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Cancer is promoted by cellular states of electromagnetic decoherence and can be corrected by exposure to coherent non-ionizing electromagnetic fields A physical model about cell-sustaining and cell-decaying soliton eigen-frequencies


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Physical and biological evidence has been found for the hypothesis that carcinogenesis fits in a frequency pattern of electromagnetic (EM) waves, in which a gradual loss of cellular organization occurs. We find that cancer can be initiated and promoted at typical frequencies of electromagnetic waves positioned in decoherent soliton frequency zones. In contrast, the generation of cancer features can be inhibited and retarded by application of coherent soliton frequencies. This hypothesis has been substantiated by 200 different EM frequency data in 320 different published biomedical studies. All frequencies, ranging from sub Hz till Peta Hertz, could be normalized into 12 basic beneficial (anti-cancer) frequencies, and 12 basic detrimental (cancer promoting) frequencies, that exhibit a deviation from coherency and related geometry. Inhibiting of the cancer process, and even curing of the disease, could be further considered by exposure to coherent EM fields. Such coherent solitons frequency zones can, for instance, be implemented in man-made therapeutic radiation technology. Inhibition and retardation of the cancer process can take place through stabilization of the identified eigen-frequencies, characteristic for the proper functioning of living cells. The present hypothesis can be viewed upon as a further elaboration of the theory presented by Fröhlich in 1968 and his postulate that biological systems exhibit coherent longitudinal vibrations of electrically polar macromolecular structures. Fröhlich’s condensation of oscillators in vibration modes is usually compared with Bose–Einstein condensation and phenomena involving macroscopic quantum coherence. At the same time, Davydov discovered the related principle of longitudinal wave forms called solitons. Solitons with discrete wave frequencies can induce direct changes in DNA/RNA conformation and/or epigenetic changes, in addition to perturbation of protein folding and disturbance of intra and intercellular wave communication that is essential for the health ecology of cells. It is further hypothesized that such wave energies and eigen-frequencies can be optimally expressed by a toroidal geometry.
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Cancer is promoted by cellular states of electromagnetic decoherence and can be
corrected by exposure to coherent non-ionizing electromagnetic fields
A physical model about cell-sustaining and cell-decaying soliton eigen-frequencies
Hans (J H) Geesink* and Dirk K F Meijer **
* Previous: Ir, Project leader Mineral Nanotechnology, DSM-Research, the Netherlands, mail:
** Em. Professor of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Targeting, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
Groningen, April 12, 2017. Research Gate:
Physical and biological evidence has been found for the hypothesis that carcinogenesis fits in a frequency pattern of
electromagnetic (EM) waves, in which a gradual loss of cellular organization occurs. We find that cancer can be initiated
and promoted at typical frequencies of electromagnetic waves positioned in decoherent soliton frequency zones. In
contrast, the generation of cancer features can be inhibited and retarded by application of coherent soliton frequencies.
This hypothesis has been substantiated by 200 different EM frequency data in 320 different published biomedical
studies. All frequencies, ranging from sub Hz till Peta Hertz, could be normalized into 12 basic beneficial (anti-cancer)
frequencies, and 12 basic detrimental (cancer promoting) frequencies, that exhibit a deviation from coherency and
related geometry. Inhibiting of the cancer process, and even curing of the disease, could be further considered by
exposure to coherent EM fields. Such coherent solitons frequency zones can, for instance, be implemented in man-
made therapeutic radiation technology. Inhibition and retardation of the cancer process can take place through
stabilization of the identified eigen-frequencies, characteristic for the proper functioning of living cells. The present
hypothesis can be viewed upon as a further elaboration of the theory presented by Fröhlich in 1968 and his postulate
that biological systems exhibit coherent longitudinal vibrations of electrically polar macromolecular structures.
Fröhlich’s condensation of oscillators in vibration modes is usually compared with BoseEinstein condensation and
phenomena involving macroscopic quantum coherence. At the same time, Davydov discovered the related principle of
longitudinal wave forms called solitons. Solitons with discrete wave frequencies can induce direct changes in DNA/RNA
conformation and/or epigenetic changes, in addition to perturbation of protein folding and disturbance of intra and
intercellular wave communication that is essential for the health ecology of cells. It is further hypothesized that such
wave energies and eigen-frequencies can be optimally expressed by a toroidal geometry.
Key words: Cancer, coherent, de-coherent, Fröhlich, Davydov, Belyaev, electromagnetic, soliton, non ionizing radiation,
toroidal, nanotechnology.
Fröhlich proposed that the functionality and sensitivity in living systems results from ordered states within the
apparently chaotic motions and arrangements of biological molecules. A feature of this viewpoint is that ordered or
coherent states can exist over large distances, thus offering a mechanism by which cells communicate, in addition to the
short range of chemical forces. This long-range biological coherence provides growth control as exists in healthy tissue
but is absent in cancer [1]. A number of investigators have expanded Fröhlich’s approach, and sought to test predicted
consequences experimentally [2, 3]. Adey proposed a model by which weak signals could be transmitted through cell
membranes and that solitary waves carry weak signals inside cells. Preto provided a general classical Hamiltonian
description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an
external energy source and it was shown that a coherent behavior, similar to Fröhlich's effect, is to be expected for a
given range of parameter values [4]. Direct experimental support for the presence of Fröhlich condensation and the
related action in the arrangement of proteins was found by spectroscopic detecting of Bose-Einstein condensate-like
structures in biological matter at room temperature [5].
Coherence is defined as the physical congruence of wave properties within wave packets. It is a known property of
stationary waves (i.e. temporally and spatially constant) that enables a type of wave interference, defined as
constructive. Constructive wave interference leads to the generation of specific resonance patterns, promoting
coherent cellular wave domains, and dynamic cell systems are partially operating via this principle.
Coherence or non-randomness of quantum resonances has also been discussed by Einstein and Infield in 1961 for the
so-called “prequantum modes”. It was Schrödinger who recognized that coherent interaction of waves is coupled to
entanglement as 'the characteristic aspect of quantum mechanics’ and suggested that “eigenstates”, also called
“preferred states” are able to survive interaction with the environment. Coherent resonances can be present in
electrons, photons, phonon, solitons. The preferred locations for resonance transfer in living cells are the surrounding
domains of ion water clathrates, nucleic acids and ion-protein complexes. Water is known to be coherently nano-
structured and coherent affecting bio-molecular processes, including protein stability, substrate binding to enzymes, as
well as electron and proton transfer [6, 7, 8]. Semikhina documented that alternating magnetic fields in the range 25 nT-
879 μT are able to disrupt the arrangement of water molecules, particularly under high concentrations of hydrogen
bonds and protons. The effects were absent above 40-50°C, as water structure changes. The maximum effect was
detected at 156.2-Hz and 15.45 μT for 7°C pure water (of note: that is very close to the calculated de-coherent
frequency according to the algorithm) [9, 10].
According to Henry two main regimes of aqueous solutions exist containing solutes species either as small ions or large
colloids: 1) an incoherent regime when the concentration is not high enough to favor phase locking between matter,
radiation and vacuum and 2) a coherent regime of phase locking between coherence domains, above a certain
threshold of concentration, depending upon the nature of the added salts. The characteristic feature of his model is that
the coupling between matter fields (water, ions, colloids) and the electromagnetic field, originating in the vacuum, is
not zero as in classical theories [11].
If cells, bio-molecules, and cell networks are organized such that coherency of waves and wave patterns is at stake, a
physical relation should exist between this property and the stability of the components. A coherent pattern of
information and an algorithm of electromagnetic field-frequencies for living cells and biological effects has been earlier
found by us in a meta-analyses of bio-medical literature [12, 13]. The observed coherent resonances were subsequently
matched to a Pythagorean scale of tuning and octave hierarchy. Calculated scale frequencies turned out to be related to
eigenvalues of a square oscillating plate (Ritz, 1909) and EM frequencies applied in bio-medical studies [14]. We inferred
that living organisms function against a background of such coherent resonances, at the level of atoms, molecules, cells
and agregates and possibly even at the level of consciousness [14]. Coherency is related to solitons that play a role as
self-reinforcing solitary waves and are seen as electromagnetically longitudinal, helical and radial waves that travel
along proteins, microtubules and DNA. They thereby induce an endogenous electromagnetic field and interfere with
local resonant oscillations and electronic excitations of neighbouring molecules and macromolecules. The solitons and
corresponding soliton frequency-zones are considered to be responsible for the coherent wave patterns in cells. It was
therefore hypothesized by us that such wave energies are collected in, so called, underlying toroidal space-time
operators and that the particular multi connectedness can be optimally expressed by a toroidal geometry [14]. From
these studies a bio-soliton model has been derived that describes a spectrum of electromagnetic eigen-frequencies of
which coherent and decoherent frequencies are ordered in an alternate fashion. This knowledge can be applied to
understand physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by electromagnetic fields [13]. The model is
complementary to Henry’s model of characteristic frequencies involving water molecules by relating the molecular
weight M of any solvent or solute species to EM frequencies, using the mass-energy equivalence coupled to the Planck-
Einstein relationship [11].
Figure 1. Solitons propagate in either direction, exchange positions and eventually return the system to states that
resemble their initial configuration. The motion of the solitons can be seen here by following the lines of colours,
which denote displacements (From Porter, 2009 and image from Zabusky, Sun and Peng 2006)
We envision that a resulting soliton based morphogenetic field provides a dedicated control of functional shape of life
structures, through bringing in positional information and cues, in order to regulate organism-wide system properties
like cellular architecture, including control of reproduction and repair. It is proposed that the most optimal architectural
state of a living cell is such a coherent state, and that decline of quality of cell properties can occur when a transition
takes place from coherent states to states of less coherence, that can lead to moderate decoherence or even to a state
a full decoherence.
The highest coherent state can be defined as an integral fine tuned assembly of such coherent soliton frequencies. Our
soliton model predicts which discrete eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and
which are not. The particular effects were found to be exerted by a range of electromagnetic wave frequencies of one-
tenth of a Hertz till Peta Hertz (at Hz, KHz, Mhz, GHz, THz en PHz), and showed a distribution pattern of twelve bands
within one octave, that can be positioned in a normalized acoustic-like frequency scale. This means that, over the whole
frequency range, in total about 400 beneficial and 400 detrimental frequency bands may play a crucial organizing role in
living cells.
It is further known that the architectural geometry of living cells, like genetic and epigenetic expression, can be
disturbed by decoherent wave modalities. Interestingly, decoherent wave information can also be restored in a
reversed process, that was called decoherence-coherence state cycling [15].
Cancer is due to a state of loss of internal cellular organization and coherence
There are physical models about the origin of carcinogenesis on the basis of biophysical mechanisms. In the following,
we will focus on a further elaboration of the above mentioned theories (Fröhlich and Devyatkov) that has been
expressed in the following relevant models:
Cancer is essentially a non-genetic disease, characterised by a global and unspecific impairment of energy and
information flow through the system, as manifested in genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic dysregulation. It is
primarily characterised by an unspecific progressive self-disorganisation, and impairment of the proper coherent
dynamics at some specific levels [16].
Sonnenschein and Soto
Carcinogenesis is seen as a problem of tissue organization: carcinogenic agents destroy the normal tissue architecture
disrupting cell-to-cell signaling and thereby compromise genomic integrity. Single or multiple carcinogenic exposure acts
in a given morphogenic field, disturbing the reciprocal biophysical communication between the parenchyma and the
mesenchyme/stroma [17, 18].
Impaired coherence is linked to the bioenergetic aspect of cancer considering Fröhlich’s theory. Cancer has a lower
degree of overall coherency. Healthy cells and the organization of living matter depends on a morphogenetic pattern
formation, and a field that determines the morphological structure of living organisms [16].
Levin and Chernet
Cancer is interpreted as corrupted geometry: a misregulation of the field of information that orchestrates individual cell
activity with regard to normal anatomy. The view that cancer is a developmental disorder, predicts that molecular
mechanisms, known to be important mediators of the supposed morphogenetic field, are deranged and thereby would
be involved in tumorgenesis. Failure of morphostasis can occur in cancer, because the entite morphogenetic field is
missing, altered, or not successfully perceived. This can occur due to selective genetic or physiological state changes [20,
21, 22].
Knox and Funk
A context dependent model focuses on interactions between the cell and its surrounding environment as the initiator
and/or driver of malignancy. Genome wide epigenetic changes precede cancer and confer risk for cancer, strongly
suggesting that multiple systems are affected by changes in gene expression, even before tumors become manifest.
Biophysical signalling was considered as having a central role in cancer, through influences on cell proliferation, cell
cycle progression, apoptosis, orientation of cell migration, as well as cell differentiation [23].
External electromagnetic fields (EMF’s) can influence adult stem cells resulting in either positive or negative effects.
Endogenous EMFs are present in developing and regenerating tissues and organs, either in the extracellular space or in
the cell cytoplasm. It has been hypothesized that some specific ranges of EMF parameters promote regeneration but
others result in cancer formation, degeneration, and pathological alterations. The observed osteogenic and
chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells show that EMF stimulation affects not only proliferation, the
cell cycle, or differentiation of stem cells, but also the many correlated processes. Stem cells under the influence of
“improper stimuli” may contribute to carcinogenesis and pathological alterations, resulting in many chronic disorders
A non-uniform field will lead to the development of dielectrophoretic forces, acting on polarizable macromolecules such
as microtubules, and organelles. This can affect all charged structures present in the cell, such as ions, proteins or DNA.
A model has been proposed, related to ionic solitary condensation waves around microtubules. In addition
dielectrophoretic effects in dividing cells may act on the dipole moments of microtubules at intermediate frequencies.
The whole cytoskeleton, and especially microtubulins, participate in numerous collective interactions with
electromagnetic forces, due to the complex charge distribution in and around the particular protein filaments that are
surrounded by poly-ionic solutions. Solitary ionic waves have been described as solutions of a nonlinear partial
differential equation [25].
Biophoton emissions from healthy humans display rhythmic patterns and show coherence. Biophotons emitted from
cancer cells lack coherence and fail to follow natural rhythmic patterns. Popp hypothesized that cancer results from a
disruption of cell’s photorepair system and discovered that benzo[a]pyrene, a potent carcinogen, absorbs ultraviolet
light at 380 nanometers and emits it at another frequency [26, 115].
Le Chapellier
An explanation of the action mechanism of solitons upon pancreatic tumor is proposed. A non-linear system which
emits dissipative solitons is sensitive to the presence of an external structure of frequencies. According to biophysics,
the exposure of the cellular medium to solitons sensible for radiofrequencies tends to produce a coherent structuring
Comparisons between primary cancers and metastases suggest a hypothesis of biological resonance (bioresonance).
Primary cancer and matched metastasis have a common progenitor, while both ancestors are under similar
microenvironments and receive similar or same signals. When their interactions reach a status similar to primary
cancer, metastasis will occur [28].
Knowledge about influences of non-ionizing electromagnetic on biological effects
Research about electromagnetic pulses on living cells has been systematically undertaken the past eighty years. About
25.000 biological and physical reports are available, of which a large part is dealing with non-thermal biological effects
on living cells. Influences of electromagnetic waves causing thermal effects on biological systems are known and
relatively well understood. Importantly, to date considerable knowledge about non-thermal effects of electromagnetic
waves has become available. At least six physical principles about the behaviour of non-ionizing radiation concerning
biological effects of living cells have been proposed: 1) ion cyclotron resonances, 2) parametric resonance, 3)
interactions between electromagnetic fields and electrons, 4) resonant frequencies and polarisation, 5) resonant
recognition, 6) radical concentrations, and 6) stability of waves and quantum coherence.
