Cancer is promoted by cellular states of electromagnetic decoherence and can be
corrected by exposure to coherent non-ionizing electromagnetic fields
A physical model about cell-sustaining and cell-decaying soliton eigen-frequencies
Hans (J H) Geesink* and Dirk K F Meijer **
* Previous: Ir, Project leader Mineral Nanotechnology, DSM-Research, the Netherlands, mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
** Em. Professor of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Targeting, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
Groningen, April 12, 2017. Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dirk_Meijer4/publications
Physical and biological evidence has been found for the hypothesis that carcinogenesis fits in a frequency pattern of
electromagnetic (EM) waves, in which a gradual loss of cellular organization occurs. We find that cancer can be initiated
and promoted at typical frequencies of electromagnetic waves positioned in decoherent soliton frequency zones. In
contrast, the generation of cancer features can be inhibited and retarded by application of coherent soliton frequencies.
This hypothesis has been substantiated by 200 different EM frequency data in 320 different published biomedical
studies. All frequencies, ranging from sub Hz till Peta Hertz, could be normalized into 12 basic beneficial (anti-cancer)
frequencies, and 12 basic detrimental (cancer promoting) frequencies, that exhibit a deviation from coherency and
related geometry. Inhibiting of the cancer process, and even curing of the disease, could be further considered by
exposure to coherent EM fields. Such coherent solitons frequency zones can, for instance, be implemented in man-
made therapeutic radiation technology. Inhibition and retardation of the cancer process can take place through
stabilization of the identified eigen-frequencies, characteristic for the proper functioning of living cells. The present
hypothesis can be viewed upon as a further elaboration of the theory presented by Fröhlich in 1968 and his postulate
that biological systems exhibit coherent longitudinal vibrations of electrically polar macromolecular structures.
Fröhlich’s condensation of oscillators in vibration modes is usually compared with Bose–Einstein condensation and
phenomena involving macroscopic quantum coherence. At the same time, Davydov discovered the related principle of
longitudinal wave forms called solitons. Solitons with discrete wave frequencies can induce direct changes in DNA/RNA
conformation and/or epigenetic changes, in addition to perturbation of protein folding and disturbance of intra and
intercellular wave communication that is essential for the health ecology of cells. It is further hypothesized that such
wave energies and eigen-frequencies can be optimally expressed by a toroidal geometry.
Key words: Cancer, coherent, de-coherent, Fröhlich, Davydov, Belyaev, electromagnetic, soliton, non ionizing radiation,
Fröhlich proposed that the functionality and sensitivity in living systems results from ordered states within the
apparently chaotic motions and arrangements of biological molecules. A feature of this viewpoint is that ordered or
coherent states can exist over large distances, thus offering a mechanism by which cells communicate, in addition to the
short range of chemical forces. This long-range biological coherence provides growth control as exists in healthy tissue
but is absent in cancer . A number of investigators have expanded Fröhlich’s approach, and sought to test predicted
consequences experimentally [2, 3]. Adey proposed a model by which weak signals could be transmitted through cell
membranes and that solitary waves carry weak signals inside cells. Preto provided a general classical Hamiltonian
description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an
external energy source and it was shown that a coherent behavior, similar to Fröhlich's effect, is to be expected for a
given range of parameter values . Direct experimental support for the presence of Fröhlich condensation and the
related action in the arrangement of proteins was found by spectroscopic detecting of Bose-Einstein condensate-like
structures in biological matter at room temperature .
Coherence is defined as the physical congruence of wave properties within wave packets. It is a known property of
stationary waves (i.e. temporally and spatially constant) that enables a type of wave interference, defined as
constructive. Constructive wave interference leads to the generation of specific resonance patterns, promoting
coherent cellular wave domains, and dynamic cell systems are partially operating via this principle.
Coherence or non-randomness of quantum resonances has also been discussed by Einstein and Infield in 1961 for the
so-called “prequantum modes”. It was Schrödinger who recognized that coherent interaction of waves is coupled to
entanglement as 'the characteristic aspect of quantum mechanics’ and suggested that “eigenstates”, also called
“preferred states” are able to survive interaction with the environment. Coherent resonances can be present in
electrons, photons, phonon, solitons. The preferred locations for resonance transfer in living cells are the surrounding
domains of ion water clathrates, nucleic acids and ion-protein complexes. Water is known to be coherently nano-
structured and coherent affecting bio-molecular processes, including protein stability, substrate binding to enzymes, as
well as electron and proton transfer [6, 7, 8]. Semikhina documented that alternating magnetic fields in the range 25 nT-
879 μT are able to disrupt the arrangement of water molecules, particularly under high concentrations of hydrogen
bonds and protons. The effects were absent above 40-50°C, as water structure changes. The maximum effect was
detected at 156.2-Hz and 15.45 μT for 7°C pure water (of note: that is very close to the calculated de-coherent
frequency according to the algorithm) [9, 10].
According to Henry two main regimes of aqueous solutions exist containing solutes species either as small ions or large
colloids: 1) an incoherent regime when the concentration is not high enough to favor phase locking between matter,
radiation and vacuum and 2) a coherent regime of phase locking between coherence domains, above a certain
threshold of concentration, depending upon the nature of the added salts. The characteristic feature of his model is that
the coupling between matter fields (water, ions, colloids) and the electromagnetic field, originating in the vacuum, is
not zero as in classical theories .
If cells, bio-molecules, and cell networks are organized such that coherency of waves and wave patterns is at stake, a
physical relation should exist between this property and the stability of the components. A coherent pattern of
information and an algorithm of electromagnetic field-frequencies for living cells and biological effects has been earlier
found by us in a meta-analyses of bio-medical literature [12, 13]. The observed coherent resonances were subsequently
matched to a Pythagorean scale of tuning and octave hierarchy. Calculated scale frequencies turned out to be related to
eigenvalues of a square oscillating plate (Ritz, 1909) and EM frequencies applied in bio-medical studies . We inferred
that living organisms function against a background of such coherent resonances, at the level of atoms, molecules, cells
and agregates and possibly even at the level of consciousness . Coherency is related to solitons that play a role as
self-reinforcing solitary waves and are seen as electromagnetically longitudinal, helical and radial waves that travel
along proteins, microtubules and DNA. They thereby induce an endogenous electromagnetic field and interfere with
local resonant oscillations and electronic excitations of neighbouring molecules and macromolecules. The solitons and
corresponding soliton frequency-zones are considered to be responsible for the coherent wave patterns in cells. It was
therefore hypothesized by us that such wave energies are collected in, so called, underlying toroidal space-time
operators and that the particular multi connectedness can be optimally expressed by a toroidal geometry . From
these studies a bio-soliton model has been derived that describes a spectrum of electromagnetic eigen-frequencies of
which coherent and decoherent frequencies are ordered in an alternate fashion. This knowledge can be applied to
understand physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by electromagnetic fields . The model is
complementary to Henry’s model of characteristic frequencies involving water molecules by relating the molecular
weight M of any solvent or solute species to EM frequencies, using the mass-energy equivalence coupled to the Planck-
Einstein relationship .
Figure 1. Solitons propagate in either direction, exchange positions and eventually return the system to states that
resemble their initial configuration. The motion of the solitons can be seen here by following the lines of colours,
which denote displacements (From Porter, 2009 and image from Zabusky, Sun and Peng 2006)
We envision that a resulting soliton based morphogenetic field provides a dedicated control of functional shape of life
structures, through bringing in positional information and cues, in order to regulate organism-wide system properties
like cellular architecture, including control of reproduction and repair. It is proposed that the most optimal architectural
state of a living cell is such a coherent state, and that decline of quality of cell properties can occur when a transition
takes place from coherent states to states of less coherence, that can lead to moderate decoherence or even to a state
a full decoherence.
The highest coherent state can be defined as an integral fine tuned assembly of such coherent soliton frequencies. Our
soliton model predicts which discrete eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and
which are not. The particular effects were found to be exerted by a range of electromagnetic wave frequencies of one-
tenth of a Hertz till Peta Hertz (at Hz, KHz, Mhz, GHz, THz en PHz), and showed a distribution pattern of twelve bands
within one octave, that can be positioned in a normalized acoustic-like frequency scale. This means that, over the whole
frequency range, in total about 400 beneficial and 400 detrimental frequency bands may play a crucial organizing role in
It is further known that the architectural geometry of living cells, like genetic and epigenetic expression, can be
disturbed by decoherent wave modalities. Interestingly, decoherent wave information can also be restored in a
reversed process, that was called decoherence-coherence state cycling .
Cancer is due to a state of loss of internal cellular organization and coherence
There are physical models about the origin of carcinogenesis on the basis of biophysical mechanisms. In the following,
we will focus on a further elaboration of the above mentioned theories (Fröhlich and Devyatkov) that has been
expressed in the following relevant models:
Cancer is essentially a non-genetic disease, characterised by a global and unspecific impairment of energy and
information flow through the system, as manifested in genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic dysregulation. It is
primarily characterised by an unspecific progressive self-disorganisation, and impairment of the proper coherent
dynamics at some specific levels .
Sonnenschein and Soto
Carcinogenesis is seen as a problem of tissue organization: carcinogenic agents destroy the normal tissue architecture
disrupting cell-to-cell signaling and thereby compromise genomic integrity. Single or multiple carcinogenic exposure acts
in a given morphogenic field, disturbing the reciprocal biophysical communication between the parenchyma and the
mesenchyme/stroma [17, 18].
Impaired coherence is linked to the bioenergetic aspect of cancer considering Fröhlich’s theory. Cancer has a lower
degree of overall coherency. Healthy cells and the organization of living matter depends on a morphogenetic pattern
formation, and a field that determines the morphological structure of living organisms .
Levin and Chernet
Cancer is interpreted as corrupted geometry: a misregulation of the field of information that orchestrates individual cell
activity with regard to normal anatomy. The view that cancer is a developmental disorder, predicts that molecular
mechanisms, known to be important mediators of the supposed morphogenetic field, are deranged and thereby would
be involved in tumorgenesis. Failure of morphostasis can occur in cancer, because the entite morphogenetic field is
missing, altered, or not successfully perceived. This can occur due to selective genetic or physiological state changes [20,
Knox and Funk
A context dependent model focuses on interactions between the cell and its surrounding environment as the initiator
and/or driver of malignancy. Genome wide epigenetic changes precede cancer and confer risk for cancer, strongly
suggesting that multiple systems are affected by changes in gene expression, even before tumors become manifest.
Biophysical signalling was considered as having a central role in cancer, through influences on cell proliferation, cell
cycle progression, apoptosis, orientation of cell migration, as well as cell differentiation .
External electromagnetic fields (EMF’s) can influence adult stem cells resulting in either positive or negative effects.
Endogenous EMFs are present in developing and regenerating tissues and organs, either in the extracellular space or in
the cell cytoplasm. It has been hypothesized that some specific ranges of EMF parameters promote regeneration but
others result in cancer formation, degeneration, and pathological alterations. The observed osteogenic and
chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells show that EMF stimulation affects not only proliferation, the
cell cycle, or differentiation of stem cells, but also the many correlated processes. Stem cells under the influence of
“improper stimuli” may contribute to carcinogenesis and pathological alterations, resulting in many chronic disorders
A non-uniform field will lead to the development of dielectrophoretic forces, acting on polarizable macromolecules such
as microtubules, and organelles. This can affect all charged structures present in the cell, such as ions, proteins or DNA.
A model has been proposed, related to ionic solitary condensation waves around microtubules. In addition
dielectrophoretic effects in dividing cells may act on the dipole moments of microtubules at intermediate frequencies.
The whole cytoskeleton, and especially microtubulins, participate in numerous collective interactions with
electromagnetic forces, due to the complex charge distribution in and around the particular protein filaments that are
surrounded by poly-ionic solutions. Solitary ionic waves have been described as solutions of a nonlinear partial
differential equation .
Biophoton emissions from healthy humans display rhythmic patterns and show coherence. Biophotons emitted from
cancer cells lack coherence and fail to follow natural rhythmic patterns. Popp hypothesized that cancer results from a
disruption of cell’s photorepair system and discovered that benzo[a]pyrene, a potent carcinogen, absorbs ultraviolet
light at 380 nanometers and emits it at another frequency [26, 115].
An explanation of the action mechanism of solitons upon pancreatic tumor is proposed. A non-linear system which
emits dissipative solitons is sensitive to the presence of an external structure of frequencies. According to biophysics,
the exposure of the cellular medium to solitons sensible for radiofrequencies tends to produce a coherent structuring
Comparisons between primary cancers and metastases suggest a hypothesis of biological resonance (bioresonance).
Primary cancer and matched metastasis have a common progenitor, while both ancestors are under similar
microenvironments and receive similar or same signals. When their interactions reach a status similar to primary
cancer, metastasis will occur .
Knowledge about influences of non-ionizing electromagnetic on biological effects
Research about electromagnetic pulses on living cells has been systematically undertaken the past eighty years. About
25.000 biological and physical reports are available, of which a large part is dealing with non-thermal biological effects
on living cells. Influences of electromagnetic waves causing thermal effects on biological systems are known and
relatively well understood. Importantly, to date considerable knowledge about non-thermal effects of electromagnetic
waves has become available. At least six physical principles about the behaviour of non-ionizing radiation concerning
biological effects of living cells have been proposed: 1) ion cyclotron resonances, 2) parametric resonance, 3)
interactions between electromagnetic fields and electrons, 4) resonant frequencies and polarisation, 5) resonant
recognition, 6) radical concentrations, and 6) stability of waves and quantum coherence.
Research of Belyaev
Non-thermal electromagnetic fields (EMF) are able to cause both beneficial and detrimental responses of living cells.
These have been mainly observed in the wide frequency ranges of extremely low frequencies (1–300 Hz) and
microwave frequencies (300 MHz to 300 GHz). There is strong evidence from many studies that biological effects of EMF
are related to various physiological and physical parameters. Electromagnetic waves can affect overall cell viability, and
may influence neural and osteogenic differentiation, gene expressions, epigenetic mechanisms, as well as chromatin
modifications. Stem cells are more sensitive to EMF exposure than differentiated human primary cells, lymphocytes,
and fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts are the least sensitive. Non thermal EMF’s biological effects depend on various
physical wave or field parameters: intensity, overall duration and intermittent or permanent exposure, frequency,
polarization, modulations such as pulses, amplitudes, phases, and complex moduli, in addition to intermittence, near
field/far field and static magnetic field. Of note, even small changes in carrier frequency of about 2–4 MHz can result in
disappearance of non-thermal microwave (MW) effects, because of the selectivity of resonance like responses. Also,
relatively small changes in carrier frequency, in the order of 10 MHz, has reproducibly resulted in cell-type-dependent
generation of effects on non-thermal EMF exposure with respect to DNA repair foci in human cells. Coherence
modulations of MW waves often play a crucial role [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34; 35; 36; 37, 38; 39; 40, 41, 42].
A positive consequence of all this, is that treatment of melanoma, by applying external non ionizing electromagnetic
fields, is possible. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (NsPEFs) treatment is able to induce locally apoptosis-like effects of
melanoma and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular
homeostasis. Electromagnetic stimulation technology is already been used to treat various cancer types including skin,
breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo [43,
44]. A combined treatment of PEF (pulsed electromagnetic waves) and Co-gamma radiation shows a significant effect
on delaying the growth of glioma and subcutaneously implanted tumors .
Stem cell biology have opened a new window in the expanding area of regenerative medicine based on tissue
engineering and cell therapy derived from a variety of stem cells. Effects of EMFs on human adult stem cell biology have
been studied, such as proliferation, the cell cycle, differentiation and properly adjusted values of EMF frequencies, as
well as times of stimulation . Neurogenesis and osteogenesis processes rely on the activation of specific and
complex transcriptional programs, while epigenetic mechanisms play a critical regulatory role. This can be realized by
translating a wide array of endogenous and exogenous signals into persistent changes in gene expression in both neural
stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. EMF stimulation has been recognized as an effective tool in promoting both
neurogenesis and osteogenesis and the studies performed, so far, point to chromatin remodeling and pro-neuronal
gene expression .
Coherence versus decay of coherence
The organisation of components of a life system can be logical and well-organized in a biological sense or show chaotic
aspects, which is often related to the terms coherent or decoherent respectively. Of note, the organised pattern of the
cell components can be stable, or instable as well as in equilibrium or far from equilibrium. In physics, waves are called
coherent when the phase differences between the waves is small, whereas, if waves are defined as incoherent, these
phases have a high degree of variability . We proposed that life bio-molecules and viable cells are exposed to and
are functioning within about 400 narrow EM field frequency bands over a broad spectrum of frequencies. The individual
values that form quite narrow frequency bands, are localized around highly coherent frequencies. They, apparently, fit
with a discrete pattern of coherent waves and, in our view, may be co-responsible for the architectures of living cells.
The particular, highly coherent, frequencies of living cells/molecules are thus positioned in “coherent zones” and exist
withinin a small bandwidth of 0.85% of the local coherent algorithmic frequency. In contrast, decoherent zones are
positioned just in between the coherent zones and are responsible for an entropic decay of cellular organization, also
within a small bandwidth of 0.85% of the local decoherent algorithmic frequency. Cell-sustaining properties are
positioned at the green points, see figure 2, while cell-decaying decoherent frequencies are positioned between the
cell-sustaining frequency bands at the red squares. We proposed: 12 coherent reference sound frequencies: 256, 269.8,
288, 303.1, 324, 341.2, 364.7, 384, 404.5, 432, 455.1, 486 Hz, and 12 decoherent frequencies positioned logarithmical
just in between these coherent frequencies: 249.4, 262.8, 278.8, 295.5, 313.4, 332.5, 352.8, 374.3, 394.1, 418.0, 443.2,
470.3 Hz. All other frequencies, situated below or above the range of figure 2, can be derived by octave hierarchy.
Figure 2. Calculated normalized EM frequencies that were experimentally applied to living cells systems are found to be patterned in
12 apparent bands of cell-sustaining coherent frequencies (green points) and cell-decaying decoherent frequencies (red squares),
positioned between the cell-sustaining frequency bands.
Fröhlich did already present the first explicit hypothesis on the role of coherence in cancer and laid the basis for
understanding the related physical processes in biological systems. The central item is that cancer transformation
pathways include a link with altered coherent electric (electromagnetic) vibrations. He proposed that a global (localy
extended) coherent excitation emerges from electrically polar structures of sufficient size and polarisation density spans
across the tissues. These may also exert a long-range communication between cells, thereby electro-mechanically
stabilising the whole tissue. A cancer cell may escape from such interactions with the surrounding healthy cells and
individual cells may then exhibit independent activity, that is if the frequency spectrum is perturbed and/or shifted.
Such frequency changes may be combined with disturbances of the spatial pattern of the field by which the
transformed cell becomes dissociated from local interactions and tends to perform local invasion and formation of
metastases. When a critical number of cells cease to be in resonance with the global local excitation, they will no longer
be under tissue control and will express their tendency to divide again, a state which Fröhlich identified with cancer [50,
Devyatkov has considered the same principle of interactions of biomolecules and living cells. He found that biological
effects of cells, exposed to electromagnetic waves, are dependent on: wavelength, wave modulations, dose, exposure
time, magnetic field and coherence. He discovered that cells may be affected by long series of combined frequencies,
to be considered as second and third harmonics of these frequencies, providing oscillations of a, so called, collective
mode [53, 54, 55].
Also Popp has hypothesized that cancer results from a disruption of cells' photorepair system and that biophoton
emissions from cancer cells lack coherence and fail to follow natural rhythmic patterns .
Physical mechanisms of non thermal EMF effects have been explained in the framework of nonequilibrium and
nonlinear systems and investigated by many researchers: Fröhlich [46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52], Davydov [56, 57], Frey ,
Adey [3, 59, 60, 61, 62], Liboff , Szmigielski , Blank , Salford , Binhi , Blackman [68, 69], Carpenter
, Belyaev [71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78,79], Brizhik [80, 81], Cifra [82, 83], Pokorný [84, 85, 86], Srobar [87, 88, 89],
Cosic , Havas , and Barnes .
Our proposed soliton model describes that a high level of coherence of waves for healthy living cells is realized when
the absolute distance between a distinct endogeneous or exogeneous frequency in relation to a coherent frequency is
positioned in the soliton algorithm in the range of 0.0-0.85% of the particular value. A moderate level of coherence is
defined when the absolute distance between a typical frequency and a calculated soliton coherent frequency is
between 0.85-1.25%. A clear decay of organizational frequencies of living cells can occur when the absolute distance
between the observed frequency and the calculated coherent frequency is between 1.25-2.50%, while a maximum
decay can take place around 2.50-3.0% . About 400 typical coherent solitonic frequencies were detected in
literature to sustain healthy living cells. This implies either an endogeneous and or an exogeneous filed, yet both can be
modeled as vortex like movements if positioned on a toroidal rotatory structure. About 400 typical decoherent solitonic
frequencies sustain the organizational decay of healthy living cells and can be positioned at the vortices of a toroid .
The torus, like a twistor, is seen as the basic space-time structure, acting as an operator for the processing of quantum
The present hypothesis about carcinogenesis
Carcinogenesis is, according to H. Fröhlich, Davydov and the earlier discussed models, conceived as having a relation
with the above mentioned “organized field”, and thus with electrodynamics in and around living bio-molecules/cell(s).
The “organized field” interacts with solitons that are nonlinear interactions of vibrational excitations in and around
biomolecules at typical frequencies . Solitons are self-reinforcing solitary waves and have an electromagnetic
character exhibiting a longitudinal, helical and radial nature. Organisms undergo changes in the form of successive
transformations of organization states of cells during morphogenesis and tissue repair . The zones, which are
located between the designated regions of stabilisation and destabilization, are estimated to be transformational zones
of geometric wave patterns. The bandwidth of this frequency transformation zone is estimated to be located at about
0.50% of each local frequency.
Collective evidence for our EM-mediated hypothesis
An extensive meta-analysis of 270 published biological and medical studies has earlier been performed, in which living
material (tissues, cells, and whole animals) was exposed to external electromagnetic fields employing a wide spectrum
of frequencies from Hz, Khz, Mhz, GHz, THz and PHz mainly in the area of non thermal biological effects. In these studies
the various effects of the electromagnetic fields were reported as to their potential to inhibit and retard cancer, as
opposed to initiation and promotion of cancer. After collecting and scrutinizing the distribution pattern of these data,
the following parameters were established: 1) frequency values: (Hz, kHz, Mhz and GHz, THz and PHz), 2) particular
frequency modulations, 3) combinations of frequencies, and 4) chosen exposure levels. The summarized frequency data
were subsequently ordened to identify the most nearby soliton frequencies, according to the proposed algorithm and
subsequently to calculate the relative difference between the frequencies applied in the biological studies and the most
nearby calculated soliton frequencies, and than expressed in % of the algorithmic values.
In summary: the following hypothesis about cancer is presented in the present paper:
Cancer can be initiated and promoted at typical frequencies of electromagnetic waves that are positioned in the, so
called, decoherent soliton frequency zones. In contrast, cancer can be inhibited and retarded if exposed to coherent
soliton frequency zones in a natural chemical surrounding.
Verification of the cancer hypothesis
To verify this hypothesis, about 320 published papers from 1965 untill now, have been analyzed that describe the
inhibition/retardation or initiation/promotion of cancer, both in relation to the applied exogeneous electromagnetic
waves. In addition some examples of supposed endogeneous EM waves were analyzed (see for the collected data of this
meta-analysis the appendix 1). A total of 95 frequency data (Hz-THz) of in vitro and in vivo biological experiments
could be selected that show inhibition/retardation cancer or initiation/promotion/representing cancer. All frequency
data have been normalized according to octave hierarchy and can be positioned at a normalized acoustic frequency
scale (Hz), see figure 3. It can be concluded that the electromagnetic frequencies of all experiments showing
inhibition/retardation of cancer are precisely positioned in frequency bands already found for cell-sustaining
frequencies (green points, figure 2 and 3). All experiments showing initiation/promotion/representing cancer are
precisely positioned in frequency bands already found for cell-decaying frequencies (red squares, figure 2 and 3).
Figure 3. Calculated normalized EM frequencies that were experimentally applied to living cells systems are found to be patterned
in 12 apparent bands of cell-sustaining coherent frequencies able to inhibit/retard cancer (green points) and cell-decaying decoherent
frequencies able to initiate/promote/represent cancer (red squares), positioned between the cell-sustaining frequency bands.
It can be further confirmed that carcinogenesis and cancer growth is likely to be associated with a decoherent character
of electromagnetic waves and related quantum states. On the other hand, inhibition and curing of cancer turn out to be
coupled to a coherent behavior of electromagnetic waves and quantum states, according to the proposed algorithm of
frequencies. Importantly, it follows that curing or inhibition of cancer can be achieved by exposure to electromagnetic
frequency conditions that are beneficial for cells.
