Article

Smallholder Farmers Perceptions and Adaptations to Climate Change and Variability in Kitui County, Kenya

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Abstract

The effects of climate change have highly challenged the productivity of the agricultural sector. The increasing temperatures and erratic rains, as well as diseases and pests have significantly reduced crop yields in the arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya. Though climate change has been the talk of the day, many farmers in the grassroots have hardly adopted any response options and have continued to suffer losses from the inherent effects of climate change. The present study sought to assess the perceptions of small scale farmers on climate change in selected villages in Kitui County and identify adaptation measures adopted by the farmers in response to climate change. Descriptive survey design was used. A total of 177 households were randomly selected to constitute the study sample. Data was coded and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The results showed that most farmers had perceived a changing climate with 74% and 100% of the respondents in Kaveta and Mikuyuni villages respectively, reporting an increase in temperature over the years. Regarding precipitation, 100% and 97% of the respondents in Mikuyuni and Kaveta villages respectively, had noticed a decrease in the average annual rainfall over the last two decades. Further, the results indicated that 76% and 88% of the respondents in Kaveta and Mikuyuni villages respectively had adopted various adaptation options in response to the decreasing rainfall and the unpredictable onset of rains. The study established that farmers in drier areas perceived climate change more and had adapted more to climate change and variability as compared to those in wetter areas. More resources in terms of credit facilities, access to climate change information and extension services should be availed to farmers in areas affected more by climate change and variability to increase their resilience.

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... Among the key socio-economic impacts of the scenarios include shifts in the productivity of major cereal and horticultural crops (Singh et al. 2015;Tittonell and Giller 2013) with a net adverse effects on the food security situations and income levels among many agricultural-dependent economies (Mertz et al. 2009b). For instance, in sub-Saharan Africa, this situation is likely to disrupt huge proportions of their economies whose main contribution emanates from agriculture dominated by smallholder output (Moyo et al. 2012;Mutunga et al. 2017). Specifically, in Kenya, rainfall-dependent smallholders are responsible for up to 70% of the agricultural output (Raworth 2007;Silvestri et al. 2015), which is essential to household food security and income flows in nearly all the rural areas (Mikalitsa 2015;Oluoko-Odingo 2011). ...
... These climatic situations mirrored the area's farm-level experiences, covered in the next section of this study, which also showed decreasing rainfall amounts and increasingly rising temperatures in the area. The findings are also in tandem with other studies which have indicated increasing climate variability in Kenya (Khisa et al. 2014;Mutunga et al. 2017;Oluoko-Odingo 2011) and other parts of the world (Asseng et al. 2015;Labbé et al. 2016;Thornton et al. 2014). Such increasing climatic shifts have been shown to harbour potentially adverse implications on food security through the impact on crop output in Kenya and other parts of the developing world (Campbell et al. 2016;Cohn et al. 2016;Oluoko-Odingo 2011;Rigolot et al. 2017;Silvestri et al. 2015;Wambua and Omoke 2014). ...
... Delayed rainfall situations with irregular patterns affect planting seasons. Snowballing susceptibility of crops to the effects of destructive pests and disease outbreaks also occur (Mutunga et al. 2017;Okumu 2013). These affect the availability of livestock feed resources thus undermining on overall productivity (Field 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
At the centre of smallholders’ adaptation is a need to understand their perceptions on key climatic scenarios so as to glean helpful information for key decision-making processes. In Kenya at the moment, downstream information regarding these circumstances remain scanty, with many smallholders being ‘on their own’, in spite of the imminent threats from shifting precipitation patterns, rising temperatures, and intensifying droughts. At the sub-national levels, potential impacts of these situations are likely to deepen due to extensive cases of land use transformations, habitat degradation, plummeting water resources capacity and common inter-ethnic conflicts, among other negative externalities. The study examined current climatic situations in Trans-Mara East sub-County, to the south-western part of Kenya, as well as the smallholders’ perceptions about the situations, their adaptation levels and constraints thereof. Pearson correlation coefficient, indicated a weak positive association between smallholder’s perceptions and either their age, marital status, level of education, or livelihood streams (r ≤ 0.1; p ≥ 0.05, for all), unlike their climatic perceptions and farm sizes which showed a strong positive association (r = 0.430; p ≤ 0.01). Key desired adaptation options, improving crop varieties, livestock feeding techniques and crop diversification, topped their options, with destocking being least desired. Education levels (r = 0.229; p ≤ 0.05) and farm sizes (r = 0.534; p ≤ 0.01) had a positively significant association with adaptive capacity, in addition to a significantly weak, association between their adaptive capacity and both their individual’s marital status (r = 0.154; p ≥ 0.05) and diversity of livelihood streams (r = 0.034; p ≥ 0.05). The analysis also showed a weak negative association between their adaptive capacity and age (r = − 0.026; p ≥ 0.05). Amid the key constraints which emerged include high cost of farm inputs, limited access to credit and market uncertainties, among others. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significantly strong negative association between smallholders’ constraints and both (r ≥ − 0.3; p ≤ 0.01) their level of education, and diversity of livelihood streams. A significantly strong positive association (r = 0.280; p ≤ 0.01) was identified between smallholder’s age and constraints, while marital status and farm sizes both (r ≤ − 0.01; p ≥ 0.05) revealed weak non-significant negative association with the constraints. Trans-Mara East sub-County has been grappling with a number of climate-related challenges. These were manifested through increased rainfall uncertainties, intensifying droughts, and rising temperatures, with effects on crop and livestock performances in the area, accompanied by plummeting household food security and income positions. Besides, smallholders’ perceptions intersected with various intervening subtleties. Smallholders' adaptive capacity in the area, was largely not associated with their socioeconomic characteristics as most of the respective components such as education, and livelihood streams, were barely fully-fledged. Moreover, the constraints against their adaptive capacity were mainly related to the existing policies and their respective implementations at the downstream levels with limited attribution to the farm-level interventions. It is thus incumbent upon the decision-makers, and other key stakeholders to explore avenues for amplifying the smallholders’ desired adaptation schemes while down-sizing the existing adaptation bottlenecks in the area.
... With increasing recognition of present and future impacts of climate change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC 2006) has identified the poorest people living in developing countries as the most vulnerable due to their dependence on natural resources and rain-fed agriculture for survival. However, agriculture remains the dominant employer of rural residents in Africa (e.g., Kalungu and Leal Filho 2018;Belay et al. 2017;Mutunga et al. 2017;Cobbinah and Anane 2016). Smallholder farming creates opportunities for an estimated 175 million people in Africa, of which about 70% are women (AGRA 2014). ...
... The chapter defines climate change as a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere that is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable periods (UNFCC 2006). The chapter adopts the meaning of climate change adaptation (Mutunga et al. 2017) in that adaptation to climate change is the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. ...
... There are reports of higher drought risks; extreme weather events such as floods, pests, and high temperatures; and diseases faced by farmers in recent years, exacerbating the food crisis in Africa (Mutunga et al. 2017;IPCC 2018). There is evidence from the literature that the current impacts are more severe in rural and smallholder farming communities (Cobbinah and Anane 2016) especially in Africa. ...
Chapter
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Climate change threatens development and economic growth in Africa. It increases risks for individuals and governments with unprecedented negative impacts on agriculture. Specifically, climate change presents a major threat to food security in Africa for the long term due to the low adaptive capacity to deal with successive climate shocks. There is a need for greater awareness of the trends of food crisis patterns and adaptive initiatives. The objective of this chapter was to analyze the trends of the food crisis in Africa within the past 10 years and adaptive initiatives. Quantitative data analyzed for food security indicators were obtained from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Development Indicators (WDI) available at the Environment and Climate Change data portal. Policy and adaptation measures related to climate change were reviewed in 26 countries in Africa, with the view to highlight their integrative nature in enhancing food security. High prevalence of undernourishment was observed in six countries, all in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Chad, Liberia, Central African Republic, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Countries with a high land acreage under cereal production recorded reduced undernourishment. Niger demonstrated effective adaptation for food security by registering the highest crop production index in extreme climate variability. However, Kenya appears to be the most predisposed by registering both high climate variability and below average crop production index. It is observed that diversification and technology adoption are key strategies applied across the countries for adaptation. However, the uptake of technology by smallholder farmers is still low across many countries in SSA.
... There is considerable literature on how farmers perceive CC. Some of the perceptions presented in the literature include intense rainfall; changes in the timing of rainfall; frequent droughts; and changes in temperature, landslides, crop pests, thunderstorms, hailstorms, winds and floods (Babatolu and Akinnubi, 2016;Limantol et al., 2016;Sanogo et al., 2016;Elum et al., 2017;Stöber et al., 2017;Mkonda and He, 2017;Mutunga et al., 2017;Fadina and Barjolle, 2018;Williams et al., 2018). Furthermore, this growing body of literature has also focused on evaluating the impact of CC on major food crops (wheat, maize, rice, millet, sorghum and cassava (Rurinda et al., 2015). ...
