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Nixtamalization Process Affects Resistant Starch Formation and Glycemic Index of Tamales

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Tamales were prepared with 3 nixtamalization processes (traditional, ecological, and classic) and evaluated for chemical composition, starch properties, and glycemic index. Resistant starch (RS) in tamales increased 1.6 to 3.7 times compared to raw maize. This increment was due to the starch retrogradation (RS3) and amylose–lipid complexes (RS5) formation. Tamales elaborated with classic and ecological nixtamalization processes exhibited the highest total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber content, and the highest RS content and lower in vivo glycemic index compared to tamales elaborated with traditional nixtamalization process. Thermal properties of tamales showed 3 endotherms: amylopectin retrogradation (42.7 to 66.6 °C), melting of amylose lipid complex type I (78.8 to 105.4), and melting of amylose–lipid complex type II (110.7 to 129.7). Raw maize exhibited X-ray diffraction pattern type A, after nixtamalization and cooking of tamales it changed to V-type polymorph structure, due to amylose–lipid complexes formation. Tamales from ecological nixtamalization processes could represent potential health benefits associated with the reduction on blood glucose response after consumption.
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Food Chemistry
Nixtamalization Process Affects Resistant Starch
Formation and Glycemic Index of Tamales
Rosa Mar´
ıa Mariscal-Moreno, Juan de Dios Figueroa C´
ardenas, David Santiago-Ramos, Patricia Rayas-Duarte,
e Juan Veles-Medina, and H´
ector Eduardo Mart´
Abstract: Tamales were prepared with 3 nixtamalization processes (traditional, ecological, and classic) and evaluated for
chemical composition, starch properties, and glycemic index. Resistant starch (RS) in tamales increased 1.6 to 3.7 times
compared to raw maize. This increment was due to the starch retrogradation (RS3) and amylose–lipid complexes (RS5)
formation. Tamales elaborated with classic and ecological nixtamalization processes exhibited the highest total, soluble
and insoluble dietary fiber content, and the highest RS content and lower in vivo glycemic index compared to tamales
elaborated with traditional nixtamalization process. Thermal properties of tamales showed 3 endotherms: amylopectin
retrogradation (42.7 to 66.6 °C), melting of amylose lipid complex type I (78.8 to 105.4), and melting of amylose–lipid
complex type II (110.7 to 129.7). Raw maize exhibited X-ray diffraction pattern type A, after nixtamalization and
cooking of tamales it changed to V-type polymorph structure, due to amylose–lipid complexes formation. Tamales from
ecological nixtamalization processes could represent potential health benefits associated with the reduction on blood
glucose response after consumption.
Keywords: amylose–lipid complex, nixtamalization process, resistant starch, tamales
Practical Application: Population demands functional products that diminish health problems as obesity. Resistant starch
(RS) is considered dietary fiber, it has exhibited improvements on glycemic index (GI) and other health improve-
ments. This study outlines physicochemical properties and resistant starch formation on tamales elaborated by different
nixtamalization process.
The production of tamales has been traced back to the Ancient
Mayan civilization and they were consumed during feasts as early
as the Preclassic period (1200 to 250 BC; Figueroa and others
2016). Till date, tamales remain an important culinary tradition
in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Southwest of
United States (Hoyer 2008). Tamales are steamed and made of
nixtamalized masa that may contain a variety of fillings. They are
considered a carbohydrate dense food item and few studies have
assessed their carbohydrate digestibility.
Tamales are currently produced by traditional nixtamalization
(TN) by cooking maize kernels in water with calcium hydrox-
ide (lime). However, this process decreases nutrients such as fat,
protein, dietary fiber, and various nutraceutical compounds
es and others 2010). An ecological nixtamalization
(EN) process patented by Figueroa and others (2011) replaced
lime used in the TN by calcium carbonate and demonstrated
that the drawback of nutrient deterioration can be reduced
erez and others 2015; Mariscal Moreno and others 2015;
JFDS-2016-1900 Submitted 11/16/2016, Accepted 3/5/2017. Authors Mariscal-
Moreno, Figueroa, and Veles-Medina are with CINVESTAV-Unidad Quer´
etaro, Li-
bramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Quer´
etaro, Qro. 76230,
exico. Author Santiago-Ramos is with PROPAC, Univ. Aut´
onoma de Quer´
Cerro de las Campanas S/N, Col. Las Campanas, Quer´
etaro, Quer´
etaro, C. P.
