Chapter

Incertae sedis Actinotalea

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Ac.ti.no.ta'le.a. Gr. n. aktis -inos ray; L. fem. n. talea a slender staff, rod, stick; N.L. fem. n. Actinotalea ray stick. Actinobacteria / Actinobacteria / Micrococcales / Cellulomonadaceae / incertae sedis Actinotalea Gram-stain-positive, coryneform rods exhibiting polymorphism. Nonmotile. Facultatively anaerobic. Diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan is l-ornithine and the interpeptide bridge is d-aspartate. Major fatty acids are C 14:0 , C 15:0 anteiso, and C 16:0 . The major isoprenoid quinone is MK-10(H4 ). DNA G+C content (mol%): 76. Type species: Actinotalea fermentans (Bagnara, Toci, Gaudin and Belaich 1985) Yi, Schumann and Chun 2007, 155VP (Cellulomonas fermentans Bagnara, Toci, Gaudin and Belaich 1985, 506).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Article
Two newly described species of mesophilic, cellulose-degrading, aerobic bacteria were isolated from forest humus soils along the southern border of the Caspian Sea. Cellulomonas persica and Cellulomonas iranensis are proposed as new specific epithets based on comparative sequence analyses of 16S rDNA, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics. Formal species descriptions are provided.
Full-text available
Article
Phylogenetic analysis of Promicromonospora enterophila indicates that this taxon clusters with Cellulomonas species, adjacent to Cellulomonas turbata (basonym Oerskovia turbata). 16S rDNA analysis, DNA-DNA reassociation, riboprinting, peptidoglycan analysis and determination of phenotypic properties of various strains of P. enterophila and C turbata reveal that they form a cluster that can be distinguished unambiguously from other Cellulomonas species by morphology, amino acid composition of the cell wall and 16S rDNA signatures. As a result of thispolyphasic study, it appears taxonomically reasonable to re-establish the genus Oerskovia for C turbata and to reclassify P. enterophila as Oerskovia enterophila comb. nov.; two novel species, Oerskovia jenensis sp. nov. (type strain DSM 46000T = CIP 100330T) and Oerskovia paurometabola sp. nov. (type strain DSM 14281T = LMG 20385T), are also proposed.
Full-text available
Article
CDC coryneform group A-3 bacteria are rare human pathogens. In this study, six group A-3 isolates (two from blood, one from cerebrospinal fluid, and one each from homograft valve, lip wound, and pilonidal cyst) were compared to the type strains of phenotypically related organisms, Cellulomonas fimi, Cellulomonas hominis, Oerskovia turbata, and Sanguibacter suarezii, and characterized by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic studies. DNA-DNA reassociation analysis identified two genomic groups, and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the taxonomic positions of these groups to genus level. Two groups were defined, and both were more closely related to Cellulomonas species: one group of three strains, for which we propose the new species Cellulomonas denverensis sp. nov., with the type strain W6929 (ATCC BAA-788T or DSM 15764T), was related to C. hominis ATCC 51964T (98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), and the second group of three strains was related to C. hominis ATCC 51964T (99.8 to 99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The definition of this new Cellulomonas species and the confirmation of three strains as C. hominis serve to further clarify the complex taxonomy of CDC coryneform group A-3 bacteria and will assist in our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical significance of these microorganisms.
Full-text available
Article
An alkaliphilic, slightly halotolerant, chemo-organotrophic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 69B4(T), was isolated from the sediment of the littoral zone of Lake Bogoria, Kenya. Phylogenetically, it is a member of the genus Cellulomonas, showing less than 97.5 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other Cellulomonas species. The highest level of similarity, albeit moderate, was found with respect to Cellulomonas cellasea DSM 20118(T). Chemotaxonomic properties confirm the 16S rRNA gene-based generic affiliation, i.e. a DNA G+C content of 71.5 mol%, anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids, MK-9(H(4)) as the major isoprenoid quinone, a peptidoglycan containing L-ornithine as the diamino acid and D-aspartic acid in the interpeptide bridge and phosphatidylglycerol as the only identified main polar lipid. The strain is aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, being capable of growth under strictly anaerobic conditions. Optimal growth occurs between pH values 9.0 and 10.0. On the basis of its distinct phylogenetic position and metabolic properties, strain 69B4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 69B4(T) (=DSM 16987(T)=CIP 108683(T)).