... Approximately, more than 70 per cent had observed an increase in temperatures in all the zones, while less than 23 per cent had perceived a decrease in temperatures in the past 20 years. These results are in agreement with the findings of numerous studies from Africa, which report that farmers have perceived an increase in temperatures (Babatolu and Akinnubi, 2016;Limantol et al., 2016;Bobadoye et al., 2016;Sanogo et al., 2016;Mutunga et al., 2017;Mkonda and He, 2017;Fadina and Barjolle, 2018). Farmers in all three zones also reported a change in the amount of rainfall. ...
... Similarly, in a study in Tanzania, farmers declared that rainfall onset has changed because they used to plant crops in October/November, but the season has now shifted to December/January (Lema and Majule, 2009). Besides changes in the start and end of the rainy seasons, the findings from the semi-humid and semi-arid zones in the present study agree with those of other studies who report farmers' observations of a general Note: ****and **indicate a statistical significance at p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively Impact of climate change decrease in the amount of rainfall (Limantol et al., 2016;Mutunga et al., 2017). In line with these findings, Mugalavai et al. (2008) argued that early onset translates into early cessation, while for the short rains, early onset translates into a longer growing season. ...
... There is considerable literature on how farmers perceive CC. Some of the perceptions presented in the literature include intense rainfall; changes in the timing of rainfall; frequent droughts; and changes in temperature, landslides, crop pests, thunderstorms, hailstorms, winds and floods (Babatolu and Akinnubi, 2016;Limantol et al., 2016;Sanogo et al., 2016;Elum et al., 2017;Stöber et al., 2017;Mkonda and He, 2017;Mutunga et al., 2017;Fadina and Barjolle, 2018;Williams et al., 2018). Furthermore, this growing body of literature has also focused on evaluating the impact of CC on major food crops (wheat, maize, rice, millet, sorghum and cassava (Rurinda et al., 2015). ...
... Approximately, more than 70 per cent had observed an increase in temperatures in all the zones, while less than 23 per cent had perceived a decrease in temperatures in the past 20 years. These results are in agreement with the findings of numerous studies from Africa, which report that farmers have perceived an increase in temperatures (Babatolu and Akinnubi, 2016;Limantol et al., 2016;Bobadoye et al., 2016;Sanogo et al., 2016;Mutunga et al., 2017;Mkonda and He, 2017;Fadina and Barjolle, 2018). Farmers in all three zones also reported a change in the amount of rainfall. ...
... Similarly, in a study in Tanzania, farmers declared that rainfall onset has changed because they used to plant crops in October/November, but the season has now shifted to December/January (Lema and Majule, 2009). Besides changes in the start and end of the rainy seasons, the findings from the semi-humid and semi-arid zones in the present study agree with those of other studies who report farmers' observations of a general Note: ****and **indicate a statistical significance at p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively Impact of climate change decrease in the amount of rainfall (Limantol et al., 2016;Mutunga et al., 2017). In line with these findings, Mugalavai et al. (2008) argued that early onset translates into early cessation, while for the short rains, early onset translates into a longer growing season. ...
Article
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Understanding farmers’ perceptions of how the climate is changing is vital to anticipating its impacts. Farmers are known to take appropriate steps to adapt only when they perceive change to be taking place. This study aims to analyse how African indigenous vegetable (AIV) farmers perceive climate change in three different agro-climatic zones (ACZs) in Kenya, identify the main differences in historical seasonal and annual rainfall and temperature trends between the zones, discuss differences in farmers’ perceptions and historical trends and analyse the impact of these perceived changes and trends on yields, weeds, pests and disease infestation of AIVs.
... The choice of adaptation option by most smallholder farmers is influenced by financial capabilities and different contextual factors such as demographic and institutional characteristics [8]. Major household determinants for adoption of technologies and practices include gender, education level, age, family size, income and farmers' experience [10]. With old age, large farming experience, high level of education and large size of family was noted to greatly influence adoption of various strategies to increase resilience against climate change [11]. ...
... Being a male increases likelihood of use of manure as an adaptation strategy. These findings support those of Mutunga et al. [10], that showed that male headed households are more likely to adopt technologies to overcome negative impacts of climate change as they are likely to have better access to extension services, climate change information and can take risks than female headed households. Males are also more likely to take risks to adapt than their female counterparts [25]. ...
... High level of education is hypothesized to significantly influence adoption of CSA practices to increase resilience against climate variability and change [10]. Our results revealed that increase in the number of years spent in school had a positive significant influence on the choice of the use of manure as the adaptation strategy at 10% significant level. ...
Article
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Aims: This study evaluated determinants that influence choice of Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices among smallholder farmers in Masaba South sub-county, Kisii, Kenya. Study Design: This study used a multivariate probit model to evaluate determinants that influence farmers' choice of CSA practices. Place and Duration of Study: Masaba South sub-county, Kisii, Kenya between the second week of April 2019 and the last week of May 2019. Methodology: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire from 196 households, 3 focused group discussions and 7 key informant interviews. Information such as socioeconomic , land ownership, climate change perception, crop production practices and institutional characteristics were collected from the households. Results: The results showed that crop diversification, change of crop varieties and crop rotation and/or mixed cropping are the dominant adaptation strategies in the study area. Access to credit, farm income, climate change perception and household size have a significant positive influence on adoption of most CSA practices. Small-sized farms, lack of access to extension services, level of education and inaccessibility to weather and climate information were major barriers influencing adoption of CSA practices. Conclusion: To reduce vulnerability of smallholder farmers to impacts of climate variability and change, the study recommends the need to enhance increased access to extension services and timely dissemination of climate information to farmers in the form they can easily understand and decode.
... Since the turn of the twenty-first century, numerous studies have been carried to assess the impact of climate change on smallholder farming systems (FitzRoy and Papyrakis, 2013;Arbuckle et al., 2015;Ibrahim et al., 2015;Opiyo et al., 2015;Mugari et al., 2016;Mutunga et al., 2017). Previous research has consistently shown that climate change remains a significant challenge to the attainment of higher productivity among smallholder farmers who predominantly rely on rainfed agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (Hassan and Nhemachena, 2008;Deressa et al., 2011;Arbuckle et al., 2015). ...
... A commonly posited argument is that rural farmers may not be willing to incorporate climate change strategies if the net benefit of doing so is not clear (Hassan and Nhemachena, 2008). Whilst this may be true from a rational standpoint, recent studies have revealed that understanding farmers' current contextual situation and responses to climate change shocks is paramount in order to improve the utilization of effective adaptive measures (Mase et al., 2017;Mutunga et al., 2017). Thus, climate change measures that work in one scenario may not be effective in other situations. ...
... This is attributed to the fact that the eventual adoption of climate change measures by rural households is dependent on a complex process which relies heavily on their perceptions and knowledge about climate change (Limantol et al., 2016;Mugari et al., 2016;Elum et al., 2017). As such, in order to adapt, farmers should first perceive and notice that climate has altered and then identify potential alternative adaptation strategies in response to the perceived changes and effects (Maddison, 2007;Gbetibouo, 2009;Badmos et al., 2015;Opiyo et al., 2015;Mutunga et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to establish the association between smallholder farmer perceptions toward climate change and adaptation strategies at the household level in Chimanimani District of Zimbabwe. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 284 households mainly using a structured questionnaire. The Heckman probit selection model was used to first identify the underlying socio-economic factors that affect households’ recognition of climate change in the past 10 years, and the second model the factors that influence adaptation to the climate change phenomenon. Findings The majority of farmers (85 percent) perceived that climate change, characterized by rising temperatures and variability in rainfall patterns, has been occurring in the past ten years. As a response, farmers adapted using methods such as manuring and staggering of planting dates. Indigenous knowledge systems and non-governmental organizations increased the likelihood farmers’ recognition of climate change ( p <0.05). The probability of adopting multiple adaptation strategies was influenced by household head’s education level, land tenure and access to public extension services. Practical implications Integrative extension methods that take into account socio-cultural values could be helpful in building resilience as farmers are better able to understand the climate change construct. There is a need to guarantee land tenure rights in resettlement areas to stimulate investment on farms. Originality/value This study showed that there is a link between farmers’ prior knowledge of climate change and the number of adaptive investments. The analysis proposed an educational and extension approach that is embedded in the socio-cultural and traditional setting of farmers.
... Among the key socio-economic impacts of the scenarios include shifts in the productivity of major cereal and horticultural crops (Singh et al. 2015;Tittonell and Giller 2013) with a net adverse effects on the food security situations and income levels among many agricultural-dependent economies (Mertz et al. 2009b). For instance, in sub-Saharan Africa, this situation is likely to disrupt huge proportions of their economies whose main contribution emanates from agriculture dominated by smallholder output (Moyo et al. 2012;Mutunga et al. 2017). Specifically, in Kenya, rainfall-dependent smallholders are responsible for up to 70% of the agricultural output (Raworth 2007;Silvestri et al. 2015), which is essential to household food security and income flows in nearly all the rural areas (Mikalitsa 2015;Oluoko-Odingo 2011). ...
