogens like Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Numerous compounds were identified as major peak area percentage by GC–MS analysis based on the polarity. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of black gram pods showed higher phenolic and tannin content compared to other solvents, these results correlate with antioxidant potential. IC50 values of both 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) by the methanolic extracts possessed 933.807 and 976.285 µg/mL respectively. All the extracts possessed potential antibiofilm activity against A. hydrophila, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner. This study clearly shows that phenolic content is the major source for the inhibition of bacterial cell adherence (biofilm) against pathogens. Extraction in highly polar solvents exhibited higher content of phenols and tannins as compared to non-polar solvents. Findings of the current study support black gram pods as an excellent alternative medicine against fish disease-causing pathogens. It is proved in this study that the biowaste black gram pods could be recycled for the welfare of humans as well as for the growth of the country’s economy. Graphical abstract
Conference Paper
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The problem of preservation of the environment in teaching of technical education is ultimately one of the issues that is posed to modern forms of education nowadays. We live in a world where engineering and technology offer unprecedented opportunities that are available to the humankind. All sectors of the economy, industry and traffic have experienced an envious level of development and the products of their functioning have enabled faster movement and far easier and better quality of life in the environment where people live. Moreover, there is always a question of negative factors which, as a consequence of this development, are the causes of threaten and damaging areas with long-term consequences, which again leads to a certain link between ecological issue and restriction that must be placed on the way of working of many economic subjects so as in some extent it was respected. Because of that it is very important for children in primary schools to be well aware of environmental protection and at the same time by adopting knowledge in the field of engineering and technology in order for the effect to be complete. We are witnessing that although the advancement of science and technology contributes remarkably to the quality of life in all segments and in all fields of human life and work, we are often overwhelmed with images that show how much by unforgivable behavior of mass-produced entities the human existence is questioned. Wild landfills, systemic destruction of green areas reserved for the construction of traffic infrastructure, large quantities of deterioration of seawater and lakes, mass extermination of animal species and the modification of global atmospheric images are just signs that presents an alarm to warn that it is necessary to approach the ecological way of thinking. Considering that and all the above, we must be aware that it is crucially to influence the behavior of man as the primary offender for conscious creation of ecological crises through proper upbringing and education.
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The agri-food industry generates a large amount of waste every year, which is both an environmental and economic problem, especially for the countries in charge of its disposal. Over the years, there has been a growing interest especially in plant waste, since they are rich in compounds with high nutritional and nutraceutical value. As a result, several scientific disciplines are investigating their alternative use in the formulation of dietary supplements for human or animal use, or as biostimulants for agricultural purposes. In this review, using a meta-analytical approach, we summarize the main and most recent findings related to the use of plant waste as potential ingredients in dietary supplementation for fish grown under controlled experimental conditions. In particular, in this review, it has been highlighted that plant waste may have not only positive effects on growth performance, but also beneficial effects on modulation of the innate immune system and antioxidant defenses. Finally, the bibliometric study and a mapping provide an overview of the recent publications, showing the research strength across the country, the number of potential collaborations among institutions, and the main research focus, demonstrating how this topic is growing in interest, especially in Europe.
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A circular economy promotes a world-friendly style of economic development, and the main aim is a closed-loop cycle of “resource-production-consumption-regeneration” economic activities. A circular economy can assist in implementing sustainable development in the food industry. During conventional food processing, the thermal effects degrade the food residues and make their wastes. Nonthermal processing has emerged as a promising, safe, and effective technique for extracting bioactive compounds from food residues. Nonthermal processing help in implementing a circular economy and meeting the United Nations approved Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Collaboration between food producers and the food chain may make the food industry more circular. This article motivates adopting nonthermal technologies to conserve natural resources, food safety, and energy in different food processing phases to meet SDGs.