Full-text available
Article
A bacterial strain (DB5(T)), with polysaccharide-degrading activities, was isolated from garden soil in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. The cells were Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-motile straight rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belongs to the genus Cellulomonas and that it is most closely related to Cellulomonas xylanilytica LMG 21723(T) and Cellulomonas humilata ATCC 25174(T) (98.0 and 97.9% similarity, respectively). Chemotaxonomic data also supported the classification of strain DB5(T) in the genus Cellulomonas, i.e. L-ornithine as the cell-wall diamino acid, anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0) as the major fatty acids, MK-9(H(4)) as the predominant menaquinone and the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides in the polar lipid profile. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data demonstrated that strain DB5(T) (=KCTC 19081(T)=NBRC 100819(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas terrae sp. nov. is proposed.
Full-text available
Article
A taxonomic study was performed on 13 bacterial strains isolated from preputial swabs of European bison (Bison bonasus) bulls suffering from balanoposthitis. The isolates were Gram-positive, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic, diphtheroid-shaped cells. Based on biochemical profiles and BOX-PCR-generated genomic fingerprints, the isolates were grouped into two clusters represented by four and nine strains, respectively. Strains 1(W3/01)T and 2(W106/04)T, selected as representatives of the two clusters, shared 97.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The highest gene sequence similarities found (95.5-96.4 %) were to Arcanobacterium pyogenes DSM 20630T and Arcanobacterium bernardiae DSM 9152T, demonstrating that the novel strains are members of the genus Arcanobacterium, but are not members of a recognized species. The polar lipid profiles of the two novel strains displayed the major characteristics also found in A. pyogenes DSM 20630T and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum DSM 20595T. Detection of a quinone system with MK-10(H4) as the predominant compound confirmed phylogenetic relatedness of the novel strains to A. pyogenes and separated them from the type species of the genus, A. haemolyticum, which contains MK-9(H4) as the predominant quinone. Results from DNA-DNA hybridizations clearly demonstrated that strains 1(W3/01)T and 2(W106/04)T represent separate species. Based on these data, two novel species of the genus Arcanobacterium are described, for which the names Arcanobacterium bialowiezense sp. nov. [type strain 1(W3/01)T = DSM 17162T = NCTC 13354T] and Arcanobacterium bonasi sp. nov. [type strain 2(W106/04)T = DSM 17163T = NCTC 13355T] are proposed.
Full-text available
Article
An actinobacterial strain containing demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H(4)) as the diagnostic isoprenoid quinone was isolated from a tidal flat sediment sample, from South Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JC2054(T) represents a distinct phyletic line within the suborder Micrococcineae of the order Actinomycetales. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was Cellulomonas fermentans, with 94.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel isolate was strictly aerobic and slightly halophilic, with optimum growth occurring in 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cells were non-motile, non-sporulating and rod-shaped. The peptidoglycan type was of the A-type of cross-linkage. l-ornithine was the diamino acid and d-glutamate represented the N-terminus of the interpeptide bridge. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-branched and straight-chain fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown phospholipid. The menaquinone composition of C. fermentans was determined to be MK-10(H(4)), MK-9(H(4)) and MK-8(H(4)) in the ratio 56 : 2 : 1. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence presented in this study, it is proposed that strain JC2054(T) should be classified as representing a novel genus and species of the suborder Micrococcineae, with the name Demequina aestuarii gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is JC2054(T) (=IMSNU 14027(T)=KCTC 9919(T)=JCM 12123(T)). In addition, it was clear from the phylogenetic analysis and chemotaxonomic data that C. fermentans does not belong to the genus Cellulomonas or any other recognized genera. Therefore, C. fermentans should be reclassified as representing a novel genus, for which the name Actinotalea fermentans gen. nov., comb. nov. is proposed, with strain DSM 3133(T) (=ATCC 43279(T)=CFBP 4259(T)=CIP 103003(T)=NBRC 15517(T)=JCM 9966(T)=LMG 16154(T)) as the type strain.
Full-text available
Article
A bacterial strain, TR7-06(T), which has cellulase and beta-glucosidase activities, was isolated from compost at a cattle farm near Daejeon, Republic of Korea. It was a Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belongs to the genus Cellulomonas, with highest sequence similarity to Cellulomonas uda DSM 20107(T) (98.5 %). Cell wall analysis revealed the presence of type A4beta, L-orn-D-Glu peptidoglycan. The cell-wall sugars detected were mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)); MK-8(H(4)) was detected in smaller quantities. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(14 : 0) and C(18 : 0). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that TR7-06(T) represents a novel species. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain TR7-06(T) (=KCTC 19030(T)=NBRC 100758(T)) merits description as the type strain of a novel Cellulomonas species, Cellulomonas composti sp. nov.