Research of Belyaev
Non-thermal electromagnetic fields (EMF) are able to cause both beneficial and detrimental responses of living cells.
These have been mainly observed in the wide frequency ranges of extremely low frequencies (1300 Hz) and
microwave frequencies (300 MHz to 300 GHz). There is strong evidence from many studies that biological effects of EMF
are related to various physiological and physical parameters. Electromagnetic waves can affect overall cell viability, and
may influence neural and osteogenic differentiation, gene expressions, epigenetic mechanisms, as well as chromatin
modifications. Stem cells are more sensitive to EMF exposure than differentiated human primary cells, lymphocytes,
and fibroblasts, whereas fibroblasts are the least sensitive. Non thermal EMF’s biological effects depend on various
physical wave or field parameters: intensity, overall duration and intermittent or permanent exposure, frequency,
polarization, modulations such as pulses, amplitudes, phases, and complex moduli, in addition to intermittence, near
field/far field and static magnetic field. Of note, even small changes in carrier frequency of about 24 MHz can result in
disappearance of non-thermal microwave (MW) effects, because of the selectivity of resonance like responses. Also,
relatively small changes in carrier frequency, in the order of 10 MHz, has reproducibly resulted in cell-type-dependent
generation of effects on non-thermal EMF exposure with respect to DNA repair foci in human cells. Coherence
modulations of MW waves often play a crucial role [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34; 35; 36; 37, 38; 39; 40, 41, 42].
Potential treatments
A positive consequence of all this, is that treatment of melanoma, by applying external non ionizing electromagnetic
fields, is possible. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (NsPEFs) treatment is able to induce locally apoptosis-like effects of
melanoma and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular
homeostasis. Electromagnetic stimulation technology is already been used to treat various cancer types including skin,
breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo [43,
44]. A combined treatment of PEF (pulsed electromagnetic waves) and Co-gamma radiation shows a significant effect
on delaying the growth of glioma and subcutaneously implanted tumors [45].
Stem cell biology have opened a new window in the expanding area of regenerative medicine based on tissue
engineering and cell therapy derived from a variety of stem cells. Effects of EMFs on human adult stem cell biology have
been studied, such as proliferation, the cell cycle, differentiation and properly adjusted values of EMF frequencies, as
well as times of stimulation [24]. Neurogenesis and osteogenesis processes rely on the activation of specific and
complex transcriptional programs, while epigenetic mechanisms play a critical regulatory role. This can be realized by
translating a wide array of endogenous and exogenous signals into persistent changes in gene expression in both neural
stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. EMF stimulation has been recognized as an effective tool in promoting both
neurogenesis and osteogenesis and the studies performed, so far, point to chromatin remodeling and pro-neuronal
gene expression [46].
Coherence versus decay of coherence
The organisation of components of a life system can be logical and well-organized in a biological sense or show chaotic
aspects, which is often related to the terms coherent or decoherent respectively. Of note, the organised pattern of the
cell components can be stable, or instable as well as in equilibrium or far from equilibrium. In physics, waves are called
coherent when the phase differences between the waves is small, whereas, if waves are defined as incoherent, these
phases have a high degree of variability [14]. We proposed that life bio-molecules and viable cells are exposed to and
are functioning within about 400 narrow EM field frequency bands over a broad spectrum of frequencies. The individual
values that form quite narrow frequency bands, are localized around highly coherent frequencies. They, apparently, fit
with a discrete pattern of coherent waves and, in our view, may be co-responsible for the architectures of living cells.
The particular, highly coherent, frequencies of living cells/molecules are thus positioned in “coherent zones” and exist
withinin a small bandwidth of 0.85% of the local coherent algorithmic frequency. In contrast, decoherent zones are
positioned just in between the coherent zones and are responsible for an entropic decay of cellular organization, also
within a small bandwidth of 0.85% of the local decoherent algorithmic frequency. Cell-sustaining properties are
positioned at the green points, see figure 2, while cell-decaying decoherent frequencies are positioned between the
cell-sustaining frequency bands at the red squares. We proposed: 12 coherent reference sound frequencies: 256, 269.8,
288, 303.1, 324, 341.2, 364.7, 384, 404.5, 432, 455.1, 486 Hz, and 12 decoherent frequencies positioned logarithmical
just in between these coherent frequencies: 249.4, 262.8, 278.8, 295.5, 313.4, 332.5, 352.8, 374.3, 394.1, 418.0, 443.2,
470.3 Hz. All other frequencies, situated below or above the range of figure 2, can be derived by octave hierarchy.
Figure 2. Calculated normalized EM frequencies that were experimentally applied to living cells systems are found to be patterned in
12 apparent bands of cell-sustaining coherent frequencies (green points) and cell-decaying decoherent frequencies (red squares),
positioned between the cell-sustaining frequency bands.
Fröhlich did already present the first explicit hypothesis on the role of coherence in cancer and laid the basis for
understanding the related physical processes in biological systems. The central item is that cancer transformation
pathways include a link with altered coherent electric (electromagnetic) vibrations. He proposed that a global (localy
extended) coherent excitation emerges from electrically polar structures of sufficient size and polarisation density spans
across the tissues. These may also exert a long-range communication between cells, thereby electro-mechanically
stabilising the whole tissue. A cancer cell may escape from such interactions with the surrounding healthy cells and
individual cells may then exhibit independent activity, that is if the frequency spectrum is perturbed and/or shifted.
Such frequency changes may be combined with disturbances of the spatial pattern of the field by which the
transformed cell becomes dissociated from local interactions and tends to perform local invasion and formation of
metastases. When a critical number of cells cease to be in resonance with the global local excitation, they will no longer
be under tissue control and will express their tendency to divide again, a state which Fröhlich identified with cancer [50,
Devyatkov has considered the same principle of interactions of biomolecules and living cells. He found that biological
effects of cells, exposed to electromagnetic waves, are dependent on: wavelength, wave modulations, dose, exposure
time, magnetic field and coherence. He discovered that cells may be affected by long series of combined frequencies,
to be considered as second and third harmonics of these frequencies, providing oscillations of a, so called, collective
mode [53, 54, 55].
Also Popp has hypothesized that cancer results from a disruption of cells' photorepair system and that biophoton
emissions from cancer cells lack coherence and fail to follow natural rhythmic patterns [26].
Physical mechanisms of non thermal EMF effects have been explained in the framework of nonequilibrium and
nonlinear systems and investigated by many researchers: Fröhlich [46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52], Davydov [56, 57], Frey [58],
Adey [3, 59, 60, 61, 62], Liboff [63], Szmigielski [64], Blank [65], Salford [66], Binhi [67], Blackman [68, 69], Carpenter
[70], Belyaev [71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78,79], Brizhik [80, 81], Cifra [82, 83], Pokorný [84, 85, 86], Srobar [87, 88, 89],
Cosic [90], Havas [91], and Barnes [92].
Our proposed soliton model describes that a high level of coherence of waves for healthy living cells is realized when
the absolute distance between a distinct endogeneous or exogeneous frequency in relation to a coherent frequency is
positioned in the soliton algorithm in the range of 0.0-0.85% of the particular value. A moderate level of coherence is
defined when the absolute distance between a typical frequency and a calculated soliton coherent frequency is
between 0.85-1.25%. A clear decay of organizational frequencies of living cells can occur when the absolute distance
between the observed frequency and the calculated coherent frequency is between 1.25-2.50%, while a maximum
decay can take place around 2.50-3.0% [13]. About 400 typical coherent solitonic frequencies were detected in
literature to sustain healthy living cells. This implies either an endogeneous and or an exogeneous filed, yet both can be
modeled as vortex like movements if positioned on a toroidal rotatory structure. About 400 typical decoherent solitonic
frequencies sustain the organizational decay of healthy living cells and can be positioned at the vortices of a toroid [13].
The torus, like a twistor, is seen as the basic space-time structure, acting as an operator for the processing of quantum
wave information.
The present hypothesis about carcinogenesis
Carcinogenesis is, according to H. Fröhlich, Davydov and the earlier discussed models, conceived as having a relation
with the above mentioned “organized field”, and thus with electrodynamics in and around living bio-molecules/cell(s).
The “organized field” interacts with solitons that are nonlinear interactions of vibrational excitations in and around
biomolecules at typical frequencies [13]. Solitons are self-reinforcing solitary waves and have an electromagnetic
character exhibiting a longitudinal, helical and radial nature. Organisms undergo changes in the form of successive
transformations of organization states of cells during morphogenesis and tissue repair [93]. The zones, which are
located between the designated regions of stabilisation and destabilization, are estimated to be transformational zones
of geometric wave patterns. The bandwidth of this frequency transformation zone is estimated to be located at about
0.50% of each local frequency.
Collective evidence for our EM-mediated hypothesis
An extensive meta-analysis of 270 published biological and medical studies has earlier been performed, in which living
material (tissues, cells, and whole animals) was exposed to external electromagnetic fields employing a wide spectrum
of frequencies from Hz, Khz, Mhz, GHz, THz and PHz mainly in the area of non thermal biological effects. In these studies
the various effects of the electromagnetic fields were reported as to their potential to inhibit and retard cancer, as
opposed to initiation and promotion of cancer. After collecting and scrutinizing the distribution pattern of these data,
the following parameters were established: 1) frequency values: (Hz, kHz, Mhz and GHz, THz and PHz), 2) particular
frequency modulations, 3) combinations of frequencies, and 4) chosen exposure levels. The summarized frequency data
were subsequently ordened to identify the most nearby soliton frequencies, according to the proposed algorithm and
subsequently to calculate the relative difference between the frequencies applied in the biological studies and the most
nearby calculated soliton frequencies, and than expressed in % of the algorithmic values.
In summary: the following hypothesis about cancer is presented in the present paper:
Cancer can be initiated and promoted at typical frequencies of electromagnetic waves that are positioned in the, so
called, decoherent soliton frequency zones. In contrast, cancer can be inhibited and retarded if exposed to coherent
soliton frequency zones in a natural chemical surrounding.
Verification of the cancer hypothesis
To verify this hypothesis, about 320 published papers from 1965 untill now, have been analyzed that describe the
inhibition/retardation or initiation/promotion of cancer, both in relation to the applied exogeneous electromagnetic
waves. In addition some examples of supposed endogeneous EM waves were analyzed (see for the collected data of this
meta-analysis the appendix 1). A total of 95 frequency data (Hz-THz) of in vitro and in vivo biological experiments
could be selected that show inhibition/retardation cancer or initiation/promotion/representing cancer. All frequency
data have been normalized according to octave hierarchy and can be positioned at a normalized acoustic frequency
scale (Hz), see figure 3. It can be concluded that the electromagnetic frequencies of all experiments showing
inhibition/retardation of cancer are precisely positioned in frequency bands already found for cell-sustaining
frequencies (green points, figure 2 and 3). All experiments showing initiation/promotion/representing cancer are
precisely positioned in frequency bands already found for cell-decaying frequencies (red squares, figure 2 and 3).
Figure 3. Calculated normalized EM frequencies that were experimentally applied to living cells systems are found to be patterned
in 12 apparent bands of cell-sustaining coherent frequencies able to inhibit/retard cancer (green points) and cell-decaying decoherent
frequencies able to initiate/promote/represent cancer (red squares), positioned between the cell-sustaining frequency bands.
It can be further confirmed that carcinogenesis and cancer growth is likely to be associated with a decoherent character
of electromagnetic waves and related quantum states. On the other hand, inhibition and curing of cancer turn out to be
coupled to a coherent behavior of electromagnetic waves and quantum states, according to the proposed algorithm of
frequencies. Importantly, it follows that curing or inhibition of cancer can be achieved by exposure to electromagnetic
frequency conditions that are beneficial for cells.
Subsequently, the different frequency effects of electromagnetic waves on living cells were also analysed with regard to
cell differentiation, DNA compostion, chromosomal aspects, genetic expressions, genome-wide methylation, foci in
differentiated cells, stem cells, neurons, plasma membranes, germ cells, signalling path ways, cognitive effects,
learning, spatial memory, and cell death among others (appendix 2).
Direct measurement of EM wave vibrations in tumor tissues
Endogeous measurements at EM MHz frequencies in cancer cells, fully supported the proposed hypothesis. Damping of
external electromagnetic field caused by cancer tissue has been for example measured at a frequency of 465 MHz
including the first harmonic. The absorption resonant frequencies of some tumors around 465 MHz was estimated as a
distinct shift of spectral lines of normal cells (Vedruccio, 2004, 2011), see table 5.
The principle of detection lies in the resonance between the coupled active nonlinear oscillator (the probe) and the
passive oscillator (the tissue) in the radiofrequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The external
electromagnetic field is damped by cancer tissue for example at 465 MHz and its first harmonic and only on a sharp
frequency window with a width of less than 8 MHz (1.73%). Outside this range, the nonlinear resonance generator does
not interact with the diseased tissues. Signals were identified and recorded as malignant or benign (adenoma or
hyperplastic polyps), related to adenoma detection and colon rectal cancer. These findings were compared with those
from colonoscopy with histologic confirmation [94, 95, 96, 97, 98], see appendix 1, and table 5.
Also Terahertz molecular resonance measurements of cancer DNA supported the hypothesis. Terahertz waves can
directly observe changes in DNA because the measured characteristic energies lie in the same frequency region.
Aberrant methylation of DNA is a well-known carcinogenic mechanism and a common chemical modification of DNA.
Resonance signals have been quantified to identify the types of cancer cells with a certain degree of DNA methylation.
The measurements revealed the existence of molecular resonance fingerprints of cancer DNAs in the terahertz region
[99], see table 5.
EMF-treatment and biological mechanisms
PEMF therapy is able to modulate gene expression and protein synthesis interacting with specific DNA sequences within
gene promoter regions [101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106]. According to Vadalà: PEMFs inhibit angiogenesis in tumor tissues,
suppressing tumor vascularization and reducing tumor growth, as shown in vivo studies [101, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111,
112, 118]. Treated groups showed slower tumor growth rate if compared with untreated control group, confirming that
PEMF therapy can modulate the physiology and electrochemistry of cancer cells and influence cell membrane systems
and mitosis. PEMFs induce various changes in membrane transport capacity, through impacting the osmotic potential,
ionic valves and reduction in cellular stress factors, in addition to increases in the rate of DNA transcription, and
modulation of immune response [101]. Studies show that specific EMF frequencies enhance skeletal stem cells, human
bone marrow stromal cells adherence, proliferation, differentiation, and viability, all of which play also a key role in the
use for tissue engineering [113]. The ability to interconvert information between electronic and ionic modalities has
transformed the ability to record and actuate biological function. Electronic actuation of the native transcriptional
regulators and transcription from promoters allows cell response that is quick, reversible and dependent on the
amplitude and frequency of the imposed electronic signals [117].
Potential therapeutic technologies to prevent decoherence, among others mediating cancer
Different types of technologies have already been investigated to prevent detrimental biological effects of non ionizing
radiation and even to induce beneficial biological effects. In the nineties, Litovitz and colleagues discovered that adding
signals of electromagnetic noise to incoherent man made signals result in reduced detrimental biological effects.