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Traditional incineration and landfill of food processing waste (FPW) have polluted the environment and underutilized valuable bioactive compounds, including polyphenols in food waste. As one of the most widely occurring compounds in the FPW, polyphenols possess high utilization value in many fields such as human health, energy, and environmental protection. Extracting polyphenols directly from FPW can maximize the value of polyphenols and avoid waste of resources. However, traditional polyphenol extraction methods mostly use the Soxhlet extraction, infiltration, and impregnation method, consuming a large amount of organic solvent and suffering from long extraction time and low extraction efficiency. Emerging green extraction methods such as supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and other methods can shorten the extraction time and improve the solvent extraction efficacy, resulting in the green and safe recovery of polyphenols from FPW. In this paper, the traditional treatment methods of FPW waste and the application of polyphenols in FPW are briefly reviewed, and the traditional extraction methods and emerging green extraction methods of polyphenols in FPW are compared to obtain insight into the start-of-the-art extraction approaches.
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This work describes a novel and sustainable strategy for the recovery of proteins by successive extractions using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). This strategy was applied to the valorisation of pomegranate seeds. Nine different NADES were screened and that constituted by choline chloride and acetic acid was chosen due to its best performance. A Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize other conditions in this extraction step: time, temperature, amount of sample, and HIFU amplitude. Protein recovery, under optimal conditions, was 13.3 g of proteins/100 g of milled and dried defatted seeds. Proteins were next characterized by their separation using RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE, isoelectrofocusing electrophoresis, and by the evaluation of their digestibility and antioxidant properties. Comparison of these results with those from extracts obtained by other techniques supported the interest of combining the extraction using acid NADES with PLE, under alkaline conditions. The successive extraction by both methodologies enabled to double the total recovery of proteins. The analysis of samples by UHPLC-MS/MS, after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and de novo identification revealed the presence of 19 peptides in the NADES hydrolysate, while the successive extraction by PLE enabled to observe 15 additional peptides. Additional 83 peptides were found by database searching against Punica granatum and by homology with other organisms. Differences between peptides and the proteins in both hydrolysates confirmed the different protein selectivity of both strategies and the potential of NADES for extracting larger proteins and PLE for the extraction of smaller ones. Some phenolic compounds, amino acids, and fatty acids were also co-extracted with proteins in both extractions.
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Vegetables are essential for human health because they provide a significant quantity of vitamins, minerals, and fiber in our balanced meals. Vegetable production produces a large amount of liquid and solid waste, containing many valuable high‐value components with significant economic benefits. If not used or disposed of properly, it may cause pollution. On the other hand, this waste material is high in valuable compounds and is thrown into the environment. These are unique, fresh, and cost‐effective bases of flavoring, additives, dietary fiber, protein, antioxidants, and antimicrobials, which could be used in the beverage and food industries to produce beneficial products. As a result, new concepts concerning the practice of these by‐products for more utilization in the manufacture of high‐nutritive edible products or supplements have piqued interest as these are high‐value products with the potential for economic recovery. This review aims to encourage vegetable production and processing by emphasizing the possibility of extracting active molecules from vegetable waste and their application in industries. These advantages would pave the way for the potential use of vegetable waste for therapeutic and nutraceutical applications. The retrieval of these bioactive substances from industrial by‐products is currently generating much interest, owing to their positive effects on people. This review concentrates on the vegetable by‐products with bioactive properties and their potential applications in health sectors (nutraceuticals) and food production (functional foods).