Subsequently, the different frequency effects of electromagnetic waves on living cells were also analysed with regard to
cell differentiation, DNA compostion, chromosomal aspects, genetic expressions, genome-wide methylation, foci in
differentiated cells, stem cells, neurons, plasma membranes, germ cells, signalling path ways, cognitive effects,
learning, spatial memory, and cell death among others (appendix 2).
Direct measurement of EM wave vibrations in tumor tissues
Endogeous measurements at EM MHz frequencies in cancer cells, fully supported the proposed hypothesis. Damping of
external electromagnetic field caused by cancer tissue has been for example measured at a frequency of 465 MHz
including the first harmonic. The absorption resonant frequencies of some tumors around 465 MHz was estimated as a
distinct shift of spectral lines of normal cells (Vedruccio, 2004, 2011), see table 5.
The principle of detection lies in the resonance between the coupled active nonlinear oscillator (the probe) and the
passive oscillator (the tissue) in the radiofrequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The external
electromagnetic field is damped by cancer tissue for example at 465 MHz and its first harmonic and only on a sharp
frequency window with a width of less than 8 MHz (1.73%). Outside this range, the nonlinear resonance generator does
not interact with the diseased tissues. Signals were identified and recorded as malignant or benign (adenoma or
hyperplastic polyps), related to adenoma detection and colon rectal cancer. These findings were compared with those
from colonoscopy with histologic confirmation [94, 95, 96, 97, 98], see appendix 1, and table 5.
Also Terahertz molecular resonance measurements of cancer DNA supported the hypothesis. Terahertz waves can
directly observe changes in DNA because the measured characteristic energies lie in the same frequency region.
Aberrant methylation of DNA is a well-known carcinogenic mechanism and a common chemical modification of DNA.
Resonance signals have been quantified to identify the types of cancer cells with a certain degree of DNA methylation.
The measurements revealed the existence of molecular resonance fingerprints of cancer DNAs in the terahertz region
, see table 5.
EMF-treatment and biological mechanisms
PEMF therapy is able to modulate gene expression and protein synthesis interacting with specific DNA sequences within
gene promoter regions [101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106]. According to Vadalà: PEMFs inhibit angiogenesis in tumor tissues,
suppressing tumor vascularization and reducing tumor growth, as shown in vivo studies [101, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111,
112, 118]. Treated groups showed slower tumor growth rate if compared with untreated control group, confirming that
PEMF therapy can modulate the physiology and electrochemistry of cancer cells and influence cell membrane systems
and mitosis. PEMFs induce various changes in membrane transport capacity, through impacting the osmotic potential,
ionic valves and reduction in cellular stress factors, in addition to increases in the rate of DNA transcription, and
modulation of immune response . Studies show that specific EMF frequencies enhance skeletal stem cells, human
bone marrow stromal cells adherence, proliferation, differentiation, and viability, all of which play also a key role in the
use for tissue engineering . The ability to interconvert information between electronic and ionic modalities has
transformed the ability to record and actuate biological function. Electronic actuation of the native transcriptional
regulators and transcription from promoters allows cell response that is quick, reversible and dependent on the
amplitude and frequency of the imposed electronic signals .
Potential therapeutic technologies to prevent decoherence, among others mediating cancer
Different types of technologies have already been investigated to prevent detrimental biological effects of non ionizing
radiation and even to induce beneficial biological effects. In the nineties, Litovitz and colleagues discovered that adding
signals of electromagnetic noise to incoherent man made signals result in reduced detrimental biological effects.
Litovitz showed a requirement for typical coherence times and types of modulations of an applied electromagnetic
signals at ELF or microwave to enhance ornithine decarboxylase activity in L929 fibroblasts. Microwave fields, amplitude
modulated (AM) by an extremely low-frequency (ELF) sine wave, induced a nearly twofold enhancement in the activity
of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in L929 cells at SAR levels of the order of 2.5 W/kg. A second technology might be the
application of so called trans-material catalysts  that are nano- and micron semiconductors able to add preferred
coherent condensate signals to electromagnetic man made signals. A third promishing technology makes use of
nanosecond PEMF that applies pulsed coherent frequencies using EM probe devices. The effectiveness of time varying
electromagnetic fields on biological systems has been shown and depends on pulse design, frequency, duration, and
magnetic field/rise time (dB/dt) [114, 116].
In the near future improved PEMF-technologies and semiconducting nanomaterials will come available to generate
coherent signals to state of the art electromagnetic signals focussing on stabilization of eigen-frequencies characteristic
for functioning of living cells.
We have previously shown that about 200 typical coherent solitonic frequencies sustain the viability of living cells, and
that the particular values are precisely positioned in, so called, coherent soliton frequency bands. Exposure to about 150
typical decoherent solitonic EM frequencies, produce unhealthy cells and turned out to be precisely positioned in the
decoherent soliton frequency bands. The particular bands, that represent soliton frequency zones, show a discrete
distribution pattern, if plotted on an acoustic scale (figure 2). The distribution pattern shows a clear separation of the
bands in a statistically significant manner. The pattern of twelve basic frequency intervals and bands could be
adequately described by an acoustic algorithm. We regard this dicrete pattern of wave activities as a morphogenetic
code, indicating a harmonic- like vibration modality [12, 13].
Many published data give now support to the hypothesis that cancer can be initiated and promoted at typical
frequencies of electromagnetic waves. The reported frequencies are apparently positioned in the same decoherent
soliton frequency zones identified by us. In contrast, according to these studies, cancer can be inhibited and retarded in
the discrete coherent soliton frequency zones inferred from our studies (figure 3). The particular results are rather
striking: nearly all (96.2%) of the analysed 100 different EM continuous wave frequency data showed the cancer
initiation/promotion or inhibition/retardation characteristics according to the proposed algorithm and fully support the
In total 65 frequency data analysed, showed inhibition/retardation of cancer are shown to be presicely located in zones
of coherent frequencies at a mean distance value around a coherent frequency of 0.79 %. The other analysed 35
frequency data, showing initiation/promotion of cancer, are positioned in zones of decoherent frequencies at a mean
distance value from a coherent frequency of 1.66 %.
The particular beneficial, versus the detrimental EM frequencies zones, that are mirrored by oscillations in the intact
cell, are features of a either a healthy state or a corrupted cell state. As listed in the 123 cases in appendix 2, the
dominant biological phenomena also obey to the proposed algorithmic soliton frequencies: They include cell
differentiation, genome-wide methylation and the expression of DNA, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations,
genetic expressions, foci in differentiated cells, oxidative damage, stem cells, neurons, plasma membranes, germ cells,
reproductive system, cognitive effects, signalling path ways, learning and spatial memory, DNA damage, and apoptotic
cell death. Of the overall studies, biological phenomena of healthy living cells are positioned in zones of beneficial
coherent soliton frequencies, at a mean distance value around a coherent frequency of 0.78 % (for continuous wave
exposures), whereas unhealthy living cells are located in zones of detrimental decoherent soliton frequencies at a mean
distance value from a coherent frequency of 1.86% (for continuous wave exposures).
Interestingly, in the investigations into the influence of EM frequencies that potentially induce cancer disorders, as
listed in the appendix 1, as much as 39 different values of electromagnetic waves make use of so called carrier waves
that in our scheme in fact represent coherent soliton frequency bands, but of which the applied wave modulations that
are superposed on the particular carrier waves belong, in contrast, to the decoherent soliton frequency bands. These
kind of complex superposed waves therefore show an overall decoherent behaviour, resulting in detrimental biological
properties. According to our calculations the overall mean distance from the respective coherent frequencies of these
kind of waves amounts to 1.80-2.00% and therefore, in our definition, therefore become highly incoherent.
It is further remarkable that living cells remain viable over a wide regime of electromagnetic wave radiations, with
typical frequencies and modulations, and all are fitting into an electromagnetic range of frequencies, from about less
than one Hertz till one peta Hertz (10^15). In addition, the idea of selective zones of life/supporting or life endangering
frequencies, was supported both by direct tissue measurements of typical endogeneous EM frequencies in healthy
tissues, as opposed to endogeneous frequencies in cells with cancer features.
It is expected that in the near future, more complex therapeutic systems will be developed by employing suitable
combinations of coherent electromagnetic wave frequencies, for example to be used against various forms of cancer.
Even beneficial EM signals can be integrated into man made instruments that either may neutralize adverse radiation
modalities or even may be technically integrated in the many other electronic devices in daily practice, in order to
create a healthy EM environment in the vicinity of our body.
In general, the present study highlights the existence of a dominant vibrational spectrum of EM fields that, as an
“algorithm of living cells”, also may have played an evolutionary role in the initiation of first life and in the stabilization
of life systems, until today. At the same time this principle of physics, as defined in our recent papers, can influence our
health if the nature of the coherent frequencies is perturbed so that de-coherent frequencies, that is of sufficient density
and exposure times, take over. With this knowledge it will be possible to develop innovative technologies that can
effectively improve the life-sustaining coherency of electromagnetic signals.
It is further projected to mathematically study the eigen-frequencies of the particular waves, positioned at a toroidal
geometry, making use of finite element methods. Probably, the existence of the revealed combination of stable
coherent and de-coherent resonances. is fully based upon such a type of mathematics.
1. Fröhlich H. Biological Coherence and Response to External Stimuli. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1988.
2. Lawrence AF, Adey WR. Non-linear wave mechanisms in interaction between excitable tissue and electromagnetic
fields. Neurol. Res. 1982, 4:115-154.
3. Adey WR, Lawrence AF. Nonlinear dynamics in biological systems. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1984.
4. Preto J. Classical investigation of long-range coherence in biological systems. Journal of Nonlinear Science, 2016,
Volume 26, Issue 12, 10.1063/1.4971963.
5. Lundholm IV, Rodilla H, Wahlgren WY, Duelli A, Bourenkov G, Vukusic J, Friedman R, Stake J, Schneider T, Katona G.
Terahertz radiation induces non-thermal structural changes associated with Fröhlich condensation in a protein crystal.
Struct Dyn. 2015 Oct 13;2(5):054702. doi: 10.1063/1.4931825.
6. Del Giudice E, Spinetti PS, Tedeschi A. Water Dynamics at the Root of Metamorphosis in Living Organisms. Water
2010; 2: 566-586, doi: 10.3390/w2030566.
7. Chaplin MF. A proposal for the structuring of water. Biophys Chem. 2000; 24, 83(3): 211-21.
8. Johnson, K. (2009). “Water Buckyball” Terahertz Vibrations in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Cosmology.
9. Semikhina LP, Kiselev VF, Levshin LV, Saletskii AM. Effect of weak magnetic fields on the luminescence-spectral
properties of a dye in an aqueous solution. Journal of Applied Spectroscopy 1988, 48:556-9.
10. Semikhina LP, Kiselev VF. Effect of weak magnetic fields on the properties of water and ice. Russian Physics Journal
11. Henry M. Hofmeister series: The quantum mechanical viewpoint. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 23
12. Geesink JH, Meijer DKF. Quantum Wave Information of Life Revealed: An algorithm for EM frequencies that create
stability of biological order, with implications for brain function and consciousness. NeuroQuantology, 2016; 14: 106-
13. Geesink JH, Meijer DKF. Bio-Soliton Model that predicts Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Frequency Bands, that either
Stabilize or Destabilize Living cells. Biological Physics, arXiv: 1610.04855 [physics.bio-ph], October 2016.
14. Meijer DKF, Geesink JH, Meijer DKF. Phonon Guided Biology: Architecture of Life and Conscious Perception Are
Mediated by Toroidal Coupling of Phonon, Photon and Electron Information Fluxes at Discrete Eigenfrequencies.
NeuroQuantology | December 2016 | Volume 14 | Issue 4 | Page 718-755 | doi: 10.14704/nq.2016.14.4.985
15. Shor PW. "Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer".
SIAM J. Comput., 26 (5): 1484–1509, 1997.
16. Plankar M, Jerman I, Krasovec R. On the origin of cancer: Can we ignore coherence? Progress in Biophysics and
Molecular Biology 106 (2011) 380e390.
17. Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. Theories of carcinogenesis: an emerging perspective. Seminars Cancer Biol. 2008, 18,
18. Sonnenschein C, Davis B, Soto AM. A novel pathogenic classification of cancers. Cancer Cell Int. 2014, 14, 113e117.
19. Pokorný J, Pokorný J, Foletti A, Kobilková J, Vrba J, Vrba J. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Disturbed Coherence: Gate
to Cancer. Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8, 675-695; doi: 10.3390/ph8040675
20. Levin M. Bioelectromagnetics in morphogenesis. Bioelectromagnetics. 2003; 24:295–315.
21. Levin, M. Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: Non-local control of complex
patterning. BioSystems (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2012.04.005
22. Chernet B, Levin M. Endogenous Voltage Potentials and the Microenvironment: Bioelectric Signals that Reveal,
Induce and Normalize Cancer. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2013; Suppl 1: doi:10.4172/2324-9110.S1-002.
23. Knox SS, Funk RHW. Oncology and Biophysics: A Need for Integration. Knox and Funk, J Clin Exp Oncol 2014, S1
24. Maziarz A, Kocan B, Bester M, Budzik S, Cholewa M, Ochiya T, Banas A. How electromagnetic fields can influence
adult stem cells: positive and negative impacts. Maziarz et al. Stem Cell Research & Therapy (2016) 7:54 DOI
25. Tuszynski JA, Wenger C, Friesen DE, Preto J. An Overview of Sub-Cellular Mechanisms Involved in the Action of
TTFields. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1128; doi: 10.3390/ijerph13111128.
26. Popp FA. Biophotonen - Ein neuer Weg zur Lösung des Krebsproblems (Verlag für Medizin Dr. Ewald Fischer,
27. Le Chapellier P, Matta B. Is Victory over Pancreatic Cancer Possible, with the Help of Tuned Non-Invasive
Physiotherapy? A Case Study Says Yes. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 2014, 5, 460-477. Published Online April 2014 in
28. Gao D, Li S. Biological resonance for cancer metastasis, a new hypothesis based on comparisons between primary
cancers and metastases. Cancer Microenvironment (2013) 6:213–230, DOI 10.1007/s12307-013-0138-y.
29. Belyaev IY, Alipov YD, Shcheglov VS. Chromosome DNA as a target of resonant interaction between Escherichia-coli-
cells and low intensity millimeter waves. Electro Magnetobiol 1992a, 11(2):97–108.
30. Belyaev IY, Matronchik AY, Alipov YD. Effect of weak static and alternating magnetic fields on the genome
conformational state of E. coli cells: Evidence for the model of modulation of high frequency oscillations. In: Allen MJ
(ed.) Charge and Field Effects in Biosystems. Singapore: World Scientific Publish. Co. PTE Ltd., 1994, pp. 174–184.
31. Belyaev IY, Shcheglov VS, Alipov YD, Polunin VA. Resonance effect of millimeter waves in the power range from
10(−19) to 3 × 10(−3) W/cm2 on Escherichia coli cells at different concentrations. Bioelectromagnetics 1996, 17(4):312–
32. Belyaev IY, Markovà E, Hillert L, Malmgren LO, Persson BR. Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce
long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics. 2009
Feb;30(2):129-41. doi: 10.1002/bem.20445.
33. Belyaev I. 2010a. Dependence of non-thermal biological effects of microwaves on physical and biological variables:
Implications for reproducibility and safety standards. In: Giuliani L, Soffritti M (eds.) European Journal of Oncology—
Library Non-Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of Interaction between Electromagnetic Fields and Living Matter. An
ICEMS Monograph. Bologna, Italy: Ramazzini Institute,http://www.icems.eu/papers.htm?f
=/c/a/2009/12/15/MNHJ1B49KH.DTL, pp. 187–218.
34. Belyaev IY. Biophysical Mechanisms for Nonthermal Microwave Effects, 2015.
35. Shcheglov VS, Belyaev IY, Ushakov VL, Alipov YD. 1997b. Power-dependent rearrangement in the spectrum of
resonance effect of millimeter waves on the genome conformational state of E. coli cells. Electro Magnetobiol 16(1):69–
36. Markova E, Malmgren LOG, Belyaev IY. 2010. Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53BP1 focus formation in
human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells: Possible mechanistic link to cancer risk. Environ Health
37. Litovitz TA, D. Krause, Miguel Penafiel, Edward C. Elson, Dr. J. M. Mullins. The role of coherence time in the effect of
microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity. Bioelectromagnetics, TOC Volume 14, Issue 5 1993, Pages 395–403.
38. Litovitz TA, Penafiel LM, Farrel JM, Krause D, Meister R, Mullins JM. 1997a. Bioeffects induced by exposure to
microwaves are mitigated by superposition of ELF noise. Bioelectromagnetics 18(6):422–430.
39. Blackman CF. 1984. Sub-chapter 5.7.5 Biological effects of low frequency modulation of RF radiation. In: Elder JA,
Cahill DF (eds.) Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation: EPA-600/8-83-026F, pp. 5-88–5-92.
40. Lai H, Singh NP. Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells.
Bioelectromagnetics. 1995; 16(3):207-10.
41. Lai H, Singh NP. Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency
electromagnetic radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 1996 Apr; 69(4):513-21.
42. Lai H. 2004. Interaction of microwaves and a temporally incoherent magnetic field on spatial learning in the rat.
Physiol Behav 82(5):785–789.
43. Zimmerman JW, Jimenez H, Pennison MJ, Brezovich I, Morgan D, Mudry A , Costa FP, Barbault A, Pasche B. Targeted
treatment of cancer with radiofrequency electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies.
CACA Chinese Anti-Cancer Association 5.
44. Beebe SJ, Karl H. Schoenbach and Richard Heller. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma. Cancers 2010,
2, 1731-1770; doi: 10.3390/cancers2031731.
45. Persson BR, Bauréus Koch C, Grafstrom G, Engstrom PE, Salford LG. A model for evaluating therapeutic response of
combined cancer treatment modalities: applied to treatment of subcutaneously implanted brain tumors (N32 and N29)
in Fischer rats with pulsed electric fields (PEF) and 60Co-gamma radiation (RT). Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2003
46. Leone L, Podda MV, Grassi C. Impact of electromagnetic fields on stem cells: common mechanisms at the crossroad
between adult neurogenesis and osteogenesis. MINI REVIEW published: 15 June 2015, doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00228.
47. Fröhlich H. 1968. Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems. Int J Quantum Chem 2:641–652.
48. Fröhlich H. 1970. Long range coherence and the action of enzymes. Nature 228(5276):1093.
49. Fröhlich H. 1975. The extraordinary dielectric properties of biological materials and the action of enzymes. Proc Natl
Acad Sci USA 72(11):4211–4215.
50. Fröhlich H. Long-range coherence in biological systems. La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento (1971-1977). 1977; 7: 399-
51. Fröhlich H. Coherent electric vibrations in biological systems and the cancer problem. Microwave Theory and
Techniques, IEEE Transactions on. 1978; 26: 613-618. 33.
52. Fröhlich H. 1980. The biological effects of microwaves and related questions. In: Marton L, Marton C (eds.) Advances
in Electronics and Electron Physics. New York, Academic Press, pp. 85–152.
53. Devyatkov ND. Influence of millimetre band electromagnetic radiation on biological objects, (1974). Sov Phys Usp
54. Devyatlov ND, Golant MV, Betskii OV. Millimeter waves and their role in processes of vital activity, 1991. (In
Russian), Radio and Svyaz, Moscow.
55. Devyatkov ND, Pletnyov S D, Chernov Z S, Faikin VV. et al., ’Effect of low-energy nanosecond-pulse EHF and
microwave radiation with a giant peak power on biological structures (malignant tumors),’ DAN SSSR, Vol. 336, No. 6,
1994 (in Russian).
56. Davydov AS. "The theory of contraction of proteins under their excitation". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 38 (3):
559–569, 1973, doi: 10.1016/0022-5193(73)90256-7. PMID 4266326.
57. Davydov AS. "Solitons and energy transfer along protein molecules". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 66 (2): 379–387,
1977, doi: 10.1016/0022-5193(77)90178-3. PMID 886872.
58. Frey AH. 1974. Differential biologic effects of pulsed and continuous electromagnetic fields and mechanisms of
effect. Ann NY Acad Sci 238:273–279.
59. Adey WR. Ionic nonequilibrium phenomena, in Tissue Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, K.H. Illinger, Editor. ACS
Symposium Series. pp. 271-297, 1981.
60. Adey WR. Electromagnetic fields, cell membrane amplification, and cancer promotion, in extremely low frequency
electromagnetic fields, 1990. In: Wilson BW, Stevens RG, Anderson LE. The question of cancer. Columbus, OH: Batelle
Press, pp. 211-249.
61. Adey WR et al. Spontaneous and nitrosurea-induced primary tumors of the central nervous system in Fischer 344
chronically exposed to 836 MHz modulated microwaves. Radiat Res, 1999. 152(3): p. 293-302.
62. Adey WR, Byus CV, Cain Cd, Higgins RJ, Jones RA, Kean CJ, Kuster N, MacMurray A, Stagg RB, Zimmerman G.
Spontaneous and Nitrosourea-induced Primary Tumors of the Central Nervous System in Fischer 344 Rats Exposed to
Frequency-modulated Microwave Fields, 2000.
63. Liboff AR. Geomagnetic cyclotron resonance in living cells. Journal of Biological Physics 1985; vol. 13.
64. Szmigielski S, Lipski MBS, Sokolska G. Immunologic and Cancer-Related Aspects of Exposure to Low-Level Microwave
and Radiofrequency Fields, 1986. Department of Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation Center for Radiobiology and
Radiation Safety Warsaw, Poland.
65. Blank M, Soo L. Electromagnetic acceleration of electron transfer reactions. J Cell Biochem 2001, 81(2):278-283.
66. Salford LG, Brun A, Sturesson K, Eberhardt JL, Persson BR. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by 915
MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz. Microsc Res Tech. 1994 Apr
67. Binhi VN. 2002. Magnetobiology: Underlying Physical Problems. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 473p.
68. Blackman CF, Benane SG, Rabinowitz JR, House DE, Joines WT. A Role for the Magnetic Field in the Radiation-
Induced Efflux of Calcium Ions from Brain Tissue in Vitro, Bioelectromagnetics 6:327-337, 1985.
69. Blackman CF, Blanchard JP, Benane SG, House DE. Effects of ac and dc magnetic filed orientation on nerve cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical research communications. 220: 807-811, 1996c.
70. Carpenter DO et al, (January 2010) Electromagnetic fields and cancer: the cost of doing nothing, Rev Environ Health.
71. Belyaev IY, Alipov YD, Polunin VA, Shcheglov VS. 1993a. Evidence for dependence of resonant-frequency of
millimeter-wave interaction with Escherichia-coli Kl2 cells on haploid genome length. Electro Magnetobiol 12(1):39–49.
72. Belyaev IY, Alipov YD, Shcheglov VS, Lystsov VN. 1992b. Resonance effect of microwaves on the genome
conformational state of E. coli cells. Z Naturforsch [C] 47:621–627.
73. Belyaev IY, Alipov YD, Shcheglov VS, Polunin VA, Aizenberg OA. 1994a. Cooperative response of Escherichia-coli-cells
to the resonance effect of millimeter waves at super low-intensity. Electro Magnetobiol 13(1):53–66.
74. Belyaev IY, Markova E, Hillert L, Malmgren LOG, Persson BRR. 2009. Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones
induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/g-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics 30(2):129–
75. Belyaev IY, Shcheglov VS, Alipov YD. 1992b. Existence of selection rules on helicity during discrete transitions of the
genome conformational state of E. coli cells exposed to low-level millimetre radiation. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg
76. Belyaev IY, Shcheglov VS, Alipov YD. 1992c. Selection rules on helicity during discrete transitions of the genome
conformational state in intact and x-rayed cells of E. coli in millimeter range of electromagnetic field. In: Allen MJ, Cleary
SF, Sowers AE, Shillady DD (eds.) Charge and Field Effects in Biosystems. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser, pp. 115–126.
77. Belyaev IY, Shcheglov VS, Alipov YD, Radko SP. 1993b. Regularities of separate and combined effects of circularly
polarized millimeter waves on E. coli cells at different phases of culture growth. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 31(1):49–63.
78. Belyaev IY, Kravchenko VG. 1994. Resonance effect of low-intensity millimeter waves on the chromatin
conformational state of rat thymocytes. Z Naturforsch [C] 49(5–6):352–358.
79. Belyaev IY, Markova E, Malmgren L Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem
Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer, 2010. Risk. Environ Health
Perspect 118: 394–399.
80. Brizhik L, Cruzeiro-Hansson, Eremo A. Influence of electromagnetic radiation on molecular solitons. Journal of
Biological Physics 24: 19–39, 1998.
