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Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2017, 5, 801-812

http://www.scirp.org/journal/jamp

ISSN Online: 2327-4379

ISSN Print: 2327-4352

DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.54069 April 12, 2017

Deep Unity of Classic and Quantum Physics at

the Space Thermostat Presence with Technical

Applications

M. Ja. Ivanov1, V. K. Mamaev1, Guanghua Zheng2

1Gas Turbine Department, Central Institute of Aviation Motors, Moscow, Russia

2Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xian, China

Abstract

The paper demonstrates deep unity of classic and quantum physics at the

space thermostat (ST) presence, which fulfilled all space by the temperature

T

0

= 2.73

K.

The ST presents itself the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB).

From the main quantum position we consider the ST/CMB as the wave fun

c-

tion carrier (“quantum background”). The paper is devoted to ST/CMB m

e-

dium the classic conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy. We show

the soliton like solutions of our classic model correspond to Schrodinger’

s

quantum solutions, demonstrate the atom hydrogen specter and other qua

n-

tum peculiarities. The paper contains typical technical examples classic/

quantum simulation at the ST presence.

Keywords

Space Thermostat, Conservation Laws, Schrodinger’s Solutions, Technical

Applications

1. Introduction

Some achievements in experimental physics and astrophysics during of a few last

decades show that it would be useful additionally to study important back-

ground theoretical aspects for classic and quantum physics. First of all among

such experimental achievements we name the registration of the Cosmic Micro-

wave Background (CMB) with the finite temperature

T

0 = 2.73

K

[1]-[5]. The

second significant achievement is the discovery of Dark Matter/Energy (DME)

[6] [7], which is also called “physical vacuum”. Now we know that 96% whole

substance in our Universe consists of DME. The baryonic substance accounts to

only near 4%.

How to cite this paper:

Ivanov, M.J., Ma-

maev, V.K.

and Zheng, G.H. (2017)

Deep

Unity of Classic and Quantum Physics at

the Space Thermostat Presence with

Tech-

nical Applications

.

Journal of Applied

Mathe

matics and Physics

,

5

, 801-812.

https://doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2017.54069

Received:

October 25, 2016

Accepted:

April 9, 2017

Published:

April 12, 2017

M. J. Ivanov et al.

802

The paper is devoted to CMB as the Space Thermostat (ST) medium with the

known (no zero) temperature and finite mass particles and presents the classic

conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy [8]. We show the soliton like

solutions of our classic model correspond to Schrodinger’s quantum solutions

[9], demonstrate the atom hydrogen specter and other quantum peculiarities.

From the main theoretical position we consider the ST/CMB as the carrier of

quantum wave function and quantum phase trajectories (“quantum back-

ground”). At present time it seems to be indeed that quantum mechanics cannot

be formulated by simply considering a statistical approximation from a classic-

al-like deterministic theory.

Alternatively, it can be also interpreted as the evolution of a quantum flow in a

hydrodynamic form of quantum mechanics [10]. In 1952 Bohm proposed a

physical hidden-variable model [11]-[13] which reproduced the predictions of

the standard quantum theory without violating any of its postulates. The main

goal of this work consists of helping to develop a common united appropriate

classic and quantum physics similar Bohmian mechanics at the ST/CMB pres-

ence.

2. The Space Thermostat: Properties and Parameters

In physics a thermostat is called a greater thermodynamic system, the number of

particles which far exceeds the number of particles in a studied system with her

in thermal contact [14]-[16]. In our case as such thermostat (the large thermo-

dynamic system) we take the real Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) of our

Universe and dark matter/energy (DME) medium with certain massive particles

(see below), which are holders and carriers of thermal radiation (and, in partic-

ular, CMB). Any smaller size natural or technical system we believe in the ther-

mal contact with the specified Space Thermostat (ST). The considered ST essen-

tially differs from ordinary Gibbs’ thermostat [14], in which studied systems are

in thermal contact by

T

2.73

K

and have the same temperature.

Our ST is radiate compressible medium and bearer of quantum wave function

and quantum phase trajectories (“quantum background”). Following the [8] we

believe that the thermal radiation (and, in particular, CMB) behaves like an ideal

gas with adiabatic factor

γ

= 4/3 and is synonymous in this sense with photon

gas. Coming back from some fundamental ideas (first of all, from recommen-

dations by M. Planck, A. Einstein and L. de Broglie) allows us to indicate a cor-

relation linking energy

E

with mass value

m

, frequency

ν

and temperature

T.