... These climatic situations mirrored the area's farm-level experiences, covered in the next section of this study, which also showed decreasing rainfall amounts and increasingly rising temperatures in the area. The findings are also in tandem with other studies which have indicated increasing climate variability in Kenya (Khisa et al. 2014;Mutunga et al. 2017;Oluoko-Odingo 2011) and other parts of the world (Asseng et al. 2015;Labbé et al. 2016;Thornton et al. 2014). Such increasing climatic shifts have been shown to harbour potentially adverse implications on food security through the impact on crop output in Kenya and other parts of the developing world (Campbell et al. 2016;Cohn et al. 2016;Oluoko-Odingo 2011;Rigolot et al. 2017;Silvestri et al. 2015;Wambua and Omoke 2014). ...
... Delayed rainfall situations with irregular patterns affect planting seasons. Snowballing susceptibility of crops to the effects of destructive pests and disease outbreaks also occur (Mutunga et al. 2017;Okumu 2013). These affect the availability of livestock feed resources thus undermining on overall productivity (Field 2012). ...
Article
Background: At the centre of smallholders’ adaptation is a need to understand their perceptions on key climatic scenarios so as to glean helpful information for key decision-making processes. In Kenya at the moment, downstream information regarding these circumstances remain scanty, with many smallholders being ‘on their own’, in spite of the imminent threats from shifting precipitation patterns, rising temperatures, and intensifying droughts. At the sub-national levels, potential impacts of these situations are likely to deepen due to extensive cases of land use transformations, habitat degradation, plummeting water resources capacity and common inter-ethnic conflicts, among other negative externalities. The study examined current climatic situations in Trans-Mara East sub-County, to the south-western part of Kenya, as well as the smallholders’ perceptions about the situations, their adaptation levels and constraints thereof. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient, indicated a weak positive association between smallholder’s perceptions and either their age, marital status, level of education, or livelihood streams (r ≤ 0.1; p ≥ 0.05, for all), unlike their climatic perceptions and farm sizes which showed a strong positive association (r = 0.430; p ≤ 0.01). Key desired adaptation options, improving crop varieties, livestock feeding techniques and crop diversification, topped their options, with destocking being least desired. Education levels (r = 0.229; p ≤ 0.05) and farm sizes (r = 0.534; p ≤ 0.01) had a positively significant association with adaptive capacity, in addition to a significantly weak, association between their adaptive capacity and both their individual’s marital status (r = 0.154; p ≥ 0.05) and diversity of livelihood streams (r = 0.034; p ≥ 0.05). The analysis also showed a weak negative association between their adaptive capacity and age (r = − 0.026; p ≥ 0.05). Amid the key constraints which emerged include high cost of farm inputs, limited access to credit and market uncertainties, among others. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significantly strong negative association between smallholders’ constraints and both (r ≥ − 0.3; p ≤ 0.01) their level of education, and diversity of livelihood streams. A significantly strong positive association (r = 0.280; p ≤ 0.01) was identified between smallholder’s age and constraints, while marital status and farm sizes both (r ≤ − 0.01; p ≥ 0.05) revealed weak non-significant negative association with the constraints. Conclusions: Trans-Mara East sub-County has been grappling with a number of climate-related challenges. These were manifested through increased rainfall uncertainties, intensifying droughts, and rising temperatures, with effects on crop and livestock performances in the area, accompanied by plummeting household food security and income positions. Besides, smallholders’ perceptions intersected with various intervening subtleties. Smallholders' adaptive capacity in the area, was largely not associated with their socioeconomic characteristics as most of the respective components such as education, and livelihood streams, were barely fully-fledged. Moreover, the constraints against their adaptive capacity were mainly related to the existing policies and their respective implementations at the downstream levels with limited attribution to the farm-level interventions. It is thus incumbent upon the decision-makers, and other key stakeholders to explore avenues for amplifying the smallholders’ desired adaptation schemes while down-sizing the existing adaptation bottlenecks in the area.
... Maize, the main staple crop of the region, is grown by most farmers but is quite vulnerable to water shortages. A changing climate has already led to more frequent and longer droughts, which is also perceived as a worsening situation by Kitui smallholder farmers [2,33,35]. Having frequently experienced climate-related crop failures, the farmers in the area have a long history of adapting to drought disasters (for examples of measures, see Table 1). ...
... Observed adaptive behaviour in the face of disaster risk is found to be bounded rational and Table 2 Factors driving adaptation decisions, investigated in literature about Eastern Africa, climate change and drought risk adaptation. references: [35,39,45,. ...
... Besides, building on the Ending Drought Emergencies plan (2013-2017) [162], the National Drought Management Authority prioritises drought early warning systems, and aims to establish ex-ante cash transfers to upscale drought risk financing [163]. Also other authors concluded that more resources in terms of credit facilities, access to climate change information, and extension services should be availed to farmers in areas affected by climate change and variability [35]. ...
Article
Smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions continuously face drought risk, leading to recurring crop damage, income loss and food insecurity, and they are taking adaptive measures to cope with this risk. By comparing and combining empirical data and existing behavioural theories, we studied the complexity of smallholder farmers' adaptive behaviour in Kitui, Kenya. We conducted interviews with key informants, a survey of disaster managers and an extensive questionnaire and choice experiment among local smallholders, and found that mistrust in forecasting and a strong belief in God appeared to be barriers to adaptation, while farm groups and past adaptation decisions seemed to stimulate the intention to adopt new measures. Our results confirmed the importance of several components of existing bounded rational theories in that risk appraisal, social norm, self-efficacy and response cost and efficacy significantly influence adaptive behaviour under drought risk. However, none of the evaluate theories could fully explain the observed behaviour. We further demonstrated that tailored extension services, improved early warning systems, ex-ante cash aid and low interest credit schemes increase the intention to adapt. While a general aversion to the current situation was evident, there was great heterogeneity in the preferences for these policies. Findings of this the extensive data collection and analysis can be used to identify the most vulnerable groups and develop well-targeted adaptation policies, and for designing, calibrating and validating of utility functions to model heterogeneous adjustment decisions in dynamic drought risk models.
... These findings show that the difference in food security level for all households despite knowledge of weather change was close. The findings of this study are in conformity with those of [9] in Kitui County which revealed that respondents were aware of changes in weather patterns in their locality which had an implication in food production. ...
... More so, drought is a critical indicator for weather changes that has implications for the state of food availability in an area [31]. Increase in temperature was also observed in a similar study in Kaveta and Mikuyuni villages of Kitui County by [9] who noted that there was an increase in temperature over the years. ...
... Aflatoxigenic fungi, A. flavus and A. parasiticus, may invade maize pre-harvest, at harvest time, during postharvest handling and during storage under unsuitable temperature and humidity conditions (Bryden, 2012;Probst et al., 2014). Pre-harvest infection and contamination of maize by Aspergillus is favoured by plant stress factors such as high temperature, drought, insect damage and low soil fertility (Bruns, 2003;Kaaya et al., 2005;Mutunga et al., 2017;PDNA, 2012). The residual inoculum could result in further accumulation of aflatoxin during storage if conditions are favourable for aflatoxin production (Hell et al., 2008). ...
... However, nutrient deficiencies or over-fertilisation, particularly with nitrogen, may lead to greater susceptibility to insect pests and diseases (Tubajika et al., 1999). The appropriate application of fertilisers and soil additions, such as lime (calcium), animal manure, and compost, can minimise plant stress, especially during seed development, by assuring an adequate soil pH and plant nutrition (Mutunga et al., 2017). This can reduce aflatoxin contamination. ...
Article
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Maize is consumed world-wide as staple food, livestock feed, and industrial raw material. However, it is susceptible to fungal attack and at risk of aflatoxin contamination under certain conditions. Such contamination is a serious threat to human and animal health. Ensuring that the maize used by food industry meets standards for aflatoxin levels requires significant investment across the supply chain. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) form a critical part of a broader, integrated strategy for reduction of aflatoxin contamination. We reviewed and summarised the GAP of maize that would be effective and practicable for aflatoxin control within high-risk regions for smallholder farmers. The suggested practicable GAP for smallholder farmers were: use of drought-tolerant varieties; timely harvesting before physiological maturity; sorting to remove damaged ears and those having poor husk covering; drying properly to 13% moisture content; storage in suitable conditions to keep the crop clean and under condition with minimally proper aeration, or ideally under hermetic conditions. This information is intended to provide guidance for maize growers that will help reduce aflatoxin in high-risk regions, with a specific focus on smallholder farmers. Following the proposed guidelines would contribute to the reduction of aflatoxin contamination during pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages of the maize value chain.
... Studies conducted in different AEZs in Kenya reported that farmers noticed increasing temperatures and declining precipitation levels, drying of rivers, hunger, a greater incidence of crop diseases, crop failures, dry spells, droughts and a decline in agricultural productivity are induced by climate change (Abera & Tesema, 2019;Asayehegn et al., 2017;Bryan et al., 2013;Evelyn et al., 2017;Kalungu & Harris, 2013;Ndamani & Watanabe, 2016;Ogalleh et al., 2012;Simotwo et al., 2018). In South Africa, Gbetibouo (2009) discovered that a large percentage of the study respondents perceived a decrease in the amount of rain in the past 20 years as evidence of climate change. ...