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Vegetables and fruits have been considered as one of the most consumed staple foods in society as these possess many health-promoting factors. The enhanced day-to-day demand has fastened their production and processing rate, which generates a plethora of significant fresh and processed vegetable and fruit wastes. Various vegetable and fruit processing practices produce around 20–30% of waste by-products constituted of skin, pomace, seeds, etc. These waste materials are a rich source of many functional bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, vitamins, fibers, enzymes, oils, etc. These phenolic and bioactive compounds can be recovered from vegetable and fruit wastes through several extraction methods. Further, these extracted valuable materials have been valorized into value-added products especially tailored for many pharmaceuticals, health, and food applications. The present chapter focuses on types of vegetable and fruit waste, phenolic and bioactive compounds present in this waste, various strategies from the extraction of these valuable materials, and their possible conversion into functional value-added products.KeywordsPhenolicPolyphenolsBioactiveAcidsOrganic acidsFruit wasteVegetable waste
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Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was optimized by response surface methodology in order to enhance the extraction of polyphenols from basil (Ocimum basilicum L). Box–Behnken experimental design on three levels and three variables was used for optimization. Influence of ethanol concentration (50, 70, and 90%); microwave power (400, 600, and 800 W); and extraction time (15, 25, and 35 min) on each response were investigated. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model, and multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to evaluate model fitness and optimal conditions. Considering the maximum content of extracted total phenols, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity, the optimal conditions for all investigated response were ethanol concentration of 50%, microwave power of 442 W, and extraction time of 15 min. Under the optimal conditions, obtained basil liquid extract contained 4.299 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight (DW) of total polyphenols, 0.849 g catechin equivalents/100 g DW of total flavonoids, and IC50 and EC50 values of 9.602 and 82.889 μg/mL, respectively. The development of simultaneous MAE procedure for extraction of total phenols, total flavonoids, and potential antioxidants from basil, represented valorization of basil as valuable source of bioactive compounds.
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An investigation was carried out to extract polyphenols from the peel of kinnow (Citrus reticulate L.) by maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) techniques. The antioxidant potential of these polyphenols was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and superoxide radical scavenging assays; and their antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial strains Staphyloccoccus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium. The highest extraction yield was obtained through the solvent ethanol at 80% concentration level, whereas UAE was a more efficient technique and yielded comparatively higher polyphenol contents than maceration. Maximum polyphenols were extracted with 80% methanol [32.48 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract] using UAE, whereas minimum phenolics (8.64 mg GAE/g extract) were obtained with 80% ethyl acetate through the maceration technique. Elevated antioxidant activity of kinnow peel extracts was exhibited in three antioxidant assays, where 80% methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity (27.67±1.11mM/100 g for FRAP) and the highest scavenging activity, 72.83±0.65% and 64.80±0.91% for DPPH and superoxide anion radical assays, respectively. Strong correlations between total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were recorded. Eleven phenolic compounds—including five phenolic acids and six flavonoids—were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Ferulic acid and hesperidin were the most abundant compounds whereas caffeic acid was the least abundant phenolic compound in kinnow peel extracts. Maximum inhibition zone was recorded against S. aureus (16.00±0.58 mm) whereas minimum inhibition zone was noted against S. typhimurium (9.00±1.16 mm). It was concluded that kinnow mandarin peels, being a potential source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, may be used as an ingredient for the preparation of functional foods.
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An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.
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Bioactive peptides are considered the new generation of biologically active regulators that not only prevent the mechanism of oxidation and microbial degradation in foods but also enhanced the treatment of various diseases and disorders, thus increasing quality of life. This review article emphasizes recent advances in bioactive peptide technology, such as: (i) new strategies for transforming bioactive peptides from residual waste into added-value products; (ii) nanotechnology for the encapsulation, protection and release of controlled peptides; and (iii) use of techniques of large-scale recovery and purification of peptides aiming at future applications to pharmaceutical and food industries.
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The black walnut, Junglas nigra, is indigenous to eastern North America, and abscission of its fruit occurs around October. The fruit consists of a husk, a hard shell, and kernel. The husk is commonly discarded in processing, though it contains phenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. For this study, black walnut husks were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide with an ethanol modifier. The effects of temperature, ethanol concentration, and drying of walnut husks prior to extraction upon antioxidant potential were evaluated using a factorial design of experiments. The solvent density was held constant at 0.75 g/mL. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be 68°C and 20 wt‐% ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide. At these conditions, the antioxidant potential as measured by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was 0.027 mmol trolox equivalent/g (mmol TE/g) for dried walnut husk and 0.054 mmol TE/g for walnut husks that were not dried. Antioxidant potential was also evaluated using the total phenolic content (TPC) and 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazyl (DPPH) assays and the FRAP assay was found to linearly correlate to the TPC assay.