Litovitz showed a requirement for typical coherence times and types of modulations of an applied electromagnetic
signals at ELF or microwave to enhance ornithine decarboxylase activity in L929 fibroblasts. Microwave fields, amplitude
modulated (AM) by an extremely low-frequency (ELF) sine wave, induced a nearly twofold enhancement in the activity
of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in L929 cells at SAR levels of the order of 2.5 W/kg. A second technology might be the
application of so called trans-material catalysts [100] that are nano- and micron semiconductors able to add preferred
coherent condensate signals to electromagnetic man made signals. A third promishing technology makes use of
nanosecond PEMF that applies pulsed coherent frequencies using EM probe devices. The effectiveness of time varying
electromagnetic fields on biological systems has been shown and depends on pulse design, frequency, duration, and
magnetic field/rise time (dB/dt) [114, 116].
In the near future improved PEMF-technologies and semiconducting nanomaterials will come available to generate
coherent signals to state of the art electromagnetic signals focussing on stabilization of eigen-frequencies characteristic
for functioning of living cells.
Final conclusions
We have previously shown that about 200 typical coherent solitonic frequencies sustain the viability of living cells, and
that the particular values are precisely positioned in, so called, coherent soliton frequency bands. Exposure to about 150
typical decoherent solitonic EM frequencies, produce unhealthy cells and turned out to be precisely positioned in the
decoherent soliton frequency bands. The particular bands, that represent soliton frequency zones, show a discrete
distribution pattern, if plotted on an acoustic scale (figure 2). The distribution pattern shows a clear separation of the
bands in a statistically significant manner. The pattern of twelve basic frequency intervals and bands could be
adequately described by an acoustic algorithm. We regard this dicrete pattern of wave activities as a morphogenetic
code, indicating a harmonic- like vibration modality [12, 13].
Many published data give now support to the hypothesis that cancer can be initiated and promoted at typical
frequencies of electromagnetic waves. The reported frequencies are apparently positioned in the same decoherent
soliton frequency zones identified by us. In contrast, according to these studies, cancer can be inhibited and retarded in
the discrete coherent soliton frequency zones inferred from our studies (figure 3). The particular results are rather
striking: nearly all (96.2%) of the analysed 100 different EM continuous wave frequency data showed the cancer
initiation/promotion or inhibition/retardation characteristics according to the proposed algorithm and fully support the
present hypothesis.
In total 65 frequency data analysed, showed inhibition/retardation of cancer are shown to be presicely located in zones
of coherent frequencies at a mean distance value around a coherent frequency of 0.79 %. The other analysed 35
frequency data, showing initiation/promotion of cancer, are positioned in zones of decoherent frequencies at a mean
distance value from a coherent frequency of 1.66 %.
The particular beneficial, versus the detrimental EM frequencies zones, that are mirrored by oscillations in the intact
cell, are features of a either a healthy state or a corrupted cell state. As listed in the 123 cases in appendix 2, the
dominant biological phenomena also obey to the proposed algorithmic soliton frequencies: They include cell
differentiation, genome-wide methylation and the expression of DNA, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations,
genetic expressions, foci in differentiated cells, oxidative damage, stem cells, neurons, plasma membranes, germ cells,
reproductive system, cognitive effects, signalling path ways, learning and spatial memory, DNA damage, and apoptotic
cell death. Of the overall studies, biological phenomena of healthy living cells are positioned in zones of beneficial
coherent soliton frequencies, at a mean distance value around a coherent frequency of 0.78 % (for continuous wave
exposures), whereas unhealthy living cells are located in zones of detrimental decoherent soliton frequencies at a mean
distance value from a coherent frequency of 1.86% (for continuous wave exposures).
Interestingly, in the investigations into the influence of EM frequencies that potentially induce cancer disorders, as
listed in the appendix 1, as much as 39 different values of electromagnetic waves make use of so called carrier waves
that in our scheme in fact represent coherent soliton frequency bands, but of which the applied wave modulations that
are superposed on the particular carrier waves belong, in contrast, to the decoherent soliton frequency bands. These
kind of complex superposed waves therefore show an overall decoherent behaviour, resulting in detrimental biological
properties. According to our calculations the overall mean distance from the respective coherent frequencies of these
kind of waves amounts to 1.80-2.00% and therefore, in our definition, therefore become highly incoherent.
It is further remarkable that living cells remain viable over a wide regime of electromagnetic wave radiations, with
typical frequencies and modulations, and all are fitting into an electromagnetic range of frequencies, from about less
than one Hertz till one peta Hertz (10^15). In addition, the idea of selective zones of life/supporting or life endangering
frequencies, was supported both by direct tissue measurements of typical endogeneous EM frequencies in healthy
tissues, as opposed to endogeneous frequencies in cells with cancer features.
It is expected that in the near future, more complex therapeutic systems will be developed by employing suitable
combinations of coherent electromagnetic wave frequencies, for example to be used against various forms of cancer.
Even beneficial EM signals can be integrated into man made instruments that either may neutralize adverse radiation
modalities or even may be technically integrated in the many other electronic devices in daily practice, in order to
create a healthy EM environment in the vicinity of our body.
In general, the present study highlights the existence of a dominant vibrational spectrum of EM fields that, as an
algorithm of living cells”, also may have played an evolutionary role in the initiation of first life and in the stabilization
of life systems, until today. At the same time this principle of physics, as defined in our recent papers, can influence our
health if the nature of the coherent frequencies is perturbed so that de-coherent frequencies, that is of sufficient density
and exposure times, take over. With this knowledge it will be possible to develop innovative technologies that can
effectively improve the life-sustaining coherency of electromagnetic signals.
It is further projected to mathematically study the eigen-frequencies of the particular waves, positioned at a toroidal
geometry, making use of finite element methods. Probably, the existence of the revealed combination of stable
coherent and de-coherent resonances. is fully based upon such a type of mathematics.
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Appendix 1: Data bank for verification of the EM-coherency hypothesis for cancer
1.0) ELF 50 Hz located in a coherent soliton frequency-zone able to inhibit and retard cancer (table 1 and 2)
Many studies show that a 50 Hz electromagnetic wave at a nearly pure, transient-free 50 Hz, is able to retard tumor and inhibit tumor
formation (Hisamitsu, 1997; Wertheimer, 1979; Simkó, 1998; Pang, 2001; Tofani, 2002, 2003; Traitcheva, 2003; Morabito, 2010; Berg,
2010; Filipovic, 2014) or by using a 50 Hz wave with a typical modulation:
- Nucleosome-sized DNA fragmentation (a biochemical marker of apoptosis) was induced in human myelogenous leukemic cell lines,
HL-60 and ML-1, when exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. This 50 Hz wave did not induce detectable DNA fragmentation in
either human peripheral blood leukocytes or polymorphonuclear cells (Hisamitsu, 1997).
- Human colon adenocarcinoma and human breast adenocarcinoma exposed to 3 mT static MF, modulated in amplitude with 3 mT
ELF-MF at 50 Hz, showed morphological evidence of increased apoptosis (Tofani 2002).
- Anticancer activity of electromagnetic fields was observed by exposing mice bearing a subcutaneous human breast tumour to
modulated MF extremely low frequency fields at 50 Hz at an intensity of 5.5 mT (Tofani 2003).
- Increased apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines occurred by exposure during 24 and 72 h to pulsed EMF (50 Hz; 10 mT)
compared with untreated control cancer cell lines (Filipovic, 2014).
1.1) Extreme low decoherent frequencies can promote cancer (table 2b)
- Unipolar and bipolar PEMF fields of 5mT and PVMP fields of 0mT at frequencies of 15Hz, 125Hz and 625Hz were tested on
cancer cell lines derived from various types of tumors: CEM/C2 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), SU-DHL-4 (B-cell lymphoma), COLO-
320DM (colorectal adenocarcinoma), MDA-BM-468 (breast adenocarcinoma), and ZR-75-1 (ductal carcinoma). Cell morphology was
observed, proliferation activity using WST assay was measured and simultaneous proportion of live, early apoptotic and dead cells
was detected using flow cytometry. PEMF of 125Hz and 625Hz for 24h48h increased proliferation activity in the 2 types of
cancer cell lines used, i.e. COLO-320DM and ZR-75-1. In contrast, any of employed methods did not confirm a significant inhibitory
effect of hypothetic PVMP field on tumor cells (Loja T, 2014).
1.2) Modulated 50 Hz and 60 Hz can cause cancer
Incoherent modulations (positioned in decoherent-zones) added to 50 and 60 Hz carrier waves can cause cancer.
- Power supply at 50 and 60 Hz contains a lot of harmonic distortion (Bulletin No. 8803PD9402, 1994; Schaffner, 2014). Due to this
reason the chance on carcinogenesis and the risk of childhood leukemia increases at exposures of higher than 0.3 μT according to:
National Cancer Institute Electromagnetic fields and cancer, 2016; Ahlbom, 2000; Greenland, 2000; Kheifets, 2010.
- 50 Hz modulated with a sufficient high level of incoherent frequencies is able to cause cancer at a relatively low field strength. 50 Hz
combined with a harmonic distortion of about 3% can cause cancer in rats at field strength of 1000 µT in mice after 800 days (Soff.
2016). But an estimated lower content of inharmonic distortions no cancer in animals (rats) at a strength of 500 µT occurs after 2
years (of note: 50 Hz is positioned in a zone with a moderate coherence), (Yasui, 1997).
- 60 Hz with a sufficient amount of harmonic distortion can cause cancer at a field strength of 200 µT in mice after 852 days at an
amount of harmonic distortion less than 3% (Boorman, 1999a). But a 60 Hz with a low amount of harmonic distortion did not cause
cancer in animals at a high field strength of 1420 µT in mice after 852 days (of note: 60 Hz is positioned near the border of low
coherence), (McCormick et al., 1999).
- Both 50 Hz and 60 Hz combined with a cancer co-promoter agent can cause cancer at a relatively low field strength 20-200 µT
(Löscher and Mevissen et al. 1996, 1998, 2008; Cain, 1993; Stuchly, 1992; Beniashvili, 1991).
1.3) Extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Murine malignant tumour growth of mice inhibited, apoptosis of cancer cells induced, and arrest of neoangiogenesis was observed
by a pulsed 0.16-1.34 Hz treatment (Zhang X, 2002).
- Growth of S-180 sarcoma in mice was inhibited by a pulsed magnetic field at 0.8 T, 22 ms, 1 Hz (Chang et al., 1985).
- A pronounced decrease in tumor growth rate in animals exposed to a 5-Hz interferential frequency for 1 hr daily has been shown.
(Ghannam, 2002).
- A significant decrease in the rate of tumor growth and increase in survival were observed for male and female mice exposed for
8h/day to 100 mT, 0.8-Hz square-wave from the onset of tumor until death or until the tumor volume reached a predetermined
volume (Seze, 2000).
- A significant decrease in cell growth (56%) of colon adenocarcinoma cells has been shown in cells exposed to 1Hz or 25 Hz for 2 till 6
h. at 1.5 mT in the presence of dexamethasone (Ruiz-Gómez, 1999, 2002).
- The inhibition growth rate was significantly higher of murine osteosarcoma cells, treated with doxorubicin in the presence of 10 x
10-3 mT PEMF at 10 Hz, compared to both non-exposed resistant cells and those non-treated with doxorubicin (Miyagi et al., 2000).
- Mice inoculated subcutaneously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells exposed to 25 Hz EMF for 3 h did not grow tumours after 38 days,
however, the mice in the sham-field and reference controls showed massive tumours. Tumour growth was also affected by the
intensity of the field, with mice exposed to a weak intensity field (1-5 nT) forming smaller tumours than mice exposed to sham or
stronger, high intensity (2-5 microT) fields (Hu JH, 2010).
- Exposure of mice injected with mouse breast cancer cells to electromagnetic fields, for 6 h. daily at 100 mT, 1-Hz, half-sine-wave
unipolar magnetic fields for as long as 4 wk, suppressed tumor growth (Tatarov, 2011).
- Rat liver cancer exposed to 0.9 Hz and 3.0 Hz magnetic fields at 13-42 Gauss and 0.6 Tesla showed apoptosis, necrosis and
inflammatory infiltration of the malignant carcinoma (Emara, 2013).
- Electromagnetic exposure by 0.4 T, 7.5 Hz for 43 days inhibited the growth and metastasis of melanoma cancer cells and improved
immune function of tumor-bearing mice (Nie Y., 2013).
- Microarray of human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed for 1 hour to 8 Hz electromagnetic wave showed a duration-
dependent inhibitory effect and the cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes had 2-fold upregulation and 40 genes had 2-fold
downregulation (Feng, 2013).
- Pulsed EMF at 20 Hz and intensity of 3 mT during 3 days showed cytotoxic to breast cancer cells (Crocetti, 2013).
- The effect of the A3AR agonist in tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of pulsed EMFs and blocked by using a well-known
selective antagonist. The results demonstrated that pulsed EMF exposure significantly increased the anti-tumor effect modulated by
A3ARs at a pulse duration of 1.3 ms (1300 Hz) and frequency of 75 Hz (Vincenzi, 2012).
- Human hematoma cell line cells decreased with a variety of Xray irradiation doses combined to 100 Hz EMF at 0.7 mT and cause
accumulation of apoptotic effects in BEL-7402 cells (Jian et al., 2009).
- Five periods of combined 100Hz MFs and 4Gy X-ray could significantly extend the overall days of survival and reduce the tumor
size compared to MF or X-ray alone. A greater number of 100Hz MF exposure periods could further improve the survival and inhibit
tumor growth in hepatoma-implanted mice when combined with 4Gy X-ray (Wen, 2011).
- Exposure of breast tumors to a 120 Hz magnetic field 10 minutes per day with 0, 10 mT, 15 mT or 20 mT significantly reduced tumor
growth, reduced the percentage of area stained for CD31 indicating a reduction in the extent of vascularization and there was a
concomitant increase in the extent of tumor necrosis (Williams, 2001).
- Male Fischer-344 rats subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibited
preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis
process (Jiménez-García, 2010).
- Exposure to 20mT for 10 minutes 120 Hz semi sine wave pulse signal of variable intensity of murine 16/C mammary
adenocarcinoma tumor fragments reduced the vascular volume fraction and increased the necrotic volume of the tumor (Cameron,
2005, 2014).
1.4) Effects of extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones and cancer cells
- Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) cell line (U87), in vitro, were exposed to various ELF-PEMFs continuous square waves with 10, 50 or
100 Hz frequencies and 50 or 100 G amplitudes. The data suggest that the proliferation and apoptosis of human GBM are influenced
by exposure to ELF-PEMFs in different time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes (Akbarnejad, 2016) (of note: square waves can
have typical influences).
1.5) Combinations of extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Modulated 0.5 Hz and 16.5 Hz produced a pronounced antitumor effect and inhibited or suppressed the growth of Ehrlich ascites
carcinoma (EAC) in mice. The maximum effects occured at 100 and 300 nT at a frequency of 4.4 Hz. The necrosis was prevailing type
of cell death (Novikov, 2005, 2009).
- A low-intensity frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern daily, 1 h, exposures inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines, and
HeLa cells but did not but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells (Buckner, 2015).
1.6) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Pulsed electric fields of of 0.5 Hz and greater than 20 kV/cm, with rise times of 30 ns and durations of 300 ns (3.32 MHz) penetrate
into the interior of tumor cells and cause tumor cell nuclei to rapidly shrink and tumor blood flow to stop. Melanomas shrink by 90%
within two weeks. A second treatment at this time can result in complete remission (Nuccitelli, 2006).