E = mc

2

= hν = kT,

(1)

where

с

: the light velocity;

h

and

k

: the Planck and the Boltzmann constants. The

last equality in (1) is the law of evenly distributed energy on freedom degrees.

Also Equation (1) follows from Planck’s distribution in vicinities of maximum

radiation density of an absolutely black body and presents itself Wien’s dis-

placement law. The relation (1) allows us to define also the vacuum particle

mass, when

T

≠ 0. The presence of these nonzero mass particles in physical va-

M. J. Ivanov et al.

803

cuum was specified in [8] and it was identified with massive particles of DM

named Hidden Mass Boson (HMB). The same way we propose simulation for

the Dark Energy (DE) [8]. To be short, we change the virtual Planck resonators

in his derivation of the famous formula for absolutely black body radiation den-

sity by real (massive) particles with

m = kT/c

2 (following from the relations (1)).

Also the possibility of radiation (including of electromagnetic waves, similar the

virtual Planck resonators) allows us to consider these real HMB particles as a

classic Hertz’s dipoles.

Considering the ST particle concentration

n

and multiply (1) on

n

we can

write

n∙mc

2

= n∙kT

and go to the typical ideal gas state equation

p ≈ ρc

2

= nkT.

(2)

Here

ρ = n∙m

– density,

p

– pressure in ST medium. The relation (2) is one of

the mathematical forms of Avogadro’s law. Now we show that the recommen-

dations by M. Planck, A. Einstein and L. de Broglie (1) may be considered as

another form of Avogadro’s law and the classic state equation for perfect gaseous

medium (2). The relations (1) and (2) may be used for answers on intrigue ques-

tion so to what comprises about 96% of content of the Universe (

i.e

., what and

why over 70% of the mass-energy content of the Universe is in form of the un-

known vacuum DE, over 20% of the mass is in the form of the mysterious DM).

Get through (1) and (2) refinement more accurate the value for the ST particle

mass at

T

0 = 2.73 K and the perturbation velocity

c

= 2.998 × 108 m/s. We have

obtained

2

2

00 0 0

2 40 4

0

33 3 3 3

22 2 2 2 2

5.6 10 3 10 .

av U U

AA

mv R R mm

E kT T m T RT c

N mN

m kT c kg eV

γ

γγ

γ

−−

= = = = = =

= =×=×

(3)

We calculate the gas constant

R

and the specific heat capacity

cv

и

cp

by

γ

=

4/3

17 17 17

JJ J

0.25 10 ; 0.75 10 ; 1.0 10 .

kg K kg K kg K

v pv

k

R c c Rc

m

= = × = × =+= ×

It should be stressed that the thermal radiation has the classic state equation

( )

, 1, .

v

p RT p e е с T

ρ γρ

= =−=

(4)

The ST particles (3) are the sub-atomic (non-baryonic) material particles

moving “almost” free in all directions at different velocities. One half of particles

have positive charge and other half has negative identical in its value electrical

charge [8]. Besides, pairs of the oppositely charged particles from the classic

Hertz dipoles, which have with translational, rotary and oscillatory degree of

freedom. We obtain a liner size of the dipole

l

= 7 × 10−20

m

and its charge

q

=

10−28

C

. The value of the electric dipole moment

p

=

q·l

= 7 × 10−48

C·m

. In spite

of its miniature size we consider that all known properties of electric dipoles are

M. J. Ivanov et al.

804

retained. Thus the medium as a whole is quasi-neutral; however there are so-

called “collective” processes possible, such as a local concentration of positive

and negative electrical charges.

3. Noether’s Theorem, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian

Mechanics

Looking at some consequences of the thermostat existence the question of the

applicability of the Noether theorem in modern physics should be analyzed. The

Noether theorem declaims that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a

physical system has a corresponding conservation law [17]. By Noether’s theo-

rem the symmetries of translations in space and time get to the conservation

laws of momentum and energy within this system, respectively. In the same time

Noether’s theorem takes place only for dissipative less isolate systems. In our

case with ST and energy dissipation on its level we have no possibility to use

Noether’s theorem. The same situation takes place with the Lagrangian and the

Hamiltonian mechanics.