76010, M´
exico. Author Rayas-Duarte is withRobert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural
Products Center, Oklahoma State Univ., 123 FAPC, Stillwater, OK 74078–6055,
U.S.A. Author Mart´
ınez-Flores is with Univ. Michoacana de San Nicol´
as de Hi-
dalgo, Facultad de Qu´
ımico Farmacobiolog´
ıa, Tzintzuntzan 173. Col. Matamoros,
Morelia, Mich. C.P. 58240, M´
exico. Direct inquiries to author C´
ardenas (E-mail:
Santiago-Ramos and others 2015). In addition, Mariscal-Moreno
and others (2015) reported improvements in the nutrition profile
of tortillas made with EN and classic nixtamalization (CN). In the
latter process lime was replaced by wood ashes.
There is an increased interest on resistant starch (RS) found
in foods due to its attributed beneficial effects on human health
such as reduction of glycemic index (GI), insulinemic responses to
food, hypocholesterolemic effect, and protection against colorec-
tal cancer (Asp and others 1996). RS was 1st coined by Englyst
and others (1982) to describe a small fraction of starch that was
resistant to hydrolysis by α-amylase and pullulanase as well as other
amylolytic enzymes. Five types of RS have been identified so far,
namely RS1 physically inaccessible starch, RS2 granular starch
with the B- or C-polymorphism, RS3 retrograded starch, RS4
chemically modified starch, and RS5 amylose–lipid complex (Birt
and others 2013).
GI, area under the glycemic response curve of a tested food com-
pared to a reference glucose or white bread of the same amount
(50 g) of available carbohydrate, is a concept proposed by Jenkins
and others (1981) to represent the physiological effect of dietary
carbohydrates in foods (Zhang and Hamaker 2009). The resulting
GI classification of foods provide a numeric physiologic classi-
fication of relevant carbohydrate foods for the prevention and
treatment of diseases such as diabetes (Jenkins and others 1981;
Jenkins and others 2002).
Diets with low glycemic foods have associated health benefits
by reducing the risk of developing diabetes (Salmer´
on and oth-
ers 1997), cardiovascular diseases (Liu and others 2000), obesity,
and metabolic syndrome, as well as a reduction in serum lipids,
and colon and breast cancer. Despite inconsistencies in some re-
ports, sufficient, positive findings have emerged to suggest that the
C2017 Institute of Food Technologists R
doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13703 Vol. 00, Nr. 00, 2017 rJournal of Food Science 1
Further reproduction without permission is prohibited
Food Chemistry
Resistant starch formation on tamales . . .
dietary glycemic index is of potential importance in the treatment,
and prevention of chronic diseases (Jenkins and others 2002).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3 nixta-
malization processes (traditional, ecological, and classic) on the
resistant starch formation, chemical composition, and glycemic
index profile of tamales.
Materials and Methods
Maize (Zea mays var. Huimilpan) kernels, shortening (Alimentos
Capullo, Santa F´
e, Mexico City, Mexico), and baking powder
(Rexal, Productos Mexicanos, Monterrey, NL, Mexico) were pro-
cured from local markets in Queretaro, Mexico. Maize kernels
were stored at 4 °C until needed for processing. Lime (Ca[OH]2)
and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) were food grade, 97% to 99%
purity. Wood ash of oak trees (Quercus agrifolia) was collected from
local communities in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.
Ether was from JT Baker Chemical (99.98% purity).
Traditional nixtamalization process
The TN method used was reported by Campechano and others
(2012). Briefly, maize kernels were mixed with water (1:2 w/v
ratio) and 1% calcium hydroxide (lime), heated at 94 °C for 30 min,
and steeped for 16 h at room temperature. The cooked kernels
(nixtamal) were ground in a stone mill to obtain fresh masa. The
masa was flash dried (CINVESTAV, Queretaro, Mexico) at 260 °C
for 4 s to obtain dehydrated flour and ground with a hammer mill
(Pulvex-200, Mexico City, Mex.) equipped with a 0.8 mm mesh
screen (Figueroa and others 2016).
Ecological nixtamalization process
The EN patented by Figueroa and others (2011) was used in
which the 1% calcium hydroxide (lime) was replaced by calcium
carbonate in the cooking process to obtain whole grain flour.