- Modulated RF field of 900 MHz with a 8:1 pulsed signaling system at a SAR of 1W/kg induced anti-proliferative activity in human
neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, also the appearance of the sub-G1 peak, a hallmark of apoptosis, was highlighted after a 24-h
exposure, together with a significant decrease in mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and survivin genes, both interfering with signaling between G2-
M arrest and apoptosis (Buttiglione, 2007).
- A study of ablation efficiencies revealed that 18-GHz microwave results in the largest difference in the temperature rise between
cancer and normal tissues as well as the highest ablation efficiency, reaching 20 times that of 2 GHz. Thermal profile study on the
composite region of cancer and fat also showed significantly reduced collateral damage using 18 GHz. Application of low-power (1 W)
18-GHz microwave on the nude mice xenografted with human breast cancer cells resulted in recurrence-free treatment. The
proposed microwave ablation method can be a very effective process to treat small-sized tumor with minimized invasiveness and
collateral damages (Yoon, 2011).
- Coherent monochromatic frequency signals at GHz are able to suppress tumor growth (Radzievsky, 2004; Beneduci, 2005). The
biological effects produced by low power millimeter waves (MMW) were studied on the RPMI 7932 human melanoma cell line. Three
different frequency-type irradiation modes were used: the 53.57-78.33 GHz wide-band frequency range, the 51.05 GHz and the 65.00
GHz monochromatic frequencies. In all three irradiation conditions, the radiation energy was low enough not to increase the
temperature of the cellular samples. The wide-band irradiation treatment effectively inhibited cell growth, while both the
monochromatic irradiation treatments did not affect the growth trend of RPMI 7932 cells (Beneduci, 2005).
- A coherent pulsed electromagnetic field at a coherent MHz frequency is able to reduce cancer in a cell lines (Agulan, 2015).
- Electric pulses 20 ns or less kill a wide variety of human cancer cells in vitro, induce tumor regression in vivo: a total of 200 pulses of
20 ns duration at 25 kV/cm led to an 84% decrease in viable cells compared to controls. A total of 200 pulses of 20 ns duration at 35
kV/cm caused complete eradication of the cells (Garon, 2007).
- Tumors in treated mice showed nsPEF-mediated nuclear condensation (3 h post-pulse), cell shrinkage (1 h), increases in active
executioner caspases and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nickend-labeling (1h) with decreases in vascular endothelial
growth factor expression (7d) and micro-vessel density (14d). Tumors disappeared with 100 ns pulses to nearly non-detectable levels
14-21 days after the first treatment in 6 of 8 mice. Optimal treatments included 76.5% tumor-free survival for nearly 9 months (Chen
X, 2012).
- Nanosecond pulse electric fields (nsPEFs) ablate melanoma by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Four
hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2, SMMC7721, Hep1-6, and HCCLM3 were pulsed to test the anti-proliferation and anti-
migration ability of 100 ns nsPEFs in vitro. The animal model of human subdermal xenograft HCCLM3 cells into BALB/c nude mouse
was used to test the anti-tumor growth and macrophage infiltration in vivo (Chen X 2014).
- NsPEF could not only induce cell apoptosis via dependent-mitochondria intrinsic apoptosis pathway, but also inhibit cell
proliferation through repressing NF-κB signaling pathway to reduce expressions of cyclin proteins. NsPEF, at 100 ns pulses (10 MHz)
in duration and 20 kV/cm in intensity applied at a frequency of 0.5 Hz, could inactivate metastasis and invasion in cancer cells by
suppressing Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway to down-regulating expressions of VEGF and MMPs family proteins. It is found that
nsPEF induce tumor cell apoptosis, destroy tumor microenvironment, and depress angiogenesis in tumor tissue in vivo (Ren Z, 2015).
1.7) Mhz and GHz modulated with ELF frequencies located in coherent zones can inhibit and retard cancer (table 1)
- Apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cell Line (SKOV3) induced by the nanosecond pulsed electric field (10kV/cm, 100 ns, 1 Hz)
effects on intracellular calcium concentration (Ca2+). The results showed that the early apoptosis rate of the treatment group was
significantly higher than that of the control group. Since nsPEF can penetrate cell membrane due to its high frequency components,
one of the mechanisms of nsPEF-induced apoptosis may be that activating intracellular calcium stores can increase the [Ca2+]i, and
consequently, the apoptotic signal pathway can be induced (Yao, 2008).
-To determine if nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is equally effective in treatment of human breast cancer, 30 human breast
cancer tumors across 30Balb/c (nu/nu) mice were exposed to 720 pulses of 100ns (7.2 GHz) duration, at 4 pulses per second and
30kV/cm. Two weeks after treatment, the growth of treated tumors was inhibited by 79%. Pulsed tumors exhibited apoptosis
evaluated by TUNEL staining, inhibition in Bcl-2 expression and decreased blood vessel density. Notably, CD34, vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression in treated tumors were strongly suppressed. The results suggest nsPEFs
is able to inhibit human breast cancer development and suppress tumor blood vessel growth, indicating nsPEFs may serve as a novel
therapy for breast cancer in the future (Wu S., 2013).
- Exposing the tumor tissue female Balb/c mice to 10 MHz modulated 4.5 Hz, 2 Gauss square wave magnetic field for 2 weeks at a
rate 2 hours/day inhibited tumor growth and increased the survival period of the animals. However, group B showed more
improvements than did group C that was attributed to some distortions in the square waveform. The use of typical ELF EMF at 0.5 Hz
and 0.7 Hz electric field exposed to Balb/c mice g carrying Ehrlich tumor proved that tumor cells can be controlled and recovery of
rgans such as liver and spleen are possible (Fadel, 2011, 2015).
1.8) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in decoherent-zones may cause cancer (table 2a)
-Human cells exposed to continuous 830 MHz electromagnetic fields at 2.68.8 W/kg at a nonthermal level can lead to acquire
premalignant genotypes associated with elevated levels of aneuploidy and abnormalities in replication mode as expressed in
asynchrony in the replication timing of homologous chromosomal regions associated with chromosome segregation. These findings
support the view that exposure to this kind of RF radiation of average SAR values of 2.68.8 W/kg can lead to a genotoxic effect of
the electromagnetic radiation and may lead to a carcinogenic activity through a non thermal pathway (Mashevich, 2003).
- Male rats of wistar strain exposed to modulated 2.45 GHz, at an absorption rate (SAR) of 0.11 W/Kg, showed a significant increase in
comet head, tail length and in tail movement in exposed brain cells. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and
superoxide dismutase showed a decrease while an increase in catalase was observed. The study concludes that the chronic exposure
to these radiations may cause significant damage to brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion (Kesari, 2010).
- Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that incoherent modulated 900 MHz activated a variety of cellular
signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, a
hypothesis has been put forward that this kind of electromagnetic fields induced activation of hsp27 may facilitate the development
of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway (Leszczynski 2002).
- Exposure of rats by a combination of a continuous wave form in a nearby coherent zone at a low exposure level does not affect
tumor growth. Low-level exposure of mammary-tumor-prone mice to 2450 MHz RFR circularly polarized waveguides (CWG) for 18
months (20 h/day, 7 days/wk) to continuous-wave 2450 MHz RFR at a whole body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.3 W/kg
did not affect mammary tumor incidence, latency to tumor onset, tumor growth rate, or animal longevity when compared with
sham-irradiated controls (Frei, 1998).
1.9) Mhz, GHz, THz frequencies located in decoherent zones can cause cancer (table 2b)
- Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at 660 nm induced significantly the proliferation of a squamous carcinoma cell line SCC25 cells at 1.0
J/cm2, which was accomplished by an increase in the expression of cyclin D1 and nuclear β-catenin. The results of this study
demonstrated that LLLT exerts a stimulatory effect on proliferation and invasion of SCC25 cells, which was associated with alterations
on expression of proteins studied (Gomes Henriques, 2014).
- Laser irradiation three times once a day during three days with a 660 nm 50 mW CW laser, beam spot size 2 mm2, irradiance 2.5
W/cm2 and irradiation times of 60s (dose 150 J/cm2) and 420s (dose 1050 J/cm2) respectively on B16F10 melanoma cells in a vitro
study increased in the hypodiploid melanoma cells at 72 h post-irradiation, and at 1050 J/cm2 in the vivo experiment (Frigo, 2009).
- Low level laser irradiation at 660 nm or 780 nm at 6.15 J/cm² can modify oral dysplastic cells (DOK) and oral cancer cells (SCC9 and
SCC25) growth by modulating signalling pathways; LLLT significantly modified the expression of proteins related to progression and
invasion in all the cell lines, and could aggravate oral cancer cellular behaviour, increasing the expression of different proteins and
producing an aggressive Hsp90 isoform (Sperandio, 2013).
- High frequency coherent signals of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields modulated with coherent extreme low frequencies do not cause
cancer at a specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 0.4 W/kg in genetically predisposed species after about 1 year exposure ( Sommer,
- The mutagenic effect on Escherichia coli strains of UV radiation emitted by a XeCI laser (lambda=308 nm, tau=20 ns, 100 mJ pulse
energy) has been analyzed as a function of the exposure dose and compared with the effect induced by 254 nm radiation emitted by
a conventional germicidal lamp. Mutations can involve any genome site and therefore can give rise to various phenotypes, which
then can be suitably selected. As a consequence, the impact of the induced mutagenesis is outstanding, both in scientific and
industrial fields. In particular suitable doses of UV radiation can induce mutations, while higher doses can cause cell death, due to the
induction of manifold damages to DNA (Belloni, 2005).
- The action spectrum (sensitivity per incident photon as a function of wavelength) for melanoma induction shows appreciable
sensitivity at 365, 405, and probably 436 nm, as shown in heavily pigmented backcross hybrids of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfish
and swordtails) that are very sensitive to melanoma induction by single exposures to UV, (Setlow 1993).
- The action spectrum of SSC (squamous cell carcinoma) has been determined experimentally in hairless mice; this action spectrum
shows a peak at 293 nm in the UV-B range (De Gruijl et al., 1993).
1.10) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in coherent zones with estimated modulations in decoherent zones can cause cancer (table
- A high frequency 900 MHz signal located in a coherent zone at a low SAR of 0.13-1.4 W/kg, modulated with estimated incoherent
frequencies in the decoherent soliton frequency-zone, can cause cancer after 2 years exposure in animals (Repacholi, 1997).
- A high frequency signal at a high SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg caused DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) in leukocytes using
the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vitro studies of modulated 837 and 1909.8 MHz exposed human
blood leukocytes and lymphocytes. This demonstrates that, this kind of EMF is capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human
lymphocytes (Tice, 2002).
- High frequency signals of 900 and 1900 MHz located in a coherent zone, and modulated with estimated incoherent frequencies in
the decoherent soliton frequency-zone at a high SAR of 6 W/kg during an exposure of 2 years can show schwannomas in the heart of
male rats (Wyde et al., 2016).
1.11) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in decoherent zones with estimated modulations in decoherent zones can cause cancer at
a lower exposure level (table 2b)
-Expose mice to modulated 9270 MHz waves can causes cancer (Prausnitz and Susskind, 1962). Rat exposed to pulsed 2450 MHz at
0.48 mW/cm2 and at SARs up to 0.4 W/Kg, 21.5 hr/day, 7 days/wk, 25 month show that carcinomas are increased and malignant
tumors of endocrine and exocrine organs as a group are increased (Guy et al. 1983, 1985).
-Modulated/pulsed exposure of rats 2,450-MHz EMF 21.5 h/day, for 25 months at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.4
W/kg provide an increase of malignancies (Chou CK 1992).
-Mice exposed to modulated 1.966 GHz fields with intensities of 4.8 W/m(2) during 24 months displayed an enhanced lung tumour
rate and an increased incidence of lung carcinomas as compared to the controls (Tillmann, 2010).
- A replication of the Tillmann study of exposed mice has been performed using higher numbers of animals per group exposed to
modulated 1.966 GHz exposed at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR). It has been confirmed that numbers of
tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas
were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure (Lerchl, 2015).
1.12) Mhz and GHz frequencies located in decoherent zones with a co-carcinogen can cause cancer
- Mice exposed to microwave irradiations irradiated with athermal (5 mW/cm2) or subthermal (15 mW/cm2) doses of 2,450 MHz
microwaves during 6 months resulted in a significant acceleration of the development of benzopyrene-induced skin cancer and in
shortening of life span of the tumour-bearing hosts. This effect seemed to be dose-dependent since subthermal doses (15 mV/cm2)
and longer (3 months) expositions to microwaves were more efficient as compared to athermal doses (5 mW/cm2) and shorter
preirradiations (Szudziński, 1982).
- Mice irradiated by nonthermal (1 or 10 mW/cm2) or thermogenic (40 mW/cm2) 2,450-MHz microwave (MW) fields showed a
significant enhancement of the teratogenic potency of ara-C after combined exposure to both ara-C and microwave exposure during
pregnancy. The possibility that specific cellular interactions of MW/RFs are connected with the pulse modulation of the carrier wave
is considered (Marcickiewicz, 1986).
- Long-term exposure of mice to 2450-MHz MWs resulted in acceleration of the appearance and growth of tumors initiated by three
different carcinogens, and a higher risk of cancer development in mice exposed to subcarcinogenic doses of initiators. Microwave-
exposed C3H/HeA mice developed breast tumors earlier than controls (322 days in controls, 261 days for 5 mW/cm2 and 219 days
for 15 mW/cm2). A similar acceleration was observed in the development of BP-induced skin cancer in mice (Szmigielski, 1982).
1.13) THz and light frequencies located in coherent zones may and can inhibit and retard cancer (table 2b)
- Treatment of human breast cancer (MCF7) cancer cells is achieved at the exposure of 3600 nm (Peidaee, 2013).
- Glioblastoma cell cultures cell line A-172 irradiated laser at a wavelength of 808 nm at 18, 36 and 54 J/cm(2) suppressed
proliferation of A-172 cells in a fluence-dependent manner (Murayama, 2012).
- The near-infrared 808 nm low-power laser irradiation (LLI) potentially suppressed the cell proliferation of human derived
glioblastoma (A-172) (Fukuzaki, 2014).
- A diode 808 nm GaAlAs continuous wave laser has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human hepatoma cells line HepG2 and
J-5. The mechanism of inhibition might be due to down-regulation of synemin expression and alteration of cytokeratin organization
that was caused by laser irradiation (Liu YH, 2004).
- THz-pulses induced increases in the levels of multiple cell cycle regulatory and tumor suppressor proteins, favorable changes in the
expression of multiple genes suggesting that cellular DNA repair machinery is activated in response to THz-pulse-induced DNA
damage (Titova, 2013).
Based on mesoscopic modelling of DNA breathing dynamics in a THz field, it has been suggested that THz radiation may amplify
existing (or create new) open states in the double helix, thereby affecting transcription initiation or binding of transcription factors
and influences of terahertz radiation effect on gene expression in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (Alexandrov, 2010, 2013).