81. Brizhik L, Eremko A, Piette B, Zakrzewski W. 2009a. Effects of periodic electromagnetic field on charge transport in
macromolecules. Electromagn Biol Med 28(1):15–27.
82. Cifra M, Fields JZ, Farhadi A. Electromagnetic cellular interactions. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
2010; 1-24, doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2010.07.003.
83. Cifra M, Pokorný J, Jelínek F, Kučera O. "Vibrations of electrically polar structures in biosystems give rise to
electromagnetic field: theories and experiments", In Proceedings of Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium
2009, Moscow, Russia, August 18-21. Cambridge: The Electromagnetics Academy, 2009, p. 138 - 142. ISSN 1559-9450.
84. Pokorný J. (2011) Electrodynamic Activity of Healthy and Cancer Cells. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 329,
Article ID: 012007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/329/1/012007
85. Pokorný J, Vedruccio C, Cifra M and Kucera O, Cancer physics: diagnostics based on damped cellular elastoelectrical
vibrations in microtubules, European Biophysics Journal, 2011; 40(6): 747-759.
86. Pokorný J, Jandová A, Nedbalová M, Jelínek F, Cifra M, Kučera O, Havelka D, Vrba J, Vrba J, Čoček A, Kobilková J.
Mitochondrial Metabolism – Neglected Link of Cancer Transformation and Treatment. Prague Medical Report / Vol. 113
(2012) No. 2, p. 81–94.
87. Srobar F. 2009a. Occupation-dependent access to metabolic energy in Frohlich systems. Electromagn Biol Med
88. Srobar F. 2009b. Role of non-linear interactions by the energy condensation in Fröhlich systems. Neural Netw World
89. Srobar F. Radiating Fröhlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine,
Volume 34, 2015 - Issue 4.
90. Cosic I, Cosic D, Lazar K. Is it possible to predict electromagnetic resonances in proteins, DNA and RNA? EPJ
Nonlinear Biomedical Physics (2015) 3:5.
91. Havas M. When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer? Environmental Pollution.
Volume 221, February 2017, Pages 501–50.
92. Barnes FS, Greenebaum B. The Effects of weak magnetic fields on radical pairs. Bioelectromagnetics, 2014 Wiley
93. Longo G, Montévil M, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2015. In search of principles for a theory of organisms. J. Biosci. 40,
94. Vedruccio C, Meessen A. EM cancer detection by means of non linear resonance interaction. In Proceedings of the
PIERS Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Pisa, Italy, 28–31 March 2004; pp. 909–912.
95. Vedruccio C, Vedruccio CR. Non invasive radiofrequency diagnostics of cancer. The Bioscanner ―Trimprob
technology and clinical applications. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 329 (2011) 012038.
96. Dore MP, Tufano MO, Pes GM, Cuccu M, Farina V, Manca A, Graham DY. Tissue resonance interaction accurately
detects colon lesions: a double-blind pilot study. World J Gastroenterol 2015 July 7; 21(25): 7851-7859, ISSN 1007-9327
(print) ISSN 2219-2840.
97. Gervino G, Autino E, Kolomoets E, Leucci G, Balma M. Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer at 465 MHz. Electromagnetic
Biology and Medicine, 26: 119–134, 2007.
98. Fornes-Leal A, Garcia-Pardo C, Frasson M, Pons Beltrán V, Cardona N. Dielectric characterization of healthy and
malignant colon tissues in the 0.5–18 GHz frequency band. Physics in Medicine and Biology, Volume 61, Number 20.
99. Cheon H, Yang H-J, Lee S-H, Kim YA, Son J-H. Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA. 02 August 2016.
Scientific Reports | 6:37103 | DOI: 10.1038/srep37103.
100. Bechmann M, Steitz M, Klein H. Zukunftstechnologie Transmateriale Katalysatoren, Ein Innovationsreport, 2013.
101. Vadalà M, Morales-Medina JC, Vallelunga A, Palmieri B, Laurino C, Lannitti T. Mechanisms and therapeutic
effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in oncology. Cancer Medicine 2016; 5(11):3128–3139.
102. Kirson ED, Dbaly V, Tovarys F, Vymazal J, Soustiel JF, Itzhaki A, et al. 2007. Alternating electric fields arrest cell
proliferation in animal tumor models and human brain tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:10152–10157.
103. Crocetti S, Beyer C, Schade G, Egli M, Frohlich J, Franco-Obregon A. Low intensity and frequency pulsed
electromagnetic fields selectively impair breast cancer cell viability, 2013. PLoS One 8:e72944.
104. Zimmerman JW, Pennison MJ, Brezovich I, Yi N, Yang CT, Ramaker R, et al. Cancer cell proliferation is inhibited by
specific modulation frequencies. Br. J. Cancer 2012, 106:307–313.
105. Morabito CS, Guarnieri S, Fano G, Mariggio MA. Effects of acute and chronic low frequency electromagnetic field
exposure on PC12 cells during neuronal differentiation. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 2010, 26:947–958.
106. Filipovic NDT, Radovic M, Cvetkovic D, Curcic M, Markovic S, Peulic A, et al. 2014. Electromagnetic field
investigation on different cancer cell lines. Cancer Cell Int. 14:1–10.
107. Nuccitelli RU, Pliquett X, Chen W, Ford R, Swanson J, Beebe SJ, et al. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields cause
melanomas to self-destruct. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2006, 343:351–360.
108. White JA, Blackmore PF, Schoenbach KH, Beebe SJ. Stimulation of capacitative calcium entry in HL-60 cells by
nanosecond pulsed electric fields. J. Biol. Chem. 2004, 279:22964–22972.
109. Beebe SJ, Blackmore PF, White J, Joshi RP, Schoenbach KH. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields modulate cell
function through intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. Physiol. Meas. 2004, 25:1077–1093.
110. Beebe SJ, Fox PM, Rec LJ, Willis EL, Schoenbach KH. Nanosecond, high-intensity pulsed electric fields induce
apoptosis in human cells. FASEB J. 2003, 17:1493–1495.
111. Nuccitelli R, Chen X, Pakhomov AG, Baldwin WH, Sheikh S, Pomicter JL et al. A new pulsed electric field therapy for
melanoma disrupts the tumor’s blood supply and causes complete remission without recurrence. Int. J. Cancer, 2009,
112. Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner AA, et al. Maintenance Therapy With Tumor-Treating Fields Plus Temozolomide vs
Temozolomide Alone for Glioblastoma A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015; 314(23):2511-2513.
113. Ross CL, Siriwardane M, Almeida-Porada G, Porada CD, Brink P, Christ GJ, Harrison BS. The effect of low-frequency
electromagnetic field on human bone marrow stem/progenitor cell differentiation, Stem Cell Research (2015) 15, 96–
114. Madkan A, Lin-Ye A, Pantazatos SP, Geddis MS, Blank M, Goodman R. Frequency sensitivity of nanosecond pulse
EMF on regrowth and hsp70 levels in transected planaria. J. Biomedical Science and Engineering, 2009, 2, 227-238. doi:
10.4236/jbise.2009.24036 Published Online August 2009 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/jbise/
115. Niggli HJ, Tudisco S, Lanzanò L, Applegate LA, Scordino A, Musumeci F. Laser-ultraviolet-A induced ultra weak
photon emission in human skin cells: A biophotonic comparison between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Indian J Exp
Biol. 2008 May; 46(5):358-63.
116. Yamaguchi S, Ogiue-Ikeda M, Sekino M, Ueno S. Effects of pulsed magnetic stimulation on tumor development and
immune functions in mice. Bioelectromagnetics 2006, 27:64–72.
117. Tschirhart T, Kim E, McKay R, Ueda H, Wu H-C, Pottash AE, Zargar A, Negrete A, Shiloach J, Payne G, Bentley WE.
Electronic control of gene expression and cell behaviour in Escherichia coli through redox signalling. NATURE
COMMUNICATIONS | 8:14030 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14030 |www.nature.com/naturecommunications.
118. Giladi M, Weinberg U, Schneiderman RS, Porat Y, Munster M, Voloshin T, Blatt R, Cahal S, Itzhaki A, Onn A, Kirson
ED, Paltia Y. Alternating Electric Fields (Tumor-Treating Fields Therapy) Can Improve Chemotherapy Treatment Efficacy
in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Both In Vitro and In Vivo. Seminars in Oncology, Vol 41, No 5, Suppl 6, October 2014, pp
Appendix 1: Data bank for verification of the EM-coherency hypothesis for cancer
1.0) ELF 50 Hz located in a coherent soliton frequency-zone able to inhibit and retard cancer (table 1 and 2)
Many studies show that a 50 Hz electromagnetic wave at a nearly pure, transient-free 50 Hz, is able to retard tumor and inhibit tumor
formation (Hisamitsu, 1997; Wertheimer, 1979; Simkó, 1998; Pang, 2001; Tofani, 2002, 2003; Traitcheva, 2003; Morabito, 2010; Berg,
2010; Filipovic, 2014) or by using a 50 Hz wave with a typical modulation:
- Nucleosome-sized DNA fragmentation (a biochemical marker of apoptosis) was induced in human myelogenous leukemic cell lines,
HL-60 and ML-1, when exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. This 50 Hz wave did not induce detectable DNA fragmentation in
either human peripheral blood leukocytes or polymorphonuclear cells (Hisamitsu, 1997).
- Human colon adenocarcinoma and human breast adenocarcinoma exposed to 3 mT static MF, modulated in amplitude with 3 mT
ELF-MF at 50 Hz, showed morphological evidence of increased apoptosis (Tofani 2002).
- Anticancer activity of electromagnetic fields was observed by exposing mice bearing a subcutaneous human breast tumour to
modulated MF extremely low frequency fields at 50 Hz at an intensity of 5.5 mT (Tofani 2003).
- Increased apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines occurred by exposure during 24 and 72 h to pulsed EMF (50 Hz; 10 mT)
compared with untreated control cancer cell lines (Filipovic, 2014).
1.1) Extreme low decoherent frequencies can promote cancer (table 2b)
- Unipolar and bipolar PEMF fields of 5 mT and PVMP fields of 0 mT at frequencies of 15 Hz, 125 Hz and 625 Hz were tested on
cancer cell lines derived from various types of tumors: CEM/C2 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), SU-DHL-4 (B-cell lymphoma), COLO-
320DM (colorectal adenocarcinoma), MDA-BM-468 (breast adenocarcinoma), and ZR-75-1 (ductal carcinoma). Cell morphology was
observed, proliferation activity using WST assay was measured and simultaneous proportion of live, early apoptotic and dead cells
was detected using flow cytometry. PEMF of 125 Hz and 625 Hz for 24 h–48 h increased proliferation activity in the 2 types of
cancer cell lines used, i.e. COLO-320DM and ZR-75-1. In contrast, any of employed methods did not confirm a significant inhibitory
effect of hypothetic PVMP field on tumor cells (Loja T, 2014).
1.2) Modulated 50 Hz and 60 Hz can cause cancer
Incoherent modulations (positioned in decoherent-zones) added to 50 and 60 Hz carrier waves can cause cancer.
- Power supply at 50 and 60 Hz contains a lot of harmonic distortion (Bulletin No. 8803PD9402, 1994; Schaffner, 2014). Due to this
reason the chance on carcinogenesis and the risk of childhood leukemia increases at exposures of higher than 0.3 μT according to:
National Cancer Institute Electromagnetic fields and cancer, 2016; Ahlbom, 2000; Greenland, 2000; Kheifets, 2010.
- 50 Hz modulated with a sufficient high level of incoherent frequencies is able to cause cancer at a relatively low field strength. 50 Hz
combined with a harmonic distortion of about 3% can cause cancer in rats at field strength of 1000 µT in mice after 800 days (Soff.
2016). But an estimated lower content of inharmonic distortions no cancer in animals (rats) at a strength of 500 µT occurs after 2
years (of note: 50 Hz is positioned in a zone with a moderate coherence), (Yasui, 1997).
- 60 Hz with a sufficient amount of harmonic distortion can cause cancer at a field strength of 200 µT in mice after 852 days at an
amount of harmonic distortion less than 3% (Boorman, 1999a). But a 60 Hz with a low amount of harmonic distortion did not cause
cancer in animals at a high field strength of 1420 µT in mice after 852 days (of note: 60 Hz is positioned near the border of low
coherence), (McCormick et al., 1999).
- Both 50 Hz and 60 Hz combined with a cancer co-promoter agent can cause cancer at a relatively low field strength 20-200 µT
(Löscher and Mevissen et al. 1996, 1998, 2008; Cain, 1993; Stuchly, 1992; Beniashvili, 1991).
1.3) Extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Murine malignant tumour growth of mice inhibited, apoptosis of cancer cells induced, and arrest of neoangiogenesis was observed
by a pulsed 0.16-1.34 Hz treatment (Zhang X, 2002).
- Growth of S-180 sarcoma in mice was inhibited by a pulsed magnetic field at 0.8 T, 22 ms, 1 Hz (Chang et al., 1985).
- A pronounced decrease in tumor growth rate in animals exposed to a 5-Hz interferential frequency for 1 hr daily has been shown.
- A significant decrease in the rate of tumor growth and increase in survival were observed for male and female mice exposed for
8 h/day to 100 mT, 0.8-Hz square-wave from the onset of tumor until death or until the tumor volume reached a predetermined
volume (Seze, 2000).
- A significant decrease in cell growth (56%) of colon adenocarcinoma cells has been shown in cells exposed to 1Hz or 25 Hz for 2 till 6
h. at 1.5 mT in the presence of dexamethasone (Ruiz-Gómez, 1999, 2002).
- The inhibition growth rate was significantly higher of murine osteosarcoma cells, treated with doxorubicin in the presence of 10 x
10-3 mT PEMF at 10 Hz, compared to both non-exposed resistant cells and those non-treated with doxorubicin (Miyagi et al., 2000).
- Mice inoculated subcutaneously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells exposed to 25 Hz EMF for 3 h did not grow tumours after 38 days,
however, the mice in the sham-field and reference controls showed massive tumours. Tumour growth was also affected by the
intensity of the field, with mice exposed to a weak intensity field (1-5 nT) forming smaller tumours than mice exposed to sham or
stronger, high intensity (2-5 microT) fields (Hu JH, 2010).
- Exposure of mice injected with mouse breast cancer cells to electromagnetic fields, for 6 h. daily at 100 mT, 1-Hz, half-sine-wave
unipolar magnetic fields for as long as 4 wk, suppressed tumor growth (Tatarov, 2011).
- Rat liver cancer exposed to 0.9 Hz and 3.0 Hz magnetic fields at 13-42 Gauss and 0.6 Tesla showed apoptosis, necrosis and
inflammatory infiltration of the malignant carcinoma (Emara, 2013).
- Electromagnetic exposure by 0.4 T, 7.5 Hz for 43 days inhibited the growth and metastasis of melanoma cancer cells and improved
immune function of tumor-bearing mice (Nie Y., 2013).
- Microarray of human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed for 1 hour to 8 Hz electromagnetic wave showed a duration-
dependent inhibitory effect and the cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes had 2-fold upregulation and 40 genes had 2-fold
downregulation (Feng, 2013).
- Pulsed EMF at 20 Hz and intensity of 3 mT during 3 days showed cytotoxic to breast cancer cells (Crocetti, 2013).
- The effect of the A3AR agonist in tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of pulsed EMFs and blocked by using a well-known
selective antagonist. The results demonstrated that pulsed EMF exposure significantly increased the anti-tumor effect modulated by
A3ARs at a pulse duration of 1.3 ms (1300 Hz) and frequency of 75 Hz (Vincenzi, 2012).
- Human hematoma cell line cells decreased with a variety of Xray irradiation doses combined to 100 Hz EMF at 0.7 mT and cause
accumulation of apoptotic effects in BEL-7402 cells (Jian et al., 2009).
- Five periods of combined 100 Hz MFs and 4 Gy X-ray could significantly extend the overall days of survival and reduce the tumor
size compared to MF or X-ray alone. A greater number of 100 Hz MF exposure periods could further improve the survival and inhibit
tumor growth in hepatoma-implanted mice when combined with 4 Gy X-ray (Wen, 2011).
- Exposure of breast tumors to a 120 Hz magnetic field 10 minutes per day with 0, 10 mT, 15 mT or 20 mT significantly reduced tumor
growth, reduced the percentage of area stained for CD31 indicating a reduction in the extent of vascularization and there was a
concomitant increase in the extent of tumor necrosis (Williams, 2001).
- Male Fischer-344 rats subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibited
preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis
process (Jiménez-García, 2010).
- Exposure to 20mT for 10 minutes 120 Hz semi sine wave pulse signal of variable intensity of murine 16/C mammary
adenocarcinoma tumor fragments reduced the vascular volume fraction and increased the necrotic volume of the tumor (Cameron,
1.4) Effects of extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones and cancer cells
- Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) cell line (U87), in vitro, were exposed to various ELF-PEMFs continuous square waves with 10, 50 or
100 Hz frequencies and 50 or 100 G amplitudes. The data suggest that the proliferation and apoptosis of human GBM are influenced
by exposure to ELF-PEMFs in different time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes (Akbarnejad, 2016) (of note: square waves can
have typical influences).
1.5) Combinations of extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Modulated 0.5 Hz and 16.5 Hz produced a pronounced antitumor effect and inhibited or suppressed the growth of Ehrlich ascites
carcinoma (EAC) in mice. The maximum effects occured at 100 and 300 nT at a frequency of 4.4 Hz. The necrosis was prevailing type
of cell death (Novikov, 2005, 2009).
- A low-intensity frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern daily, 1 h, exposures inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines, and
HeLa cells but did not but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells (Buckner, 2015).
1.6) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Pulsed electric fields of of 0.5 Hz and greater than 20 kV/cm, with rise times of 30 ns and durations of 300 ns (3.32 MHz) penetrate
into the interior of tumor cells and cause tumor cell nuclei to rapidly shrink and tumor blood flow to stop. Melanomas shrink by 90%
within two weeks. A second treatment at this time can result in complete remission (Nuccitelli, 2006).
- Modulated RF field of 900 MHz with a 8:1 pulsed signaling system at a SAR of 1W/kg induced anti-proliferative activity in human
neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, also the appearance of the sub-G1 peak, a hallmark of apoptosis, was highlighted after a 24-h
exposure, together with a significant decrease in mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and survivin genes, both interfering with signaling between G2-
M arrest and apoptosis (Buttiglione, 2007).
- A study of ablation efficiencies revealed that 18-GHz microwave results in the largest difference in the temperature rise between
cancer and normal tissues as well as the highest ablation efficiency, reaching 20 times that of 2 GHz. Thermal profile study on the
composite region of cancer and fat also showed significantly reduced collateral damage using 18 GHz. Application of low-power (1 W)
18-GHz microwave on the nude mice xenografted with human breast cancer cells resulted in recurrence-free treatment. The
proposed microwave ablation method can be a very effective process to treat small-sized tumor with minimized invasiveness and
collateral damages (Yoon, 2011).
- Coherent monochromatic frequency signals at GHz are able to suppress tumor growth (Radzievsky, 2004; Beneduci, 2005). The
biological effects produced by low power millimeter waves (MMW) were studied on the RPMI 7932 human melanoma cell line. Three
different frequency-type irradiation modes were used: the 53.57-78.33 GHz wide-band frequency range, the 51.05 GHz and the 65.00
GHz monochromatic frequencies. In all three irradiation conditions, the radiation energy was low enough not to increase the
temperature of the cellular samples. The wide-band irradiation treatment effectively inhibited cell growth, while both the
monochromatic irradiation treatments did not affect the growth trend of RPMI 7932 cells (Beneduci, 2005).
- A coherent pulsed electromagnetic field at a coherent MHz frequency is able to reduce cancer in a cell lines (Agulan, 2015).
- Electric pulses 20 ns or less kill a wide variety of human cancer cells in vitro, induce tumor regression in vivo: a total of 200 pulses of
20 ns duration at 25 kV/cm led to an 84% decrease in viable cells compared to controls. A total of 200 pulses of 20 ns duration at 35
kV/cm caused complete eradication of the cells (Garon, 2007).
- Tumors in treated mice showed nsPEF-mediated nuclear condensation (3 h post-pulse), cell shrinkage (1 h), increases in active
executioner caspases and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nickend-labeling (1h) with decreases in vascular endothelial
growth factor expression (7d) and micro-vessel density (14d). Tumors disappeared with 100 ns pulses to nearly non-detectable levels
14-21 days after the first treatment in 6 of 8 mice. Optimal treatments included 76.5% tumor-free survival for nearly 9 months (Chen
- Nanosecond pulse electric fields (nsPEFs) ablate melanoma by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Four
hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2, SMMC7721, Hep1-6, and HCCLM3 were pulsed to test the anti-proliferation and anti-
migration ability of 100 ns nsPEFs in vitro. The animal model of human subdermal xenograft HCCLM3 cells into BALB/c nude mouse
was used to test the anti-tumor growth and macrophage infiltration in vivo (Chen X 2014).
- NsPEF could not only induce cell apoptosis via dependent-mitochondria intrinsic apoptosis pathway, but also inhibit cell
proliferation through repressing NF-κB signaling pathway to reduce expressions of cyclin proteins. NsPEF, at 100 ns pulses (10 MHz)
in duration and 20 kV/cm in intensity applied at a frequency of 0.5 Hz, could inactivate metastasis and invasion in cancer cells by
suppressing Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway to down-regulating expressions of VEGF and MMPs family proteins. It is found that
nsPEF induce tumor cell apoptosis, destroy tumor microenvironment, and depress angiogenesis in tumor tissue in vivo (Ren Z, 2015).
1.7) Mhz and GHz modulated with ELF frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cell Line (SKOV3) induced by the nanosecond pulsed electric field (10kV/cm, 100 ns, 1 Hz)
effects on intracellular calcium concentration (Ca2+). The results showed that the early apoptosis rate of the treatment group was
significantly higher than that of the control group. Since nsPEF can penetrate cell membrane due to its high frequency components,
one of the mechanisms of nsPEF-induced apoptosis may be that activating intracellular calcium stores can increase the [Ca2+]i, and
consequently, the apoptotic signal pathway can be induced (Yao, 2008).
-To determine if nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is equally effective in treatment of human breast cancer, 30 human breast
cancer tumors across 30Balb/c (nu/nu) mice were exposed to 720 pulses of 100ns (7.2 GHz) duration, at 4 pulses per second and
30kV/cm. Two weeks after treatment, the growth of treated tumors was inhibited by 79%. Pulsed tumors exhibited apoptosis
evaluated by TUNEL staining, inhibition in Bcl-2 expression and decreased blood vessel density. Notably, CD34, vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression in treated tumors were strongly suppressed. The results suggest nsPEFs
is able to inhibit human breast cancer development and suppress tumor blood vessel growth, indicating nsPEFs may serve as a novel
therapy for breast cancer in the future (Wu S., 2013).
- Exposing the tumor tissue female Balb/c mice to 10 MHz modulated 4.5 Hz, 2 Gauss square wave magnetic field for 2 weeks at a
rate 2 hours/day inhibited tumor growth and increased the survival period of the animals. However, group B showed more
improvements than did group C that was attributed to some distortions in the square waveform. The use of typical ELF EMF at 0.5 Hz
and 0.7 Hz electric field exposed to Balb/c mice g carrying Ehrlich tumor proved that tumor cells can be controlled and recovery of
rgans such as liver and spleen are possible (Fadel, 2011, 2015).
1.8) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in decoherent-zones may cause cancer (table 2a)
-Human cells exposed to continuous 830 MHz electromagnetic fields at 2.6–8.8 W/kg at a nonthermal level can lead to acquire
premalignant genotypes associated with elevated levels of aneuploidy and abnormalities in replication mode as expressed in
asynchrony in the replication timing of homologous chromosomal regions associated with chromosome segregation. These findings
support the view that exposure to this kind of RF radiation of average SAR values of 2.6–8.8 W/kg can lead to a genotoxic effect of
the electromagnetic radiation and may lead to a carcinogenic activity through a non thermal pathway (Mashevich, 2003).
- Male rats of wistar strain exposed to modulated 2.45 GHz, at an absorption rate (SAR) of 0.11 W/Kg, showed a significant increase in
comet head, tail length and in tail movement in exposed brain cells. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and
superoxide dismutase showed a decrease while an increase in catalase was observed. The study concludes that the chronic exposure
to these radiations may cause significant damage to brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion (Kesari, 2010).
- Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that incoherent modulated 900 MHz activated a variety of cellular
signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, a
hypothesis has been put forward that this kind of electromagnetic fields induced activation of hsp27 may facilitate the development
of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway (Leszczynski 2002).