Briefly, maize was mixed with water (1:2 w/v ratio) and 1% cal-
cium carbonate and heated at 94 °C for 30 min followed by a
steeping process for 16 h at room temperature. Grinding and dry-
ing processes were used as described by Campechano and others
(2012) and in section “Traditional nixtamalization process.”
Classic nixtamalization process
The method described by Mariscal-Moreno and others (2015)
was used. Briefly, CN differed in 2 aspects compared to the other
2 processes, (1) the alkali ingredient used was 1% wood ash and (2)
the cooking time was 40 min. The rest of steps and conditions were
the same as for the TN and EN described in section “Traditional
nixtamalization process” and “Ecological nixtamalization process.”
Blank sample without salt (not nixtamalized)
A blank sample was prepared without salt treatment. Briefly,
maize kernels and water (1:2 ratio w/v) were mixed and the mix-
ture was heated at 94 °C for 40 min, followed by a steeping process
of 16 h at room temperature. The grinding and drying steps were
performed as described in section “Traditional nixtamalization
Processing of tamales
The basic formula for the tamales consisted in 100 g dry flour,
97 g of water, and 37 g of vegetable shortening. The dry flour, wa-
ter, and shortening were mixed by hand until a homogeneous fluffy
dough is obtained and a piece of the dough floats when dropped
onto a beaker with tap water. Baking powder (0.8 g/100 g of dry
nixtamalized flour) and salt (1 g/100 g of dry nixtamalized flour)
were added to the masa and mixed by hand for 1 min. About 80 g
of masa were placed onto washed corn husks used as wraps and
made in a tubular shape. The wrapped masa tamales were loosely
stacked up vertically in a steamer and cooked for 1.5 h until the
dough slips from the corn husk when opened. The cooked tamales
were about 12.3 cm long, 3.8 cm wide, and 2.5 cm thick. Three
batches of tamales were prepared in different days. A portion of the
cooked tamales was cooled at room temperature, ground, dried
at room temperature to constant weight, and stored at 4 °C until
needed for analysis. Another portion was used the same day of
preparation to measure glycemic index in vivo.
Thermal properties
Tamales samples for thermal analysis were defatted using the
method of Bhatnagar and Hannna (1994) to remove free fat.
Briefly, samples were dried at room temperature (72 h) until a
moisture range of 12.5% to 12.9% and mixed with ether at a 1:3
ratio (w/v), placed on a shaker for 15 min, and allowed to settle
for 15 min before filtering to remove the solvent plus free fat.
Thermal analyses were conducted in raw maize and tamales
with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC; model 821, Mettler
Toledo, Greifensee, Switzerland) previously calibrated with in-
dium. Five milligrams of defatted tamale samples were weighed
into an aluminum pan and deionized water was added to reach
60% moisture content. The pan was sealed tightly and allowed to
stand for 1 h before carrying out the analysis. An empty aluminum
pan was used as a reference. The sample was subjected to a heat-
ing program over a range of temperature from 30 to 130 °Cata
heating rate of 10 °C/min.
Four endotherms were characterized: (I) gelatinization en-
dotherm by onset [T0(I)], peak [Tp(I) ], and final [Tf(I) ] gelatiniza-
tion temperatures as well as gelatinization enthalpy [H(I)]; (II)
endotherm related to starch retrogradation by temperatures and
enthalpy of melting of recrystallized amylopectin [T0(RS3),Tp(RS3),
Tf(RS3),HR(RS3) ], (III) melting of the amylose–lipid complex
Form I [T0(RS5-I),Tp(RS5-I) ,Tf(RS5I) ,H(RS5-I)], and (IV) melt-
ing of the amylose–lipid complex Form II [T0(RS5-II),Tp(RS5-II) ,
Tf(RS5-II),H(RS5-II) ] (Santiago-Ramos and others 2017). Each
sample was analyzed in triplicate.
Chemical composition of tamales
AACC International Approved Methods of Analysis were used
for determining ash (08-03.01), fat (30-25.01), protein (46-13.01),
total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber, and nonsoluble dietary
fiber (32-07.01). Total starch and resistant starch were analyzed
by Megazyme assay kits K-TSHK and K-RSTAR (Megazyme
International Ireland, Wicklow A98 YV29) based on AACC In-
ternational Approved Methods 76-13.01 and 32-40.01.
X-ray diffraction
Dry flour and defatted samples (7% of moisture content and
defatted as described in section “Processing of tamales”) were
placed on a glass surface and scanned from 5 to 50°on the 2θ
scale with an X-ray diffractometer (DMAX-2100, Rigaku, Tokyo,
Japan), operated at 30 kV and 16 mA with a CuKa radiation of
λ=1.5405 (Figueroa and others 2013).