Appendix 2: Data bank for verification of the EM-coherency hypothesis for healthy and unhealthy cells
Also an extensive meta-analysis of 123 published biological/medical studies has been performed, in which living material (tissues,
cells, and whole animals) was exposed to external electromagnetic fields employing a wide spectrum of frequencies (Hz, Khz, Mhz,
GHz, THz and PHz) mainly in the area of non thermal biological effects and related to different health aspects of living cells. In these
studies the various effects of the electromagnetic fields were reported as to their possibility to be cell-sustaining/beneficial for living
cells, as opposed to causing detrimental actions. After collecting these data the following parameters have been mapped: 1)
frequencies: extreme low frequencies, Mhz and GHz, THz and light frequencies, 2) calculated and estimated influences of frequency
modulations, 3) combinations of frequencies, 4) exposure levels. The frequency data of these studies have been used to find: the first
nearby calculated soliton frequencies, according to the proposed algorithm and to calculate: the differences between the applied
frequencies used in these studies and the first nearby calculated coherent soliton frequencies in %.
Appendix 2. Beneficial biological effects
There are many studies concerning non ionizing electromagnetic waves that show beneficial health effects for living cells:
2.1) Extreme low frequencies located in coherent zones that improve health of living cells (table 3a)
- Cells continuously exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at 5.1 Hz demonstrated significant changes in the downregulation of
TNF-α and NFkB and also showed a trend in the down regulation of A20, as compared with controls. This treatment could be
beneficial in modulating the immune response, in the presence of infection (Ross, 2013).
- Pulsed EMF of 4.5 ms pulse bursts of 12-19 mV, 0-20 G, 15 Hz raises the effects on endochondral ossification (e.g., fracture healing
and growth plates). Pulsed 15 Hz showed the synthesis of cartilage proteoglycans of normal size, composition, and function increased
(Aaron, 1989, 1993).
- A decrease of 18% in wound size in the active PEMF group (Pulsed electromagnetic therapy, at 12 Hz) as compared with a 10%
decrease in the control group. The PEMF group demonstrated significant cumulative increase in cutaneous capillary blood velocity
(by 28%) and 14% increase in capillary diameter. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in both capillary blood velocity and
diameter. PEMF therapy seemed to accelerate wound healing and improve microcirculation (Kwan, 2015).
- A list of genes modulated by ELF includes HDACs (i.e., HDAC5 and HDAC11) are known to critically regulate stem cells self-renewal
and differentiation (Leone, 2015).
- PEMF exposure of differentiating human BMSCs (Bone marrow-derived stromal cell) enhanced mineralization and induced
differentiation at the expense of proliferation. The osteogenic stimulus of PEMF was confirmed by the upregulation of several
osteogenic marker genes in the PEMF treated group, which preceded the deposition of mineral itself. The exposure o f differentiating
human BMSCs resulted in early up-regulation of several osteoblast related genes and enhanced mineralization, exposed to 15 Hz, 1
Gauss EM field, consisting of 5-millisecond bursts with 5-microsecond pulses. The findings indicate that PEMF can directly stimulate
mesenchymal stem cells and promote osteogenesis (Jansen, 2010).
- Sinusoidal ELF stimulation promotes proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of both BMSCs (Zhong et al., 2012) and ASCs (Kang
et al., 2013).
- Increased expression of osteogenic markers ALP, SMAD1, RUNX2, OSTEOPONTIN, and OSTEOCALCIN compared with controls by
stimulating with 15 Hz, 1 Gauss EM field, consisting of 5 ms bursts with 1 ms pulses (Kaivosoja, 2015).
- EMF at 0.5 mT, 50 Hz accelerated cellular proliferation, enhanced cellular differentiation, and increased the percentage of cells in
the G(2)/M+S (postsynthetic gap 2 period/mitotic phase + S phase) of the stimulation (Zhong 2012).
- Exposure of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs) to ELF-PEMFs increased proliferation by 15%
compared to untreated cells at day 5. In addition, exposure to ELF-PEMFs (continuously to 10, 50, and 100 Hz ELF-PEMFs, at 6G ± 0.5
significantly increased ALP expression during the early stages of osteogenesis and substantially enhanced mineralization near the
midpoint of osteogenesis within 2 weeks. ELF-PEMFs also increased vinculin, vimentin, and CaM expressions, compared to control. In
particular, CaM indicated that ELF-PEMFs significantly altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The results indicated
that ELF-PEMFs could enhance early cell proliferation in hABMSCs-mediated osteogenesis and accelerate the osteogenesis (Lim KT,
- 50 Hz, 1 mT for 8 days exposure of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) showed promoted neuronal
differentiation even in the absence of any neurotrophic factor (Seong et al., 2014).
- 50 Hz, 1 mT for 12 days exposure increased neuronal differentiation of human bone marrow-derived (hBM)-MSCs, and induced the
expression of neural cell markers including NeuroD1 (Cho et al., 2012).
- The induction of rat bone mesenchymal stromal cells to differentiate into functional neurons is facilitated by 50 Hz, magnetic
induction of 5 mT, 60 min per day for 12 days (Bai, 2013).
- Typical frequencies at ELF-EMF exposure can induce the alterations of genome-wide methylation and the expression of DNA
methyltransferases in spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cells. 50 Hz ELFEMF exposure decreased genome-wide methylation at 1 mT, but
global methylation was higher at 3 mT compared with the controls. DNA methylation via the regulation of chromatin structure
modifications and the expression of genes involved in cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis, and DNA repair is closely related to
embryonic development, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and central nervous system diseases (Liu YH 2015).
- Delayed pulsed electromagnetic field treatment (PEMF: 75Hz, 1.6mT) increased bone and cartilage formation, and decreased
bone and cartilage resorption. Pre-emptive and early PEMF treatment had moderate effects on cartilage degradation. Time point of
treatment initiation is crucial for treating OA. PEMF might become a potential biophysical treatment modality for osteoarthritis (Yang
X, 2017).
- A significantly increased ALP, neovascularization and bone matrix in osteogenic differentiation applying a pulse’s period of 5
milliseconds (ms) and a magnitude of the magnetic field adjustable from 0.6 Tesla up to 1 Tesla. Each pulse needs 5 seconds to
restore energy for the next pulse (Fu, 2014).
2.2) MHz, GHz, Thz frequencies located in coherent zones that improve health or are neutral for living cells (table 3a)
- Small change in carrier frequency by 10 MHz has reproducibly resulted in cell-type-dependent appearance (of note 915 MHz; stab
905.9; 1.0%) or disappearance (of note: a high coherent frequency: 905 MHz; stab. 905.9; 0.1%) in effects of non thermal EMF
exposure on DNA repair foci in human cells. Exposure at 905 MHz did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, both fibroblasts
and lymphocytes. (Belyaev et al., 2009; Markova et al. 2010; Belyaev 2015).
- Planaria were transected equidistant between the tip of the head and the tip of the tail. Individual head and tail portions f rom the
same worm were placed in pond water and exposed to 8, 16 or 72 Hertz PEMF (pulse length is for example about 250ns) for one hour
daily post transection under carefully controlled exposure conditions. Regrowth of heads and tails was measured in PEMF-exposed
and sham control. Protein lysates from PEMF-exposed and sham control transected heads and tails were analyzed for hsp70 levels by
Western blot analyses. Conclusion: The degree of regrowth and hsp70 levels in transected heads and tails exposed to nanosecond
PEMF exposures at 8, 16 or 72 Hz was frequency dependent (Madkan, 2009).
- Adult mice exposed to 900 MHz continuous RF at a medium exposure of 120 μW/cm(2) for 4 hours/day for 7 days showed: (a)
reduced BLM-induced DNA damage and that remained after each 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min repair time, and (b) decreased levels of
MDA in plasma and liver, and increased SOD level in the lung. The overall data suggested that RF exposure of 900 MHz continuous RF
at 120 μW/cm(2) was capable of inducing adaptive response and mitigated BLM- induced DNA and oxidative damages by activating
certain cellular processes (Marinelli, 2004).
- Mice pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days to continuous 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm2 power density showed progressively
decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-
exposure is capable of inducing adaptive response (Jiang et al., 2013).
- Adult mice exposed to 900 MHz continuous RF low exposure at 120 μW/cm(2) power density for 4 hours/day for 7 days showed
induced adaptive response and mitigated BLM (bleomycin)- induced DNA and oxidative damages by activating certain cellular
processes (Zong C. et al., 2015).
- The percentage of epididymal sperm motility of male albino Wistar rats exposed to EMF 1800 and 900 MHz (probably CW) for 2 h
continuously per day for 90 days was significantly higher in the 1800 MHz (probably continuous waves) exposed group. The
morphologically normal spermatozoa rates were higher and the tail abnormality and total percentage abnormalities were lower in
the 900 MHz group. The study indicated that exposure to electromagnetic wave caused an increase in testosterone level, epididymal
sperm motility, and normal sperm morphology of rats (Ozlem Nisbet, 2012).
- No significant differences in cell growth or cell viability related to cell proliferation and the gene expression profile in the human cell
lines, A172 (glioblastoma), H4 (neuroglioma), and IMR-90 (fibroblasts from normal fetal lung) following exposure to 2.1425 GHz (of
note a highly coherent frequency) continuous wave (CW) and modulated 2.1425 GHz at absorption rates (SARs) of 80, 250, or 800
mW/kg for up to 96 h were found (Sekijima 2010).
- Short-term exposure to a 1439 MHz EMF (of note a highly coherent frequency) pulsed for 4 hr/day on 3 consecutive days, altered
neither the serum estrogen concentration nor estrogenic activity in female ovariectomized rats (Yamashita, 2010).
- Laser irradiation at 532 nm promoted the migration of GABAergic NSPCs (neurogenesis of neural stem/projenitor cells) into deeper
layers of the neocortex in vivo by elevating Akt expression. 532 nm affects proliferation and migrating of GAD67-positive NSPCs in
adult murine neocortex and also whether 532 nm LLI affects cultured NSPCs from embryonic mice. The in vivo experiments
demonstrated that 532 nm LLI (60 mW) facilitated the migration of GABAergic neurons with a significant increase in Akt expression.
It is well known that Akt plays an important role in the regulation of cellular processes that are critical for neuronal development,
including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and neuronal migration (Fukuzaki, 2015).
2.3) MHz and GHz modulated frequencies located in coherent zones that improve health of living cells (table 3a)
- Microwaves at 450-MHz modulated with 40 Hz (of note: a high coherent frequency) microwave at 0.16 mW/cm2 enhanced EEG
power in EEG alpha and beta frequency bands. No significant alterations were detected at 7 and 1000 Hz modulation frequencies.
These results are in good agreement with the theory of parametric excitation of the brain bioelectric oscillations caused by the
periodic alteration of neurophysiologic parameters and support the proposed mechanism (Hinrikus, 2016).
- Permeabilization of plasma membranes occurred at lower electric fields than dissipation of DYm, indicating that as electric fields are
increased, plasma membranes are more sensitive responders than mitochondria membranes. For a 600 ns (1.66 MHz) pulse with a
rise time of 15 ns, the second corner frequency is 21 MHz; for the same pulse duration but a rise time of 150 ns it is ten times lower
at 2.1 MHz (Beebe 2012).
- Modulated RF radiation (1.71 GHz) at average SAR values of 1.5 W/Kg transiently affects the transcript level of genes related to
apoptosis and cell cycle control in ES-derived neuronal progenitor cells, but these responses have not been found to be associated
with detectable changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis (Nikolova et al., 2005).
2.4) Cases of neutral biological effects of waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands (table 3b)
- The influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a circularly polarized antenna on the neuroendocrine
system in healthy humans was investigated (900 MHz electromagnetic field, pulsed with 217 Hz, average power density 0.02
mW/cm2). An alteration in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity was found with a slight, transient elevation in the cortisol
serum level immediately after onset of field exposure which persisted for 1 h. For GH, LH and melatonin, no significant effects were
found under exposure to the field compared to the placebo condition, regarding both total hormone production during the entire
night and dynamic characteristics of the secretion pattern. The results indicate that this type of weak high-frequency electromagnetic
fields have no effects on nocturnal hormone secretion except for a slight elevation in cortisol production which is transient, pointing
to an adaptation of the organism to the stimulus (Mann, 1998).
- Neurogenic A172, U251, and SH-SY5Y cells were intermittently (5min on/10min off) exposed to 1800MHz RF-EMF at an average
specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0W/kg for 1, 6, or 24h. DNA damage was evaluated by quantification of γH2AX foci, an early
marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Results showed that exposure to RF-EMF at an SAR of 4.0W/kg neither significantly induced
γH2AX foci formation in A172, U251, or SH-SY5Y cells, nor resulted in abnormal cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, or cell
viability. Furthermore, prolonged incubation of these cells for up to 48h after exposure did not significantly affect cellular behavior.
Our data suggest that 1800MHz RF-EMF exposure at 4.0W/kg is unlikely to elicit DNA damage or abnormal cellular behaviors in
neurogenic cells (Su L 2016).
2.5) Case of a positive biological effect of carrier wave in decoherent soliton band (table 4h)
- RF-EMF influenced Alzheimer's disease in vivo using mice as a model of AD-like amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Chronic RFEMF exposure
significantly reduced not only Aβ β40 peptide in the hippocampus of Tg-5xFAD mice. The findings indicate that chronic RF-EMF
exposure directly affects pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but not in nplaques, APP, and APP carboxyl-terminal fragments
(CTFs) in whole brain including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex but also the ratio of Aβ42 and Aormal brain. Therefore, RF-EMF
has preventive effects against AD-like pathology in advanced AD mice with a high expression of Aβ, which suggests that RF-EMF can
have a beneficial influence on AD (Jeong YJ, 2015).
Appendix 2. Detrimental biological effects
There are many studies available concerning non ionizing electromagnetic waves that show detrimental health effects for living cells
and organisms. For example: EMF’s play a role on effects on spermatozoa that can lead to defective mitochondrial function
associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying
phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure (Houston, 2016).
2.6) Extreme low frequencies at continuous and non-continous waves located in decoherent zones that are detrimental for living
cells (table 4a)
Detrimental biological effects can be caused by frequencies in the decoherent soliton frequency zone, but also at the border of this
zone. 60 Hz electromagnetic waves are positioned in the border of a decoherent soliton zone and can show detrimental influences on
biological properties at a medium field strength.
- Germ cells showed a higher apoptotic rate in a 0.5 mT exposed 60 Hz mice, after 8 weeks of exposure, than that in the sham
controls. The percentage of live cells was lower in the exposed groups than that in the controls. It has been concluded that
continuous exposure to ELF 60 Hz EMF may induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice (Lee JS, 2004).
- Germ cells showed a higher apoptotic rate in exposed mice than in sham controls after 16-week continuous exposure to ELF MF of
14 or 200 microT. Degenerating spermatogonia showed condensation of nuclear chromatin similar to apoptosis. These results
indicate that apoptosis may be induced in spermatogenic cells in mice by continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF of 14 microT. (Kim YW,
- Five cancer cell lines were exposed to ELF-MFs within the range of 0.0255µT, among others 5 μT at 60-Hz and 1 μT at 120-Hz, and
the cells were examined for karyotype changes after 6d. Results. All cancer cells lines lost chromosomes from MF exposure, with a
mostly flat dose-response. Constant MF exposures for three weeks allow a rising return to the baseline, unperturbed karyotypes.
From this point, small MF increases or decreases are again capable of inducing karyotype contractions (KCs). The data suggest that
the KCs are caused by MF interference with mitochondria’s adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPS), compensated by the action of
adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), (Li Y., Héroux, 2014).