Full-text available
Article
Here, we present a detailed functional and phylogenetic characterization of an iron-reducing enrichment culture maintained in our lab with benzene as sole carbon and energy source. We used DNA-stable isotope probing to identify microbes within the enrichment most active in the assimilation of (13)C-label. When (12)C(6)- and (13)C(6)-benzene were added as comparative substrates, marked differences in the quantitative buoyant density distribution became apparent especially for uncultured microbes within the Gram-positive Peptococcaceae, closely related to environmental clones retrieved from contaminated aquifers world wide and only distantly related to cultured representatives of the genus Thermincola. Prominent among the other constituents of the enrichment were uncultured Deltaproteobacteria, as well as members of the Actinobacteria. Although their presence within the enrichment seems to be stable they did not assimilate (13)C-label as significantly as the Clostridia within the time course of our experiment. We hypothesize that benzene degradation in our enrichment involves an unusual syntrophy, where members of the Clostridia primarily oxidize benzene. Electrons from the contaminant are both directly transferred to ferric iron by the primary oxidizers, but also partially shared with the Desulfobulbaceae as syntrophic partners. Alternatively, electrons may also be quantitatively transferred to the partners, which then reduce the ferric iron. Thus our results provide evidence for the importance of a novel clade of Gram-positive iron-reducers in anaerobic benzene degradation, and a role of syntrophic interactions in this process. These findings shed a totally new light on the factors controlling benzene degradation in anaerobic contaminated environments.
Article
A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile bacterium was isolated from a decayed elm tree. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed 99.0 % similarity to Cellulomonas humilata. Chemotaxonomic data that were determined for this isolate included cell-wall composition, fatty acid profiles and polar lipids; the results supported the placement of strain XIL11(T) in the genus Cellulomonas. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization with C. humilata ATCC 25174(T), in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data, demonstrated that isolate XIL11(T) should be classified as a novel Cellulomonas species. The name Cellulomonas xylanilytica sp. nov. is proposed, with strain XIL11(T) (=LMG 21723(T)=CECT 5729(T)) as the type strain.
Article
A new mesophilic, cellulolytic microorganism was isolated from a municipal dumping ground. The isolation of this bacterium was performed under anaerobic conditions, but its growth was similar under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. This gram-positive, nonmotile, coryneform rod, with a high (75.8 mol%) guanine- plus-cytosine content in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), can grow on numerous cafbon sources. The fermenta- tion products are acetic acid, ethanol, formic acid, succinic acid, CO2, and, occasionally, lactic acid. Nucleic acid hybridization tests between the DNA of the isalate and the DNA of Celldamonas uda ATCC 21399 showed some partial (37 to 40%) relatedness. This information, in addition to other data, suggests that this organism belongs to the genus Cellulomonas, and it is proposed here as a new species, Cellulomonas fermentans sp. nov. The type strain is M (DSM 3133).
Article
The placement of Actinomyces humiferus within the genus Actinomyces has always been controversial. A humiferus differs from typical members of the genus both phenotypically and in possessing a relatively high DNA G + C content. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing has shown that A. humiferus is related only distantly to other species of the genus Actinomyces and is, in fact, a member of the genus Cellulomonas. On the basis of phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that A. humiferus be reclassified in the genus Cellulomonas as Cellulomonas humilata nom. corrig., comb. nov.
Article
Viable microorganisms are present in subglacial waters and sediment-laden ice beneath John Evans glacier in the Canadian high Arctic. The Bacterial communities resident in three subglacial samples were examined by amplifying 16S rRNA genes extracted from community DNA and from axenic isolates. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 341 clones produced 153 operational taxonomic units (OTUS), of which 25 dominant OTUS were sequenced. A subglacial water sample yielded Betaproteobacteria (25% of clones, particularly Comamonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (23%, particularly Flavobacterium) and Actinobacteria (14%). A second water sample had 51%Betaproteobacteria, 5%Bacteroidetes and no Actinobacteria, and a sediment sample was dominated by Betaproteobacteria (15%) and Bacteroidetes (38%). A collection of 158 morphologically distinct isolates was obtained on R2A agar using three incubation conditions: fully aerobic at 20 degrees C or 4 degrees C, or microaerobic at 20 degrees C. A total of 52 isolate OTUs were defined, comprising Bacteroidetes (predominantly Flavobacterium isolated at 4 degrees C), Betaproteobacteria (particularly Comamonadaceae), plus Actinobacteria and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria not detected as clones. Otherwise, the clone library and isolate collection results were quite comparable and supported earlier molecular studies at this site. Although additional undescribed diversity likely exists in these samples, combining culture-based results with molecular analysis increased the observed bacterial diversity and confirmed previous observations at this glacier and others.
Methods in Microbiology
  • R.E. Hungate
The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community
  • E. Stackebrandt
  • P. Schumann
  • H. Prauser