... Increasing frequencies in the late onset of rainfall and extended dry periods were found to be characteristic features that indicate the effects of climate change, with drastic impacts expected on the timing of farming activities and agricultural yields across the rain-fed farming systems. The adoption of water-smart practices such as irrigation schedules and water harvesting, which are generally poorly used among smallholders (Evelyn et al., 2017), possesses the potential to assist farmers in accessing effective adaptation measures to apply to deal with extended dry periods. ...
Article
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This study evaluated the awareness and perception of climate change among smallholder farmers across two agroecological zones (AEZs) of Oyo state Southwest Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select 400 respondents from eight local government areas. Climate data were analysed for differences within and between the two AEZs with the Mann–Kendall and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests, respectively. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection and responses are presented as frequencies and percentages. A Tobit regression model was used to unravel the determinants of awareness and perception of climate change among the farmers. Significant differences were observed in the climate variables within and across the AEZs. The farmers were aware of, and perceived changes in temperature, rainfall, increasing incidence of pests and the occurrence of diseases, drought, and a prolonged dry season as indicators of climate change. The Tobit regression analysis pointed to agroecological zones, land tenure systems and religion as significant determinants of climate change awareness and perception among the farmers. The results of this study posit that an increase in the level of understanding of climate change indicators among smallholder farmers will birth a deeper interpretation of the effects of climate change on agriculture. This will assist smallholder farmers in preparing effective and scaled-up indigenous responses to combat the effects of climate change on their farming systems.
... Climate change, population growth, and socio-economic development will lead to additional pressures on water resources (Erenstein et al., 2011;Kitonyo et al., 2013). In Kenya, three-quarters of the population depend on smallholder rain-fed agricultural production and nearly half of the population is annually exposed to recurring drought disasters causing income insecurity, malnutrition and health issues (D'alessandro et al., 2015;Khisa, 2018;Mutunga et al., 2017;Rudari et al., 2019;UNDP, 2012). Reducing drought risk is imperative to enhance the resilience of the agriculture sector, to protect the livelihoods of the rural population, and to avoid food insecurity and famine in Kenya's drylands (Khisa and Gladys, 2017;Shikuku et al., 2017). ...
... The majority of the population in this dry transitional farming zone is directly or indirectly employed through agriculture. However, technology adoption and the production level remain rather low, making the region very vulnerable to droughts and climate change (Khisa and Oteng, 2014;Mutunga et al., 2017). Wens et al. (2020). ...
Article
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Analyses of future agricultural drought impacts require a multidisciplinary approach in which both human and environmental dynamics are studied. In this study, we used the socio-hydrologic, agent-based drought risk adaptation model ADOPT. This model simulates the decisions of smallholder farmers regarding on-farm drought adaptation measures and the resulting dynamics in household vulnerability and drought impact over time. We applied ADOPT to assess the effect of four top-down disaster risk reduction interventions on smallholder farmers' drought risk in the Kenyan drylands: the robustness of additional extension services, lowered credit rates, ex ante rather than ex post cash transfers, and improved early warnings were evaluated under different climate change scenarios. Model results suggest that extension services increase the adoption of newer low-cost drought adaptation measures while credit schemes are useful for measures with a high investment cost, and ex ante cash transfers allow the least wealthy households to adopt low-cost, well-known measures. Early warning systems are shown to be more effective in climate scenarios with less frequent droughts. Combining all four interventions displays a mutually reinforcing effect with a sharp increase in the adoption of on-farm drought adaptation measures, resulting in reduced food insecurity, decreased poverty levels, and drastically lower need for emergency aid, even under hotter and drier climate conditions. These nonlinear synergies indicate that a holistic perspective is needed to support smallholder resilience in the Kenyan drylands.
... The heterosis of genotypes was estimated relative to grain yield (t ha -1 ) of testers, trial mean, checks mean and best check mean. Lines 1,17,6,29,30,13,12,16 and 8 showed positive heterosis for grain yield to both testers and therefore could be used to develop new high yielding genotypes as reported by [3]. ...
Article
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Maize (Zea mays L.) is third most consumed crop worldwide after rice and wheat. Maize is the main staple food in sub-Saharan Africa and Kenya, however, production has continuously been low over the past years. A line by tester analysis was carried out for 30 inbred lines and two testers to evaluate the GCA and SCA effects for yield and associated traits at three locations in Kenya during the 2016/2017 growing season. There were significant GCA and SCA mean squares indicating that both additive and non-additive gene effects contributed to the inheritance of the traits studied. Sum of squares of GCA was more than of SCA hence additive main effects contributed more to the inheritance of the traits than non-additive gene effects. Lines 1, 17, 6, 29 and 30 were good general combiners for grain yield. Testcrosses L30×T2 (4.40 t ha-1), L13×T1 (3.85 t ha-1), L20×T1 (3.59 t ha-1) and L9×T1 (3.52 t ha-1) yielded higher than best check mean and had good specific combining ability for grain yield and earliness in anthesis and silking dates. These genotypes can be evaluated further for grain yield and earliness and commercially released for use in areas with short rains.
... Key informant interviews validated the information from the FGDs and added that farmers also undertake animal manure, fertilizer and pesticides application to increase agricultural production in the thick of climate variability. Generally, these findings were in consonance with those of other authors who have done similar research in the study area for instance Okumu (2013), Ndambiri et al. (2012) and Mutunga et al. (2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Community vulnerability to climate change can be conceptualized as an aggregate of three vulnerability components: exposure to climatic stress, sensitivity to climate stress and adaptive capacity. However, even within similar regions these vulnerability components are spatially differentiated necessitating the understanding of a regions vulnerability pattern before targeting adaptation assistance. This research sought to understand the differentiated vulnerability patterns of communities in Kitui County as well as the existing coping strategies to guide implementation of adaptation assistance. Indicator approach to vulnerability assessment and focus group discussions were used to understand the vulnerability pattern and coping strategies respectively. Results showed a differentiated vulnerability pattern with a west to east gradient across Kitui County. The pattern exhibited less vulnerability scores on the western and central parts and more vulnerability scores on the eastern and northern parts of the County. Existing coping strategies have become inadequate with increasing climate variability, severity and frequency of extreme climate events, which render the communities even more vulnerable. The patterns of vulnerability can guide appropriate targeting of adaptation assistance and in turn lead to improved climate change resilience and community livelihoods.
... We must acknowledge that non-farm activities are also important coping activities, but in this study, we did not solicit information on such activities. Other studies (Deressa, Hassan, & Ringler, 2011;Mutunga, Ndungu, & Muendo, 2017;Shikuku et al., 2017) have also considered only farm-related coping and adaptation strategies towards climate change and variability. ...
Article
We examine how goat farmers’ perceptions of weather variability and climate change condition their coping and adaptation behaviour. Through a survey, we obtain a household level data from goat producers in designated climate-smart and non-climate-smart villages of the Lawra and Jirapa districts in Upper West region of Ghana. Data are analysed using a multivariate probit model to assess how perceptions and other factors influence coping and adaptation strategy choices. Seven main coping/adaptation strategies are used by goat farmers to deal with weather variability and climate change. Our econometric results show that goat farmers’ perceptions and being located in a climate-smart village, as well as market and extension information influence the choice of coping and adaptation strategies towards climate change. The results suggest that perceptions of weather variability and climate change have significant positive influence on all adaptation strategies, and that these adaptation strategies are complementary to each other as evidenced by their high inter-correlations. The fact that farmers located in climate-smart villages are more likely to adopt strategies that enable them to cope with and adapt to weather variability and climate change signals the need for project implementers to extend the number of villages benefiting from the climate-smart village concept.
... The cause of the high levels of aflatoxins in Eastern Kenya is not known, but it could be related to prevailing climatic conditions as well as presence of different strains of A. flavus (Probst, Bandyopadhyay, & Cotty, 2014). High incidences of drought and high temperatures have been reported in Eastern Kenya (Mutunga, Ndungu, & Muendo, 2017;PDNA, 2012) and these parameters have been shown to exert positive impact on establishment and proliferation of A. flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination (Widstrom, McMillian, Beaver, & Wilson, 1990). Furthermore, Eastern Kenya has been reported to have high incidences of Smorphotype of A. flavus, a strain known to produce high levels of aflatoxin (Probst et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Maize, the main dietary staple in Kenya, is one of the crops most susceptible to contamination by aflatoxin. To understand sources of aflatoxin contamination for home grown maize, we collected 789 maize samples from smallholder farmers’ fields in Eastern and South Western, two regions in Kenya representing high and low aflatoxin risk areas, respectively, and determined aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using ELISA with specific polyclonal antibodies. AFB1 was detected in 274 of the 416 samples from Eastern Kenya at levels between 0.01 and 9091.8 μg kg⁻¹ (mean 67.8 μg kg⁻¹). In South Western, AFB1 was detected in 233 of the 373 samples at levels between 0.98 and 722.2 μg kg⁻¹ (mean 22.3 μg kg⁻¹). Of the samples containing AFB1, 153 (55.8%) from Eastern and 102 (43.8%) from South Western exceeded the maximum allowable limit of AFB1 (5 μg kg⁻¹) in maize for human consumption in Kenya. The probable daily intake (PDI) of AFB1 in Eastern Kenya ranged from 0.07 to 60612 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹ (mean 451.8 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹), while for South Western, PDI ranged from 6.53 to 4814.7 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹ (mean 148.4 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹). The average PDI for both regions exceeded the estimated provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of AFB1, which is a health concern for the population in these regions. These results revealed significant levels of preharvest aflatoxin contamination of maize in both regions. Prevention of preharvest infection of maize by toxigenic A. flavus strains should be a critical focal point to prevent aflatoxin contamination and exposure.