There is used as the standard language of the particle physics to express in

terms of Lagrangians [18]. To give the flavor of the general theorem, a version of

the Noether theorem for continuous fields in four dimensional space – time has

been given. The requirement of invariance of the Lagrangian for local gauge

transformations is the original principle of all modern physics theories of a mi-

crocosm. The gauge transformation is rotation at arbitrary angles around the

same axis in the Minkovsky 4-space. Here we have local time’s arrow decline and

rotation. It is one of the great differences between perspective new horizons and

modern physics. We should include into account some principal limitations of

the Lagrangian formalism and quantum field theories, which connect with

time’s arrow (real time’s arrow has no possibility to decline at any side and

twisting). The real physics has only the “one-way direction” arrow of time

(without any rotation).

Further in our paper we analyze deep unity of classic and quantum physics at

the presence of the external ST with energy changing (first of all, the energy dis-

sipation on the level of ST). A few going forward we would like to emphasize

that the growth of our system’s entropy characterizes the amount of scattered

(absorbed by ST) energy. Now we consider some items of Bohmian quantum

mechanics.

4. Some Bohmian Mechanics Background

The wave function

ψ

supplies the quantum system with dynamical information

on each point of the associated configuration space at each time moment. With-

in quantum presentation of Bohmian mechanics [11]-[13] this information is

encoded in its phase, as can be seen through the transformation relation

( ) ( )

( )

,

12

, ,e

iS r t

rt rt

ψρ

=

, (5)

where

ρ

and

S

are the probability density and phase of

ψ

, respectively, both being

M. J. Ivanov et al.

805

real valued quantities. This relation allows us to pass from the Schrödinger equa-

tion

2

2

,

2

iV

tm

ψψ

∂=− ∇+

∂

(6)

to the system of coupled equations [11]

0,

S

tm

ρρ

∂∇

+∇⋅ =

∂

(7)

( )

0,

2

S

SVQ

tm

∇

∂+ ++=

∂

(8)

2

2 2 12 2 2

12

1

2 42

Qmm

ρ ρρ

ρρ

ρ

∇ ∇∇

=−= −

(9)

is the so-called quantum potential. Equation (7) is the continuity equation,

which describes the ensemble dynamics,

i.e

., the motion of a swarm of trajecto-

ries initially distributed according to some

ρ

0. Equations (8) and (9) govern the

motion of individual particles, in particular, the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Equ-

ation (8) accounts for the phase field evolution ruling the quantum particle dy-

namics through the equation of motion

u Sm

= ∇

.

(10)

This relation indicates that one can define a local velocity field on each point

of the system configuration space and, by integrating it in time, to obtain the

corresponding trajectory.

In our study we get some next steps in Bohmian mechanics direction, in

which the ST/CMB presents as the wave function carrier (“quantum back-

ground”). We consider

ρ

as real ST medium density and

u

as real ST medium

velocity. By that we can write conventional equations of discontinuity and mo-

mentum (see the next section). Further the relations (1) and (2) allow introduc-

ing also pressure

p

and temperature

T

in our consideration of quantum Boh-

mian mechanics at the ST presence. Following classic mechanics we have possi-

bility now to use additionally the equation of energy conservation.

5. Some Classic Mechanics Background

We present the common conservation laws for the case of the ST presence as the

two components model of a gaseous and radiation (quantum) medium [8].

From the main quantum position we consider the ST/CMB as the quantum wave

function carrier (“quantum background”). There are used the index

g

for con-

ventional gas and the index

f

for radiation components of medium (for example,

for densities

ρg

and

ρf

). For the one velocity model the values of velocity com-

ponents

u

,

v

,

w

at the axis

x

,

y

,

z

are the same for each medium components. The

integral conservation laws are presented as [19] [20] for the volume

( )

t

ω

with

the boundary

( )

t

γ

M. J. Ivanov et al.

806

( ) ( )

( ) ( )( )

( ) ( ) ( )( )

2

d d,

d d d,

1dd d

2

,

d.

kk

tt

k kk

t tt

k k k kk k

t tt t

dq

dt

dp

dt

dq p K gradT L

d

k gf

t

ωω

ω γω

ω γγ ω

ρω ω

ρω γ ω

ρ εω γ γ ω

=

=−+

+ =− ⋅+ ⋅+

=

∫∫∫ ∫∫∫

∫∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫∫

∫∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫∫

u nr

un n

(11)

Here

2

q

- the square of the velocity vector

u

and

( ) ( )

, .

g gf f g g f gf g f f

L CTT Q L CTT Q

′′

= −+ = −+

Energy conservation laws are written for heat transfer gas and radiation com-

ponents (the second terms in the right side of these equations,

g

K

and

f

K

correspondently thermo transfer coefficients for gas and radiation parts). The

last terms in the right side of initial energy equations describe an energy ex-

change between gas and radiation parts (the space thermostat). The terms

g

Q′

and

f

Q′

are an additional energy souses.