Glycemic index
Tamales GI were determined in vivo according to Santiago-
Ramos and others (2015). Briefly, 4 different tamales samples were
2Journal of Food Science rVol. 00, Nr. 00, 2017
Food Chemistry
Resistant starch formation on tamales . . .
Table 1–Chemical composition and glycemic index of maize flour and tamales from different nixtamalization processes.a
Process Protein (%) Fat (%) Ash (%) IDFc(%) SDFc(%) TDFc(%)
To t a l
Raw maize flourb8.7 ±0.23 6.0 ±0.58 1.57 ±0.04 NAeNA NA 79.1 ±0.23 1.1 ±0.19 NA
Tam a l e s
8.0 ±0.0bc 21.9 ±0.3a 6.98 ±0.28a 4.0 ±0.1b 0.9 ±0.1c 4.9 ±0.0c 50.5 ±0.1a 3.2 ±0.0b 81.9 ±2a
7.1 ±0.4d 20.6 ±0.3b 6.21 ±0.01b 5.1 ±0.2a 1.8 ±0.1a 6.9 ±0.3a 47.6 ±0.3b 4.1 ±0.1a 59.8 ±3c
Classic, 1% ash 8.7 ±0.3a 19.1 ±0.0c 5.93 ±0.07c 4.6 ±0.1a 1.0 ±0.1b 5.6 ±0.1b 50.3 ±0.1a 3.3 ±0.2ab 72.8 ±2b
Without salt 8.3 ±0.3b 19.5 ±0.3c 1.09 ±0.01c 3.8 ±0.2b 0.5 ±0.1d 4.3 ±0.2d 50.0 ±0.3a 1.8 ±0.2c 72.6 ±3b
aMeans (n=3) ±standard deviation followed by different letters are significantly different (P<0.05). Data reported on dry basis (w/w).
bMaize flour =whole corn flour.
cIDF, insoluble dietary fiber; SDF, soluble dietary fiber; TDF, total dietary fiber.
dAnalyzed using Megazyme, total starch and resistant starch kits.
eNot available.
tested once by each of 10 volunteers of age range 22 to 33 y old
and BMI 22 to 25 kg/m2. Portions of tamales elaborated the same
day and containing 50 g of available carbohydrates were consumed
by each volunteer over 10 min time period with 250 mL of water.
Tamales were ingested in random order on separate occasions in
the morning after a 12 h overnight fast. Capillary finger-prick
blood samples were taken from subjects at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90,
and 120 min after consuming the sample. Glucose solution was
used as reference which contained 50 g of pure anhydrous glucose
per 250 mL of water. Blood glucose concentrations were measured
using OneTouch Ultra-Mini meter (Johnson & Johnson, Miami,
Fla., U.S.A.). Glycemic index was defined as the area under the
blood glucose response curve for each tamal treatment expressed
as a percentage of the area after taking the same amount of car-
bohydrate as glucose. The in vivo GI test used repeated measure
of analysis of variance to determine the differences between test
Statistical analysis
Results were expressed by means. Comparison of means was
performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan
test analyzed by SAS version 9.3 (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, N.C.,
U.S. A .).
Results and Discussion
Chemical composition of tamales from different
nixtamalization processes
The chemical composition and resistant starch of raw maize
and tamales are shown in Table 1. Significant differences (P<
0.05) in protein content were found where tamales elaborated
with CN had the highest protein content (8.8%) and with EN
the lowest (7.1%; 18.6% lower than CN and raw maize). The
ranking of protein content in tamales was CN =raw maize >
without salt =TN >EN. Differences in protein content in tamales
are influenced by calcium sources added in the nixtamalization
processes. In alkaline solutions as TN, hemicellulose is hydrolyzed
allowing the loss of pericarp that induces protein solubilization.
Campechano and others (2012) reported that protein content of
the nejayote cooking liquor showed a large variability, which may
be due to the solubility effect of different salts and lime on proteins.
According to the Hofmeister (lyotropic) ser ies, anions coupled
with constant cations, for instance calcium (Ca2+), increased the
solubility of protein in the order SO42<OH<Cl(Jane 1993).
According with Jane (1993) cations as K+,Na
wood ashes) had less protein solubilization capacity than Ca2+.