- Exposure of rats by a combination of a continuous wave form in a nearby coherent zone at a low exposure level does not affect
tumor growth. Low-level exposure of mammary-tumor-prone mice to 2450 MHz RFR circularly polarized waveguides (CWG) for 18
months (20 h/day, 7 days/wk) to continuous-wave 2450 MHz RFR at a whole body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.3 W/kg
did not affect mammary tumor incidence, latency to tumor onset, tumor growth rate, or animal longevity when compared with
sham-irradiated controls (Frei, 1998).
1.9) Mhz, GHz, THz frequencies located in decoherent zones can cause cancer (table 2b)
- Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at 660 nm induced significantly the proliferation of a squamous carcinoma cell line SCC25 cells at 1.0
J/cm2, which was accomplished by an increase in the expression of cyclin D1 and nuclear β-catenin. The results of this study
demonstrated that LLLT exerts a stimulatory effect on proliferation and invasion of SCC25 cells, which was associated with alterations
on expression of proteins studied (Gomes Henriques, 2014).
- Laser irradiation three times once a day during three days with a 660 nm 50 mW CW laser, beam spot size 2 mm2, irradiance 2.5
W/cm2 and irradiation times of 60s (dose 150 J/cm2) and 420s (dose 1050 J/cm2) respectively on B16F10 melanoma cells in a vitro
study increased in the hypodiploid melanoma cells at 72 h post-irradiation, and at 1050 J/cm2 in the vivo experiment (Frigo, 2009).
- Low level laser irradiation at 660 nm or 780 nm at 6.15 J/cm² can modify oral dysplastic cells (DOK) and oral cancer cells (SCC9 and
SCC25) growth by modulating signalling pathways; LLLT significantly modified the expression of proteins related to progression and
invasion in all the cell lines, and could aggravate oral cancer cellular behaviour, increasing the expression of different proteins and
producing an aggressive Hsp90 isoform (Sperandio, 2013).
- High frequency coherent signals of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields modulated with coherent extreme low frequencies do not cause
cancer at a specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 0.4 W/kg in genetically predisposed species after about 1 year exposure ( Sommer,
- The mutagenic effect on Escherichia coli strains of UV radiation emitted by a XeCI laser (lambda=308 nm, tau=20 ns, 100 mJ pulse
energy) has been analyzed as a function of the exposure dose and compared with the effect induced by 254 nm radiation emitted by
a conventional germicidal lamp. Mutations can involve any genome site and therefore can give rise to various phenotypes, which
then can be suitably selected. As a consequence, the impact of the induced mutagenesis is outstanding, both in scientific and
industrial fields. In particular suitable doses of UV radiation can induce mutations, while higher doses can cause cell death, due to the
induction of manifold damages to DNA (Belloni, 2005).
- The action spectrum (sensitivity per incident photon as a function of wavelength) for melanoma induction shows appreciable
sensitivity at 365, 405, and probably 436 nm, as shown in heavily pigmented backcross hybrids of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfish
and swordtails) that are very sensitive to melanoma induction by single exposures to UV, (Setlow 1993).
- The action spectrum of SSC (squamous cell carcinoma) has been determined experimentally in hairless mice; this action spectrum
shows a peak at 293 nm in the UV-B range (De Gruijl et al., 1993).
1.10) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in coherent zones with estimated modulations in decoherent zones can cause cancer (table
- A high frequency 900 MHz signal located in a coherent zone at a low SAR of 0.13-1.4 W/kg, modulated with estimated incoherent
frequencies in the decoherent soliton frequency-zone, can cause cancer after 2 years exposure in animals (Repacholi, 1997).
- A high frequency signal at a high SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg caused DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) in leukocytes using
the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vitro studies of modulated 837 and 1909.8 MHz exposed human
blood leukocytes and lymphocytes. This demonstrates that, this kind of EMF is capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human
lymphocytes (Tice, 2002).
- High frequency signals of 900 and 1900 MHz located in a coherent zone, and modulated with estimated incoherent frequencies in
the decoherent soliton frequency-zone at a high SAR of 6 W/kg during an exposure of 2 years can show schwannomas in the heart of
male rats (Wyde et al., 2016).
1.11) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in decoherent zones with estimated modulations in decoherent zones can cause cancer at
a lower exposure level (table 2b)
-Expose mice to modulated 9270 MHz waves can causes cancer (Prausnitz and Susskind, 1962). Rat exposed to pulsed 2450 MHz at
0.48 mW/cm2 and at SARs up to 0.4 W/Kg, 21.5 hr/day, 7 days/wk, 25 month show that carcinomas are increased and malignant
tumors of endocrine and exocrine organs as a group are increased (Guy et al. 1983, 1985).
-Modulated/pulsed exposure of rats 2,450-MHz EMF 21.5 h/day, for 25 months at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.4
W/kg provide an increase of malignancies (Chou CK 1992).
-Mice exposed to modulated 1.966 GHz fields with intensities of 4.8 W/m(2) during 24 months displayed an enhanced lung tumour
rate and an increased incidence of lung carcinomas as compared to the controls (Tillmann, 2010).
- A replication of the Tillmann study of exposed mice has been performed using higher numbers of animals per group exposed to
modulated 1.966 GHz exposed at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR). It has been confirmed that numbers of
tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas
were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure (Lerchl, 2015).
1.12) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in decoherent zones with a co-carcinogen can cause cancer
- Mice exposed to microwave irradiations irradiated with athermal (5 mW/cm2) or subthermal (15 mW/cm2) doses of 2,450 MHz
microwaves during 6 months resulted in a significant acceleration of the development of benzopyrene-induced skin cancer and in
shortening of life span of the tumour-bearing hosts. This effect seemed to be dose-dependent since subthermal doses (15 mV/cm2)
and longer (3 months) expositions to microwaves were more efficient as compared to athermal doses (5 mW/cm2) and shorter
preirradiations (Szudziński, 1982).
- Mice irradiated by nonthermal (1 or 10 mW/cm2) or thermogenic (40 mW/cm2) 2,450-MHz microwave (MW) fields showed a
significant enhancement of the teratogenic potency of ara-C after combined exposure to both ara-C and microwave exposure during
pregnancy. The possibility that specific cellular interactions of MW/RFs are connected with the pulse modulation of the carrier wave
is considered (Marcickiewicz, 1986).
- Long-term exposure of mice to 2450-MHz MWs resulted in acceleration of the appearance and growth of tumors initiated by three
different carcinogens, and a higher risk of cancer development in mice exposed to subcarcinogenic doses of initiators. Microwave-
exposed C3H/HeA mice developed breast tumors earlier than controls (322 days in controls, 261 days for 5 mW/cm2 and 219 days
for 15 mW/cm2). A similar acceleration was observed in the development of BP-induced skin cancer in mice (Szmigielski, 1982).
1.13) THz and light frequencies located in coherent zones may and can inhibit and retard cancer (table 2b)
- Treatment of human breast cancer (MCF7) cancer cells is achieved at the exposure of 3600 nm (Peidaee, 2013).
- Glioblastoma cell cultures cell line A-172 irradiated laser at a wavelength of 808 nm at 18, 36 and 54 J/cm(2) suppressed
proliferation of A-172 cells in a fluence-dependent manner (Murayama, 2012).
- The near-infrared 808 nm low-power laser irradiation (LLI) potentially suppressed the cell proliferation of human derived
glioblastoma (A-172) (Fukuzaki, 2014).
- A diode 808 nm GaAlAs continuous wave laser has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human hepatoma cells line HepG2 and
J-5. The mechanism of inhibition might be due to down-regulation of synemin expression and alteration of cytokeratin organization
that was caused by laser irradiation (Liu YH, 2004).
- THz-pulses induced increases in the levels of multiple cell cycle regulatory and tumor suppressor proteins, favorable changes in the
expression of multiple genes suggesting that cellular DNA repair machinery is activated in response to THz-pulse-induced DNA
damage (Titova, 2013).
Based on mesoscopic modelling of DNA breathing dynamics in a THz field, it has been suggested that THz radiation may amplify
existing (or create new) open states in the double helix, thereby affecting transcription initiation or binding of transcription factors
and influences of terahertz radiation effect on gene expression in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (Alexandrov, 2010, 2013).
Appendix 2: Data bank for verification of the EM-coherency hypothesis for healthy and unhealthy cells
Also an extensive meta-analysis of 123 published biological/medical studies has been performed, in which living material (tissues,
cells, and whole animals) was exposed to external electromagnetic fields employing a wide spectrum of frequencies (Hz, Khz, Mhz,
GHz, THz and PHz) mainly in the area of non thermal biological effects and related to different health aspects of living cells. In these
studies the various effects of the electromagnetic fields were reported as to their possibility to be cell-sustaining/beneficial for living
cells, as opposed to causing detrimental actions. After collecting these data the following parameters have been mapped: 1)
frequencies: extreme low frequencies, Mhz and GHz, THz and light frequencies, 2) calculated and estimated influences of frequency
modulations, 3) combinations of frequencies, 4) exposure levels. The frequency data of these studies have been used to find: the first
nearby calculated soliton frequencies, according to the proposed algorithm and to calculate: the differences between the applied
frequencies used in these studies and the first nearby calculated coherent soliton frequencies in %.
Appendix 2. Beneficial biological effects
There are many studies concerning non ionizing electromagnetic waves that show beneficial health effects for living cells:
2.1) Extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones that improve health of living cells (table 3a)
- Cells continuously exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at 5.1 Hz demonstrated significant changes in the downregulation of
TNF-α and NFkB and also showed a trend in the down regulation of A20, as compared with controls. This treatment could be
beneficial in modulating the immune response, in the presence of infection (Ross, 2013).
- Pulsed EMF of 4.5 ms pulse bursts of 12-19 mV, 0-20 G, 15 Hz raises the effects on endochondral ossification (e.g., fracture healing
and growth plates). Pulsed 15 Hz showed the synthesis of cartilage proteoglycans of normal size, composition, and function increased
(Aaron, 1989, 1993).
- A decrease of 18% in wound size in the active PEMF group (Pulsed electromagnetic therapy, at 12 Hz) as compared with a 10%
decrease in the control group. The PEMF group demonstrated significant cumulative increase in cutaneous capillary blood velocity
(by 28%) and 14% increase in capillary diameter. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in both capillary blood velocity and
diameter. PEMF therapy seemed to accelerate wound healing and improve microcirculation (Kwan, 2015).
- A list of genes modulated by ELF includes HDACs (i.e., HDAC5 and HDAC11) are known to critically regulate stem cells self-renewal
and differentiation (Leone, 2015).
- PEMF exposure of differentiating human BMSCs (Bone marrow-derived stromal cell) enhanced mineralization and induced
differentiation at the expense of proliferation. The osteogenic stimulus of PEMF was confirmed by the upregulation of several
osteogenic marker genes in the PEMF treated group, which preceded the deposition of mineral itself. The exposure o f differentiating
human BMSCs resulted in early up-regulation of several osteoblast related genes and enhanced mineralization, exposed to 15 Hz, 1
Gauss EM field, consisting of 5-millisecond bursts with 5-microsecond pulses. The findings indicate that PEMF can directly stimulate
mesenchymal stem cells and promote osteogenesis (Jansen, 2010).
- Sinusoidal ELF stimulation promotes proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of both BMSCs (Zhong et al., 2012) and ASCs (Kang
et al., 2013).
- Increased expression of osteogenic markers ALP, SMAD1, RUNX2, OSTEOPONTIN, and OSTEOCALCIN compared with controls by
stimulating with 15 Hz, 1 Gauss EM field, consisting of 5 ms bursts with 1 ms pulses (Kaivosoja, 2015).
- EMF at 0.5 mT, 50 Hz accelerated cellular proliferation, enhanced cellular differentiation, and increased the percentage of cells in
the G(2)/M+S (postsynthetic gap 2 period/mitotic phase + S phase) of the stimulation (Zhong 2012).
- Exposure of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs) to ELF-PEMFs increased proliferation by 15%
compared to untreated cells at day 5. In addition, exposure to ELF-PEMFs (continuously to 10, 50, and 100 Hz ELF-PEMFs, at 6G ± 0.5
significantly increased ALP expression during the early stages of osteogenesis and substantially enhanced mineralization near the
midpoint of osteogenesis within 2 weeks. ELF-PEMFs also increased vinculin, vimentin, and CaM expressions, compared to control. In
particular, CaM indicated that ELF-PEMFs significantly altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The results indicated
that ELF-PEMFs could enhance early cell proliferation in hABMSCs-mediated osteogenesis and accelerate the osteogenesis (Lim KT,
- 50 Hz, 1 mT for 8 days exposure of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) showed promoted neuronal
differentiation even in the absence of any neurotrophic factor (Seong et al., 2014).
- 50 Hz, 1 mT for 12 days exposure increased neuronal differentiation of human bone marrow-derived (hBM)-MSCs, and induced the
expression of neural cell markers including NeuroD1 (Cho et al., 2012).
- The induction of rat bone mesenchymal stromal cells to differentiate into functional neurons is facilitated by 50 Hz, magnetic
induction of 5 mT, 60 min per day for 12 days (Bai, 2013).
- Typical frequencies at ELF-EMF exposure can induce the alterations of genome-wide methylation and the expression of DNA
methyltransferases in spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cells. 50 Hz ELFEMF exposure decreased genome-wide methylation at 1 mT, but
global methylation was higher at 3 mT compared with the controls. DNA methylation via the regulation of chromatin structure
modifications and the expression of genes involved in cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis, and DNA repair is closely related to
embryonic development, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and central nervous system diseases (Liu YH 2015).
- Delayed pulsed electromagnetic field treatment (PEMF: 75 Hz, 1.6 mT) increased bone and cartilage formation, and decreased
bone and cartilage resorption. Pre-emptive and early PEMF treatment had moderate effects on cartilage degradation. Time point of
treatment initiation is crucial for treating OA. PEMF might become a potential biophysical treatment modality for osteoarthritis (Yang
- A significantly increased ALP, neovascularization and bone matrix in osteogenic differentiation applying a pulse’s period of 5
milliseconds (ms) and a magnitude of the magnetic field adjustable from 0.6 Tesla up to 1 Tesla. Each pulse needs 5 seconds to
restore energy for the next pulse (Fu, 2014).
2.2) MHz, GHz, Thz frequencies located in coherent zones that improve health or are neutral for living cells (table 3a)
- Small change in carrier frequency by 10 MHz has reproducibly resulted in cell-type-dependent appearance (of note 915 MHz; stab
905.9; 1.0%) or disappearance (of note: a high coherent frequency: 905 MHz; stab. 905.9; 0.1%) in effects of non thermal EMF
exposure on DNA repair foci in human cells. Exposure at 905 MHz did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, both fibroblasts
and lymphocytes. (Belyaev et al., 2009; Markova et al. 2010; Belyaev 2015).
- Planaria were transected equidistant between the tip of the head and the tip of the tail. Individual head and tail portions f rom the
same worm were placed in pond water and exposed to 8, 16 or 72 Hertz PEMF (pulse length is for example about 250ns) for one hour
daily post transection under carefully controlled exposure conditions. Regrowth of heads and tails was measured in PEMF-exposed
and sham control. Protein lysates from PEMF-exposed and sham control transected heads and tails were analyzed for hsp70 levels by
Western blot analyses. Conclusion: The degree of regrowth and hsp70 levels in transected heads and tails exposed to nanosecond
PEMF exposures at 8, 16 or 72 Hz was frequency dependent (Madkan, 2009).
- Adult mice exposed to 900 MHz continuous RF at a medium exposure of 120 μW/cm(2) for 4 hours/day for 7 days showed: (a)
reduced BLM-induced DNA damage and that remained after each 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min repair time, and (b) decreased levels of
MDA in plasma and liver, and increased SOD level in the lung. The overall data suggested that RF exposure of 900 MHz continuous RF
at 120 μW/cm(2) was capable of inducing adaptive response and mitigated BLM- induced DNA and oxidative damages by activating
certain cellular processes (Marinelli, 2004).
- Mice pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days to continuous 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm2 power density showed progressively
decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-
exposure is capable of inducing adaptive response (Jiang et al., 2013).
- Adult mice exposed to 900 MHz continuous RF low exposure at 120 μW/cm(2) power density for 4 hours/day for 7 days showed
induced adaptive response and mitigated BLM (bleomycin)- induced DNA and oxidative damages by activating certain cellular
processes (Zong C. et al., 2015).
- The percentage of epididymal sperm motility of male albino Wistar rats exposed to EMF 1800 and 900 MHz (probably CW) for 2 h
continuously per day for 90 days was significantly higher in the 1800 MHz (probably continuous waves) exposed group. The
morphologically normal spermatozoa rates were higher and the tail abnormality and total percentage abnormalities were lower in
the 900 MHz group. The study indicated that exposure to electromagnetic wave caused an increase in testosterone level, epididymal
sperm motility, and normal sperm morphology of rats (Ozlem Nisbet, 2012).
- No significant differences in cell growth or cell viability related to cell proliferation and the gene expression profile in the human cell
lines, A172 (glioblastoma), H4 (neuroglioma), and IMR-90 (fibroblasts from normal fetal lung) following exposure to 2.1425 GHz (of
note a highly coherent frequency) continuous wave (CW) and modulated 2.1425 GHz at absorption rates (SARs) of 80, 250, or 800
mW/kg for up to 96 h were found (Sekijima 2010).
- Short-term exposure to a 1439 MHz EMF (of note a highly coherent frequency) pulsed for 4 hr/day on 3 consecutive days, altered
neither the serum estrogen concentration nor estrogenic activity in female ovariectomized rats (Yamashita, 2010).
- Laser irradiation at 532 nm promoted the migration of GABAergic NSPCs (neurogenesis of neural stem/projenitor cells) into deeper
layers of the neocortex in vivo by elevating Akt expression. 532 nm affects proliferation and migrating of GAD67-positive NSPCs in
adult murine neocortex and also whether 532 nm LLI affects cultured NSPCs from embryonic mice. The in vivo experiments
demonstrated that 532 nm LLI (60 mW) facilitated the migration of GABAergic neurons with a significant increase in Akt expression.
It is well known that Akt plays an important role in the regulation of cellular processes that are critical for neuronal development,
including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and neuronal migration (Fukuzaki, 2015).
2.3) MHz and GHz modulated frequencies located in coherent zones that improve health of living cells (table 3a)
- Microwaves at 450-MHz modulated with 40 Hz (of note: a high coherent frequency) microwave at 0.16 mW/cm2 enhanced EEG
power in EEG alpha and beta frequency bands. No significant alterations were detected at 7 and 1000 Hz modulation frequencies.
These results are in good agreement with the theory of parametric excitation of the brain bioelectric oscillations caused by the
periodic alteration of neurophysiologic parameters and support the proposed mechanism (Hinrikus, 2016).
- Permeabilization of plasma membranes occurred at lower electric fields than dissipation of DYm, indicating that as electric fields are
increased, plasma membranes are more sensitive responders than mitochondria membranes. For a 600 ns (1.66 MHz) pulse with a
rise time of 15 ns, the second corner frequency is 21 MHz; for the same pulse duration but a rise time of 150 ns it is ten times lower
at 2.1 MHz (Beebe 2012).
- Modulated RF radiation (1.71 GHz) at average SAR values of 1.5 W/Kg transiently affects the transcript level of genes related to
apoptosis and cell cycle control in ES-derived neuronal progenitor cells, but these responses have not been found to be associated
with detectable changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis (Nikolova et al., 2005).
2.4) Cases of neutral biological effects of waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands (table 3b)
- The influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a circularly polarized antenna on the neuroendocrine
system in healthy humans was investigated (900 MHz electromagnetic field, pulsed with 217 Hz, average power density 0.02
mW/cm2). An alteration in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity was found with a slight, transient elevation in the cortisol
serum level immediately after onset of field exposure which persisted for 1 h. For GH, LH and melatonin, no significant effects were
found under exposure to the field compared to the placebo condition, regarding both total hormone production during the entire
night and dynamic characteristics of the secretion pattern. The results indicate that this type of weak high-frequency electromagnetic
fields have no effects on nocturnal hormone secretion except for a slight elevation in cortisol production which is transient, pointing
to an adaptation of the organism to the stimulus (Mann, 1998).
- Neurogenic A172, U251, and SH-SY5Y cells were intermittently (5 min on/10 min off) exposed to 1800 MHz RF-EMF at an average
specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 1, 6, or 24 h. DNA damage was evaluated by quantification of γH2AX foci, an early
marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Results showed that exposure to RF-EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg neither significantly induced
γH2AX foci formation in A172, U251, or SH-SY5Y cells, nor resulted in abnormal cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, or cell
viability. Furthermore, prolonged incubation of these cells for up to 48 h after exposure did not significantly affect cellular behavior.
Our data suggest that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure at 4.0 W/kg is unlikely to elicit DNA damage or abnormal cellular behaviors in
neurogenic cells (Su L 2016).
2.5) Case of a positive biological effect of carrier wave in decoherent soliton band (table 4h)
- RF-EMF influenced Alzheimer's disease in vivo using mice as a model of AD-like amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Chronic RFEMF exposure
significantly reduced not only Aβ β40 peptide in the hippocampus of Tg-5xFAD mice. The findings indicate that chronic RF-EMF
exposure directly affects Aβ pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but not in nplaques, APP, and APP carboxyl-terminal fragments
(CTFs) in whole brain including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex but also the ratio of Aβ42 and Aormal brain. Therefore, RF-EMF
has preventive effects against AD-like pathology in advanced AD mice with a high expression of Aβ, which suggests that RF-EMF can
have a beneficial influence on AD (Jeong YJ, 2015).
Appendix 2. Detrimental biological effects
There are many studies available concerning non ionizing electromagnetic waves that show detrimental health effects for living cells
and organisms. For example: EMF’s play a role on effects on spermatozoa that can lead to defective mitochondrial function
associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying
phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure (Houston, 2016).
2.6) Extreme low frequencies at continuous and non-continous waves located in decoherent zones that are detrimental for living
cells (table 4a)
Detrimental biological effects can be caused by frequencies in the decoherent soliton frequency zone, but also at the border of this
zone. 60 Hz electromagnetic waves are positioned in the border of a decoherent soliton zone and can show detrimental influences on
biological properties at a medium field strength.
- Germ cells showed a higher apoptotic rate in a 0.5 mT exposed 60 Hz mice, after 8 weeks of exposure, than that in the sham
controls. The percentage of live cells was lower in the exposed groups than that in the controls. It has been concluded that
continuous exposure to ELF 60 Hz EMF may induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice (Lee JS, 2004).
- Germ cells showed a higher apoptotic rate in exposed mice than in sham controls after 16-week continuous exposure to ELF MF of
14 or 200 microT. Degenerating spermatogonia showed condensation of nuclear chromatin similar to apoptosis. These results
indicate that apoptosis may be induced in spermatogenic cells in mice by continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF of 14 microT. (Kim YW,
- Five cancer cell lines were exposed to ELF-MFs within the range of 0.025–5 µT, among others 5 μT at 60-Hz and 1 μT at 120-Hz, and
the cells were examined for karyotype changes after 6 d. Results. All cancer cells lines lost chromosomes from MF exposure, with a
mostly flat dose-response. Constant MF exposures for three weeks allow a rising return to the baseline, unperturbed karyotypes.
From this point, small MF increases or decreases are again capable of inducing karyotype contractions (KCs). The data suggest that
the KCs are caused by MF interference with mitochondria’s adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPS), compensated by the action of
adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), (Li Y., Héroux, 2014).
- To induce the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice, the minimum dose is 20 μT at continuous exposure to a 60 Hz MF for 8
weeks and the minimum duration is 6 weeks at continuous exposure of 100 μT. The results suggest that continuous exposure to a
60 Hz MF might affect, duration- and dose-dependent biological processes including apoptotic cell death and spermatogenesis in the
male reproductive system of mice (Kim HS, 2014).
- Exposure of 60 Hz 0.8 mT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on a macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was
examined. Under the defined ELF-EMF exposure conditions this ELF-EMF condition was associated with higher inflammatory
responses of macrophages. These results suggest that an ELF-EMF amplifies inflammatory responses through enhanced macrophage
activation and can decrease the effectiveness of antioxidants (Kim SJ, 2017).
- The continuous exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT of Sprague-Dawley rats for 20 weeks significantly affects testicular germ cell apoptosis
and sperm count. The apoptosis-related gene was scrutinized after exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT for 20 weeks. The message level of
endonuclease G (EndoG) was increased following the exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT compared with sham control. The data suggested
that 60 Hz magnetic field induced testicular germ cell apoptosis through mitochondrial protein Endo G (Park S, 2015).
- 50 Hz treatment at 0.1 mT induced an alteration in circadian clock gene expression previously entrained by serum shock stimulation
and may be able to drive circadian physiologic processes by modulating peripheral clock gene expression (Manzella, 2015).
- In a hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The
occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs) also at 50/60 Hz. The study should be considered a
hypothesis-generating study (Davanipour, 1997).