6. Some Examples of Quantum Hydrodynamic Analogy

The achievement of a mutual systematic understanding of quantum and classical

phenomena has been considered in [10]-[13]. In these papers, the standard

quantum mechanics is derived as the deterministic limit of the stochastic hy-

drodynamic analogy. Now there is considered deep coordination of classic and

quantum solutions on the example of a hydrogen atom specter and screening

spaces of elementary particles.

At first we analyze a hydrogen atom specter (in particular, the Ballmer series,

Figure 1) on the base of the system (11). The main steps of classic solution rea-

lization for a hydrogen atom specter are presented in [8] [21]. We also give

Figure 1. Decomposition task of initial contraction for sequence of solitons for the Ball-

mer series.

M. J. Ivanov et al.

807

calculated solutions of the decomposition task of initial contraction for sequence

of soliton solutions (Figure 1).

Detail differential ST simulation allows proposing also internal structures of

molecules and atoms in chemical physics, based on electron, proton and neutron

particle thermodynamics. By that we follow to

L

. de Broglie’s and D. Bohm’s

methodologies [11]-[13]. This and next sections consider in detail important ST

items from elementary particles up to nuclear simulation.

We can derive equations, which describe the distribution of electrical poten-

tial and concentration of particles in polarized spaces of electrons, positrons,

protons and neutrons [8]. Equation for electrical potential

φ

in polarized ST can

be written in form

22,D sh

ϕϕ

∆=

where

φ

is related to its characteristic value

0

Te

ϕ

=

;

22

0

4

D T ne

π

=

: the

Debye radius;

e

: the value of ultra-elementary electrical charge;

0

n

: characteris-

tic concentration of DM particles (HMBs).

In case of spherical symmetry the following equation can be written

2

2

2

2.

Dd d

r sh

dr dr

r

ϕϕ

=

(12)

We shall bring typical solutions of the Equation (12) for polarized electron

space (Figure 2). A principal important particularity of distribution presented is

potential pit and barrier on external border of polarized space with distribution

φ

(

r

) break [8]. Induced by electron core electrical charge is concentered at the

external boundary. Due to charge symmetry the provided results are also correct

for the structure of polarized positron space (in this case the sign of

φ

should be

changed).

Figure 2. Potential distribution in electron screening space for two

D

.

M. J. Ivanov et al.

808

The scheme of polarized electron space is shown on Figure 3(a). There are

shown the electron core with the radius

r

~ 10 − 17 m, part of the polarized

space (the screening sphere filling HMBs) with the radius

r

~ 5 × 10−11 m.

It is possible to model protons and antiprotons in such way. It is supposed

that whole positive charge of proton is situated in its center (Figure 3(b)). The

dimension of this center is less than 10−17 m. It is surrounded by sphere of pola-

rized “liquid” DM. Dimension of this area is about 0.8 × 10−15 m. It is defined by

characteristic size of proton. There is a sphere of “gaseous” DM around the “liq-

uid” one. The modeling of proton bi-layer is possible via integration of Equation

(14) for electrical potential with the help of diverse equations of state (for liquid

and gaseous phases of DM). The obtained solutions are similar to the electron

space solutions [8]. It should be noted that there are two potential holes and two

barriers with their radiuses about

r

≈ 0.8 × 10−15 m and

r

≈ 5 × 10−11 m. The ob-

tained proton structure is stable. Antiproton structure is similar with proton due

to charge symmetry (except for

φ

sign).

Following our methodology we show now shortly the scheme of neutron as a

positive nuclear of proton with Debye screening (up to

r

0 = 0.8 × 10−15 m) by liq-

uid layer of HMB dipoles and stationary electron, presenting on boundary of

Debye region (Figure 3(c)). Decay of neutron gives naturally proton, electron

and antineutrino, which presents itself isolated soliton in DM gaseous medium.

Exact soliton solutions for neutrino and antineutrino were obtained in [21].