This solubility effect could explain the values of protein obtained in
tamales where CaCO3sample showed the highest loss of protein.
The behavior of CaCO3can be understood when taking into
account the equilibrium CO2+H2O+HCO3+OH-, which
could solubilize part of pericarp and leach soluble proteins (Oosten
1982), having more protein solubilization than TN. This pattern
has been reported by other authors (Campechano and others 2012;
Santiago-Ramos and others 2015). Cations, with the same anion
counterpart, increased the solubility of protein in the order: <
K+Na+<Mg2+<Ca2+(Jane 1993). This explains why CN
has less protein solubilization or the highest protein content. The
presence of those cations in ashes, lime, and CaCO3was reported
by Mariscal-Moreno and others (2015). Same authors indicated
that wood ashes have more K and Mg compared to Lime and
CaCO3used as raw material. The CaCO3did not show Mg
and K as impurities. Fat and ash showed similar trend among
themselves with the highest content in TN tamales and ranking
TN >EN >CN =without salt tamales (Table 1). The range of
fat content was 19.1% to 21.9% and ash 5.98% to 6.98% for tamales
samples representing average increases of about 3.4 times more fat
and 4 times more ash compared to the raw maize kernels. These
observations are explained by the addition of the alkaline salts in
nixtamalization and shortening in the preparation of tamales.
Differences in ashes are attributed to calcium sources used in
nixtamalization, treatment WS had the lowest ash content, because
any salts used in nixtamalization and some elements were lixiviated
in the cooking solution. The data agree with Campechano and
others (2012) who indicated that EN has relatively more ash losses
in nejayote than TN.
The total dietary fiber ranked EN >CN >TN >WS with
6.9%, 5.6%, 4.8%, and 4.3%, respectively (Table 1). These values
reflect the effect of salts on the hydrolysis of pericarp. In ecolog-
ical and classic processes salts reduce the pericarp hydrolysis and
it remains in the whole grain after nixtamalization and washing,
although in TN, the pericarp is hydrolyzed by OHanions and
lost in cooking solution. These observations are relevant from the
nutritional point of view since dietary fiber increases viscosity, re-
duces glycemic response, and plasma cholesterol. Insoluble fibers
are characterized by their porosity, low density and are associated
with increase fecal bulk and decrease intestinal transit (Lattimeret
and Haub 2010). In contrast in food processing operations, incor-
poration of soluble fiber in food products is beneficial as it provides
viscosity, ability to form gels, and/or act as emulsifier (Mudgil and
Barak 2013).
Insoluble dietary fiber and resistant starch showed similar pattern
with EN and CN not significantly different among themselves
Vol. 00, Nr. 00, 2017 rJournal of Food Science 3
Food Chemistry
Resistant starch formation on tamales . . .
and higher than WS tamales, with range values of 3.8% to 5.1%
and 1.8% to 4.2%, for insoluble dietary fiber and resistant starch,
Table 2 shows that starches in tamales WS have lower endother-
mic temperatures or less annealing effect compared to data of
endotherms II, III, and IV for all nixtamalization processes. Also,
tamales WS presented higher retrogradation. Annealing reduces
the amylose leaching from sample. The reduction of amylose
leaching enhances the formation of RS specially the RS5-II. Sim-
ilar results were reported by Figueroa and others (2016). The
reduction in amylose leaching has been attributed to interactions
of amylose-amylose and amylose/amylopectin (Hoover and Vasan-
than 1994; Waduge and others 2006), decrease in granular swelling
(Tester and others 2000), and increase in V-amylose-lipid content
(Tester and others 2000; Waduge and others 2006).
RS was an average of 3.4 times higher in EN and CN tamales
compared to the raw maize and 2.1 times higher RS than the
samples without salt. Total resistant starch in tamales was a mixture
of types 3 and 5 (RS3 and RS5). RS3 is a consequence of amy-
lopectin retrogradation as will be described later (section “Ther-
mal properties”). RS5 content can be explained by the shorten-
ing added in the formulation of tamales and the nixtamalization
process combination of temperature and time (annealing) which
favored the formation of amylose–lipid complexes. Thus, com-
plexes were formed during annealing by (1) nixtamalization of
the kernels to obtain the masa and (2) steaming of tamales (at
temperature >90 °C).
Thermal properties
Thermal properties of tamales and raw maize studied by DSC
analysis are presented in Table 2. For raw maize, the 1st endotherm
corresponding to gelatinization had initial To(I) ,peakTp
final Tf(I) values at about 60, 68, and 81 °C, respectively (Table 2).