- Weak associations between indicators of occupational magnetic field exposure and both motor neuron disease and Alzheimer
disease were observed. Motor neuron disease risk was associated with occupational titles, whereas Alzheimer disease risk was
associated with estimated magnetic field levels (also 50 and 60 Hz). Following studies were included: Andel et al (2010), Davanipour
et al (2007), Davanipour et al (1997), Deapen and Henderson (1986), Fang et al (2009), Feychting et al (1998), Feychting et al (2003),
Graves et al (1999), Gunnarson et al (1992), Gunnarsson et al (1991), Hakansson et al (2003), Harmanci et al (2003), Johansen (2000),
Johansen (1999), Noonan et al (2002), Park et al (2005), Parlett et al (2011), Qiu et al (2004), Röösli et al (2007), Savitz et al (1998),
Savitz et al (1998), Schulte et al (1996), Seidler et al (2007), Sobel et al (1996), Sobel et al (1995), Sorahan and Kheifets (2007),
Strickland et al (1996), and Weisskopf et al (2005). Results varied in study design (e.g., risk parameter incidence, prevalence or
mortality; method of exposure assessment) with dissimilar variation across diseases (Vergara, 2013).
- An increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields was
observed. The authors concluded that a slight and non-significant association between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational
exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (also 50 and 60 Hz) was found (Capozzella, 2014).
- Occupational exposure to ELF-MF showed a possible association with ALS mortality among men: HR for ever holding a job with high
exposure versus background 2.19 (95% (CI): 1.02 to 4.73) and hazard ratio for the highest tertile of cumulative exposure versus
background 1.93 (95% CI 1.05 to 3.55). Interpretation of these results strengthen the evidence suggesting a positive association
between ELF-MF exposure and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: ALS (Koeman, 2017).
- Exposure to ELF magnetic field at a high field strength (50 Hz, 20 mT ELF) could inhibit the growth and metabolism of Human
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC), but have no significant effect on differentiation of hMSCs. These results suggested that ELF
magnetic field may influence the early development of hMSCs related adult cells (Yan J, 2010).
2.7) Mhz and GHz frequencies at continuous waves located in decoherent zones that are detrimental for living cells (table 4a)
-Exposure for 1 month at 835 MHz and SAR= 1.6 W/kg on calcium binding proteins in the hippocampus of the mouse brain produced
almost complete loss of pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area of mice (Maskey, 2010).
- Radiofrequency radiation at 2100 MHz during 6 hours/day, for 10 or 40 days, at 0.4 W/kg damaged the nasal septal mucosa, and
disturbed the mucociliary clearance. Ciliary disorganization and ciliary loss in the epithelial cells resulted in deterioration of nasal
mucociliary clearance (Aydoğan, 1015a).
- The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, for 6
hours/day, 5 days/week, for 10 or 40 days 0.4 W/kg (Aydoğan, 2015).
- Levels of DNA single-strand break were assayed in brain cells from rats acutely exposed to low-intensity 2450 MHz microwaves
using an alkaline microgel electrophoresis method. A dose rate-dependent [0.6 and 1.2 W/kg whole body specific absorption rate
(SAR)] increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of rats at 4 h postexposure. In rats exposed for 2 h to continuous-
wave 2450 MHz microwaves (SAR 1.2 W/kg), increases in brain cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as at
4 h postexposure (Lai, 1995).
- DNA strand breaks from 2450 MHz continuous waves and pulsed microwave RFR at low intensity levels. A dose-dependent increase
in DNA single- and double-strand breaks in brain cells exposed at 0.6 W/Kg and 1.2 W/Kg whole body specific absorption rate (SAR)
was found after two hours of exposure to 2450 MHz RFR. Using the sensitive comet assay for DNA breakage exposure to both
continuous-wave and pulsed RFR produced DNA damage (Lai and Singh, 1995, 1996)
- Sprague Dawley rats exposed to 2.45 GHz microwave at SAR values between 0.48 and 4.30 W.kg -1 for 8 days induce DNA single
strand breaks and the direct genome analysis of DNA of various tissues demonstrated potential for genotoxicity. These findings
showed that exposure to 2.45 GHz MW radiation at SAR even as low as 0.48 Wkg -1 is potentially genotoxic as it produced single DNA
strand breaks (Aweda, 2010).
- Acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-
apoptotic capacity at a SAR of 0.046 to 0.482 (W/kg). Changes in the endothelial permeability and vascularization of the thymus
occurred, and is a tissue-modulating agent for Hsp90 and glucocorticoid receptors. There is a relationship between radiation and
increased endothelial permeability and vascularization of the thymus (Misa-Agustiño, 2015).
- Chronic exposure to low level 2.45 GHz continuous-wave with power density of 0.0248 mW/cm(2) and overall average whole body
specific absorption rate value of 0.0146 W/Kg) for 2 h/day over a period of 15, 30, and 60 days leads severely affects the
hippocampal neuronal plasticity and circuitry, and impairs learning and spatial memory through p53-dependent/independent
apoptosis of hippocampal neuronal and nonneuronal cells (Shahin, 2015).
- Brain cell cultures of mice exposed to 10.715 GHz CW with an absorbtion rate (SAR) 0.725 W/kg signals for 6 h in 3 days at 25°C
strongly changed the micronucleus and in expression of 11 proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes (Karaca, 2012).
- Rats exposed to 50 GHz microwave frequency electromagnetic fields for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a specified specific
absorption rate of 8.0 x 10(-4) W/kg showed a significant decrease in the level of sperm GPx and SOD activity, whereas catalase
shows significant increase in exposed group of sperm samples as compared with control. Results also indicate a decrease in
percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in exposed group as compared to sham exposed. It is concluded that these kind of
radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility (Kesari,
2.8) Mhz and GHz frequencies at waves located near a decoherent zone (table 4a)
- Long-term continuous waves of 918 MHz, 0.25 W/kg provides cognitive benefits. Mice with Alzheimer’s disease showed that long-
term EMF exposure reduced brain amyloid-beta (A beta) deposition through decreased aggregation of A beta and increase in soluble
A beta levels (Arendash et al., 2010).
- EMF exposure pulsed/modulated, 918 MHz, 0.25–1.05 W/kg) by 6+ months daily EMF exposures showed reversed cognitive
impairment in Alzheimer’s transgenic (Tg) mice, while even having cognitive benefit to normal mice. The neuropathologic/cognitive
benefits of EMF treatment occur without brain hyperthermia. The results demonstrated that long-term EMF treatment can provide
general cognitive benefit to very old Alzheimer’s Tg mice and normal mice, as well as reversal of advanced Ab neuropathology in Tg
mice without brain heating (Arendash et al., 2012).
- In transgenic mice, electromagnetic field exposure enhanced brain mitochondrial function by 50-150%, being greatest in cognitively-
important brain areas (e.g. cerebral cortex and hippocampus). Electromagnetic field exposure also increased brain mitochondrial
function in normal mice, although the enhancement was not as robust and less widespread compared to that of transgenic mice. The
exposure-induced enhancement of brain mitochondrial function in transgenic mice was accompanied by 5-10 fold increases in
soluble amyloid beta protein 1-40 within the same mitochondrial preparations, which is apparently indicative of earlier findings that
electromagnetic fields disaggregate toxic amyloid beta protein oligomers in brain tissue (Arendash et al. 2010). The irradiation-
induced mitochondrial enhancement in both transgenic and normal mice occurred through non-thermal effects because brain
temperatures were either stable or decreased during/after electromagnetic field exposure. These findings collectively suggest that
brain mitochondrial enhancement may be a primary mechanism through which electromagnetic field exposure provides cognitive
benefit to both transgenic and normal mice (Dragicevic, 2011).
2.9) Mhz and GHz frequencies at continuous waves located in decoherent zones have influences on living cells (table 4a-2)
The impact of low power 2.1, 2.3, and 2.6 GHz radiation on enzymatic reactions has been studied. The selected enzymes play crucial
roles in the biological processes: L-Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is extensively present in blood cells and heart muscles, and is a marker
of common injuries and disease. Catalase enzyme can be found in all living organisms, it is important for protecting a cell from
oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The comparative analysis of these MW exposures at the particular studied
parameters can induce changes in the enzymes' kinetics, which in turn lead to modulation of rate of change in corresponding
reactions these enzymes catalyse (Jain, 2015).
2.10) Extreme low frequencies at continuous waves located in coherent zones at a higher field strength that are detrimental for
living cells (table 4b)
- 50 Hz treatment at 0.1 mT induced an alteration in circadian clock gene expression previously entrained by serum shock stimulation
and may be able to drive circadian physiologic processes by modulating peripheral clock gene expression (Manzella, 2015).
- Rats exposed to a 50-Hz EMF at a relatively high exposure of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months show that levels of
lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with
sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with
sham. The results show that the exposure to 50 Hz EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium
of adult rats (Kiray, 2013).
- Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 50 Hz at a relatively high field strength of 1.1 and 2.1 mT caused cell death and induction in
reproductive cells (Panagopoulos 2013).
- Exposure to 100 micro T and 500 microTesla 50 Hz ELF-MF during 2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 10 months did not affect oxidative or
antioxidative processes, lipid peroxidation, or reproductive components such as sperm count and morphology in testes tissue of rats.
However 500 microT ELF-MF did affect active-caspase-3 activity, which is a well-known apoptotic indicator and the active-caspase-3
activity in the ELF-500 exposure group was significantly higher than that of the sham and ELF-100 exposure groups in a dose-
dependent manner (Akdag, 2013).
- Exposure of 50-Hz sinusoidal MF to embryos of Danio rerio groups with intensities higher than 200 μT for 96 h. caused delayed
hatching and decreased heart rate at the early developmental stages of zebrafish embryos, whereas no significant differences in
embryo mortality and abnormality were observed. The transcription of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, caspase-9) was
significantly upregulated in ELF-MF-exposed embryos. Signs of apoptosis were found mainly in the ventral fin and spinal column,
which were not present in the control embryos (Li Y., 2014).
2.11) MHz and GHz frequencies at continuous waves located in coherent zones at a higher field strength that are detrimental for
living cells (table 4b)
- The effects of exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) (continuous wave, peak specific absorption rate
(SAR) of 2 W/kg and average power density 1 ± 04 mW/cm2) on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and triiodothronine-
thyroxin (T3-T4) hormones levels of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 30
min/day, for 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 900 MHz EMF. TSH values and T3-T4 at the 900 MHz EMF group were significantly lower
than the sham-exposed group. These results indicate that exposure to 900 MHz decrease serum TSH and T3-T4 levels (Koyu, 2005).
- Lymphocytes that were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF at a peak specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg for 20 h radiation had a
significantly decreased incidence of micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of genotoxic mitomycin C compared to those that
were not pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation. These preliminary results suggested that the adaptive response can be induced in
cells exposed to non-ionizing radiation (Sannino, 2009).
- Exposure of 916 MHz continuous EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2) showed NIH/3T3cells changed in
morphology and proliferation after 5- 8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on
the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into
exposed NIH/3T3cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that this microwave radiation can promote neoplastic
transformation of NIH/3T3cells (Yang, 2012).
2.12) MHz and GHz modulated frequencies located in decoherent soliton frequency bands that are detrimental for living cells
- DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was assessed in leukocytes using the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis
(SCG) assay in vitro studies of modulated 837 and 1909.8 MHz exposed human blood leukocytes and lymphocytes. This demonstrates
that, EMF at an average SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg are capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes (Tice, 2002).
- Modulated microwaves at 1947.4 MHz at a SAR of 39 mW/kg inhibited formation of 53BP1 foci in human primary fibroblasts and
mesenchymal stem cells. Contrary to fibroblasts, stem cells did not adapt to chronic exposure during 2 weeks (Markovà, Belyaev
- Increase in DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations in human fibroblasts after intermittent RF-EMF exposure (1950 MHz, 5
min on/10 min off, 24 hrs) at increasing SAR values (1 – 2 W/kg) has been found. Intermittent and to a lesser extent also continuous
in vitro exposure of human fibroblasts to RF-EMF below 2 W/kg for more than 4 hours produced genotoxic effects in various cell
types as measured by an increase in DNA single and double strand breaks, an increase in micronuclei and in chromosomal
aberrations. Also a significant increase in DNA strand breaks was observed in human fibroblasts at a SAR value as low as 0,3 W/kg. A
genotoxic potential is suggested (Schwarz, 2008).
- The effect of microwave (2450 MHz) radiation on thyroid hormones and behavior of male rats has been assessed. In this
experiment, hormonal blood levels of T3 decreased on the 16th day and T4 increased on the 21st day. It is concluded that low energy
microwave irradiation may be harmful as it is sufficient to alter the levels of thyroid hormones (Sinha, 2008).
- Decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular
weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF of modulated 1910.5 MHz at 1.34 W/kg in male albino rats
- Non thermal exposure to modulated 2.45 GHz at a SAR of 0.1 W/kg induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats,
which was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. The brain seemed to be more sensitive to
oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns (Çelik, 2015).
2.13) Frequencies located in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated modulation(s) in decoherent soliton bands that are
detrimental for living cells (table 4e)
There are many studies concerning non ionizing electromagnetic waves that show negative health effects for living cells of which
carrier waves are positioned in coherent frequency bands and modulations on these carrier waves positioned in decoherent soliton
bands. Effects of incoherent modulations seem to have a strong influence on the overall coherence of signals as described by the
solitonic algorithm, some examples:
- Yeast cells, simultaneous exposure to an ELF MF with a frequency of 50 Hz and magnetic flux density of 120 µT concurrent with
ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in enhanced cell cycle arrest in the G1-phase. Consistently with the increased cell cycle arrest, EMF
exposure enhanced the growth delay caused by UV induced damage. In murine L929 fibroblasts, pre-treatment with a 50 Hz MF at
100 or 300 µT inhibited apoptosis and enhanced G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest induced by menadione, a chemical that induces
increased production of reactive oxygen species (Markkanen, 2009).
- Short-term exposures with modulated RF field of 900 MHz at a SAR of 1W/kg induced a transient increase in Egr-1 gene expression
paralleled with activation of the MAPK subtypes ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK. Exposure to this RF radiation had an anti-proliferative activity
in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a significant effect observed at 24 h. This kind of RF radiation impaired cell cycle
progression, reaching a significant G2-M arrest. The appearance of the sub-G1 peak, a hallmark of apoptosis, was highlighted after a
24-h exposure, together with a significant decrease in mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and survivin genes, both interfering with signaling
between G2-M arrest and apoptosis (Buttiglione, 2007).
- Prenatal exposure to a modulated 900 MHz EMF affects the development of the dentate gyrus granule cells in the rat hippocampus.
Cell loss might be caused by an inhibition of granule cell neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (Odaci 2008).
- Modulated 900 MHz RF-EMF exposure reduced the number of neurites generated by both cell systems, and this alteration
correlates to increased expression of beta-thymosin mRNA (Del Vecchio 2009).
- Long term exposure of 900 MHz RF radiation (3 h per day; 7 days a week for 12 months; one year at SAR value was 0.0369 W/kg)
altered the expression of rnomiR-107 in rat brain (Dasdag 2015).
- Sub-chronic exposures to a pulse modulated 900 MHz EMF signal at 1.5 or 6 W/kg for two months adversely affect rat brain (sign of
a potential gliosis) and an increase in GFAP levels in the different brain areas, three and ten days after treatment (Ammari, 2010).
- A proteomics screening approach can identify protein targets of RF-EMF in human volunteers. Human skin was exposed to RF-EMF
(modulated 900 MHz radiation at a specific absorption rate SAR = 1.3 W/kg and punch biopsies were collected from exposed and non
exposed areas of skin. Analysis has identified 8 proteins that were statistically significantly affected. This suggests that protein
expression in human skin might be affected by the exposure to RF-EMF. The number of affected proteins was similar to the number
of affected proteins observed in our earlier in vitro studies (Karinen, 2008).
- Modulated 900-MHz RFR treatment of earth-worms coelomocytes induced a genotoxic effect. The induction of antioxidant stress
response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity is a possible result of the RF-EMF exposure, and
demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage (Tkalec, 2013).
- 28 days of EMF exposure, 900 MHz (probably modulated), 1 mW/cm(2), 3h per day, induced cellular edema and neuronal cell
organelle degeneration in the rat. In addition, damaged BBB permeability, which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation were
observed in the hippocampus and cortex. This EMF exposure for 28 days induced the expression of mkp-1, resulting in ERK
dephosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that exposure to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly
impair spatial memory and damage BBB permeability in rat by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway (Tang J., 2015).
- Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that modulated 900 MHz radiation activates a variety of cellular
signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27,
we put forward the hypothesis that this radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by
inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3, apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in bloodbrain barrier permeability through
stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers (Leszczynski, 2002).
- Rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at 915 MHz (modulated) at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs). Albumin
extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in
the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period, at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg and
with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but
significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation. The present findings
are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure
- Hypothyrophy of the gland in a pulse-modulated 900 MHz RF exposure group occurred. The results indicated that thyroid hormone
secretion was inhibited by the RF radiation. Formation of apoptotic bodies and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in thyroid
cells of the rats have been measured (Esmekaya, 2010).
- Exposures to EMFs of higher field strengths at at 900 MHz, 41 and 120 Vm(-1)) or to modulated fields showed a significant increase
of the mitotic index of seed germination and root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. On the other hand, at 400 MHz the mitotic
index increased only after exposure to modulated EMF (Tkalec 2009).
- Modulated 900 MHz exposure on reproductive organs of male rats showed that tunica albuginea thickness and the Johnsen
testicular biopsy score were found lower in the exposure group (Tas, 2014).
- Modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic waves with an absorption rate of 0.66 ± 0.01 W/kg for 2 h/d. during 50 days induces sperm
apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats (Liu Q, 2015).
- 1.8 GHz continuous wave signal at a relatively high SAR: 2 W/kg and modulated were exposed for 4, 16 or 24 h to rat PC12 cells, in
order to assess the stress responses mediated by HSP70 and by the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) in neuronal-like cells.
After PC12 cells exposure of modulated signal (217 Hz) for 16 or 24 h, HSP70 transcription significantly increased, whereas no effect
was observed in cells exposed to the continous wave. The positive effect on HSP70 mRNA expression, observed only in cells exposed
to the modulated signal, is a repeatable response previously reported in human trophoblast cells and now confirmed in PC12 cells
- Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner by exposure of non thermal modulated 1800
MHz radiofrequency and inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells (Liu K, 2014).
- Exposure to modulated 900 MHz RF-EMFs with low energy could induce oxidative DNA base damage in Neuro-2a cells. These
increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Without OGG1 siRNA, 2 W/kg
RF-EMFs induced oxidative DNA base damage in Neuro-2a cells. Interestingly, with OGG1 siRNA, RF-EMFs could cause DNA base
damage in Neuro-2a cells as low as 1 W/kg. However, neither DNA strand breakage nor altered cell viability was observed (Wang X.
- Free radical activity and DNA fragmentation in brain cells after acute exposure of 10 V/m to a 50-Hz amplitude-modulated 900-MHz
RFR, whereas a continuous-wave 900-MHz field produced no effect (Campisi et al. 2010).
- Low level exposure with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation on blood serotonin and glutamate
levels of rats produced an increase in Plasma 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to
a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Eris, 2015).
- Microwaves from modulated microwaves affect chromatin conformation, 53BP1/γ-H2AX foci of human primary fibroblasts and
mesenchymal stem cells similar to heat shock. Microwaves from modulated microwaves inhibit 53BP1 focus formation, which is a
tumor suppressor protein, in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells. The found effects are dependent on carrier
frequency: a small change in carrier frequency by 10 MHz has reproducibly resulted in cell-type-dependent appearance (915 MHz) or
disappearance (905 MHz) in effects of modulated microwaves (SAR of 37 mW/kg) on DNA repair foci in human cells (Belyaev et al.,
2002, 2005, 2009). The exposure at 915 MHz (of note: a less coherent carrier frequency) reduces 53BP1 foci in a manner similar to
heat shock, suggesting that this frequency affects cells in a manner similar to a stress factor (Belyaev et al. 2002, 2005). In contrast
exposure at 905 MHz (of note: a high coherent carrier frequency) did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, either fibroblasts or
lymphocytes, whereas some effects were seen in stem cells at 905 MHz. Frequency-dependent inhibition of DNA repair by
nonthermal MWs has previously been found (Belyaev et al. 1992a, 1992b).
- DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was assessed in leukocytes using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in
vitro studies of modulated 1909.8 MHz exposed human blood leukocytes and lymphocytes. This demonstrates that, this kind of EMF at an
average SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg are capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes (Tice, 2002).
- Effects of electromagnetic fields at 900 and 1800 MHz during few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life on the
reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster show a decrease in oviposition due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after
DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for, in all types of
cells constituting an egg chamber (follicle cells, nurse cells and the oocyte) and in all stages of the early and mid-oogenesis
- Pulse modulated radiofrequency radiation exposure during 20 minutes at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz induces an effect and increases
the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats (Sırav, 2016).
- RF exposure modulated 900 MHz can induce inflammatory changes in the liver as well causing damage in the cells of islet of
Langerhans Mild to severe inflammatory changes in the portal spaces of the liver of rats as well as damage in the cells of islet of
Langerhans were observed, and were linked with the duration of the exposures (Mortazavi, 2016).
- The changes of many genes transcription were involved in the effect of 1.8 GHz RF EMF on rat neurons. Down-regulation of Egr-1
and up-regulation of Mbp, Plp indicated the negative effects of this kind of RF EMF on neurons. The effect of RF intermittent
exposure on gene expression was more obvious than that of continuous exposure (Zhang SZ, 2008)
- Cultured cortical neurons exposed to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of modulated 1800 MHz at an absorption rate
(SAR) of 2 W/kg during 24 h exposure induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common
biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. The copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial
RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure (Xu S 2009).
- Modulated 1.8 GHz-RFR induced a significant increase in comet parameters in trophoblast cells after 16 and 24h of exposure, while
the un-modulated CW was ineffective (Franzellitti, 2010).
- Neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells differentiated neurons was inhibited after 4 W/kg exposure of modulated 1800
MHz RF-EMF for 3 days. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of the proneural genes Ngn1 and NeuroD, which are crucial
for neurite outgrowth, were decreased after RF-EMF exposure. The expression of their inhibitor Hes1 was upregulated by RF-EMF
exposure (Chen C., 2014).
- Modulated radiofrequency field (RF) of 1800 MHz, strength of 30 V/m caused carbonyl derivates, a product of protein oxidation,
insignificantly but continuously increase with duration of exposure. In exposed samples, ROS level significantly (p < 0.05) increased
after 10 min of exposure (Marjanovic, 2014).
- Rats in treatment groups were exposed to pulsed 1800MHz EMF at SAR of 0.37 W/kg and 0.49 W/kg for 2h/day for 45 day and
showed a cytogenotoxic damage that was more remarkable in immature rats and, the recovery period did not improve this damage
in immature rats (Sekeroğlu, 2012).
- Rat's brain exposed to 1800 MHz at a SAR value of 0.6 W/kg for two hours/day for three months show degenerative changes in the
hippocampus pyramidal cells, dark cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells with vascular congestion. In addition a significant DNA
fragmentation and over expression of cyclooxygenase-2 apoptotic gene was detected (Hussein, 2016).
- Exposure to electromagnetic radiation of modulated 1800 MHz exert an oxidative stress on human cells as evidenced by the
increase in the concentration of the superoxide radical anion released in the saliva (Khadra, 2015).
- Mice exposed to modulated 800-1900 MHz in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object
recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents
(mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had
dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (Aldad 2012).
- Long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiation can alter expression of some of the miRNAs [micro RNAs] (miRNA are small RNA that post-
transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a broad range of organisms in both normal physiological contexts.
miR-106b-5p and miR-107 expression decreased 3.6 and 3.3 times in the exposure group and lead to adverse effects such as
neurodegenerative diseases (Dasdag, 2015).
- Long-term exposure to pulsed 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation at a whole body average (rms) and maximum SAR values were
respectively determined as 141.4 micro w/kg and 7127 micro w/kg caused caused DNA damage of the testes (Akdag, 2016).
- Pulsed 2.856 GHz microwave treatment at a SAR of 4 W/kg has undefined adverse effects on bone marrow MSCs. The reduced-
expression of proteins related to osteogenic differentiation suggests that microwave can influence at the mRNA expression genetic
level (Wang C. 2015).
2.14) Cases of biological effects of carrier waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated modulation(s) in
decoherent soliton band (table 4f)
- Exposure of 8-h of non-thermal modulated 1,800 MHz at 2 W/kg specific absorption rate caused a significant increase in protein
synthesis in Jurkat T-cells and human fibroblasts, and to a lesser extent in activated primary human mononuclear cells. Quiescent
(metabolically inactive) mononuclear cells, did not detectably respond to RF-EME (Gerner 2010).