... The cause of the high levels of aflatoxins in Eastern Kenya is not known, but it could be related to prevailing climatic conditions as well as presence of different strains of A. flavus (Probst, Bandyopadhyay, & Cotty, 2014). High incidences of drought and high temperatures have been reported in Eastern Kenya (Mutunga, Ndungu, & Muendo, 2017;PDNA, 2012) and these parameters have been shown to exert positive impact on establishment and proliferation of A. flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination (Widstrom, McMillian, Beaver, & Wilson, 1990). Furthermore, Eastern Kenya has been reported to have high incidences of Smorphotype of A. flavus, a strain known to produce high levels of aflatoxin (Probst et al., 2014). ...
Article
Aspergillus flavus induced ear rots and subsequent contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) by aflatoxin is a serious food safety issue, especially in developing countries where the crop is mostly cultivated by smallholder famers for own consumption and income generation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of resistance could help breeders to develop resistant maize varieties. In this study, a set of six tropical maize inbred lines previously identified as resistant or susceptible under natural field conditions were evaluated for response to A. flavus colonisation and aflatoxin contamination. Fungal biomass was significantly higher (P<0.05) in susceptible than resistant maize inbred lines, and this was highly correlated (P=0.001) to aflatoxin levels. Maize inbred lines MRI, MR2 and MR3 had low fungal biomass and low aflatoxin levels, suggesting that resistance in these lines was mediated through restricted fungal colonisation and establishment. Among the three putatively resistant inbred lines mentioned above, MR2 had a relatively high colonisation compared to the other two lines, revealing that A. flavus could establish and colonise kernels that were injured during inoculation, but did not contain high levels of aflatoxin. This could signify the presence of host genes that interfere with the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.
... This socio-cognitive model of bounded rational private adaptation integrates the effect of available resources and perceived climate risks into one framework for explaining the determinants of individual adaptation (Floyd et al., 2000;Grothmann and Patt, 2005). Indeed, the inclusion of socioeconomic and cognitive factors has been supported by a number of local case studies, which have found off-farm employment, group membership, labor availability, access to extension services, and farm experiences, to be the main drivers for the adoption of drought adaptation measures (e.g., Mutune et al., 2011;Jager and Janssen, 2012;Oremo, 2013;Mutua-Mutuku et al., 2017;Mutunga et al., 2017;Shikuku et al., 2017). Furthermore, a recent survey in Kitui confirmed that the factors included in PMT are indeed key determinants for the adaptive behavior in the face of agricultural drought risk (Wens, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Eastern Africa, increasing climate variability and changing socioeconomic conditions are exacerbating the frequency and intensity of drought disasters. Droughts pose a severe threat to food security in this region, which is characterized by a large dependency on smallholder rain-fed agriculture and a low level of technological development in the food production systems. Future drought risk will be determined by the adaptation choices made by farmers, yet few drought risk models … incorporate adaptive behavior in the estimation of drought risk. Here, we present an innovative dynamic drought risk adaptation model, ADOPT, to evaluate the factors that influence adaptation decisions and the subsequent adoption of measures, and how this affects drought risk for agricultural production. ADOPT combines socio-hydrological and agent-based modeling approaches by coupling the FAO crop model AquacropOS with a behavioral model capable of simulating different adaptive behavioral theories. In this paper, we compare the protection motivation theory, which describes bounded rationality, with a business-as-usual and an economic rational adaptive behavior. The inclusion of these scenarios serves to evaluate and compare the effect of different assumptions about adaptive behavior on the evolution of drought risk over time. Applied to a semi-arid case in Kenya, ADOPT is parameterized using field data collected from 250 households in the Kitui region and discussions with local decision-makers. The results show that estimations of drought risk and the need for emergency food aid can be improved using an agent-based approach: we show that ignoring individual household characteristics leads to an underestimation of food-aid needs. Moreover, we show that the bounded rational scenario is better able to reflect historic food security, poverty levels, and crop yields. Thus, we demonstrate that the reality of complex human adaptation decisions can best be described assuming bounded rational adaptive behavior; furthermore, an agent-based approach and the choice of adaptation theory matter when quantifying risk and estimating emergency aid needs.
... Appropriate application of fertilizers and soil additions, such as lime, animal manure, and compost, can minimise plant stress, especially during seed development, by assuring an adequate soil pH and plant nutrition. Insects are capable of carrying spores of mycotoxin-producing fungi from one plant to another; therefore, appropriate control of insect pests would reduce levels of mycotoxin contamination [66]. ...
Article
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Africa is one of the regions with high mycotoxin contamination of foods and continues to record high incidences of liver cancers globally. The agricultural sector of most African countries depends largely on climate variables for crop production. Production of mycotoxins is climate-sensitive. Most stakeholders in the food production chain in Africa are not aware of the health and economic effects of consuming contaminated foods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the main factors and their degree of contribution to the high levels of mycotoxins in African foods. Thus, knowledge of the contributions of different factors responsible for high levels of these toxins will be a good starting point for the effective mitigation of mycotoxins in Africa. Google Scholar was used to conduct a systemic search. Six factors were found to be linked to high levels of mycotoxins in African foods, in varying degrees. Climate change remains the main driving factor in the production of mycotoxins. The other factors are partly man-made and can be manipulated to become a more profitable or less climate-sensitive response. Awareness of the existence of these mycotoxins and their economic as well as health consequences remains paramount. The degree of management of these factors regarding mycotoxins varies from one region of the world to another.
... There are biotic, abiotic, and socioeconomic cowpea production constraints (Tignegre, 2010). Numerous researchers have assessed farmers' ability to overcome crop production constraints (Ayanlade et al., 2016;Mutunga et al., 2017). In cowpea production, biotic stresses include diseases, plant pests, and parasitic phanerogams (Samaila et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Success of cowpea cultivation requires a strong understanding of production constraints in order to overcome them. It is thus useful to know whether smallholder cowpea growers use modern or indigenous means to overcome these challenges. We completed a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study to identify current cowpea production constraints and management practices in Burkina Faso. We interviewed 481 cowpea growers (219 women and 262 men) and used a mixed-method design of collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. The results showed that water scarcity, damage due to insects, plant diseases, striga, lack of training, and marketing challenges are the main constraints to cowpea production. Among insects reducing cowpea yield, growers identified aphids as a major pest. However, growers often did not know the biology and incidence of insects in their fields. This study also identified local resistant cowpea varieties in various locations.
... pearl millet, rapoko and sorghum), planting short season varieties, staggering planting dates (Stringer et al. 2009) and crop diversification . Farmers can also adopt soil moisture-retention techniques and conservation farming (Limantol et al. 2016;Mutunga et al. 2017) which can help mitigate the effects of climate change on agriculture (Nyakudya and Stroosnijder 2011;Gukurume 2013). Nhemachena and Hassan (2008) noted that some of these measures ensure that critical crop growth stages do not coincide with harsh climatic conditions in the season. ...
... Technologies that will enhance adaptation could be developed and transferred across nations especially to the developing world where adaptation needs are very high (Adger et al., 2007). However, technologies in itself has become a barrier to adaptation in climate change due to its reliance on internet and gadgets that are not readily deployable to areas where climate change effects are devastating (Mutunga, Ndungu , & Muendo, 2017). ...
Article
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Irregular rainfall pattern pose challenges to smallholder farmers in Ghana, especially, those in the Northern Region, who risk losing their major source of livelihood as a result of the devastating impacts of climate change. To ensure food and livelihood security, smallholder farmers adopt indigenous and modern soil and water conservation strategies. This study therefore examined the influencing factors of adaptation to irregular rainfall pattern and the challenges therein. A cross sectional data of 140 households from five (5) randomly selected districts in the Northern region of Ghana was used. Results of a Negative Binomial Regression showed that access to extension services and credit positively influenced the number of adaptation strategies to irregular rainfall pattern. Also, quantity harvested, gender and age negatively influenced the number of adaptation strategies adopted by a farmer. Consistently, lack of credit was the first major constraint to climate adaptation among the farmers. The study recommends that extension services, credit facilities as well as education of smallholder farmers should be intensified to promote adaptation to the rainfall patterns in the region. Also, government’s effort is needed in developing irrigation facilities to aid smallholder farmers to offset the potential effects of climate change. Overall, this study provides suggestions to policy makers on how to improve climate adaptation in the region. Future studies should examine forms and effectiveness of climate change communication, since effective communication is imperative to the adoption of modern agricultural practices
... Over the last decades, increasing temperatures and erratic or inadequate rainfall have already intensified drought disasters (Khisa, 2017)limate change, population growth and socio-economic development will lead to additional pressures on water availability Kitonyo et al., 2013). In Kenya, three quarters of the population depends on smallholder rain-fed agricultural production and nearly half of the population is annually exposed to re-occurring drought disasters causing income 30 insecurity, malnutrition and health issues (Alessandro et al., 2015;Khisa, 2018;Mutunga et al., 2017;Rudari et al., 2019;UNDP, 2012). Reducing drought risk is imperative to enhance the resilience of the agriculture sector, to protect the livelihoods of the rural population, and to avoid food insecurity and famine in Kenya's drylands (Khisa, 2017;Shikuku et al., 2017). ...