The model of hydrogen atom consists of positive charge in the center (

r

< 0.4

× 10−16 m) and two layers of liquid (0.4 × 10−16 <

r

< 0.8 × 10−15) and gaseous (0.8

× 10−15 <

r

< 0.5 × 10−10) polarized DM space (Figure 4). There is also stationary

electron at the external boundary of polarized space (

r

= 0.5 × 10−10 m). This

motionless state of electron is achieved by potential distribution in electron and

proton models and equilibrium between

grad φ

and

grad p

.

The existence of polarized space around atoms with their spherical shape (van

der Waals spheres) has been proved by chemistry of crystals and scanning probe

microscopy. It is possible to manipulate the separate spheres with needle of tun-

nel microscope. We can move these spheres or build some figures of them.

7. Some Technical Applications

Some basic complexities of designing high temperature air-breathing engines

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 3. Scheme of screening spaces of electron (a),

proton (b) and neutron (c).

M. J. Ivanov et al.

809

Figure 4. Scheme of hydrogen atom.

relate to origin of quantum effects (so-called “unexpected” heat) of working

process. This additional heat essentially complicates coordination of engine basic

components (for a turbojet - compressor, combustor and turbine, for a high-

speed air-breathing engine - air inlet, isolator, combustor, and nozzle). In our

simulations we include into account “unexpected” heat as radiate heat and heat

transfer to ST using system (11).

Propulsion combustion chambers with temperatures above 3000 K, scramjet

chambers with temperatures near 2500

K

and other jet engine combustors with

temperatures near 2000

K

are strongly influenced by radiate heat transfer. Ra-

diate heat loads depend on temperature’s fourth power. Radiate heat transfer

simulation usually requires the solution of radiate transfer equation, which de-

pends on special, directional and spectral variables. Examples such types model-

ing were realized for rocket combustion chambers and have good enough

progress. At the same time the practice realization of scramjet propulsion has

great difficulties. One of these reasons is a detrimental operation mode called

unstart.

Using our theoretical model we would like to explain the similar unstart

mode, which don’t allow us to realize supersonic burning in scramjet with posi-

tive thrust. This operation is the unstart mode, when radiation and shocks

(pseudo-shocks system) are destroying supersonic flow in combustor channel.

Figure 5 presents typical results this mode simulation and shows Mach num-

ber and pressure counter lines inside channel without burning (a) and with

burning (b). In the last mode heat addition destroys supersonic burning and

shock wave system is located in the inlet zone. Our simulation based on system

(11) is relevant to high-class models based on real 3D geometry of flow path.

The typical examples of investigation of steady and unsteady working modes

of the bypass gas turbine engines are shown in Figure 6. We present simulation

of whole flow passages for bypass gas turbine engine with afterburning trust 80

kN.

Figure 6 illustrates streamlines and Mach number counter distributions in

whole flow passage of multi regime engine with bypass ratio 0.17 and the 3 stag-

es fan, 6 stages high pressure compressor, annular main combustor, one stage

M. J. Ivanov et al.

810

high and low pressure turbines and afterburner. Additional pressure losses in

main combustors demands very accurate determination high pressure turbine

cross section and correlation of power for compressor driving. Here we have the

decreased flow capacity of the compressor and led finally to increased turbine

inlet temperatures.

At the last we present solutions of external reentry shuttle problems. Flow

structure and surface temperature distribution for two typical shuttles show on

Figure 7. On simulate regime the flight Mach number equals 5 with the angle of

attack 5˚. These calculations use the equilibrium approach based on (11).

(a)

(b)

Figure 5. Mach number lines without burning (a) and pressure counter lines with burn-

ing on unstart mode (b) inside high speed channel.

(a)

(b)

Figure 6. Streamlines (a) and Mach number (b) counter distributions in whole flow pas-

sage of multi regime bypass GTE.

(a) (b)

Figure 7. Flow structure (a) and surface temperature (b) distribution for two typical

shuttles.

M. J. Ivanov et al.

811

8. Conclusions

Deep unity of classic and quantum physics at the space thermostat (ST) pres-

ence, which fulfilled all space by the temperature

T

0 = 2.73

K

,

has been demon-

strated

.

Real physics is based on the principle of Galileo’s relativity (invariance)

and Newton’s laws of motion. After linearization procedure we get quantum

modern physics. The modern theoretical physics bases on the Lorentz inva-

riance. The Noether theorem, the formalism by Lagrange and Hamilton can’t by

right in such type cases of opened systems with the ST presence.

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