2.15) Cases of negative biological effects of unknown carrier wave and estimated modulation in decoherent soliton band (table 4g)
- An association has been found between the exposure of test-persons to modulated electromagnetic RF (≥ 380 MHz) and alterations
in the levels of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) and thyroid hormones. Based on the findings, a higher than normal TSH level, low
mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations were observed. It seems that minor degrees of thyroid dysfunction with a compensatory rise
in TSH may occur following excessive exposure. It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of on hypothalamic-pituitary-
thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones (Mortavazi, 2009).
Appendix 3: Databank for frequencies of biological studies
Author, year (x, y, z): Author name, year of published biological experiment (applied biological frequency: x; first nearby calculated
algorithmic frequency: y, percentual difference between applied frequency and nearby calculated frequency: z %).
Table 1: Cases of frequencies in coherent soliton frequency bands able to inhibit and retard cancer
1) Raylman et al., 1996 (7T uniform static magnetic field)
2) Zhang X. et al. 2002, pulsed (0.16 Hz; 0.16; 0.0%)
3) Nuccitelli et al. 2006, 3.33 MHz pulsed (3.33 MHz, 3.316, 0.51%); (0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.0%)
4) Fadel 2015 (modulated 0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.00%); (0.7 Hz, 0.715, 2.1%)
5) Yin S. 2014, pulsed (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%); (0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.00%)
6) Emara et al. 2013 (0.9 Hz; 0.89; 1.1%)
7) Tuffet et al. 1993 (0.8 Hz; 0.79; 1.27%)
8) Seze et al. 2000 (0.8 Hz; 0.79; 1.27%)
9) Novikov 2005, 2009 combinations frequencies (1 Hz; 4.4 Hz; 16.5 Hz; 1.5%)
10) Tatarov et al. 2011 (1 Hz; 1.0; 0.0%)
11) Chang et al. 1985 (1.0 Hz; 1.0; 0%)
12) Ruiz-Gómez 1999, 2002 (1Hz; 1.0; 0.0%)
13) Zhang X. et al, 2002 (1.34 Hz; stab. 1.33; 0.60%)
14) Emara et al. 2013 (3 Hz; 3; 0.0%)
15) Wu S. 2013 (4 Hz, 4.0; 0.0%)
16) Fadel 2010, 2011 modulated (4.5 Hz; 4.500; 0.00%); (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%)
17) Smith 1986 (4.5 Hz; 4.5 Hz; 0%)
18) Ghannam 2002 (5Hz; 5.06; 1.2%)
19) Buckner 2015 combinations of (6 Hz, 6Hz, 0%); (25 Hz, 24.58; 1.7%)
20) Nie Y. 2013 (7.5 Hz; stab freq. 7.59; 1.2%)
21) Feng 2013 (8Hz; 8; 0%)
22) Miyagi 2000 (10 Hz; 10.1; 1.0%)
23) Bellossi pulsed 1991 (12 Hz; 12; 0 %)
24) Crocetti 2013 (20 Hz, stab.20.24; 1.2%)
25) Ruiz-Gómez (25 Hz; 25.28; 1.11%)
26) Yamaguchi et al. 2006 (25 Hz, 25.3; 1.11%)
27) Hu et al. 2010 (25 Hz; 25.3 Hz; 1.11%)
28) Rannung 1993 (50 Hz, 50.56; 1.11%)
29) Hisamitsu et al. 1997 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
30) Simkó et al. 1998 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
31) Pang 2001 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
32) Tofani et al. 2002, 2003 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
33) Traitcheva 2003 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
34) Santini et al. 2005 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
35) Morabito et al. 2010 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
36) Berg 2010 (50.00; 50.56; 1.11%)
37) Filipovic 2014, pulsed (50 H; 50.56; 1.11%)
38) Chen YC. 2010 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
39) Vincenzi 2012 (75 Hz, 75.8, 1.1%)
40) Jian et al. 2009 (100 Hz; 101.1; 1.1%)
41) Wen et al. 2011 (100 Hz; 101.1; 1.1%)
42) Williams 2001 (120 Hz; 121.5; 1.2%)
43) Jiménez-García 2010 (120 Hz; 121.5; 1.2%)
44) Cameron et al. 2014 (120 Hz; 121.5; 1.2%)
45) Omote 1990 (200 Hz; 202.2; 1.1%)
46) Bellosi 1991 (460 Hz; 455.1; 1.1%)
47) Vincenzi 2012 (1300 Hz, 1296, 0.31%)
48) Agulan 2015 (pulsed 3.3 MHz, 3.32; 0.49%); (656, 648; 1.24%)
49) Ren Z. 2015 (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%; 0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.00%)
50) Wang J. 2012 (10 MHz, 9.93 MHz; 0.71%) (0.5 Hz, 0.5 Hz; 0.0 %)
51) Chen X. 2012, 2014 (10 MHz, 9.93 MHz; 0.71%); (33.3 MHz, 33.5 MHz; 0.63%); (0.5 Hz, 0.5 Hz; 0.0 %); (1.0 Hz, 1.0 Hz; 0.0 %)
52) Yao 2008 pulsed (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%; 1 Hz; 1.0; 0.0%)
53) Garon 2007 (50 MHz, 50.34; 0.68%)
54) Buttiglione 2007 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%)
55) Wu S. 2013 (7.2 GHz, 7.247; 0.65%)
56) Yoon 2011 (18 GHz, 18.08; 0.44%)
57) Beneduci 2005 (46.00 GHz; 45.79; 0.46%)
58) Beneduci 2005 (51.05 GHz; 51.54; 0.95%)
59) Radzievsky 2004 (61.22 GHz; stab. 61.09; 0.2%)
60) Beneduci 2005 (65.00 GHz; 65.23; 0.35%)
61) Liu YH 2004 (808 nm, stab. freq. 799.0; 1.1%)
62) Murayama 2012 (808 nm, stab. freq. 799.0; 1.1%)
63) Fukuzaki 2014 (808 nm, 799.0, 1.13%)
64) Peidaee 2013 (3600 nm; 3598.4; 0.04%)
65) Peidaee 2013 (3800 nm; 3598.4; 0.34%)
Table 2a: Cases of frequencies in decoherent soliton frequency bands that may initiate and promote cancer
66) Mashevich 2003 (830 MHz; stab. 848.96; 2.23%)
67) Leszczynski 2002 (modulated 900 MHZ, stab. 905.9; >0.66%)
68) Kesari 2010 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
Table 2b: Cases of frequencies in decoherent soliton frequency bands can initiate and promote cancer
69) Beniashvili 1991 (cocarcinogen and 50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
70) Löscher Mevissen et al. 1996, 1999 (cocarcinogen and 50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
71) Ahlbom 2000 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
72) Greenland 2000 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
73) Kheifets 2010 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
74) National Cancer Institute Electromagnetic fields and cancer, 2016 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
75) Soffritti 2016 (50.00 Hz combined with harmonic distortions 3%; stab. 50.56; >1.11%)
76) Soffritti 2016 (cocarcinogen and modulated 50.00 Hz; stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
77) Stuchly 1992 (cocarcinogen and 60 Hz, 60.75; 1.24%)
78) Cain 1993 (cocarcinogen and 60 Hz, 60.75; 1.24%)
79) Loja 2014 (125 Hz, 128; 2.3%)
80) Loja 2014 (625 Hz, 606.2; 3.1%)
81) Repacholi 1997 (modulated 900 MHz, stab. 905.9; >0.66%)
82) Wyde ME 2016 (modulated 900, stab. 905.9, >0.66%)
83) Wyde ME 2016 (modulated 1900 MHz, stab.1909.1; >0.48%)
84) Tillmann et al. 2010 (modulated 1.97 GHz; stab. 1.909; >3.20%)
85) Lerchl 2014 (modulated 1.97 GHz; stab. freq. 1.909; >3.20%)
86) Roszkowski 1980b (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
87) Szudzinski 1982 (cocarcinogenic 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
88) Guy 1985 (modulated 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; >1.43%)
89) Marcickiewicz 1986 (2,45 GHz, stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
90) Szmigielski 1982 (cocarcinogen and 2.45 GHz, stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
91) Balcer-Kubiczek 1989 (cocarcinogen 2.45 GHz, stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
92) Chou CK 1992 (modulated 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
93) Johnson EH, 1999 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%).
94) Prausnitz and Susskind 1962 (pulsed 9270 MHz, stab. 9040 MHz; >2.54%)
95) Sperandio 2013 (780 nm, stab. 799.0; 2.4%)
96) Frigo 2009 (660 nm; stab. 674.0; 2.1%)
97) Gomes Henriques, 2014 (660 nm; stab. 674.0; 2.1%)
98) Sperandio 2013 (660 nm, stab. 674.0; 2.1%)
99) Setlow 1993 (436 nm, 449.8, 3.07%)
100) Setlow 1993 (405 nm, 399.5, 1.38%)
101) Popp 1976 (380 nm, 373.8; 1.66%)
102) Setlow 1993 (365 nm, 373.8, 2.35%)
103) Belloni 2005 (308 nm, 315.65; 2.42%)
104) De Gruijl 1993 (293 nm, 299.55, 2.19%)
Table 3a: Cases of positive biological effects of waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands
1) Ross C. 2013 (5.1, 5.06, 0.78%)
2) Kwan 2015 (12 Hz, 12, 0%)
3) Aaron 1989, 1993 pulsed (15 Hz, 15.18; 1.2%)
4) Ciombor 1993, 15 Hz, 15.18, 1.2%)
5) Chen CH. 2013 (15 Hz, 15.18, 1.2%) and (5.46 ms > 183.2 Hz, delta 0.46%, 5 ms delta 1.1%)
6) Jansen 2010 (15 Hz, 15.19; 1.23 %)
7) Kaivosoja 2015 (15 Hz, 15.19, 1.23%) and (200 Hz, 202.2, 1.09%)
8) Kang 2013 (30 Hz, 30.38; 1.2) and (45 Hz, 45.6, 1.3%) and (7.5 Hz, 7.59; 1.2%).
9) Wei 2008 (48.00; 48.00; 0.00%)
10) Cho 2012 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
11) Zhong 2012 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
12) Bai 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
13) Lim KT 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
14) Seong 2014 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
15) Elliott 1988 (72 Hz, 72 Hz; 0%).
16) Ceccarelli 2013 (75, 75.8 Hz; 1.1%)
17) Yang X 2017 (75, 75.8 Hz; 1.1%)
18) Menteş 1996 (100 Hz, 101.1; 1.1%)
19) Lim KT 2013 (100 Hz, 101.1; 1.1%)
20) Fu 2014 (200 Hz, 202.2, 1.09%)
21) Ceccarelli 2013 (769.2 Hz, 768, 0.16%)
22) Beebe 2012 pulsed (21 MHz, 21.24; 0.99%); (2.1 MHz, 2.1; 0.0%); (1.66 MHz, 1.658 Mz; 0.51%)
23) Hinrikus 2016 (mod. 450 MHz; 453.0; 0.66%)
24) Hinrikus 2016 (mod. 40 Hz; 40.5 Hz; 1.2%)
25) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 4 MHz, 3.981, 0.47%)
26) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 8 Hz, 8, 0%)
27) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 16 Hz, 16, 0%)
28) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 72 Hz, 72, 0%)
29) Marinelli 2004 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
30) Ozlem Nisbet 2012 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
31) Jiang 2013 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
32) Zong 2015 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
33) Litovitz 1993 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.01%)
34) Yamashita 2010 (1439 MHz, 1431.04; 0.56%)
35) Nikolova 2005 (mod. 1710 MHz, 1.70; 0.59%)
36) Ozlem Nisbet 2012 (1.8 GHz, 1.812; 0.66%)
37) Cao H. 2015 (1.8 GHz, CW; 1.812; 0.66%)
38) Hirose 2006 (2.1425 GHz, CW; 2.147; 0.19%)
39) Sekijima 2010 (2.1425 GHz, CW; 2.147; 0.19%)
40) Makar 2006 (61.22 GHz; 61.09; 0.2%)
41) Fukuzaki 2015 (532 nm, 532.5; 0.1%)
Table 3b: Cases of neutral biological effects of waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands
42) Mann 1998 (pulsed 900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%) (217 Hz, 216, 0.46%)
43) Su L 2016 (1800 MHz, 1.812; 0.66%)
Table 4a: Cases of negative biological effects caused by CW-waves in decoherent soliton frequency bands
44) Kim HS 2014 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
45) Park S 2015 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
46) Kim SJ 2017 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
47) Kim YW 2009 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
48) Li Y. and Héroux (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
49) Li Y. and Héroux (120; stab. 121.5; 1.24%)
50) Maskey 2010 (835 MHz CW; stab. 849.0 MHz; 1.64%)
51) Lai and Singh 1995 (2450 MHz; stab. 2415.5; 1.43%)
52) Aweda (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.45; 1.43%).
53) Misa-Agustiño 2015 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.4155; 1.43%)
54) Shahin 2015 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.4155; 1.43%)
55) Karaca 2012(10.715 GHz; stab. 10.87; 1.46%) probably CW
56) Kesari 2009 (50 GHz; 49.0; 2.0%)
Table 4a-1: Cases of biological effects caused by waves located near decoherent soliton frequency band
57) Arendash 2010 (918 MHz; stab. 905.9; >1.33%)
Table 4a-2: Cases of biological changes caused by waves located in decoherent soliton frequency bands
58) Jain S. 2015 (2.1 GHz, 2.1465; 2.2%)
59) Jain S. 2015 (2.3 GHz, 2.26, 1.8%)
60) Jain S. 2015 (2.6 GHz, 2.5425, 2.26%)
Table 4b: Cases of negative biological effects caused by CW-waves at coherent soliton frequency bands at a higher field strength
61) Manzella 2015 (50.00; 50.56; 1.11%)
62) Kiray 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
63) Panagopoulos 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
64) Akdag 2013 (50.00; 50.56; 1.11%)
65) Li Y. 2014 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
66) Koyu 2005 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
67) Sannino 2009 (900 MHz, stab. 905.9; 0.66%)
68) Yang L 2012 (916 MHz, stab. 905.9 MHz; 1.11%)
Table 4c: Cases of negative biological effects caused by waves including modulations at coherent soliton frequency bands at a higher
69) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (8 Hz, 8; 0%)
70) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (16 Hz, 16; 0%)
71) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (50 Hz, 50.56; 1.11%)
72) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (200 Hz, 202.24; 1.11%)
Table 4d: Cases of negative biological effects of carrier waves and estimated modulations located in decoherent soliton frequency
73) Tice 2002 (mod. 837 MHz; 849.0; >1.41%)
74) Markovà, Belyaev 2009 (mod. 1947.4 MHz; 1909.1, 2.0%)
75) Schwarz 2008 (mod. 1,950 MHz, 1909.1; >2.14%)
76) Kumar 2014 (mod. 1,950 MHz, 1909.1; >2.14%)
77) Aydoğan 2015a modulated (2100 MHz; 2146.6; 2.2%)
78) Aydoğan 2015b modulated (2100 MHz; 2146.6; 2.2%)
79) Lai and Singh 1996 (2450 MHz pulsed; stab. 2415.5; 1.43%)
80) Sinha 2008 (mod. 2.45 GHz; 2.4155; >1.43%)
81) Çelik 2015 (mod. 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.4155; > 1.43%)
Table 4e: Cases of negative biological effects of carrier waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated
modulation(s) in decoherent soliton band
82) Markkanen 2009 (modulated 50.00; 50.56; >1.11%)
83) Tkalec 2009 (modulated 400 MHz; 402.7, 0.68% and 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
84) Aldad 2012 (modulated 800 MHz, 805.4; >0.68%)
85) Leszczynski 2002 (Mod. 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
86) Buttiglione 2007 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
87) Odaci 2008 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
88) Karinen 2008 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
89) Del Vecchio 2009 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
90) Dasdag 2009 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
91) Dasdag 2012 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; > 0.66%)
92) Ammari 2010 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
93) Esmekaya 2010 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
94) Tkalec 2013 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
95) Ozorak 2013 (modulated 900 MHz, mod. 1800 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
96) Tas 2014 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
97) Liu 2015 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
98) Wang X. 2015 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
99) Dasdag 2015 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
100) Tang J. 2015 (900 MHz prob. mod., 905.9; >0.66%)
101) Mortazavi 2016 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
102) Eris 2015 (900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%; modulated at 100 kHz; 98.32, 1.71%)
103) Campisi 2010 (900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%; mod. 50.00; 50.56; >1.11%)
104) Belyaev 2005, 2009 (mod. 905 MHz, 905.9; >0.10%)
105) Belyaev 2005, 2009 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; >1.0%)
106) Markovà 2005 (915 MHz mod., 905.9; >1.0%)
107) Nittby 2009 (915 MHz mod., 905.9; >1.0%)
108) Tice 2002 (modulated 1909.8, 1909.1; >0.03%)
109) Panagopoulos 2007 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%) and mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; 0.66%)
110) Sırav 2016 (modulated 900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%) and mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; 0.66%)
111) Zhang SZ 2008 (intermittent 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
112) Xu S 2009 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
113) Franzellitti 2010 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
114) Esmekaya 2011 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
115) Liu K. 2014 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
116) Valbonesi 2014 (1.8 GHz, stab. 1.182; >0.66%)
117) Chen C. 2014 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
118) Marjanovic 2014 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
119) Sekeroğlu 2012 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
120) Khadra 2015 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
121) Hussein 2016 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
122) Aldad 2012 (mod. 1900 MHz, stab.1909.1; >0.48%)
123) Dasdag 2015 (mod. 2.4 GHz, 2.42; >0.65%)
124) Akdag 2016 (mod. 2.4 GHz, 2.42; >0.65%)
125) Wang C. 2015 (pulsed 2.856 GHz, 2.862; >0.21%)
Table 4f: Cases of biological effects of carrier waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated modulation(s)
in decoherent soliton band
126) Gerner 2010 (1800 MHz, 1811.8; >0.66%)
Table 4g: Cases of negative biological effects of unknown carrier wave and estimated modulation in decoherent soliton band
127) Mortavazi 2009 (mod. ≥ 380 MHz; > 1.0%)
Table 4h: Cases of positive biological effects of carrier wave in decoherent soliton band
128) Jeong Y. 2015 (1950 MHz, 1909.1; 2.1%)
Table 5: Tumor measurement/diagnosis
129) Vedruccio 2004 (465 MHz; 477.3; 2.57%)
130) Vedruccio 2011 (462 MHz; 453.0; 2.0%)
131) Bellorofonte 2005 (1395 MHz; 1359.36; 2.62%)
132) Gervino 2007 (465 MHz; 477.3; 2.57%)
133) Dore 2015 TRIM (462 MHz; 453.0; 2.0%)
134) Dore 2015 TRIM (465 MHz; 477.3; 2.57%)
135) Dore 2015 TRIM (930 MHz; 905.9; 2.66%)
136) Dore 2015 TRIM (1395 MHz; 1359.36; 2.62%)
137) Cheon H. 2016 (1.67 THz; 1.649; 1.26%
Reference list of used data bank for verification of the EM-coherency hypothesis
1) Aaron RK, Ciombor DM, Jolly G (1989). Stimulation of experimental endochondral ossification by low-energy pulsing electromagnetic
fields. J Bone Min Res, 4(2):227-233.
2) Aaron RK, Ciombor DM (1993). Increase in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage explant cultures exposed to pulsed fields. Proceedings
of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectrical Repair and Growth Society; October 10-13, 1993; Dana Point, CA. BRAGS, 2.
3) Ahlbom A, Day N, Feychting M, et al. A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 692-8.
4) Agulan RTV, Edcy Marie F. Capule, and Romeric F. Pobre. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Colon Cancer Cell Lines (HCT 116)
Through Cytotoxicity Test, Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2015 De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.
5) Akbarnejad Z, Eskandary H, Vergallo C, Nematollahi-Mahani SN, Dinic l, Darvishzadeh-Mahani F, Ahmadi M. Effects of extremely low-
frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMFs) on glioblastoma cells (U87). Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine,
6) Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Uzunlar AK, Ulukaya E, Oral AY, Ç el i k N, Akşen F. Can safe and long-term exposure to extremely low frequency
(50 Hz) magneticfields affect apoptosis, reproduction, and oxidative stress? International Journal of Radiation Biology, December
2013; 89(12): 1053–1060.
7) Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Karabulut D, Caner Y, Adalier N. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices
induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Sep;75(Pt B):116-22.
8) Aldad TS, Gan G, Gao, X-B, Taylor HS. Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 Mhz-rated cellular telephones affects
neurodevelopment and behavior in mice. Scientific Reports, March 15, 2012.
9) Alexandrov BS, Gelev V, Bishop, AR, Usheva A, Ramussen KØ. DNA breathing dynamics in the presence of a terahertz field. Phys. Lett.
A 374, 1214–1217 (2010).
10) Alexandrov BS, et al. Specificity and heterogeneity of terahertz radiation effect on gene expression in mouse mesenchymal stem cells.
Sci. Rep. 3, 1184 (2013).
11) Alipov YD, Belyaev IY, Kravchenko VG, Polunin VA, Shcheglov VS. 1993. Experimental justification for generality of resonant response
of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to MM waves of super-low intensity. Phys Alive 1(1):72–80.
12) Ammari M, Gamez C, Lecomte A, Sakle M, Abdelmelek H, De Seze R. Expression in the rat brain following sub-chronic exposure to a
900 MHz electromagnetic field signal. Int. J. Radiat. Biol., Vol. 86, No. 5, May 2010, pp. 367–375.
13) Arendash GW, Sanchez-Ramos J, Mori T, Mamcarz M, Lin X, Runfeldt M, Wang L, Zhang G, Sava V, Tan J, Cao C. Electromagnetic field
treatment protects against and reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19(1):191-210. doi:
14) Arendash G, Mori T, Dorsey M, Gonzalez R, Tajiri N, Borlongan C. Electromagnetic Treatment to Old Alzheimer’s Mice Reverses b-
Amyloid Deposition, Modifies Cerebral Blood Flow, and Provides Selected Cognitive Benefit. PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 April
2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 4 | e35751.
15) Aweda MA, Usikalu MR, Wan JH, Ding N, Zhu JY. Genotoxic effects of low 2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposures on Sprague
Dawley rats. Int J Genet Mol Biol. 2010;2(9):189-197.
16) Aydoğan F, Aydın E, Koca G, Özgür E, Atilla P, Tüzüner A, Demirci Ş, Tomruk A, Öztürk GG, Seyhan N, Korkmaz M, Müftüoğlu S, Samim
EE. The effects of 2100-MHz radiofrequency radiation on nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance in rats. International Forum of
Allergy & Rhinology doi:10.1002/alr.21509. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015 Jul;5(7):626-32. doi: 10.1002/alr.21509. Epub 2015a.
17) Aydoğan F, Unlu, I, Aydin, E, Yumusak N, Devrim E, Samim EE, Seyhan, N. (2015b). The effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of
a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 36(1), 39–46.
18) Bai WF, Xu W,Feng Y, Huang H, Li XP, Deng CY, Zhang MS. Fifty-Hertz electromagnetic fields facilitate the induction of rat bone
mesenchymal stromal cells to differentiate into functional neurons. Cytotherapy, 2013; 15: 961e970.
19) Balcer-Kubiczek EK, Harrison GH: Induction of neoplastic transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cells by 2.45 GHz microwaves and phorbol
ester. Radiat Res 117:531-537, 1989.
20) Beebe SJ, Chen YJ, Sai NM, Schoenbach KH, Xiao S. Transient Features in Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Differentially Modulate
Mitochondria and Viability. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 December 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 12 | e51349.
21) Belloni F, Alifano P, Doria D, Lorusso A, Monaco C, Nassisi V, Talk A, Tredici M. Mutagenesis induced by XeCl laser radiation. Lasers
and Electro-Optics Europe, 2005. CLEO/Europe.
22) Bellorofonte C, Vedruccio C, Tombolini P, Ruoppolo M, Tubaro A. (2005). Eur. Urol. 47:29–37.
23) Bellossi A, Desplaces A. Effect of a 9 mT pulsed magnetic field on C3H/Bi female mice with mammary carcinoma. A comparison
between the 12 Hz and the 460 Hz frequencies. In Vivo 1991, 5:39–40.
24) Beneduci A, Chidichimo G, De Rose R, Filippelli L, Straface SV, Venuta S. Frequency and irradiation time-dependant antiproliferative
effect of low-power millimeter waves on RPMI 7932 human melanoma cell line. Anticancer Res. 2005 Mar-Apr; 25(2A):1023-8.