Preprint
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Analyses of future agricultural drought impacts require a multidisciplinary approach in which both human and environmental dynamics are studied. In this study, we applied the agent-based drought risk model ADOPT to assess the effect of various drought risk reduction interventions on smallholder farmers in the Kenyan drylands. Moreover, the robustness of these (non-)governmental interventions under different climate change scenarios was evaluated. ADOPT simulates water management decisions of smallholder farmers, and evaluates household food insecurity, poverty and emergency aid needs due to drought disasters. Model dynamics were informed by extensive field surveys and interviews from which decision rules were distilled based on bounded rational behaviour theories. Model results suggest that extension services increase the adoption of low-cost, newer drought adaptation measures while credit schemes are useful for cost-effective but expensive measures, and ex-ante cash transfers allow the least wealthy households to adopt low-cost well-known measures. Early warning systems show more effective in climate scenarios with less frequent droughts. Combining all four interventions displays a mutually-reinforcing effect with a sharp increase in the adoption of measures resulting in reduced food insecurity, decreased poverty levels and drastically lower need for emergency aid, even under hotter and drier climate conditions. These nonlinear synergies indicate that a holistic perspective is needed to support smallholder resilience in the Kenyan drylands.
... On the contrary, most policies of adaptation are formulated at the national level without taking cognizance of farmers' indigenous knowledge and what solutions are already available in the local context. This study took into consideration that several studies have been conducted to investigate historical climate trends in Kenya [12,[26][27][28], review climate change impacts as well as analyze smallholder farmers' perceptions and adaptation of CC [28][29][30][31]. The study also considered that limited research has attempted to document smallholder farmers' perceptions of climate variability and changes and link the perceptions to historical climate trends in Kenya [29,32,33]. ...
Article
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This article presents an overview of smallholder farmers' perceptions of climate variability and change in synchrony with historical climate trends in Machakos County, Kenya. Farmers' perceptions were obtained using focus group discussions and household interviews. Monthly rainfall and temperature (minimum and maximum) data for the period of 1983-2014 were obtained and used in the analysis. The interview data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while data from the focus group discussions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The Mann-Kendall test and linear regression analysis were used to detect statistically significant climate trends. Meteorological data provided some evidence to support farmers' perceptions of changes in rainfall and temperature. The Mann-Kendall test revealed statistically significant rainfall and temperature trends. The linear regression analysis showed increasing trends for both rainfall and temperature. Most farmers (77.7%) perceived decreasing amounts of seasonal rainfall contrary to analyzed seasonal rainfall trends, which showed an increase in seasonal rainfall. The experienced changes and variations in rainfall and temperature expose the farming systems to climate change risks. To support smallholder farmers in managing the increasing climate change risks, there is a need to enhance their adaptive capacity through effective adaptation planning and implementation.
... pearl millet, rapoko and sorghum), planting short season varieties, staggering planting dates (Stringer et al. 2009) and crop diversification (Makate et al. 2017). Farmers can also adopt soil moisture-retention techniques and conservation farming (Limantol et al. 2016;Mutunga et al. 2017) which can help mitigate the effects of climate change on agriculture (Nyakudya and Stroosnijder 2011;Gukurume 2013). Nhemachena and Hassan (2008) noted that some of these measures ensure that critical crop growth stages do not coincide with harsh climatic conditions in the season. ...
... pearl millet, rapoko and sorghum), planting short season varieties, staggering planting dates (Stringer et al. 2009) and crop diversification . Farmers can also adopt soil moisture-retention techniques and conservation farming (Limantol et al. 2016;Mutunga et al. 2017) which can help mitigate the effects of climate change on agriculture (Nyakudya and Stroosnijder 2011;Gukurume 2013). Nhemachena and Hassan (2008) noted that some of these measures ensure that critical crop growth stages do not coincide with harsh climatic conditions in the season. ...
Book
This book provides a synthesis of current agricultural research in Africa with the aim of presenting evidence based information that can be directly applied into improving the African smallholder farmers’ food security. It presents positive scientific research that has been undertaken in Africa, in simpler terms, thus driving the research for development agenda contributing to the attainment of SDG 2. Numerous research that targets resource poor African smallholder farmers has been published, yet the region faces very low productivity levels. This lack of translation from research to food security and increased agricultural incomes is due to the poor uptake of scientific research by farmers, which is partly due to poor presentation of this body of knowledge into simpler forms that extension workers and farmers can directly adopt. Therefore, this book offers research information in an easy, digestible and application oriented style, so as to enable transformation of the African agricultural sector by effectively driving agricultural productivity in Africa. This book is of interest to African extension workers, who will translate the simplified knowledge into lessons that can be useful to smallholder farmers. The book is also beneficial for policy makers as well as academics, researchers and other science based professionals.
... pearl millet, rapoko and sorghum), planting short season varieties, staggering planting dates (Stringer et al. 2009) and crop diversification . Farmers can also adopt soil moisture-retention techniques and conservation farming (Limantol et al. 2016;Mutunga et al. 2017) which can help mitigate the effects of climate change on agriculture (Nyakudya and Stroosnijder 2011;Gukurume 2013). Nhemachena and Hassan (2008) noted that some of these measures ensure that critical crop growth stages do not coincide with harsh climatic conditions in the season. ...
Chapter
Balanced food and cash crop production is important to meet the food and income needs, and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Africa. Smallholder maize-tobacco systems have the potential to cushion farmers from food and nutrition insecurity and livelihood uncertainty. This chapter seeks to outline some socio-economic and biophysical challenges within maize-tobacco smallholder systems, as well as highlight some promising prospects that can be promoted or further investigated in order to enhance food security and livelihoods. The challenges include shortage of labour, poor soil fertility, and increased risk of soil disturbance, while the availability of additional organic material that can be used in integrated soil fertility management practices, with associated improvement to soil properties such as pH and maize yields, represent some of the opportunities. Further, tobacco production generates direct on-farm income, which could cushion the farmers from poor yields of maize and price shocks. Therefore, food-cash crop systems present a viable alternative to the mainly subsistence based maize systems with the potential to sustain the food security, income and livelihood needs of smallholder farmers.
... pearl millet, rapoko and sorghum), planting short season varieties, staggering planting dates (Stringer et al. 2009) and crop diversification . Farmers can also adopt soil moisture-retention techniques and conservation farming (Limantol et al. 2016;Mutunga et al. 2017) which can help mitigate the effects of climate change on agriculture (Nyakudya and Stroosnijder 2011;Gukurume 2013). Nhemachena and Hassan (2008) noted that some of these measures ensure that critical crop growth stages do not coincide with harsh climatic conditions in the season. ...
Chapter
The past decades have seen the implementation of several multi-national maize and common bean cultivar development projects in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the impacts of these projects on income generation and food and nutrition security have not been adequately interrogated and documented. This chapter provides a synthesis of some of the past and current multinational maize and common bean breeding projects in terms of international distribution, cultivars released, cultivar adoption rates, and impacts on food, nutrition, and income security in SSA. The information used in this chapter is from reliable published journal articles, institutional reports, and authors’ knowledge of cultivar development and agricultural systems in SSA. Good progress has been made in the past decades in terms of the number of cultivars released with huge yield advantages over unimproved landraces, good tolerance to biotic and abiotic factors. Millions of farmers were moved out of poverty and cushioned from hunger after adopting the improved cultivars. Biofortified maize and bean cultivars with enhanced content of ion, zinc, protein, and provitamin A are proving to be effective solution for malnutrition, which is widespread in SSA. However, more promotional efforts are still needed to increase the adoption of improved cultivars by farmers.
... pearl millet, rapoko and sorghum), planting short season varieties, staggering planting dates (Stringer et al. 2009) and crop diversification . Farmers can also adopt soil moisture-retention techniques and conservation farming (Limantol et al. 2016;Mutunga et al. 2017) which can help mitigate the effects of climate change on agriculture (Nyakudya and Stroosnijder 2011;Gukurume 2013). Nhemachena and Hassan (2008) noted that some of these measures ensure that critical crop growth stages do not coincide with harsh climatic conditions in the season. ...