- To induce the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice, the minimum dose is 20μT at continuous exposure to a 60Hz MF for 8
weeks and the minimum duration is 6 weeks at continuous exposure of 100μT. The results suggest that continuous exposure to a
60Hz MF might affect, duration- and dose-dependent biological processes including apoptotic cell death and spermatogenesis in the
male reproductive system of mice (Kim HS, 2014).
- Exposure of 60Hz 0.8mT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on a macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was
examined. Under the defined ELF-EMF exposure conditions this ELF-EMF condition was associated with higher inflammatory
responses of macrophages. These results suggest that an ELF-EMF amplifies inflammatory responses through enhanced macrophage
activation and can decrease the effectiveness of antioxidants (Kim SJ, 2017).
- The continuous exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT of Sprague-Dawley rats for 20 weeks significantly affects testicular germ cell apoptosis
and sperm count. The apoptosis-related gene was scrutinized after exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT for 20 weeks. The message level of
endonuclease G (EndoG) was increased following the exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT compared with sham control. The data suggested
that 60 Hz magnetic field induced testicular germ cell apoptosis through mitochondrial protein Endo G (Park S, 2015).
- 50 Hz treatment at 0.1 mT induced an alteration in circadian clock gene expression previously entrained by serum shock stimulation
and may be able to drive circadian physiologic processes by modulating peripheral clock gene expression (Manzella, 2015).
- In a hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The
occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs) also at 50/60 Hz. The study should be considered a
hypothesis-generating study (Davanipour, 1997).
- Weak associations between indicators of occupational magnetic field exposure and both motor neuron disease and Alzheimer
disease were observed. Motor neuron disease risk was associated with occupational titles, whereas Alzheimer disease risk was
associated with estimated magnetic field levels (also 50 and 60 Hz). Following studies were included: Andel et al (2010), Davanipour
et al (2007), Davanipour et al (1997), Deapen and Henderson (1986), Fang et al (2009), Feychting et al (1998), Feychting et al (2003),
Graves et al (1999), Gunnarson et al (1992), Gunnarsson et al (1991), Hakansson et al (2003), Harmanci et al (2003), Johansen (2000),
Johansen (1999), Noonan et al (2002), Park et al (2005), Parlett et al (2011), Qiu et al (2004), Röösli et al (2007), Savitz et al (1998),
Savitz et al (1998), Schulte et al (1996), Seidler et al (2007), Sobel et al (1996), Sobel et al (1995), Sorahan and Kheifets (2007),
Strickland et al (1996), and Weisskopf et al (2005). Results varied in study design (e.g., risk parameter incidence, prevalence or
mortality; method of exposure assessment) with dissimilar variation across diseases (Vergara, 2013).
- An increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields was
observed. The authors concluded that a slight and non-significant association between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational
exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (also 50 and 60 Hz) was found (Capozzella, 2014).
- Occupational exposure to ELF-MF showed a possible association with ALS mortality among men: HR for ever holding a job with high
exposure versus background 2.19 (95% (CI): 1.02 to 4.73) and hazard ratio for the highest tertile of cumulative exposure versus
background 1.93 (95% CI 1.05 to 3.55). Interpretation of these results strengthen the evidence suggesting a positive association
between ELF-MF exposure and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: ALS (Koeman, 2017).
- Exposure to ELF magnetic field at a high field strength (50Hz, 20mT ELF) could inhibit the growth and metabolism of Human
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC), but have no significant effect on differentiation of hMSCs. These results suggested that ELF
magnetic field may influence the early development of hMSCs related adult cells (Yan J, 2010).
2.7) Mhz and GHz frequencies at continuous waves located in decoherent zones that are detrimental for living cells (table 4a)
-Exposure for 1 month at 835 MHz and SAR= 1.6 W/kg on calcium binding proteins in the hippocampus of the mouse brain produced
almost complete loss of pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area of mice (Maskey, 2010).
- Radiofrequency radiation at 2100 MHz during 6 hours/day, for 10 or 40 days, at 0.4 W/kg damaged the nasal septal mucosa, and
disturbed the mucociliary clearance. Ciliary disorganization and ciliary loss in the epithelial cells resulted in deterioration of nasal
mucociliary clearance (Aydoğan, 1015a).
- The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, for 6
hours/day, 5 days/week, for 10 or 40 days 0.4 W/kg (Aydoğan, 2015).
- Levels of DNA single-strand break were assayed in brain cells from rats acutely exposed to low-intensity 2450 MHz microwaves
using an alkaline microgel electrophoresis method. A dose rate-dependent [0.6 and 1.2 W/kg whole body specific absorption rate
(SAR)] increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of rats at 4 h postexposure. In rats exposed for 2 h to continuous-
wave 2450 MHz microwaves (SAR 1.2 W/kg), increases in brain cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as at
4 h postexposure (Lai, 1995).
- DNA strand breaks from 2450 MHz continuous waves and pulsed microwave RFR at low intensity levels. A dose-dependent increase
in DNA single- and double-strand breaks in brain cells exposed at 0.6 W/Kg and 1.2 W/Kg whole body specific absorption rate (SAR)
was found after two hours of exposure to 2450 MHz RFR. Using the sensitive comet assay for DNA breakage exposure to both
continuous-wave and pulsed RFR produced DNA damage (Lai and Singh, 1995, 1996)
- Sprague Dawley rats exposed to 2.45 GHz microwave at SAR values between 0.48 and 4.30 -1 for 8 days induce DNA single
strand breaks and the direct genome analysis of DNA of various tissues demonstrated potential for genotoxicity. These findings
showed that exposure to 2.45 GHz MW radiation at SAR even as low as 0.48 Wkg -1 is potentially genotoxic as it produced single DNA
strand breaks (Aweda, 2010).
- Acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-
apoptotic capacity at a SAR of 0.046 to 0.482 (W/kg). Changes in the endothelial permeability and vascularization of the thymus
occurred, and is a tissue-modulating agent for Hsp90 and glucocorticoid receptors. There is a relationship between radiation and
increased endothelial permeability and vascularization of the thymus (Misa-Agustiño, 2015).
- Chronic exposure to low level 2.45GHz continuous-wave with power density of 0.0248 mW/cm(2) and overall average whole body
specific absorption rate value of 0.0146W/Kg) for 2h/day over a period of 15, 30, and 60 days leads severely affects the
hippocampal neuronal plasticity and circuitry, and impairs learning and spatial memory through p53-dependent/independent
apoptosis of hippocampal neuronal and nonneuronal cells (Shahin, 2015).
- Brain cell cultures of mice exposed to 10.715 GHz CW with an absorbtion rate (SAR) 0.725 W/kg signals for 6 h in 3 days at 25°C
strongly changed the micronucleus and in expression of 11 proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes (Karaca, 2012).
- Rats exposed to 50 GHz microwave frequency electromagnetic fields for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a specified specific
absorption rate of 8.0 x 10(-4) W/kg showed a significant decrease in the level of sperm GPx and SOD activity, whereas catalase
shows significant increase in exposed group of sperm samples as compared with control. Results also indicate a decrease in
percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in exposed group as compared to sham exposed. It is concluded that these kind of
radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility (Kesari,
2.8) Mhz and GHz frequencies at waves located near a decoherent zone (table 4a)
- Long-term continuous waves of 918 MHz, 0.25 W/kg provides cognitive benefits. Mice with Alzheimer’s disease showed that long-
term EMF exposure reduced brain amyloid-beta (A beta) deposition through decreased aggregation of A beta and increase in soluble
A beta levels (Arendash et al., 2010).
- EMF exposure pulsed/modulated, 918 MHz, 0.251.05 W/kg) by 6+ months daily EMF exposures showed reversed cognitive
impairment in Alzheimer’s transgenic (Tg) mice, while even having cognitive benefit to normal mice. The neuropathologic/cognitive
benefits of EMF treatment occur without brain hyperthermia. The results demonstrated that long-term EMF treatment can provide
general cognitive benefit to very old Alzheimer’s Tg mice and normal mice, as well as reversal of advanced Ab neuropathology in Tg
mice without brain heating (Arendash et al., 2012).
- In transgenic mice, electromagnetic field exposure enhanced brain mitochondrial function by 50-150%, being greatest in cognitively-
important brain areas (e.g. cerebral cortex and hippocampus). Electromagnetic field exposure also increased brain mitochondrial
function in normal mice, although the enhancement was not as robust and less widespread compared to that of transgenic mice. The
exposure-induced enhancement of brain mitochondrial function in transgenic mice was accompanied by 5-10 fold increases in
soluble amyloid beta protein 1-40 within the same mitochondrial preparations, which is apparently indicative of earlier findings that
electromagnetic fields disaggregate toxic amyloid beta protein oligomers in brain tissue (Arendash et al. 2010). The irradiation-
induced mitochondrial enhancement in both transgenic and normal mice occurred through non-thermal effects because brain
temperatures were either stable or decreased during/after electromagnetic field exposure. These findings collectively suggest that
brain mitochondrial enhancement may be a primary mechanism through which electromagnetic field exposure provides cognitive
benefit to both transgenic and normal mice (Dragicevic, 2011).
2.9) Mhz and GHz frequencies at continuous waves located in decoherent zones have influences on living cells (table 4a-2)
The impact of low power 2.1, 2.3, and 2.6 GHz radiation on enzymatic reactions has been studied. The selected enzymes play crucial
roles in the biological processes: L-Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is extensively present in blood cells and heart muscles, and is a marker
of common injuries and disease. Catalase enzyme can be found in all living organisms, it is important for protecting a cell from
oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The comparative analysis of these MW exposures at the particular studied
parameters can induce changes in the enzymes' kinetics, which in turn lead to modulation of rate of change in corresponding
reactions these enzymes catalyse (Jain, 2015).
2.10) Extreme low frequencies at continuous waves located in coherent zones at a higher field strength that are detrimental for
living cells (table 4b)
- 50 Hz treatment at 0.1 mT induced an alteration in circadian clock gene expression previously entrained by serum shock stimulation
and may be able to drive circadian physiologic processes by modulating peripheral clock gene expression (Manzella, 2015).
- Rats exposed to a 50-Hz EMF at a relatively high exposure of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months show that levels of
lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with
sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with
sham. The results show that the exposure to 50 Hz EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium
of adult rats (Kiray, 2013).
- Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 50 Hz at a relatively high field strength of 1.1 and 2.1 mT caused cell death and induction in
reproductive cells (Panagopoulos 2013).
- Exposure to 100 micro T and 500 microTesla 50 Hz ELF-MF during 2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 10 months did not affect oxidative or
antioxidative processes, lipid peroxidation, or reproductive components such as sperm count and morphology in testes tissue of rats.
However 500 microT ELF-MF did affect active-caspase-3 activity, which is a well-known apoptotic indicator and the active-caspase-3
activity in the ELF-500 exposure group was significantly higher than that of the sham and ELF-100 exposure groups in a dose-
dependent manner (Akdag, 2013).
- Exposure of 50-Hz sinusoidal MF to embryos of Danio rerio groups with intensities higher than 200 μT for 96 h. caused delayed
hatching and decreased heart rate at the early developmental stages of zebrafish embryos, whereas no significant differences in
embryo mortality and abnormality were observed. The transcription of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, caspase-9) was
significantly upregulated in ELF-MF-exposed embryos. Signs of apoptosis were found mainly in the ventral fin and spinal column,
which were not present in the control embryos (Li Y., 2014).
2.11) MHz and GHz frequencies at continuous waves located in coherent zones at a higher field strength that are detrimental for
living cells (table 4b)
- The effects of exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) (continuous wave, peak specific absorption rate
(SAR) of 2 W/kg and average power density 1 ± 04 mW/cm2) on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and triiodothronine-
thyroxin (T3-T4) hormones levels of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 30
min/day, for 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 900 MHz EMF. TSH values and T3-T4 at the 900 MHz EMF group were significantly lower
than the sham-exposed group. These results indicate that exposure to 900 MHz decrease serum TSH and T3-T4 levels (Koyu, 2005).
- Lymphocytes that were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF at a peak specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg for 20 h radiation had a
significantly decreased incidence of micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of genotoxic mitomycin C compared to those that
were not pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation. These preliminary results suggested that the adaptive response can be induced in
cells exposed to non-ionizing radiation (Sannino, 2009).
- Exposure of 916 MHz continuous EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2) showed NIH/3T3cells changed in
morphology and proliferation after 5- 8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on
the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into
exposed NIH/3T3cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that this microwave radiation can promote neoplastic
transformation of NIH/3T3cells (Yang, 2012).
2.12) MHz and GHz modulated frequencies located in decoherent soliton frequency bands that are detrimental for living cells
(table 4d)
- DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was assessed in leukocytes using the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis
(SCG) assay in vitro studies of modulated 837 and 1909.8 MHz exposed human blood leukocytes and lymphocytes. This demonstrates
that, EMF at an average SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg are capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes (Tice, 2002).
- Modulated microwaves at 1947.4 MHz at a SAR of 39 mW/kg inhibited formation of 53BP1 foci in human primary fibroblasts and
mesenchymal stem cells. Contrary to fibroblasts, stem cells did not adapt to chronic exposure during 2 weeks (Markovà, Belyaev
- Increase in DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations in human fibroblasts after intermittent RF-EMF exposure (1950 MHz, 5
min on/10 min off, 24 hrs) at increasing SAR values (1 2 W/kg) has been found. Intermittent and to a lesser extent also continuous
in vitro exposure of human fibroblasts to RF-EMF below 2 W/kg for more than 4 hours produced genotoxic effects in various cell
types as measured by an increase in DNA single and double strand breaks, an increase in micronuclei and in chromosomal
aberrations. Also a significant increase in DNA strand breaks was observed in human fibroblasts at a SAR value as low as 0,3 W/kg. A
genotoxic potential is suggested (Schwarz, 2008).
- The effect of microwave (2450 MHz) radiation on thyroid hormones and behavior of male rats has been assessed. In this
experiment, hormonal blood levels of T3 decreased on the 16th day and T4 increased on the 21st day. It is concluded that low energy
microwave irradiation may be harmful as it is sufficient to alter the levels of thyroid hormones (Sinha, 2008).
- Decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular
weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF of modulated 1910.5 MHz at 1.34 W/kg in male albino rats
(Kumar, 2014).
- Non thermal exposure to modulated 2.45 GHz at a SAR of 0.1 W/kg induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats,
which was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. The brain seemed to be more sensitive to
oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns (Çelik, 2015).
2.13) Frequencies located in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated modulation(s) in decoherent soliton bands that are
detrimental for living cells (table 4e)
There are many studies concerning non ionizing electromagnetic waves that show negative health effects for living cells of which
carrier waves are positioned in coherent frequency bands and modulations on these carrier waves positioned in decoherent soliton
bands. Effects of incoherent modulations seem to have a strong influence on the overall coherence of signals as described by the
solitonic algorithm, some examples:
- Yeast cells, simultaneous exposure to an ELF MF with a frequency of 50 Hz and magnetic flux density of 120 µT concurrent with
ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in enhanced cell cycle arrest in the G1-phase. Consistently with the increased cell cycle arrest, EMF
exposure enhanced the growth delay caused by UV induced damage. In murine L929 fibroblasts, pre-treatment with a 50 Hz MF at
100 or 300 µT inhibited apoptosis and enhanced G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest induced by menadione, a chemical that induces
increased production of reactive oxygen species (Markkanen, 2009).