25) Beniashvili DS, Bilanishvili VG, Menabde MZ. Low-frequency electromagnetic radiation enhances the induction of rat mammary
tumors by nitrosomethyl urea. Cancer Lett. 1991;61:75–79.
26) Berg H, Günther B, Hilger I, Radeva M, Traitcheva N, Wollweber L. Bioelectromagnetic field effects on cancer cells and mice tumors.
Electromagn Biol Med. 2010 Dec; 29(4):132-43. doi: 10.3109/15368371003776725.
27) Boorman G., McCormick DL, Findlay JC, Hailey JR, Gauger JR, Johnson TR, Kovatch RM, Sills RC, Haseman JK. (1999a) Chronic
toxicity/oncogenicity evaluation of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in F344/N rats. Toxicol. Pathol., 27, 267–278.
28) Bortkiewicz A, Gadzicka E, Szymczak W. Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors – A meta-
analysis, Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):27–43.
29) Buckner CA, Buckner AL, Koren SA, Persinger MA, Lafrenie RM. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-
Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels, PLoS One. 2015; 10(4): e0124136. Published online 2015 April 14.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124136, PMCID: PMC4397079.
30) Bulletin No. 8803PD9402 Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Relative to the IEEE 519-1992
Standard. August, 1994, Raleigh, NC, U.S.A.
31) Buttiglione M, Roca L, Montemurno E, Vitiello F, Capozzi V, Cibelli G. Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz) induces Egr-1 gene
expression and affects cell-cycle control in human neuroblastoma cells. J Cell Physiol (2007) 213(3):759–67.
32) Cain CD, Thomas DL, Adey WR. 60 Hz magnetic field acts as co-promoter in focus formation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. Carcinogenesis
33) Cameron IL, Sun LZ, Short N, Hardman WE, Williams CD. Therapeutic Electromagnetic Field (TEMF) and gamma irradiation on human
breast cancer xenograft growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Cancer Cell Int 2005, 5:23. 23.
34) Cameron IL, Markov MS, Hardman WE. Optimization of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) to retard breast cancer tumor
growth and vascularity, Cancer Cell Int. 2014 Dec 7;14(1):125. doi: 10.1186/s12935-014-0125-5.
35) Cao H, Qin F, Liu X, Wang J, Cao Y, Tong J, Zhao H. Circadian Rhythmicity of Antioxidant Markers in Rats Exposed to 1.8 GHz
Radiofrequency Fields. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2015, 12(2), 2071–2087.
36) Campisi A, Gulino M, Acquaviva R, Bellia P, Raciti G, Grasso R, Musumeci F, Vanella A, Triglia A. Reactive oxygen species levels and
DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field. Neurosci
Lett 473:52-55, 2010.
37) Capozzella A, Sacco C, Chighine A, Loreti B, Scala B, Casale T, Sinibaldi F, Tomei G, Giubilati R, Tomei F, Rosati MV. Work related
etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): a meta-analysis. Ann Ig. 2014 Sep-Oct;26(5):456-72. doi: 10.7416/ai.2014.2005.
38) Ceccarelli G, Bloise N, Mantelli M, Gastaldi G, Fassina L, De Angelis MG, et al. A comparative analysis of the in vitro effects of pulsed
electromagnetic field treatment on osteogenic differentiation of two different mesenchymal cell lineages. Biores. Open Access 2,
2013, 283–294. doi: 10.1089/biores.
39) Çelik Ö, Kahya MC, Nazıroğlu M. Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy
and the development of newborns. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Sep; 75(Pt B):134-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.10.005. Epub 2015.
40) Chang et al. 1985. Experimental observation on the effect of magnetic field on S-180 sarcomas in mice. Chinese Journal of Physics
Medicine 7: 169–170 (in Chinese).
41) Chen CH, Lin YS, Fu Y C, Wang CK, Wu SC, Wang GJ, et al. Electromagnetic fields enhance chondrogenesis of human adiposederived
stem cells in a chondrogenic microenvironment in vitro. J. Appl. Physiol. 2013, 114, 647–655. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01216.2012.
42) Chen C, Ma Q, Liu C, Deng P, Zhu G, Zhang L, He M, Lu Y, Duan W, Pei L, Li M, Yu Z, Zhou Z. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency
radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells, Sci Rep. 2014 May 29;4:5103. doi: 10.1038/srep05103.
43) Chen YC, Chen CC, Tu W, Cheng YT, Tseng FG. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized
ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells. J. Micromech. Microeng, 2010, Vol. 20, No. 12, ISSN 0960-1317.
44) Chen X, Zhuang J, Kolb JF, Schoenbach KH, Beebe SJ (2012) Long term survival of mice with hepatocellular carcinoma after pulse
power ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields. Technol Cancer Res Treat 11: 83–93.
45) Chen X, Yi S, Hu C, Chen X, Jiang K , Ye S, Feng X, Fan S, Xie H, Zhou L, Zheng S. Comparative Study of Nanosecond Electric Fields in
Vitro and In Vivo on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Indicate Macrophage Infiltration Contribute to Tumor Ablation In Vivo. PLOS ONE |
www.plosone.org 1 January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e86421.
46) Cho H, Seo YK, Yoon HH, Kim SC, Kim SM, Song KY, et al. Neural stimulation on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Biotechnol. Prog. 2012, 28, 1329–1335, doi: 10.1002/btpr.1607.
47) Ciombor DM, Aaron RK. Pulsed fields act synergistically with growth factors to increase cartilage matrix synthesis. Proceedings of the
Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectrical Repair and Growth Society; October 10-13, 1993; Dana Point, CA. BRAGS, 3.
48) Chou CK, Guy AW, Kunz LL, Johnson RB, Crowley JJ, Krupp JH. Long-Term, Low-Level Microwave Irradiation of Rats.
Bioelectromagnetics 13:469-496 (1992).
49) Crocetti S, Beyer C, Schade G, Egli M, Frohlich J, Franco-Obregon A. Low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields
selectively impair breast cancer cell viability. PLoS One, 2013, 8:e72944.
50) Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Ulukaya E, Uzunlar AK, Ocak AR. Effect of Mobile Phone Exposure on Apoptotic Glial Cells and Status of
Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 28: 342–354, 2009.
51) Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Kizil G, Kizil M, Cakir DU, Yokus B. Effect of 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation on Beta Amyloid Protein,
Protein Carbonyl, and Malondialdehyde in the Brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 31(1): 67–74, 2012.
52) Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Erdal ME, Erdal N, Ay OI, Ay ME, Yegin K. (2015a). Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-
Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 91(7), 555–561.
53) Dasdag S, Taş M, Akdag MZ, Yegin K. (2015). Effect of longterm exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi
equipment on testes functions. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 34(1), 37–42.
54) Davanipour Z, Sobel E, Bowman JD, Qian Z, Will AD, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic
fields. epidem. Bioelectromagnetics 1997; 18 (1): 28-35.
55) De Gruijl FR, Sterenborg HJ, Forbes PD, Davies R, Cole C, Kelfkens G, van Weelden H, Slaper H, van der Leun JC. (1993) Wavelength
dependence of skin cancer induction by ultraviolet irradiation of albino hairless mice. Cancer Res, 53, 53-60.
56) Del Vecchio G, Giuliani A, Fernandez M, Mesirca P, Bersani F, Pinto R, et al. Continuous exposure to 900MHz GSM-modulated EMF
alters morphological maturation of neural cells. Neurosci Lett (2009) 455(3):173–7. doi:10.1016/j. neulet.2009.03.061.
57) Dragicevic N, Bradshaw PC, Mamcarz M, Lin X, Wang L, et al. (2011) Longterm electromagnetic field treatment enhances brain
mitochondrial function of both Alzheimer’s transgenic mice and normal mice: a mechanism for electromagnetic field-induced
cognitive benefit? Neuroscience 185: 135–149.
58) Elliott JP, Smith RL, Block CA (1988). Time-varying magnetic fields: effects of orientation on chondrocyte proliferation. J Orthop Res,
59) Emara SO, EL-Kholy SM, Kazem H, Hussein NA, Shams Aldein RS. Therapeutic Effects of Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields
on Rat Liver Cancer. Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering and Science Vol.2, Issue 9 (April 2013), Pp 17-18.
60) Eris AH, Kiziltan HS, Meral I, Genc H, Trabzon M, Seyithanoglu H, Yagci B, Uysal O., Bratislava. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level
electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2015;116(2):101-3.
61) Esmekaya MA, Aytekin E, Ozgur E, Güler G, Ergun MA, Omeroğlu S, et al. 2011. Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8 GHz
radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba
(EGb 761). Science of the Total Environment 410-411:59-64.
62) Esmekaya MA, Seyhan N, Ömeroğlu S. Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: a
light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Dec;86(12):1106-16. doi:
10.3109/09553002.2010.502960. Epub 2010 Sep 1.
63) Fadel MA, El Gebaly RH, El Hag MA, Rohaim AM. Solid Ehrlich tumor growth treatment by magnetic waves. Technol Health Care.
2011;19(6):455-67. doi: 10.3233/THC-2011-0649.
64) Fadel MA., Reem H. Elgebaly and Mona S. Elneklawi, Evaluation of Extremely Low Frequency Electric Field Role on Mice Induced with
Ehrlich Tumor. World Applied Sciences Journal 33 (1): 27-32, 2015 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2015 DOI:
65) Fedrowitz M, Löscher W. Exposure of Fischer 344 rats to a weak power frequency magnetic field facilitates mammary tumorigenesis
in the DMBA model of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29(1): 186-93.
66) Feldman Y, Puzenko A, Ishai PB, Caduff A, Agranat AJ. Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter
Wave Range; Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 – Published 27 March 2008.
67) Feng J, Sheng H, Zhu C, Jiang H, Ma S. Effect of Adjuvant Magnetic Fields in Radiotherapy on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro.
Hindawi Publishing CorporationBioMed Research International Volume 2013, Article ID 657259, 6 pages,
68) Filipovic NDT, Radovic M, Cvetkovic D, Curcic M, Markovic S, Peulic A, et al. Electromagnetic field investigation on different cancer cell
lines. Cancer Cell Int. 2014, 14:1–10.
69) Franzellitti et al. (2010) showed increased DNA strand breaks in trophoblasts after exposure to a 217-Hz (delta stab. Freq. 0.46%)
modulated 1.8 GHz-RFR, but a continuous-wave field of the same carrier frequency was without effect.
70) Frei MR, et al. Chronic Exposure of Cancer-Prone Mice to Low-Level 2450 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 19 (1),
71) Frigo L, Luppi JS, Favero GM, Maria DA, Penna SC, Bjordal JM, Bensadoun RJ, Lopes-Martins RA. The effect of low-level laser
irradiation (In-Ga-Al-AsP – 660 nm) on melanoma in vitro and in vivo. BMC Cancer. 2009; 20; 9: 404.
72) Fröhlich F, Hyland GJ. Fröhlich coherence at the mind-brain interface, n Joseph E. King & Karl H. Pribram (eds.), Scale in Conscious
Experience. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 407--38 (1995).
73) Fu, Y.C., Lin, C.C., Chang, J.K., Chen, C.H., Tai, I.C., Wang, G.J., HO, M.L., 2014. A novel single pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates
osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and bone repair. PLoS One 9, e91581.
74) Fukuzaki Y, Ang FY, Yamanoha B, Kogure S. Effects of 532 nm Low-power Laser Irradiation on Cell Proliferation of Human-derived
Glioblastoma. JJSLSM Vol.34 No.4 (2014).
75) Fukuzaki Y, Shin H, Kawai HD, Yamanoha B, Kogure S (2015) 532 nm Low-Power Laser Irradiation Facilitates the Migration of
GABAergic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mouse Neocortex. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0123833. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123833.
76) Garon EB, Sawcer D, Vernier PT, Tang,T, Sun Y, Marcu, L. Gundersen, M.A.; Koeffler, H.P. In vitro and in vivo evaluation and a case
report of intense nanosecond pulsed electric field as a local therapy for human malignancies. Int. J. Cancer 2007, 121, 675–682.
77) Gerner C, Haudek V, Schandl U, Bayer E, Gundacker N, Hutter HP, Mosgoeller W. Increased protein synthesis by cells exposed to a
1,800-MHz radio-frequency mobile phone electromagnetic field, detected by proteome profiling, Int Arch Occup Environ Health.
2010 Aug; 83(6):691-702.
78) Gervino G, Autino E, Kolomoets E, Leucci G, Balma M. “Diagnosis of bladder cancer at 465 MHz,” Electromagn. Biol. Med.26(2), 119–
79) Ghannam MM, El-Gebaly RH, Gaber MH, Ali FM. Inhibition of Ehrlich Tumor Growth in Mice by Electric Interference Therapy (In Vivo
Studies). Taylor & Francis 2002; 21, 3: 255 – 268.
80) Gomes Henriques AC, Ginani F, Oliveira RM. et al. Lasers Med Sci (2014) 29: 1385. Low-level laser therapy promotes proliferation and
invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
81) Greenland S, Sheppard AR, Kaune WT, Poole C, Kelsh MA. A pooled analysis of magnetic fields, wire codes, and childhood leukemia.
Childhood Leukemia-EMF Study Group. Epidemiology 2000; 11(6):624-634.
82) Grigoriev YG., Grigoriev OA, Ivanov AA, Lyaginskaya AM, Merkulov AV, Shagina NB, Maltsev VN, Lévêque P, Ulanova AM, Osipov Va,
Shafirkin AV. Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results.
Bioelectromagnetics 31:589^602 (2010).
83) Guy AW, Chou CK, Johnson RB. (1983a, September) Effects of long-term low-level radiofrequency radiation exposure on rats. Volume
1. Design, facilities, and procedures. University of Washington, USAFSAM-TR-83-17.
84) Guy AW, Chou CK, Kunz LL, Crowley J, Krupp, J. (1985, August) Effects of long-term low-level radiofrequency radiation exposure on
rats. Volume 9. Summary. University of Washington, USAFSAM-TR-85-64.
85) Carlberg M, Hedendahl L, Ahonen M, Koppel T, Hardell L. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main
focus on Swedish data. Carlberg et al. BMC Cancer (2016) 16:426, DOI 10.1186/s12885-016-2429-4.
86) Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Karai D, Lass J. Mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect on nervous system. Electromagn Biol
Med. 2016, 22:1-11.
87) Hirose H, Sakuma N, Kaji N, Suhara T, Sekijima M, Nojima T, Miyakoshi J. Phosphorylation and gene expression of p53 are not affected
in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz band CW or W-CDMA modulated radiation allocated to mobile radio base stations. med./bio.
Bioelectromagnetics 2006; 27 (6): 494-504.
88) Hisamitsu T, Narita K, Kashara T, Seto A, Yu Y, Asano K. (1997). Induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells by magnetic fields.
Japanese Journal of Physiology, Vol. 47, No. 3, (June 1997), pp. 307-310, ISSN 1881-1396.
89) Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis GN, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function.
Reproduction 2016; 152 (6): R263-R276.
90) Hu JH, St-Pierre LS, Buckner CA, Lafrenie RM, Persinger MA. Growth of injected melanoma cells is suppressed by whole body
exposure to specific spatial-temporal configurations of weak intensity magnetic fields. Int J Radiat Biol 2010, 86:79–88.
91) Hussein S, El-Saba AA, Galal MK. Biochemical and histological studies on adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on rat's brain. J
Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Dec;78:10-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.07.009. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
92) Jain S, Vojisavljevic V, Pirogova E. Study of Change in Enzymatic Reaction under Radiowaves/Microwaves on Lactic Acid
Dehydrogenase and Catalase at 2.1, 2.3 and 2.6 GHz. PIERS Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, July 6-9, 2015.
93) Jansen JHW, Van der Jagt OP, Punt BJ, Verhaar JAN, Van Leeuwen JPTM, Weinans H, Jahr H. Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation
in human osteoprogenitor cells by pulsed electromagnetic fields: an in vitro study. Jansen et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010,
94) Jeong YJ, Kang GY, Kwon JH, Choi HD, Pack JK, Kim N, Lee YS, Lee HJ. 1950 MHz Electromagnetic Fields Ameliorate Aβ Pathology in
Alzheimer's Disease Mice. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2015;12(5):481-92.
95) Jian W, Wei Z, Zhiqiang C, Zheng, F. (2009). X-Ray-induced apoptosis of BEL-7402 cell line enhanced by extremely low frequency
electromagnetic field in vitro.Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 30, No. 2, (January 2009), pp. 163-165, ISSN 1521-186X.
96) Jiang B, NieJ, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Tong J, Cao Y. Induction of Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to 900MHz Radiofrequency Fields:
Application of Micronucleus Assay, Mutat Res 751 (2), 127-129. 2013 Jan 04.
97) Jiménez-García MN, Arellanes-Robledo J, Aparicio Bautista DI, Rodriguez- Segura MA, Villa-Trevino S, Godina-Nava JJ. (2010). Anti-
proliferative effect of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver. BMC
Cancer, Vol. 24, No. 10, (April 2010), pp. 159, ISSN 1471-2407.
98) Johnson EH, Chima SC, Muirhead DE. A cerebral neurectodermal tumor in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). J. Med. Primatol., 28:
99) Kaivosoja SV, Chen Y, Donttinen YT. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields and dehydroepiandrosterone on viability and o steo-
induction of human mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 2015, 9, 31–40.
100) Kang KS, Hong JM, Kang JA, Rhie JW, Jeong YH, Cho DW. (2013). Regulation of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived
stem cells by controlling electromagnetic field conditions. Exp. Mol. Med. 45:e6. doi: 10.1038/emm.2013.11.
101) Karaca E, Durmaz B, Altug H, Yildiz T, Guducu C, Irgi M, Gulcihan M, Koksal C, Ozkinay F, Gunduz C, Cogul O.The genotoxic effect of
radiofrequency waves on mouse brain. Journal of Neuro-Oncology January 2012, Volume 106, Issue 1, pp 53–58.
102) Karinen A, Heinävaara S, Nylund R, Leszczynski D. Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin. BMC
Genomics. 2008 Feb 11;9:77. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-77.
103) Kesari KK, Behari J, Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010 Sep;162(2):416-
28. doi: 10.1007/s12010-009-8722-9. Epub 2009 Sep 19.
104) Kesari KK, Behari J, Kumar S. Mutagenic response of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure on rat brain. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010; 86(4): 334-43.
105) Khadra AKM, Khalil AM, Abu Samak M, Aljaberi A. (2015). Evaluation of selected biochemical parameters in the saliva of young males
using mobile phones. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 34(1), 72–76.
106) Kheifets L, Ahlbom A, Crespi CM, et al. Pooled analysis of recent studies on magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. British Journal
of Cancer 2010; 103(7):1128-1135.
107) Kiray A, Tayefi H, Kiray M, Bagriyanik HA, Pekcetin C, Ergur BU, Ozogul C. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat
myocardium, Februari 2012.
108) Kim HS, Park BJ, Jang HJ, Ipper NS, Kim SH, Kim YJ, Jeon SH, Lee KS, Lee SK, Kim N, Ju YJ, Gimm YM, Kim YW. Continuous exposure to
60 Hz magnetic fields induces duration- and Dose-dependent apoptosis of testicular germ cells. Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 35, no. 2,
pp. 100–107, 2014. doi: 10.1002/bem.21819. Epub 2013 Oct 7.
109) Kim SJ, Jang YW, Hyung KE, Lee DK, Hyun KH, Jeong SH, Min KH, Kang W, Jeong JH, Park SY3, Hwang KW. Extremely low-frequency
electromagnetic field exposure enhances inflammatory response and inhibits effect of antioxidant in RAW 264.7 cells.
Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Mar 29. doi: 10.1002/bem.22049.
110) Kim YW, Kim HS, Lee JS et al. “Effects of 60 Hz 14 T magnetic field on the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice,”
Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 66–72, 2009.
111) Kiray A, Tayefi H, Kiray M, Bagriyanik HA, Pekcetin C, Ergur BU, Ozogul C. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat
myocardium. Toxicol Ind Health. 2013 Jun;29(5):418-25. doi: 10.1177/0748233711434957.
112) Koeman T, Slottje P, Schouten LJ, Peters S, Huss A, Veldink JH, Kromhout H, Van den Brandt PA, Vermeulen R. Occupational exposure
and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a prospective cohort. Occupational exposure and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a prospective
cohort. Occup Environ Med 2017; 0:1. doi:10.1136/oemed-2016-103780.
113) Koyu A, Cesur G, Ozguner F, Akdogan M, Mollaoglu H, Ozen S. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field on TSH and thyroid hormones
in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2005;157:257–62.
114) Kumar S, Nirala JP, Behari J, Paulraj R. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive
system in a simulated scenario. Indian J Exp Biol. 2014 Sep;52(9):890-7.
115) Kwan RL, Wong WC, Yip SL, Chan KL, Zheng YP, Cheing GL. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy promotes healing and
microcirculation of chronic diabetic foot ulcers: a pilot study. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2015 May;28(5):212-9. doi:
116) Lee JS, Ahn SS, Jung KC, Kim YW, Lee SK. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice.
Asian J Androl. 2004 Mar;6(1):29-34.
117) Lerchl A, Klose M, Grote K, Wilhelm AFX, Spathmann O, Fiedler T, Clemens M. (2015). Tumor promotion by exposure to
radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications,
118) Leszczynski D, Joenväärä S, Reivinen J, Kuokka R, Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone
radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation
119) Li Y, Héroux P. Extra-low-frequency magnetic fields alter cancer cells through metabolic restriction. Electromagnetic Biology and
Medicine, Volume 33, 2014 - Issue 4.
120) Li Y, Liu X, Liu K. Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Developmental Toxicity and Apoptosis in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Embryos. Biol Trace Elem Res (2014) 162: 324, doi:10.1007/s12011-014-0130-5.
121) Lim KT, Hexiu J,Kim J, Seonwoo H, Cho WJ, Choung PH, Chung JH. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Osteogenesis of Human
Alveolar Bone-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International Volume 2013,
Article ID 296019, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/296019.
122) Liu K et al, (May 2014) The protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800 MHz
radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, Toxicol Lett. 2014 May 9;228(3):216-224. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.05.004.
123) Liu Q, Si T, Xu X, Liang, Wang, Pan S. (2015). Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and
caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats. Reproductive Health, 12, 65.
124) Liu YH, Cheng CC, Ho CC, Lai YS. Effects of diode 808 NM GaAlAs low-power laser irradiation on inhibition the proliferation of human
hepatoma cells in vitro and their possible mechanism Article in Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology
115-116:185-201 · February 2004.
125) Liu YH, Liu WB, Liu KJ, Aol, Zhong Jl, Cao J, Liu JY. Effect of 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the DNA
Methylation and DNA Methyltransferases in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line GC-2, Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed
Research International Volume 2015, Article ID 237183.
126) Liu Q, Si T, Xu X, Liang F, Wang L, Pan S. (2015). Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and
caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats. Reproductive Health, 12, 65 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4523914.
127) Loja T, Stehlikova O, Palko L, Vrba K, Rampl I, Klabusay M. Influence of pulsed electromagnetic and pulsed vector magnetic potential
field on the growth of tumor cells. Journal Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine Volume 33, 2014 - Issue 3.
128) Makar VR, Logani MK, Bhanushali A, Alekseev SI, Ziskin MC. Effect of cyclophosphamide and 61.22 GHz millimeter waves on T-cell, B-
cell, and macrophage functions, bioelectromagnetics, Volume 27, Issue 6 September 2006, Pages 458–466.
129) Mann K, Wagner P, Brunn G, Hassan F, Hiemke C, Röschke J. Effects of Pulsed High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the
Neuroendocrine System. Neuroendocrinology 1998; 67:139–144.
130) Manzella N, Bracci M, Ciarapica V, Staffolani S, Strafella E, Rapisarda V, Valentino M, Amati M, Copertaro A, Santarelli L. Circadian
gene expression and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields: an in vitro study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015 Apr;36(4):294-301. doi:
10.1002/bem.21915. Epub 2015 Mar 22.
131) Marcickiewicz J, Chazan B, Niemiec T, Sokolska G, Troszyński M, Luczak M, Szmigielski S. Microwave radiation enhances teratogenic
effect of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Biol Neonate. 1986; 50(2):75-82.
132) Marjanovic AM, Pavicic I, Trosic I. Cell oxidation–reduction imbalance after modulated radiofrequency radiation. Posted online on
August 13, 2014.
133) Marinelli F, La Sala D, Cicciotti G, Cattini L, Trimarchi C, Putti S, et al. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field induces an unbalance
between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cells. J Cell Physiol (2004) 198(2):324–32.
134) Markkanen A. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Responses to Agents Causing Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage, Doctoral
135) Markovà E, Hillert L, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, Belyaev IY. 2005. Microwaves from GSM mobile telephones affect 53BP1 and γ H2AX
foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons. Environ Health Perspect 113:1172–1177.