Article
The Bayano region, with the most prominent feature being the Bayano reservoir, created when a hydroelectric dam was erected in 1976, has faced much ecological and social upheaval. The reservoir flooded the lands of neighboring Indigenous Kuna and Embera groups. This led to the relocation of several Indigenous communities. This paper examines the Maje Embera Drua (community) who live along the Maje river, connected to the artificial Bayano lake. The poor quality of the lake, exemplified by abundant algae and low oxygen, directly impacts the Maje Embera’s activities like transportation and fishing. Beyond the impacts of the dam, larger scale climatic changes have certainly affected the members of these communities. Past work on other communities has noted that individuals may see change in terms of unpredictability, rather than clear shifts. Does this apply to the Indigenous Maje Embera? In this paper, 21 Maje Embera were surveyed to discover whether they have noticed environmental changes in the past 10 to 15 years, what kinds of changes they noticed in terms of the duration of rainy and dry seasons as well as the timing of the start and ends of these seasons. Furthermore, individuals were asked whether they perceived changes in abundances in different types of animals, including fishes, birds and reptiles. Pearson’s Chi-squared goodness of fit as well as Cochran’s Q statistical tests were conducted to address these questions. The results show most participants noticed the climate changing in the last 10 to 15 years, and a significant number of participants considered the changes to be unpredictable, both in length and timing of the seasons. Most participants noticed changes in the abundances of animals and this was true regardless of the type of animal that was discussed. In summary, the Maje Embera community was well aware that there were changes, saw them as largely unpredictable, and clearly noticed changes in the abundance in many types of animals. Future studies should expand by surveying more participants from this and other communities.
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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves are nutritious indigenous vegetables that are produced and consumed among local communities in Kenya. However, seasonal production limits their utilization. The study investigated the changing trends in the consumption and utilization of cowpea leaves among cowpea producing households in arid and semi-arid land (ASAL) areas. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected households producing and consuming cowpea leaves was carried out in Eastern and Coastal ASALs of Kenya to determine the trends and constraints in the production and utilization of the vegetable, thus evaluating its efficiency as a food security crop. The average household production in a season was found to be 3.03 ± 0.9 of 90 kg bags. Lesser severity of the constraints, poor soils, drought, lack of access to seeds and massive spoilage with an odds ratio of 0.4, 0.9, 2.0 and 2.3, respectively, significantly (p < 0.05) predicted the production quantities among households, R 2 = 0.21. The study also found that the reliance on own production among households for sourcing the leaves in-season and off-season was 97.5% and 24.9%, respectively. The households consumed the leaves in boiled (87.5%), sundried (27.5%) or blanched (13.6%) forms. Households in the coastal ASALs significantly (p < 0.05) consumed more of dried forms (odds ratio: 3.3) but less of boiled ones (odds ratio: 0.1) than those in the Eastern parts. Households that had more members or a female deciding the food to be bought had significantly (p < 0.05) higher frequency of consumption of cowpea leaves. Marketing challenges, lack of access to inputs and inadequate postharvest technologies for preservation of the vegetables constrained the production and utilization of cowpea leaves. In order to promote the availability and utilization of cowpea leaves both in and out of season, accessibility of good quality seeds and postharvest management are necessary.
Article
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This paper, seeks to explore how rural communities especially women in Kitui county use ICT tools to access localized climate information and how Digital Capital facilitates or impedes the process. Our view is that the continued access to, and use of, ICT tools like the mobile phone and radios offer diverse opportunities for rural communities to use timely and relevant climate information to enhance their livelihood strategy. We hypothesize that rural communities' use ICT tools such as mobile phones and the community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts and agro-advisories). A household survey of 419 respondents was adopted for data collection and analysis, guided by the sustainable livelihood framework. The research findings disclosed that the radios combined with the mobile phone are commonly available, accessible and cost-effective ICT tools that have played a role in improving rural women's access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information reducing information asymmetry in rural settings. The study is motivated by the increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change that are global. Kitui County has had its share of climate variability and climate change related problems such as drought which create problems such as food insecurity.
Article
Climate change has severe consequences not at just local, regional but also at a global scale. Since such shifts in the climate, the substantial agriculture sector of Pakistan has been suffering widely from its drastic change. The present study is carried out in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan, to explore the perception of smallholder farmers related to climate change. Data is collected from 400 smallholder farmers of Malakand, Mardan and Swabi districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. This study expounds the perception of farmers and their farming adaptations to variations in climatic occurrence. Binary logistic regression was employed to discover the aspects that shape smallholder farmer's adaptation strategies. Our results depicted that the awareness and farm household's exploits methods for climate change adaptation were common throughout the study area. The main adaptation strategies carried out or executed by the smallholder farmers were irrigation, non-farm activities and early planting schemas. This research identified the barriers to climate change adaptation were lack of money, unavailability of required seed, nonexistence of market access, insecure land tenure system and shortage of information. The findings of the study recommend improving farmer's awareness and providing timely information about climate change. To improve farmer's well-being, adequate extension services and greater investment facilities are required to support farmers to sustain their livelihoods in the long run to cope with climate change.
Article
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Many countries experience the negative impacts of climate change especially in the decline of agricultural productivity leading to decreased national and household food security. This study assessed smallholder farmers' perception of climate variability and change and their adaptation strategies in Masaba South Sub-County, Kisii County, Kenya. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 196 smallholder farmers. Additionally, focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used. The study revealed that most farmers perceived climate changes. 88.3% of the respondents noted a decrease in rainfall, 79.1% reported poor rainfall distribution, 88.3% perceived a late onset of rainfall while 76.6% perceived an increase in temperature. The farmers' perception mirrored the actual climatic data trends for the area obtained from the meteorological department. The major climate-smart agriculture practices adopted by farmers in the area included; diversification of crops, change of planting time and crop rotation/mixed cropping. The adoption of climate-smart agriculture practices significantly correlated with the household size, monthly income, access to credit and farmers’ perception of climate change. The study recommends the incorporation and prioritization of climate change in the county and government development agenda as a means of enhancing the uptake of climate-smart agricultural practices.
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» While there is consensus in the global scientific community that some degree of climate change is inevitable, there remain large uncertainties surrounding the likely effects of climate change on the agriculture sector, especially at the regional level. Some models predict an increase in agricultural productivity in Australia, whereas other modelling suggests a substantial fall in productivity in many regions. » Analysis in this paper indicates that some regions in Australia that are highly dependent on agriculture could experience considerable economic losses as a result of climate change. However, adaptation to the impacts of climate change, including improved farming technologies and practices, can reduce the size of these losses. » Farmers will require information to make cost effective adaptation decisions. Government is likely to have a role in providing ongoing research and development to support adaptation, improving information dissemination to farmers, and ensuring appropriate policy settings that encourage adaptation.
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The study was carried out to evaluate how farmers in Kyuso District have perceived and adapted to climate change. Data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The Heckman probit model was fitted to the data to avoid sample selection bias since not every farmer who may perceive climate change responds by adapting. The analysis revealed that 94% of farmers in Kyuso District had a perception that climate was changing and as a result, 85% of these farmers had responded by adapting. In this regard, age of the household head, gender, education, farm experience, household size, distance to the nearest market, access to irrigation water, local agro-ecology, on and off farm income, access to information on climate change through extension services, access to credit, changes in temperature and precipitation were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to perceive and/or adapt to climate change. With the level of perception to climate change being more than that of adaptation, the study suggests that more policy efforts should be geared towards helping farmers to adapt to climate change.
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A study based on farm household survey was conducted in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh to gain insights on people’s perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability. Results of the study indicated that 88.9 % of people perceived rise in temperature of the region while 88.4 % perceived a decreasing trend in amount of rainfall. People’s perceptions for both maximum temperature and rainfall were in accordance with results of linear regression analysis of weather data of the period from 1995- 2011 collected from meteorological station in the region. In mid hills people have started responding to climate variability particularly to rising temperature and decreasing and uncertain rainfall by shifting to other crops, varieties, early planting and other cultural measures. Limited knowledge on adaptation measures, lack of access to early warning information, unreliability of seasonal forecast and high cost of adaptation were the main barriers to adaptations in the region. Further, the study identified education of the household head, farming experience, off farm income, access to credit and extension services as factors that enhance adaptive capacity to climate change in the area. Therefore, the study indicated a need for formulating policies to address these factors. Key words: Households, temperature, rainfall, extension services
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Accelerated soil erosion is one of the major constraints to agricultural production in many parts of the Tanzanian highlands. Although several soil and water conservation technologies have been developed and promoted, the adoption of many recommended measures is minimal and soil erosion continues to be a problem. This research was conducted in order to determine the social and economic factors that influence adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the West Usambara highlands, Tanzania. For this research a household survey, group discussions and transect walks were undertaken. A total of 104 households were interviewed and several fields were visited during the transect walks. Data was analysed with the use of cross-tabulation, cluster analysis, factor analysis and chi-squared methods. The results obtained indicate that involvement in off-farm activities, insecure land tenure, location of fields and a lack of short-term benefits from SWC are among the major factors that negatively influence adoption of SWC measures. Membership in farmer groups, level of education, contacts with extension agents and SWC programmes were found to be positively influencing the adoption of SWC measures. Recommendations to facilitate adoption of different SWC measures include: integration of social and economic factors into SWC plans; the creation of more awareness among farmers of soil-erosion effects and long-term benefits of SWC; the development of flexible SWC measures to cater for different farm patterns and a participatory approach to SWC at catchment level rather than at individual farmers' fields. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This paper examines the recent decentralization of governance in Indonesia and its impact on local infrastructure provision. The decentralization of decisionmaking power to local jurisdictions in Indonesia may have improved the matching of public infrastructures provision with local preferences. However, decentralization has made local public infrastructures depend on local resources. Due to differences in initial endowments, this may result in the divergence of local public infrastructures in rich and poor jurisdictions. Using data from village-level panel surveys conducted in 1996, 2000, and 2006, this paper finds that (1) local public infrastructures depend on local resources, (2) decentralization has improved the availability of local public infrastructures, (3) local jurisdictions are converging to a similar level of local public infrastructure, and (4) to some extent, decentralized public infrastructures' provision reflects local preferences.