- Short-term exposures with modulated RF field of 900 MHz at a SAR of 1W/kg induced a transient increase in Egr-1 gene expression
paralleled with activation of the MAPK subtypes ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK. Exposure to this RF radiation had an anti-proliferative activity
in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a significant effect observed at 24 h. This kind of RF radiation impaired cell cycle
progression, reaching a significant G2-M arrest. The appearance of the sub-G1 peak, a hallmark of apoptosis, was highlighted after a
24-h exposure, together with a significant decrease in mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and survivin genes, both interfering with signaling
between G2-M arrest and apoptosis (Buttiglione, 2007).
- Prenatal exposure to a modulated 900 MHz EMF affects the development of the dentate gyrus granule cells in the rat hippocampus.
Cell loss might be caused by an inhibition of granule cell neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (Odaci 2008).
- Modulated 900 MHz RF-EMF exposure reduced the number of neurites generated by both cell systems, and this alteration
correlates to increased expression of beta-thymosin mRNA (Del Vecchio 2009).
- Long term exposure of 900 MHz RF radiation (3 h per day; 7 days a week for 12 months; one year at SAR value was 0.0369 W/kg)
altered the expression of rnomiR-107 in rat brain (Dasdag 2015).
- Sub-chronic exposures to a pulse modulated 900 MHz EMF signal at 1.5 or 6 W/kg for two months adversely affect rat brain (sign of
a potential gliosis) and an increase in GFAP levels in the different brain areas, three and ten days after treatment (Ammari, 2010).
- A proteomics screening approach can identify protein targets of RF-EMF in human volunteers. Human skin was exposed to RF-EMF
(modulated 900 MHz radiation at a specific absorption rate SAR = 1.3 W/kg and punch biopsies were collected from exposed and non
exposed areas of skin. Analysis has identified 8 proteins that were statistically significantly affected. This suggests that protein
expression in human skin might be affected by the exposure to RF-EMF. The number of affected proteins was similar to the number
of affected proteins observed in our earlier in vitro studies (Karinen, 2008).
- Modulated 900-MHz RFR treatment of earth-worms coelomocytes induced a genotoxic effect. The induction of antioxidant stress
response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity is a possible result of the RF-EMF exposure, and
demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage (Tkalec, 2013).
- 28 days of EMF exposure, 900 MHz (probably modulated), 1 mW/cm(2), 3h per day, induced cellular edema and neuronal cell
organelle degeneration in the rat. In addition, damaged BBB permeability, which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation were
observed in the hippocampus and cortex. This EMF exposure for 28 days induced the expression of mkp-1, resulting in ERK
dephosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that exposure to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly
impair spatial memory and damage BBB permeability in rat by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway (Tang J., 2015).
- Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that modulated 900 MHz radiation activates a variety of cellular
signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27,
we put forward the hypothesis that this radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by
inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3, apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in bloodbrain barrier permeability through
stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers (Leszczynski, 2002).
- Rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at 915 MHz (modulated) at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs). Albumin
extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in
the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period, at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg and
with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but
significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation. The present findings
are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure
(Nittby, 2009).
- Hypothyrophy of the gland in a pulse-modulated 900 MHz RF exposure group occurred. The results indicated that thyroid hormone
secretion was inhibited by the RF radiation. Formation of apoptotic bodies and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in thyroid
cells of the rats have been measured (Esmekaya, 2010).
- Exposures to EMFs of higher field strengths at at 900 MHz, 41 and 120 Vm(-1)) or to modulated fields showed a significant increase
of the mitotic index of seed germination and root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. On the other hand, at 400 MHz the mitotic
index increased only after exposure to modulated EMF (Tkalec 2009).
- Modulated 900 MHz exposure on reproductive organs of male rats showed that tunica albuginea thickness and the Johnsen
testicular biopsy score were found lower in the exposure group (Tas, 2014).
- Modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic waves with an absorption rate of 0.66±0.01 W/kg for 2 h/d. during 50 days induces sperm
apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats (Liu Q, 2015).
- 1.8 GHz continuous wave signal at a relatively high SAR: 2 W/kg and modulated were exposed for 4, 16 or 24 h to rat PC12 cells, in
order to assess the stress responses mediated by HSP70 and by the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) in neuronal-like cells.
After PC12 cells exposure of modulated signal (217 Hz) for 16 or 24 h, HSP70 transcription significantly increased, whereas no effect
was observed in cells exposed to the continous wave. The positive effect on HSP70 mRNA expression, observed only in cells exposed
to the modulated signal, is a repeatable response previously reported in human trophoblast cells and now confirmed in PC12 cells
(Valbonesi, 2014).
- Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner by exposure of non thermal modulated 1800
MHz radiofrequency and inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells (Liu K, 2014).
- Exposure to modulated 900 MHz RF-EMFs with low energy could induce oxidative DNA base damage in Neuro-2a cells. These
increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Without OGG1 siRNA, 2 W/kg
RF-EMFs induced oxidative DNA base damage in Neuro-2a cells. Interestingly, with OGG1 siRNA, RF-EMFs could cause DNA base
damage in Neuro-2a cells as low as 1 W/kg. However, neither DNA strand breakage nor altered cell viability was observed (Wang X.
- Free radical activity and DNA fragmentation in brain cells after acute exposure of 10 V/m to a 50-Hz amplitude-modulated 900-MHz
RFR, whereas a continuous-wave 900-MHz field produced no effect (Campisi et al. 2010).
- Low level exposure with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation on blood serotonin and glutamate
levels of rats produced an increase in Plasma 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to
a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Eris, 2015).
- Microwaves from modulated microwaves affect chromatin conformation, 53BP1/γ-H2AX foci of human primary fibroblasts and
mesenchymal stem cells similar to heat shock. Microwaves from modulated microwaves inhibit 53BP1 focus formation, which is a
tumor suppressor protein, in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells. The found effects are dependent on carrier
frequency: a small change in carrier frequency by 10 MHz has reproducibly resulted in cell-type-dependent appearance (915 MHz) or
disappearance (905 MHz) in effects of modulated microwaves (SAR of 37 mW/kg) on DNA repair foci in human cells (Belyaev et al.,
2002, 2005, 2009). The exposure at 915 MHz (of note: a less coherent carrier frequency) reduces 53BP1 foci in a manner similar to
heat shock, suggesting that this frequency affects cells in a manner similar to a stress factor (Belyaev et al. 2002, 2005). In contrast
exposure at 905 MHz (of note: a high coherent carrier frequency) did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, either fibroblasts or
lymphocytes, whereas some effects were seen in stem cells at 905 MHz. Frequency-dependent inhibition of DNA repair by
nonthermal MWs has previously been found (Belyaev et al. 1992a, 1992b).
- DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was assessed in leukocytes using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in
vitro studies of modulated 1909.8 MHz exposed human blood leukocytes and lymphocytes. This demonstrates that, this kind of EMF at an
average SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg are capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes (Tice, 2002).
- Effects of electromagnetic fields at 900 and 1800 MHz during few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life on the
reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster show a decrease in oviposition due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after
DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for, in all types of
cells constituting an egg chamber (follicle cells, nurse cells and the oocyte) and in all stages of the early and mid-oogenesis
(Panagopoulos, 2007).
- Pulse modulated radiofrequency radiation exposure during 20 minutes at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz induces an effect and increases
the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats (Sırav, 2016).
- RF exposure modulated 900 MHz can induce inflammatory changes in the liver as well causing damage in the cells of islet of
Langerhans Mild to severe inflammatory changes in the portal spaces of the liver of rats as well as damage in the cells of islet of
Langerhans were observed, and were linked with the duration of the exposures (Mortazavi, 2016).
- The changes of many genes transcription were involved in the effect of 1.8 GHz RF EMF on rat neurons. Down-regulation of Egr-1
and up-regulation of Mbp, Plp indicated the negative effects of this kind of RF EMF on neurons. The effect of RF intermittent
exposure on gene expression was more obvious than that of continuous exposure (Zhang SZ, 2008)
- Cultured cortical neurons exposed to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of modulated 1800 MHz at an absorption rate
(SAR) of 2 W/kg during 24 h exposure induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common
biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. The copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial
RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure (Xu S 2009).
- Modulated 1.8 GHz-RFR induced a significant increase in comet parameters in trophoblast cells after 16 and 24h of exposure, while
the un-modulated CW was ineffective (Franzellitti, 2010).
- Neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells differentiated neurons was inhibited after 4 W/kg exposure of modulated 1800
MHz RF-EMF for 3 days. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of the proneural genes Ngn1 and NeuroD, which are crucial
for neurite outgrowth, were decreased after RF-EMF exposure. The expression of their inhibitor Hes1 was upregulated by RF-EMF
exposure (Chen C., 2014).
- Modulated radiofrequency field (RF) of 1800MHz, strength of 30V/m caused carbonyl derivates, a product of protein oxidation,
insignificantly but continuously increase with duration of exposure. In exposed samples, ROS level significantly (p<0.05) increased
after 10min of exposure (Marjanovic, 2014).
- Rats in treatment groups were exposed to pulsed 1800MHz EMF at SAR of 0.37 W/kg and 0.49 W/kg for 2h/day for 45 day and
showed a cytogenotoxic damage that was more remarkable in immature rats and, the recovery period did not improve this damage
in immature rats (Sekeroğlu, 2012).
- Rat's brain exposed to 1800 MHz at a SAR value of 0.6 W/kg for two hours/day for three months show degenerative changes in the
hippocampus pyramidal cells, dark cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells with vascular congestion. In addition a significant DNA
fragmentation and over expression of cyclooxygenase-2 apoptotic gene was detected (Hussein, 2016).
- Exposure to electromagnetic radiation of modulated 1800 MHz exert an oxidative stress on human cells as evidenced by the
increase in the concentration of the superoxide radical anion released in the saliva (Khadra, 2015).
- Mice exposed to modulated 800-1900 MHz in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object
recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents
(mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had
dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (Aldad 2012).
- Long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiation can alter expression of some of the miRNAs [micro RNAs] (miRNA are small RNA that post-
transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a broad range of organisms in both normal physiological contexts.
miR-106b-5p and miR-107 expression decreased 3.6 and 3.3 times in the exposure group and lead to adverse effects such as
neurodegenerative diseases (Dasdag, 2015).
- Long-term exposure to pulsed 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation at a whole body average (rms) and maximum SAR values were
respectively determined as 141.4 micro w/kg and 7127 micro w/kg caused caused DNA damage of the testes (Akdag, 2016).
- Pulsed 2.856 GHz microwave treatment at a SAR of 4 W/kg has undefined adverse effects on bone marrow MSCs. The reduced-
expression of proteins related to osteogenic differentiation suggests that microwave can influence at the mRNA expression genetic
level (Wang C. 2015).
2.14) Cases of biological effects of carrier waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated modulation(s) in
decoherent soliton band (table 4f)
- Exposure of 8-h of non-thermal modulated 1,800 MHz at 2 W/kg specific absorption rate caused a significant increase in protein
synthesis in Jurkat T-cells and human fibroblasts, and to a lesser extent in activated primary human mononuclear cells. Quiescent
(metabolically inactive) mononuclear cells, did not detectably respond to RF-EME (Gerner 2010).
2.15) Cases of negative biological effects of unknown carrier wave and estimated modulation in decoherent soliton band (table 4g)
- An association has been found between the exposure of test-persons to modulated electromagnetic RF (≥ 380 MHz) and alterations
in the levels of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) and thyroid hormones. Based on the findings, a higher than normal TSH level, low
mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations were observed. It seems that minor degrees of thyroid dysfunction with a compensatory rise
in TSH may occur following excessive exposure. It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of on hypothalamic-pituitary-
thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones (Mortavazi, 2009).
Appendix 3: Databank for frequencies of biological studies
Author, year (x, y, z): Author name, year of published biological experiment (applied biological frequency: x; first nearby calculated
algorithmic frequency: y, percentual difference between applied frequency and nearby calculated frequency: z %).