136) Markova E, Malmgren LOG, Belyaev IY. 2010. Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53BP1 focus formation in human stem cells
more strongly than in differentiated cells: Possible mechanistic link to cancer risk. Environ Health Perspect 118(3):394–399.
137) Mashevich M, Folkman D, Kesar A, Barbul A, Korenstein R, Jerby E, Avivi L. Exposure of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to
Electromagnetic Fields Associated With Cellular Phones Leads to Chromosomal Instability. Bioelectromagnetics 24:82^90 (2003).
138) Maskey D, Kim M, Aryal B, Pradhan J, Choi IY, Park KS, et al. Effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation exposure on calcium binding
proteins in the hippocampus of the mouse brain. Brain Res (2010) 1313:232–41.
139) McCormick DL, Boorman GA, Findlay JC, Hailey JR, Johnson TR, Gauger JR, Pletcher JM, Sills RC, Haseman JK. (1999), Chronic
toxicity/oncogenicity evaluation of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol. Pathol. 27, 279–285.
140) Menteş B, Taşcilar O, Tatlicioglu E, Vakur Bor M, Işman F, Türközkan N, Çelebi M. Influence of pulsed electromagnetic fields on
healing of experimental colonic anastomosis. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum September 1996, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 1031–1038.
141) Mevissen M, Lerchl A, Szamel M, Löscher W. Exposure of DMBA-treated female rats in a 50-Hz, 50 microTesla magnetic field: effects
on mammary tumor growth, melatonin levels, and T lymphocyte activation. Carcinogenesls vol.17 no.5 pp.903-910, 1996.
142) Misa-Agustiño MJ, Leiro-Vidal JM, Gomez-Amoza JL, Jorge-Mora MT1, Jorge-Barreiro FJ, Salas-Sánchez AA, Ares-Pena FJ4, López-
Martín E. EMF radiation at 2450 MHz triggers changes in the morphology and expression of heat shock proteins and glucocorticoid
receptors in rat thymus. Life Sci. 2015 Apr 15;127:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.01.027. Epub 2015 Feb 28.
143) Miyagi N, Sato K, Rong Y, Yamamura S, Katagiri H, Kobayashi K, Iwata H. (2000). Effects of PEMF on a murine osteosarcoma cell line:
drug-resistant (p-glycoproteinpositive) and non-resistant cells. Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 21, No. 2, (February 2000), pp. 112-121,
144) Morabito C, Guarnieri S, Fanò G, Mariggiò MA. (2010). Effects of acute and chronic low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on
PC12 cells during neuronal differentiation. Cell Physiol Biochem, Vol. 24, No. 6, (October 2010), pp. 947-958, ISSN 1421-9778.
145) Mortazavi SMJ, Owji SM, Shojaei-fard MB,Ghader-Panah M, Mortazavi SAR, Tavakoli-Golpayegani A, Haghani M, Taeb S, Shokrpour N,
Koohi O. GSM 900 MHz Microwave RadiationInduced Alterations of Insulin Level and Histopathological Changes of Liver and
Pancreas, Rat. J Biomed Phys Eng 2016; 6(4).
146) Murayama H, Sadakane K, Yamanoha B, Kogure S. Low-power 808-nm laser irradiation inhibits cell proliferation of a human-derived
glioblastoma cell line in vitro. Lasers Med Sci. 2012 Jan;27(1):87-93. doi: 10.1007/s10103-011-0924-z. Epub 2011 May 3.
147) National Cancer Institute Electromagnetic fields and cancer, 2016: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-
148) Nie Y, Du L, Mou Y, Xu Z, Weng L, Du Y, Zhu Y, Hou Y, Wang T. Effect of low frequency magnetic fields on melanoma: tumor inhibition
and immune modulation, Nie et al. BMC Cancer 2013, 13:582, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/13/582.
149) Nikolova T, Czyz J, Rolletschek A, Blyszczuk P, Fuchs J, Jovtchev G, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Wobus AN. Electromagnetic fields affect
transcript levels of apoptosis related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells. The FASEB Journal express article
10.1096/fj.04-3549fje. Published online August 22, 2005.
150) Nittby H, Brun A, Eberhardt J, Malmgren L, Persson BR, Salford LG. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7
days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone. Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug; 16(2-3):103-12, doi:
10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.001. Epub 2009 Apr 2.
151) Novikov VV, Shvetsov YP, Fesenko EE, Novikova NI, “Molecular organisms of the biological action of weak magnetic fields. I.
Restistance of chromatin of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and mouse brain to Dnase I by the combined action of weak static and low
frequency alternating magnetic fields adjusted to the cyclotron resonance of the ions of polar amino acids,” Biofizika, Vol. 42, 733–
152) Novikov VV, Ponomarev VO, Fesenko EE. “Analysis of the biological activity of two-frequency magnetic signal and single-frequency
variable components during exposure to weak and extremely weak combined constant and low-frequency variable magnetic fields on
the growth of grafted tumors in vice,” Biophysics, Vol. 50, S110–S115, 2005.
153) Novikov VV, Novikov GV and Fesenko EE. Effect of weak combined static and extremely low-frequency alternating magnetic fields on
tumor growth in mice inoculated with the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Bioelectromagnetics 30: 343-351, 2009.
154) Nuccitelli R, Pliquett U, Chen X, Ford W, Swanson RJ, Beebe SJ, Kolb JF, Schoenbach KH. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields cause
melanomas to self-destruct, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 5; 343(2): 351–360.
155) Odaci E, Bas O, Kaplan S. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological
and histopathological study. Brain Res. 2008 Oct 31;1238:224-9, doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.013. Epub 2008 Aug 16.
156) Omote Y, Hosokawa M, Komatsumoto M, Namieno T, Nakajima S, Kubo Y, Kobayashi H. Treatment of experimental tumors with a
combination of a pulsing magnetic field and an antitumor drug. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1990 Sep;81(9):956-61.
157) Ozlem Nisbet H, Nisbet C, Akar A, Cevik M, Karayigit MO. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular
function and structure in growing rats. Res Vet Sci. 2012 Oct;93(2):1001-5. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.10.023. Epub 2011 Nov 29.
158) Ozorak A. et al., 2013. Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- induced risks on oxidative stress and elements in
kidney and testis of rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 156(103): 221-29.
159) Panagopoulos D et al, (January 2007) Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation, Mutat Res.
2007 Jan 10;626(1-2):69-78.
160) Panagopoulos DJ, Karabarbounis A, Lioliousis C. ELF Alternating Magnetic Field Decreases Reproduction by DNA Damage Induction,
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics November 2013, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 703–716.
161) Pang L, Traitcheva N, Gothe G, et al. (2002). ELF electromagnetic fields inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cells and induce
apoptosis. Electromagn. Biol. Med. 21:243–248.
162) Park S, Min-Woo Kim ∙ Ji-Hoon Kim ∙ Yena Lee ∙ Min Soo Kim ∙ Yong-Jun Lee ∙ Young-Jin Kim ∙ Hee-Sung Kim ∙ Yoon-Won Kim, 2015.
Endonuclease G is Upregulated and Required in Testicular Germ Cell Apoptosis after Exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT. JOURNAL OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, VOL. 15, NO. 3, 142~150, JUL. 2015.
163) Peidaee P, Almansour N, Shukla R, Pirogova E. The Cytotoxic Effects of Low Intensity Visible and Infrared Light on Human Breast
Cancer (MCF7) cells, Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal · March 2013.
164) Prausnitz S, Susskind C. (1962) Effects of chronic microwave irradiation on mice. IRE Trans. on Biomed. Electron. 9:104-108.
165) Radzievsky AA, Gordiienko OV, Szabo I, Alekseev SI, Ziskin MC. Millimeter wave-induced suppression of B16 F10 melanoma growth in
mice: involvement of endogenous opioids. Bioelectromagnetics. 2004 Sep;25(6):466-73.
166) Raylman RR, Clavo AC, Wah RL. Exposure to strong static magnetic field slows the growth of human cancer cells in vitro.
Bioelectromagnetics Volume 17, Issue 5, 1996, Pages 358–363.
167) Ren Z, Chen X, Cui G, Yin S, Chen L, Jiang J, Hu Z, Xie H, Zheng S, Zhou L. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Inhibits Cancer Growth
Followed by Alteration in Expressions of NF-κB and Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Molecules, PLOS ONE |
DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117550 February 6, 2015.
168) Repacholi MH, Basten A, Gebski V, Noonan D, Finnie J, Harris AW. 1997. Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed
900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 147: 631–640.
169) Ross CL, Harrison BS. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on inflammatory pathway markers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.
Journal of Inflammation Research 2013:6 45–51.
170) Roszkowski W, Wrembel JK, Roszkowski K, Janiak M, Szmigielski S. (1980b). Does whole-body hyperthermia therapy involve
participation of the immune system? Int. J. Cancer, 25, 289.
171) Ruiz Gómez MJ, Pastor Vega JM, de la Peña, Gil Carmona L, Martínez Morillo M. (1999). Growth modification of human colon
adenocarcinoma cells exposed to a low-frequency electromagnetic field. Journal of physiology and biochemistry, Vol. 55, No. 2, (June
1999), pp. 79-83. ISSN 1877-8755.
172) Ruiz-Gómez MJ, De la Peña L, Prieto-Barcia MI, Pastor JM, Gil L, MartínezMorillo M. (2002). Influence of 1 and 25 Hz, 1.5 mT magnetic
fields on antitumour drug potency in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 23, No. 8 (December 2002), pp.
578-585, ISSN 1521-186X.
173) Ruiz-Gómez MJ and Martínez-Morillo M: Electromagnetic fields and the induction of DNA strand breaks. Electromagn Biol Med 28:
174) Sannino A, Sarti M, Reddy SB, Prihoda TJ, Vijayalaxmi, Scarfì MR. (2009) Induction of Adaptive Response in Human Blood
Lymphocytes Exposed to Radiofrequency Radiation. Radiat Res 170: 735–742.Radiat Res. 2009 Jun;171(6):735-42.
175) Santini, M. T., Ferrante, A., Romano, R., Rainaldi, G., Motta, A., Donelli, G., Vecchia, P., & Indovina, P. L. (2005). A 700 MHz 1H-NMR
study reveals apoptosis-like behavior in human K562 erythroleukemic cells exposed to a 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field. International
journal of radiation biology, Vol. 81, No. 2, (February 2005), pp. 97-113, ISSN 1362-3095.
176) Schaffner, Six tough topics about harmonic distortion and Power Quality indices in electric power systems, 2014.
177) Scott A. 1999. Nonlinear Science: Emergence and Dynamics of Coherent Structures. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.
178) Sekeroğlu V, Akar A, Sekeroğlu ZA. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1800 MHz) on
immature and mature rats. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012 Jun; 80:140-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.02.028. Epub 2012 Mar 9.
179) Sekijima M, Takeda H, Yasunaga K, Sakuma N, Hirose H, Nojima T, Miyakoshi. 2-GHz band CW and W-CDMA modulated
radiofrequency fields have no significant effect on cell proliferation and gene expression profile in human cells. med./bio. Published
in: J Radiat Res 2010; 51 (3): 277-284.
180) Shahin S, Banerjee S, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. (2015). 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation Impairs Learning and Spatial Memory via
Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Induced p53 Dependent/Independent Hippocampal Apoptosis: Molecular Basis and Underlying
Mechanism. Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology 148(2), 380-99.
181) Simkó M, Kriehuber R, Weiss DG, Luben RA. (1998). Effects of 50 Hz EMF exposure on micronucleus formation and apoptosis in
transformed and nontransformed human cell lines. Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 19, No. 2, (1998), pp. 85–91, ISSN 1521- 186X.
182) Sırav B, Seyhan N. (2015). Effects of GSM modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of bloodbrain barrier
in male & female rats. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.12.010.
183) Schwarz C, Kratochvil E, Pilger A, Kuster N, Adlkofer F, Rüdiger HW. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1,950 MHz) induce
genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:755‐767, 2008.
184) Seong Y, Moon J, Kim J. (2014). Egr1 mediated the neuronal differentiation induced by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic
fields. Life Sci. 102, 16–27, doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.02.022.
185) Setlow RB, Gris E, Thompson K, Woodhead AD. Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma (Xiphophorus
fishes/ultraviolet radiation/visible light/suppressor genes/ozone depletion), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 90, pp. 6666-6670, July
186) Seze de R, Tuffet S, Moreau JM, Veyret B: Effects of 100 mT time varying magnetic fields on the growth of tumors in mice.
Bioelectromagnetics 2000, 21:107–111.
187) Sinha RK. Chronic non-thermal exposure of modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation alters thyroid hormones and behavior of male
rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008; 84:505–13.
188) Siqueira de EC, Souza de FTA, Gomez RS, Gomes CC, Souza de RP. Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor
development? A systematic review and meta-analysis, 2017, DOI: 10.1111/jop.12531.
189) Smith SR, Foster KR, Wolf JL (1986). "Dielectric properties of VX-2 carcinoma vs. normal liver tissue", IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., BME-
190) Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lauriola M, Tibaldi E, Manservisi F, Accurso D, Chiozzotto D, Giuliani L. Mega-experiments on the
carcinogenicity of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELFMF) on Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from fetal life until
spontaneous death: plan of the project and early results on mammary carcinogenesis. Journal International Journal of Radiation
Biology, Volume 92, 2016 - Issue 4.
191) Sommer AM, Streckert J, Bitz AK, Hansen VW, Lerchl A. No effects of GSM-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic fields on survival rate
and spontaneous development of lymphoma in female AKR/J mice. BMC Cancer 2004, 4:77.
192) Sperandio FF, Giudice FS, Corrêa L, Pinto DS Jr, Hamblin MR, de Sousa SC. Low level laser therapy can produce increased
aggressiveness of dysplastic and oral cancer cell lines by modulation of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. J Biophotonics. 2013.
193) Storch K, Dickreuter E, Artati A, Adamski J, Cordes N (2016) BEMER Electromagnetic Field Therapy Reduces Cancer Cell
Radioresistance by Enhanced ROS Formation and Induced DNA Damage. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0167931.
194) Stuchly MA, McLean JRN, Burnett R, et al: Modification of tumor promotion in the mouse skin by exposure to an alternating magnetic
field. Cancer Lett 65:1-7, 1992.
195) Su L, Wei X, Xu Z, Chen G. RF-EMF exposure at 1800 MHz did not elicit DNA damage or abnormal cellular behaviors in different
neurogenic cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Apr;38(3):175-185, doi: 10.1002/bem.22032. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
196) Szmigielski S, Szudzinski A, Pietraszek A, Bielec M, Janiak M, Wrembel JK. Accelerated development of spontaneous and
benzopyrene-induced skin cancer in mice exposed to 2450-MHz microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 3:179-191, 1982.
197) Szudziński A, Pietraszek A, Janiak M, Wrembel J, Kałczak M, Szmigielski S. Acceleration of the development of benzopyrene-induced
skin cancer in mice by microwave radiation. Arch Dermatol Res. 1982; 274(3-4):303-12.
198) Tang J, Zhang Y, Yang L, Chen Q1, Tan L, Zuo S, Feng H, Chen Z, Zhu G. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-
1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats. Brain Res. 2015 Mar 19;1601:92-101. doi:
10.1016/j.brainres.2015.01.019. Epub 2015 Jan 15.
199) Tas M, Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Cirit U, Yegin K, Seker U, Ozmen MF, Eren LB. Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation
emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality. Electromagn Biol Med 2014; 33 (3): 216-222.
200) Tatarov I, Panda A, Petkov D, Kolappaswamy K, Thompson K, Kavirayani A, Lipsky MM, Elson E, Davis CC, Martin SS, DeTolla LJ: Effect
of magnetic fields on tumor growth and viability. Comp Med 2011, 61:339–345.
201) Thun-Battersby S, Mevissen M, Löscher W. Exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to a 50-Hertz, 100-microTesla magnetic field for 27
weeks facilitates mammary tumorigenesis in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene model of breast cancer, Cancer Res. 1999 Aug
202) Tice RR, Hook GG, Donner M, McRee DI, Guy AW. Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and
micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 2002 Feb; 23(2):113-26.
203) Tillmann T, Ernst H, Streckert J, Zhou Y, Taugner F, Hansen V, Dasenbrock C. Indication of cocarcinogenic potential of chronic UMTS-
modulated radiofrequency exposure in an ethylnitrosourea mouse model. International Journal of Radiation Biology 86 (2010) 529-
204) Titova LV, Ayesheshim K. Ayesheshim, Andrey Golubov, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Rafal Woycicki, Frank A. Hegmann & Olga Kovalchuk.
Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue? SCIENTIFIC REPORTS |
3 : 2363 | DOI: 10.1038/srep02363, 2013.
205) Tkalec M, Malarić K, Pavlica M, Pevalek-Kozlina B, Vidaković-Cifrek Z. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on seed
germination and root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. Mutat Res. 2009 Jan 31;672(2):76-81.
206) Tkalec M, Stambuk A, Srut M, Malarić K, Klobučar GI. Oxidative and genotoxic effects of 900MHz electromagnetic fields in the
earthworm Eisenia fetida. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 90:7-12, 2013.
207) Tofani S, Cintorino M, Barone D, Berardelli M, De Santi MM, Ferrara A, Orlassino R, Ossola P, Rolfo K, Ronchetto F, Tripodi SA, Tosi P:
Increased mouse survival, tumor growth inhibition and decreased immunoreactive p53 after exposure to magnetic fields.
Bioelectromagnetics 2002, 23:230–238.
208) Tofani S, Barone D, Berardelli M, Berno E, Cintorino M, Foglia L, Ossola P, Ronchetto F, Toso E, Eandi M: Static and ELF magnetic fields
enhance the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of cis-platin against lewis lung carcinoma, but not of cyclophosphamide against B16 melanotic
melanoma. Pharmacol Res 2003, 48:83–90.
209) Traitcheva N, Angelova P, Radeva M, Berg H. (2003). ELF fields and photooxidation yielding lethal effects on cancer cells.
Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 24, No. 2, (February 2003), pp. 148-150, ISSN 1521-186X.
210) Tuffet S, de Seze R, Moreau JM, Veyret B. (1993). Effects of a strong pulsed magnetic field on the proliferation of tumour cells in vitro.
Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, Vol. 30, (March 1993), pp. 151-160. ISSN 1567-5394.
211) Valbonesi P, Franzellitti S, Bersani F, Contin A, Fabbri E. 2014. Effects of the exposure to intermittent 1.8 GHz radio frequency
electromagnetic fields on HSP70 expression and MAPK signaling pathways in PC12 cells. Int J Radiat Biol 90(5):382–391.
212) Vergara X, Kheifets L, Greenland S, Oksuzyan S, Cho YS, Mezei G. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields
and neurodegenerative disease: a meta-analysis. Published in: J Occup Environ Med 2013; 55 (2): 135-146.
213) Vincenzi F, Targa M, Corciulo C, Gessi S, Merighi S, Setti S, Cadossi R, Borea PA, Varani K. The anti-tumor effect of A3 adenosine
receptors is potentiated by pulsed electromagnetic fields in cultured neural cancer cells. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39317. doi:
10.1371/journal.pone.0039317. Epub 2012 Jun 25.
214) Wang C, Wang X, Zhou H, Dong G, Guan X, Wang L, Xu X, Wang S, Chen P, Peng R, Hu X. Effects of Pulsed 2.856 GHz Microwave
Exposure on BM-MSCs Isolated from C57BL/6 Mice PLOS ONE, 2015.
215) Wang J, Guo J, Wu S, Feng H, Sun S, Pan J, Zhang J, Beebe SJ. Synergistic Effects of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Combined with
Low Concentration of Gemcitabine on Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Vitro, PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 August 2012 |
Volume 7 | Issue 8 | e43213.
216) Wang X, Liu, C, Ma Q, Feng W, Yang, Lu Y, Zhang L. (2015). 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase-1 inhibition sensitizes Neuro-2a cells to oxidative
DNA base damage induced by 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.
217) Wen J, Jiang S, Chen B. The effect of 100 Hz magnetic field combined with X-ray on hepatoma-implanted mice. Bioelectromagnetics
218) Wei Y, Xiaolin H, Tao S. Effects of extremely lowfrequency-pulsed electromagnetic field on different-derived osteoblast-like,
Electromagn. Biol. Med 2008; 27 (3): 298–311.
219) Wertheimer N, Leeper E. Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1979; 109: 273-84.
220) Williams CD, Markov MS, Hardman WE, Cameron IL: Therapeutic electromagnetic field effects on angiogenesis and tumor growth.
Anticancer Res 2001, 21(6A):3887-3891.
221) Wu S, Wang Y, Guo J, Chen Q, Zhang J, Fang J. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields as a novel drug free therapy for breast cancer: an in
vivo study. Cancer Lett. 2014 Feb 28; 343(2):268-74, doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2013.09.032. Epub 2013 Oct 4.
222) Wyde ME et al. Report of Partial Findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency
Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposures) Draft 5-19-2016.
223) Xu S, Zhou Z, Zhang L, Yu Z, Zhang W, Wang Y, Wang X, Li M, Chen Y, Chen C, He M, Zhang G, Zhong M. Exposure to 1800 MHz
radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons, Brain Res. 2010 Jan
22;1311:189-96. Epub 2009 Oct 30.
224) Yamaguchi S, Ogiue-Ikeda M, Sekino M, Ueno S, (2006). Effects of pulsed magnetic stimulation on tumour development and immune
functions in mice Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 27, No. 1, (January 2006), pp. 64-72, ISSN 1521-186X.
225) Yamashita H, Hata K, Yamaguchi H, Tsurita G, Wake K, Watanabe S, Taki M, Ueno S, Nagawa H. Short-term exposure to a 1439-MHz
TDMA signal exerts no estrogenic effect in rats. Bioelectromagnetics 2010; 31 (7): 573-575.
226) Yao C, Mi Y, Hu X, Li C, Sun C, Tang J, Wu, X. (2008). Experiment and mechanism research of SKOV3 cancer cell apoptosis induced by
nanosecond pulsed electric field, Proceedings of 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia,
227) Yan J, Dong L, Zhang B, Qi N. Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on growth and differentiation of human mesenchymal
stem cells. Electromagn Biol Med. 2010 Dec; 29(4):165-76, doi: 10.3109/01676830.2010.505490. Epub 2010 Oct 5.
228) Yang L, Hao D, Wang M, Zeng Y, Wu S, Zeng Y. Cellular Neoplastic Transformation Induced by 916 MHz Microwave Radiation. Cell Mol
Neurobiol. 32(6):1039-1046, 2012.
229) Yang X, He H, Zhou Y, Zhou Y, Gao Q, Wang P, He C. Pulsed electromagnetic field at different stages of knee osteoarthritis in rats
induced by low-dose monosodium iodoacetate: Effect on subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture and cartilage degradation.
Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Apr;38(3):227-238, doi: 10.1002/bem.22028. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
230) Yasui M, Kikuchi T, Ogawa, M, Otaka, Y, Tsuchitani M, Iwata, H. (1997) Carcinogenicity test of 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields in rats.
Bioelectromagnetics, 18, 531–540.
231) Yin S, Xinhua Chen, Chen Hu, Xueming Zhang, Zhenhua Hu, Jun Yu, Xiaowen Feng, Kai Jiang, Shuming Ye, Kezhen Shen, Haiyang Xie,
Lin Zhou, Robert James Swanson, Shusen Zheng. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma: A
novel locoregional ablation decreasing lung metastasis. Cancer Letters 346 (2014) 285–291.
232) Yoon J, Cho J, Kim N, Kim DD, Lee E, Cheon C, Kwon Y. High-frequency microwave ablation method for enhanced cancer treatment
with minimized collateral damage. Int J Cancer. 2011 Oct 15;129(8):1970-8. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25845. Epub 2011 Mar 11.
233) Zhang SZ, Yao GD, Lu DQ, Chiang H, Xu ZP. Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene expression of rat neurons,
2008. Hangzhou Prevention and Health Protection Department, Hangzhou 310014, China.
234) Zhang X, Zhang H, Zheng C, Li C, Zhang X, Xiong, W. (2002). Extremely low frequency (ELF) pulsed-gradient magnetic fields inhibit
malignant tumour growth at different biological levels. Cell Biology International, Vol. 26, No. 7, (2002), pp. 599–603, ISSN 1095-
235) Zhong C, Zhang X, Xu Z, He, R. (2012). Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on the proliferation and differentiation of
cultured mouse bone marrow stromal cells. Phys. Ther. 92, 1208–1219. doi: 10.2522/ptj. 20110224.
236) Zong C, Ji Y, He Q, Zhu S, Qin F, Tong J, Cao Y. Adaptive response in mice exposed to 900 MHZ radiofrequency fields: bleomyc