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The objective of this paper is to determine the ability of farmers in Africa to detect climate change, and to ascertain how they have adapted to whatever climate change they believe has occurred. The paper also asks farmers whether they perceive any barriers to adaptation and attempts to determine the characteristics of those farmers who, despite claiming to have witnessed climate change, have not yet responded to it. The study is based on a large-scale survey of agriculturalists in 11 African countries. The survey reveals that significant numbers of farmers believe that temperatures have already increased and that precipitation has declined. Those with the greatest experience of farming are more likely to notice climate change. Further, neighboring farmers tell a consistent story. There are important differences in the propensity of farmers living in different locations to adapt and there may be institutional impediments to adaptation in some countries. Although large numbers of farmers perceive no barriers to adaptation, those that do perceive them tend to cite their poverty and inability to borrow. Few if any farmers mentioned lack of appropriate seed, security of tenure, or market accessibility as problems. Those farmers who perceive climate change but fail to respond may require particular incentives or assistance to do what is ultimately in their own best interests. Although experienced farmers are more likely to perceive climate change, it is educated farmers who are more likely to respond by making at least one adaptation.
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This paper examines whether the choice of crops is affected by climate in Africa. Using a multinomial logit model, the paper regresses crop choice on climate, soils, and other factors. The model is estimated using a sample of more than 7,000 farmers across 11 countries in Africa. The study finds that crop choice is very climate sensitive. For example, farmers select sorghum and maize-millet in the cooler regions of Africa; maize-beans, maize-groundnut, and maize in moderately warm regions'and cowpea, cowpea-sorghum, and millet-groundnut in hot regions. Further, farmers choose sorghum, and millet-groundnut when conditions are dry; cowpea, cowpea-sorghum, maize-millet, and maize when medium wet; and maize-beans and maize-groundnut when wet. As temperatures warm, farmers will shift toward more heat tolerant crops. Depending on whether precipitation increases or decreases, farmers will also shift toward drought tolerant or water loving crops, respectively. There are several policy relevant conclusions to draw from this study. First, farmers will adapt to climate change by switching crops. Second, global warming impact studies cannot assume crop choice is exogenous. Third, this study only examines choices across current crops. Future farmers may well have more choices. There is an important role for agronomic research in developing new varieties more suited for higher temperatures. Future farmers may have even better adaptation alternatives with an expanded set of crop choices specifically targeted at higher temperatures.
Technical Report
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"Adaptation to climate change involves changes in agricultural management practices in response to changes in climate conditions. It often involves a combination of various individual responses at the farm-level and assumes that farmers have access to alternative practices and technologies available in the region. This study examines farmer adaptation strategies to climate change in Southern Africa based on a cross-section database of three countries (South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe) collected as part of the Global Environment Facility/World Bank (GEF/WB) Climate Change and African Agriculture Project. The study describes farmer perceptions to changes in long-term temperature and precipitation as well as various farm-level adaptation measures and barriers to adaptation at the farm household level. A multivariate discrete choice model is used to identify the determinants of farm-level adaptation strategies. Results confirm that access to credit and extension and awareness of climate change are some of the important determinants of farm-level adaptation. An important policy message from these results is that enhanced access to credit, information (climatic and agronomic) as well as to markets (input and output) can significantly increase farm-level adaptation. Government policies should support research and development on appropriate technologies to help farmers adapt to changes in climatic conditions. Examples of such policy measures include crop development, improving climate information forecasting, and promoting appropriate farm-level adaptation measures such as use of irrigation technologies." from Authors' Abstract
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The study assessed the level of use of climate change adaptation strategies among arable crop farmers in Oyo and Ekiti States, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in the selection of 235 farmers. Both structured interview schedule and Focus Group Discussion were used to elicit information from the respondents which were analysed with both descriptive and inferential tools. The mean age of the respondents was 49.43 years, 63.0% and 37.0% of males and females’ arable crop farmers were involved in the study with mean household and farm sizes of 6.09 and 9.18 hectares respectively. The most highly used climate change adaptation strategies include; cultivation of improved varieties, altering of planting date, fertilizer application and mixed cropping and the associated constraints were; capital unavailability, irregular extension services, inadequate production inputs and poor access to information on climate change. Ordered probit analysis revealed significant relationship between sex (1.72; p>0.1), religion (5.14; p>0.01), years spent in school (1.77; p>0.1), source of information (3.39; p>0.01) and level of use of climate change adaptation strategies. The study recommends that advisory services, provision of production inputs and infrastructural facilities should be encouraged as well as the use of strategies on low side level of usage by the various stakeholders in agricultural development while efforts should be redirected in the provision of necessary assistance especially capital, subsidizing arable crop production inputs and reintegration of climate information into Nigeria national policies.
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The total of all non-migratory wildlife species in the Masai Mara ecosystem has declined by 58% in the last 20 years. This decline ranges from 49% in small brown antelopes to 72% in medium brown antelopes. In individual wildlife species, the decline ranges from 52% in Grant's gazelle to 88% in the warthog. Declines of over 70% have been recorded in buffalo, giraffe, eland and waterbuck. Only elephant, impala and ostrich have not shown any significant decline or increase. Overall, there has not been any significant difference in decline of all wildlife population sizes inside and outside the reserve, except for Thomson's gazelle and warthog. Livestock have not significantly declined over the entire analysis period. However, livestock and cattle populations significantly declined during the 1983–88 period. Donkey declined by 67%, while shoats (goats and sheep) remained stable. In the case of wildlife, land use and vegetation changes, drought effects and poaching are considered to be among the potential factors that may have been responsible for the decline; the decline in livestock during the 1983–84 period was probably due to drought effects.
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This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.
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"Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Africa. In particular, rural farmers, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. The extent to which these impacts are felt depends in large part on the extent of adaptation in response to climate change. Adaptation is widely recognized as a vital component of any policy response to climate change. Without adaptation, climate change would be detrimental to the agricultural sector, but with adaptation, vulnerability can be significantly reduced. This brief is based on a study that examines farmers' perceptions of climate change and analyzes their adaptation responses to climate change and variability using household survey data from the Limpopo River Basin in South Africa." from text
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Using data from a survey of farm operators in two Virginia counties, the authors analyze farmers' soil conservation decisions. Results indicate that financial factors, including income and debt, are the most important influences on the sample farmers' use of conservation practices. Additional factors such as perception of erosion, education level, off-farm employment, and tenancy also influence conservation expenditures. Factors influencing conservation tillage acreage differ from those influencing expenditures for other conservation practices. In particular, age and race of the operator and on-farm erosion potential are significantly related to the use of conservation tillage but not other practices. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for conservation programs.
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Why do men and women adopt agricultural technologies at different rates? Evidence from Ghana suggests that gender-linked differences in the adoption of modern maize varieties and chemical fertilizer result from gender-linked differences in access to complementary inputs. This finding has important policy implications, because it suggests that ensuring more widespread and equitable adoption of improved technologies may not require changes in the research system, but rather introduction of measures that ensure better access for women to complementary inputs, especially land, labor, and extension services.
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Studies on input adoption consider education as one of the most important factors that affect adoption decisions. However, very little is known about the spill-over effect of intra-household education on the adoption process and about the impact of education on adoption decisions under different socioeconomic conditions. We investigate these two issues using a discrete choice model. The results indicate that the decision making process is a decentralised one in which educated adult members of the household actively participate in the decision making process. This casts doubt on the traditional assumption that the household head is the sole decision maker. The results reveal that there is a substantial and statistically significant intra-household spill-over effect of education on the adoption decision of households. The results of the study also show that the coefficient of the education and the environment interaction variable is negative and statistically significant. This demonstrates that education and socioeconomic environments could be substitutes in modern environments and complementary in traditional ones. This implies that the expansion of education in traditional areas may be more attractive than in modern areas since education is usually the only means to enhance the ability of farmers to acquire, synthesise and respond to innovations such as chemical fertiliser.
Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa
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Climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability
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