Table 1: Cases of frequencies in coherent soliton frequency bands able to inhibit and retard cancer
1) Raylman et al., 1996 (7T uniform static magnetic field)
2) Zhang X. et al. 2002, pulsed (0.16 Hz; 0.16; 0.0%)
3) Nuccitelli et al. 2006, 3.33 MHz pulsed (3.33 MHz, 3.316, 0.51%); (0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.0%)
4) Fadel 2015 (modulated 0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.00%); (0.7 Hz, 0.715, 2.1%)
5) Yin S. 2014, pulsed (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%); (0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.00%)
6) Emara et al. 2013 (0.9 Hz; 0.89; 1.1%)
7) Tuffet et al. 1993 (0.8 Hz; 0.79; 1.27%)
8) Seze et al. 2000 (0.8 Hz; 0.79; 1.27%)
9) Novikov 2005, 2009 combinations frequencies (1 Hz; 4.4 Hz; 16.5 Hz; 1.5%)
10) Tatarov et al. 2011 (1 Hz; 1.0; 0.0%)
11) Chang et al. 1985 (1.0 Hz; 1.0; 0%)
12) Ruiz-Gómez 1999, 2002 (1Hz; 1.0; 0.0%)
13) Zhang X. et al, 2002 (1.34 Hz; stab. 1.33; 0.60%)
14) Emara et al. 2013 (3 Hz; 3; 0.0%)
15) Wu S. 2013 (4 Hz, 4.0; 0.0%)
16) Fadel 2010, 2011 modulated (4.5 Hz; 4.500; 0.00%); (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%)
17) Smith 1986 (4.5 Hz; 4.5 Hz; 0%)
18) Ghannam 2002 (5Hz; 5.06; 1.2%)
19) Buckner 2015 combinations of (6 Hz, 6Hz, 0%); (25 Hz, 24.58; 1.7%)
20) Nie Y. 2013 (7.5 Hz; stab freq. 7.59; 1.2%)
21) Feng 2013 (8Hz; 8; 0%)
22) Miyagi 2000 (10 Hz; 10.1; 1.0%)
23) Bellossi pulsed 1991 (12 Hz; 12; 0 %)
24) Crocetti 2013 (20 Hz, stab.20.24; 1.2%)
25) Ruiz-Gómez (25 Hz; 25.28; 1.11%)
26) Yamaguchi et al. 2006 (25 Hz, 25.3; 1.11%)
27) Hu et al. 2010 (25 Hz; 25.3 Hz; 1.11%)
28) Rannung 1993 (50 Hz, 50.56; 1.11%)
29) Hisamitsu et al. 1997 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
30) Simkó et al. 1998 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
31) Pang 2001 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
32) Tofani et al. 2002, 2003 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
33) Traitcheva 2003 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
34) Santini et al. 2005 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
35) Morabito et al. 2010 (50 Hz; 50.56; 1.11%)
36) Berg 2010 (50.00; 50.56; 1.11%)
37) Filipovic 2014, pulsed (50 H; 50.56; 1.11%)
38) Chen YC. 2010 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
39) Vincenzi 2012 (75 Hz, 75.8, 1.1%)
40) Jian et al. 2009 (100 Hz; 101.1; 1.1%)
41) Wen et al. 2011 (100 Hz; 101.1; 1.1%)
42) Williams 2001 (120 Hz; 121.5; 1.2%)
43) Jiménez-García 2010 (120 Hz; 121.5; 1.2%)
44) Cameron et al. 2014 (120 Hz; 121.5; 1.2%)
45) Omote 1990 (200 Hz; 202.2; 1.1%)
46) Bellosi 1991 (460 Hz; 455.1; 1.1%)
47) Vincenzi 2012 (1300 Hz, 1296, 0.31%)
48) Agulan 2015 (pulsed 3.3 MHz, 3.32; 0.49%); (656, 648; 1.24%)
49) Ren Z. 2015 (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%; 0.5 Hz; 0.5; 0.00%)
50) Wang J. 2012 (10 MHz, 9.93 MHz; 0.71%) (0.5 Hz, 0.5 Hz; 0.0 %)
51) Chen X. 2012, 2014 (10 MHz, 9.93 MHz; 0.71%); (33.3 MHz, 33.5 MHz; 0.63%); (0.5 Hz, 0.5 Hz; 0.0 %); (1.0 Hz, 1.0 Hz; 0.0 %)
52) Yao 2008 pulsed (10 MHz, 9.93, 0.71%; 1 Hz; 1.0; 0.0%)
53) Garon 2007 (50 MHz, 50.34; 0.68%)
54) Buttiglione 2007 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%)
55) Wu S. 2013 (7.2 GHz, 7.247; 0.65%)
56) Yoon 2011 (18 GHz, 18.08; 0.44%)
57) Beneduci 2005 (46.00 GHz; 45.79; 0.46%)
58) Beneduci 2005 (51.05 GHz; 51.54; 0.95%)
59) Radzievsky 2004 (61.22 GHz; stab. 61.09; 0.2%)
60) Beneduci 2005 (65.00 GHz; 65.23; 0.35%)
61) Liu YH 2004 (808 nm, stab. freq. 799.0; 1.1%)
62) Murayama 2012 (808 nm, stab. freq. 799.0; 1.1%)
63) Fukuzaki 2014 (808 nm, 799.0, 1.13%)
64) Peidaee 2013 (3600 nm; 3598.4; 0.04%)
65) Peidaee 2013 (3800 nm; 3598.4; 0.34%)
Table 2a: Cases of frequencies in decoherent soliton frequency bands that may initiate and promote cancer
66) Mashevich 2003 (830 MHz; stab. 848.96; 2.23%)
67) Leszczynski 2002 (modulated 900 MHZ, stab. 905.9; >0.66%)
68) Kesari 2010 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
Table 2b: Cases of frequencies in decoherent soliton frequency bands can initiate and promote cancer
69) Beniashvili 1991 (cocarcinogen and 50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
70) Löscher Mevissen et al. 1996, 1999 (cocarcinogen and 50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
71) Ahlbom 2000 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
72) Greenland 2000 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
73) Kheifets 2010 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
74) National Cancer Institute Electromagnetic fields and cancer, 2016 (50 and 60 Hz; >1.25%)
75) Soffritti 2016 (50.00 Hz combined with harmonic distortions 3%; stab. 50.56; >1.11%)
76) Soffritti 2016 (cocarcinogen and modulated 50.00 Hz; stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
77) Stuchly 1992 (cocarcinogen and 60 Hz, 60.75; 1.24%)
78) Cain 1993 (cocarcinogen and 60 Hz, 60.75; 1.24%)
79) Loja 2014 (125 Hz, 128; 2.3%)
80) Loja 2014 (625 Hz, 606.2; 3.1%)
81) Repacholi 1997 (modulated 900 MHz, stab. 905.9; >0.66%)
82) Wyde ME 2016 (modulated 900, stab. 905.9, >0.66%)
83) Wyde ME 2016 (modulated 1900 MHz, stab.1909.1; >0.48%)
84) Tillmann et al. 2010 (modulated 1.97 GHz; stab. 1.909; >3.20%)
85) Lerchl 2014 (modulated 1.97 GHz; stab. freq. 1.909; >3.20%)
86) Roszkowski 1980b (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
87) Szudzinski 1982 (cocarcinogenic 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
88) Guy 1985 (modulated 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; >1.43%)
89) Marcickiewicz 1986 (2,45 GHz, stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
90) Szmigielski 1982 (cocarcinogen and 2.45 GHz, stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
91) Balcer-Kubiczek 1989 (cocarcinogen 2.45 GHz, stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
92) Chou CK 1992 (modulated 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%)
93) Johnson EH, 1999 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.42; 1.43%).
94) Prausnitz and Susskind 1962 (pulsed 9270 MHz, stab. 9040 MHz; >2.54%)
95) Sperandio 2013 (780 nm, stab. 799.0; 2.4%)
96) Frigo 2009 (660 nm; stab. 674.0; 2.1%)
97) Gomes Henriques, 2014 (660 nm; stab. 674.0; 2.1%)
98) Sperandio 2013 (660 nm, stab. 674.0; 2.1%)
99) Setlow 1993 (436 nm, 449.8, 3.07%)
100) Setlow 1993 (405 nm, 399.5, 1.38%)
101) Popp 1976 (380 nm, 373.8; 1.66%)
102) Setlow 1993 (365 nm, 373.8, 2.35%)
103) Belloni 2005 (308 nm, 315.65; 2.42%)
104) De Gruijl 1993 (293 nm, 299.55, 2.19%)
Table 3a: Cases of positive biological effects of waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands
1) Ross C. 2013 (5.1, 5.06, 0.78%)
2) Kwan 2015 (12 Hz, 12, 0%)
3) Aaron 1989, 1993 pulsed (15 Hz, 15.18; 1.2%)
4) Ciombor 1993, 15 Hz, 15.18, 1.2%)
5) Chen CH. 2013 (15 Hz, 15.18, 1.2%) and (5.46 ms > 183.2 Hz, delta 0.46%, 5 ms delta 1.1%)
6) Jansen 2010 (15 Hz, 15.19; 1.23 %)
7) Kaivosoja 2015 (15 Hz, 15.19, 1.23%) and (200 Hz, 202.2, 1.09%)
8) Kang 2013 (30 Hz, 30.38; 1.2) and (45 Hz, 45.6, 1.3%) and (7.5 Hz, 7.59; 1.2%).
9) Wei 2008 (48.00; 48.00; 0.00%)
10) Cho 2012 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
11) Zhong 2012 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
12) Bai 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
13) Lim KT 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
14) Seong 2014 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
15) Elliott 1988 (72 Hz, 72 Hz; 0%).
16) Ceccarelli 2013 (75, 75.8 Hz; 1.1%)
17) Yang X 2017 (75, 75.8 Hz; 1.1%)
18) Menteş 1996 (100 Hz, 101.1; 1.1%)
19) Lim KT 2013 (100 Hz, 101.1; 1.1%)
20) Fu 2014 (200 Hz, 202.2, 1.09%)
21) Ceccarelli 2013 (769.2 Hz, 768, 0.16%)
22) Beebe 2012 pulsed (21 MHz, 21.24; 0.99%); (2.1 MHz, 2.1; 0.0%); (1.66 MHz, 1.658 Mz; 0.51%)
23) Hinrikus 2016 (mod. 450 MHz; 453.0; 0.66%)
24) Hinrikus 2016 (mod. 40 Hz; 40.5 Hz; 1.2%)
25) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 4 MHz, 3.981, 0.47%)
26) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 8 Hz, 8, 0%)
27) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 16 Hz, 16, 0%)
28) Madkan 2009 (pulsed 72 Hz, 72, 0%)
29) Marinelli 2004 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
30) Ozlem Nisbet 2012 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
31) Jiang 2013 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
32) Zong 2015 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
33) Litovitz 1993 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.01%)
34) Yamashita 2010 (1439 MHz, 1431.04; 0.56%)
35) Nikolova 2005 (mod. 1710 MHz, 1.70; 0.59%)
36) Ozlem Nisbet 2012 (1.8 GHz, 1.812; 0.66%)
37) Cao H. 2015 (1.8 GHz, CW; 1.812; 0.66%)
38) Hirose 2006 (2.1425 GHz, CW; 2.147; 0.19%)
39) Sekijima 2010 (2.1425 GHz, CW; 2.147; 0.19%)
40) Makar 2006 (61.22 GHz; 61.09; 0.2%)
41) Fukuzaki 2015 (532 nm, 532.5; 0.1%)
Table 3b: Cases of neutral biological effects of waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands
42) Mann 1998 (pulsed 900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%) (217 Hz, 216, 0.46%)
43) Su L 2016 (1800MHz, 1.812; 0.66%)
Table 4a: Cases of negative biological effects caused by CW-waves in decoherent soliton frequency bands
44) Kim HS 2014 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
45) Park S 2015 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
46) Kim SJ 2017 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
47) Kim YW 2009 (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
48) Li Y. and Héroux (60; stab. 60.75; 1.24%)
49) Li Y. and Héroux (120; stab. 121.5; 1.24%)
50) Maskey 2010 (835 MHz CW; stab. 849.0 MHz; 1.64%)
51) Lai and Singh 1995 (2450 MHz; stab. 2415.5; 1.43%)
52) Aweda (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.45; 1.43%).
53) Misa-Agustiño 2015 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.4155; 1.43%)
54) Shahin 2015 (2.45 GHz; stab. 2.4155; 1.43%)
55) Karaca 2012(10.715 GHz; stab. 10.87; 1.46%) probably CW
56) Kesari 2009 (50 GHz; 49.0; 2.0%)
Table 4a-1: Cases of biological effects caused by waves located near decoherent soliton frequency band
57) Arendash 2010 (918 MHz; stab. 905.9; >1.33%)
Table 4a-2: Cases of biological changes caused by waves located in decoherent soliton frequency bands
58) Jain S. 2015 (2.1 GHz, 2.1465; 2.2%)
59) Jain S. 2015 (2.3 GHz, 2.26, 1.8%)
60) Jain S. 2015 (2.6 GHz, 2.5425, 2.26%)
Table 4b: Cases of negative biological effects caused by CW-waves at coherent soliton frequency bands at a higher field strength
61) Manzella 2015 (50.00; 50.56; 1.11%)
62) Kiray 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
63) Panagopoulos 2013 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
64) Akdag 2013 (50.00; 50.56; 1.11%)
65) Li Y. 2014 (50 Hz, stab. 50.56; 1.11%)
66) Koyu 2005 (900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%)
67) Sannino 2009 (900 MHz, stab. 905.9; 0.66%)
68) Yang L 2012 (916 MHz, stab. 905.9 MHz; 1.11%)
Table 4c: Cases of negative biological effects caused by waves including modulations at coherent soliton frequency bands at a higher
field strength
69) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (8 Hz, 8; 0%)
70) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (16 Hz, 16; 0%)
71) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (50 Hz, 50.56; 1.11%)
72) Salford 1994 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; 1.0%) (200 Hz, 202.24; 1.11%)
Table 4d: Cases of negative biological effects of carrier waves and estimated modulations located in decoherent soliton frequency
73) Tice 2002 (mod. 837 MHz; 849.0; >1.41%)
74) Markovà, Belyaev 2009 (mod. 1947.4 MHz; 1909.1, 2.0%)
75) Schwarz 2008 (mod. 1,950 MHz, 1909.1; >2.14%)
76) Kumar 2014 (mod. 1,950 MHz, 1909.1; >2.14%)
77) Aydoğan 2015a modulated (2100 MHz; 2146.6; 2.2%)
78) Aydoğan 2015b modulated (2100 MHz; 2146.6; 2.2%)
79) Lai and Singh 1996 (2450 MHz pulsed; stab. 2415.5; 1.43%)
80) Sinha 2008 (mod. 2.45 GHz; 2.4155; >1.43%)
81) Çelik 2015 (mod. 2.45 GHz; stab. 2.4155; > 1.43%)
Table 4e: Cases of negative biological effects of carrier waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated
modulation(s) in decoherent soliton band
82) Markkanen 2009 (modulated 50.00; 50.56; >1.11%)
83) Tkalec 2009 (modulated 400 MHz; 402.7, 0.68% and 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
84) Aldad 2012 (modulated 800 MHz, 805.4; >0.68%)
85) Leszczynski 2002 (Mod. 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
86) Buttiglione 2007 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
87) Odaci 2008 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
88) Karinen 2008 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
89) Del Vecchio 2009 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
90) Dasdag 2009 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
91) Dasdag 2012 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; > 0.66%)
92) Ammari 2010 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
93) Esmekaya 2010 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
94) Tkalec 2013 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
95) Ozorak 2013 (modulated 900 MHz, mod. 1800 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
96) Tas 2014 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
97) Liu 2015 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
98) Wang X. 2015 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
99) Dasdag 2015 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
100) Tang J. 2015 (900 MHz prob. mod., 905.9; >0.66%)
101) Mortazavi 2016 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; >0.66%)
102) Eris 2015 (900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%; modulated at 100 kHz; 98.32, 1.71%)
103) Campisi 2010 (900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%; mod. 50.00; 50.56; >1.11%)
104) Belyaev 2005, 2009 (mod. 905 MHz, 905.9; >0.10%)
105) Belyaev 2005, 2009 (mod. 915 MHz, 905.9; >1.0%)
106) Markovà 2005 (915 MHz mod., 905.9; >1.0%)
107) Nittby 2009 (915 MHz mod., 905.9; >1.0%)
108) Tice 2002 (modulated 1909.8, 1909.1; >0.03%)
109) Panagopoulos 2007 (modulated 900 MHz; 905.9; 0.66%) and mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; 0.66%)
110) Sırav 2016 (modulated 900 MHz, 905.9; 0.66%) and mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; 0.66%)
111) Zhang SZ 2008 (intermittent 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
112) Xu S 2009 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
113) Franzellitti 2010 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
114) Esmekaya 2011 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
115) Liu K. 2014 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
116) Valbonesi 2014 (1.8 GHz, stab. 1.182; >0.66%)
117) Chen C. 2014 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
118) Marjanovic 2014 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
119) Sekeroğlu 2012 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
120) Khadra 2015 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
121) Hussein 2016 (mod. 1800 MHz; 1811.8; >0.66%)
122) Aldad 2012 (mod. 1900 MHz, stab.1909.1; >0.48%)
123) Dasdag 2015 (mod. 2.4 GHz, 2.42; >0.65%)
124) Akdag 2016 (mod. 2.4 GHz, 2.42; >0.65%)
125) Wang C. 2015 (pulsed 2.856 GHz, 2.862; >0.21%)
Table 4f: Cases of biological effects of carrier waves positioned in coherent soliton frequency bands and estimated modulation(s)
in decoherent soliton band
126) Gerner 2010 (1800 MHz, 1811.8; >0.66%)
Table 4g: Cases of negative biological effects of unknown carrier wave and estimated modulation in decoherent soliton band
127) Mortavazi 2009 (mod. ≥ 380 MHz; > 1.0%)
Table 4h: Cases of positive biological effects of carrier wave in decoherent soliton band
128) Jeong Y. 2015 (1950 MHz, 1909.1; 2.1%)
Table 5: Tumor measurement/diagnosis
129) Vedruccio 2004 (465 MHz; 477.3; 2.57%)
130) Vedruccio 2011 (462 MHz; 453.0; 2.0%)
131) Bellorofonte 2005 (1395 MHz; 1359.36; 2.62%)
132) Gervino 2007 (465 MHz; 477.3; 2.57%)
133) Dore 2015 TRIM (462 MHz; 453.0; 2.0%)
134) Dore 2015 TRIM (465 MHz; 477.3; 2.57%)
135) Dore 2015 TRIM (930 MHz; 905.9; 2.66%)
136) Dore 2015 TRIM (1395 MHz; 1359.36; 2.62%)
137) Cheon H. 2016 (1.67 THz; 1.649; 1.26%
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