These results are similar to those reported by Santiago-Ramos and
others (2015), Mariscal-Moreno and others (2015), and Figueroa
and others (2016). The absence of the gelatinization endotherm
in the tamales samples suggests the starch was completely gela-
tinized (Table 2). Second endotherm corresponds to amylopectin
retrogradation and tamales from WS and TN had the widest range
of Tr(RS3) (19.7 and 23.9 °C) and higher H(RS3) (about 1.25
and 1.0 J/g), suggesting more diversity of arrangements of ret-
rograded amylopectin and more quantity of retrograded amylose
present compared to the EN and CN tamales (Tr[RS3] ranges 16.4
and 17.3 °CandH[RS3] 0.7 J/g, respectively). These values shed
light on the influence of the cations of the salts used on amy-
lopectin and suggests lower retrogradation of amylopectin with
the salts in the EN and CN.
The formation of retrograded starch was influenced by condi-
tioning of the samples (cooling, grinding, drying, and storage at
4°C). Figueroa and others (2016) reported a range of amylopectin
retrogradation enthalpy of 0.30 to 0.51 J/g, whereas the range
of amylopectin retrogradation enthalpy reported in the present
study was 0.65 to 1.25 J/g, showing an increase of retrogradation
starch (resistant starch type 3) after sample conditioning. How-
ever, this procedure was the same for all samples, suggesting that
differences in RS3 are related with different nixtamalization pro-
cesses. Over the course of storage, gelatinized starch molecules
tend to re-associate, mainly attributed to amylopectin as reported
by Garc´
ıa-Rosas and others (2009) when they stored tortillas at
Starch retrogradation is often considered to have undesirable
effects because of its major contribution to the staling of bread
Table 2–Thermal properties of maize flour and tamales from different nixtamalization processes.a
Endotherm I
Endotherm II (amylopectin
Endotherm III (melting of
amylose–lipid complexes type I)
Endotherm IV (melting of
amylose–lipid complexes type II)
Product T0(I) Tp(I) Tf(I) H(I) T0(RS3) Tp(RS3) Tf(RS3) H(RS3) T0(RS5-I) Tp(RS5-I) Tf(RS5-I) H(RS5-I) T0(RS5-II) Tp(RS5-II) Tf(RS-II) H(RS5-II)
(°C) (°C) (°C) (J/g) (°C) (°C) (°C) (J/g) (°C) (°C) (°C) (J/g) (°C) (°C) (°C) (J/g)
Raw Maize flourb59.9 68.3 80.7 7.07 95.8 103.2 110.0 0.23
Tam a l e s
Traditional Ca(OH)2 42.7c 55.8b 66.6a 0.99ab 78.8c 93.2a 103.8a 0.18a 114.2b 121.1b 124.4c 0.27c
Ecological CaCO3 48.6a 57.7a 65.0b 0.66b 85.4b 97.6a 105.4a 0.14a 117.4a 120.9c 127.1b 0.45a
Classic 1% ash 47.1b 56.0b 64.4c 0.65b 90.0a 97.1a 105.4a 0.11a 112.7c 125.9a 129.7a 0.36b
Without salt 42.3c 52.5c 62.0d 1.25a 86.5b 95.5a 97.8a 0.21a 110.7d 116.4d 123.0d 0.06d
aMeans (n=3) followed by different letters are significantly different (P<0.05).
bMaize flour =whole corn flour.
H, enthalpy; T0,Tp,andTfare initial, peak, and final temperature, respectively.
4Journal of Food Science rVol. 00, Nr. 00, 2017
Food Chemistry
Resistant starch formation on tamales . . .
Figure 1–X-ray diffraction patterns of maize and tamales from different
nixtamalization processes: TN, Traditional 1% Ca (OH)2; CN, classic 1%
wood ash; EN, ecological with 1% CaCO3; WS, without salts.
and other starch-rich foods, which can cause reduced shelf life
and consumer acceptance and lead to significant waste, thus posing
significant challenges to food processors (Collar and Rosell 2013).
However, starch retrogradation is desirable in terms of nutritional
significance, due to the slower enzymatic digestion and moderated
release of glucose into the blood stream (Copeland and others
The 3rd endotherm corresponds to amylose–lipid complex
form I (AMLC Form I) that is commonly found in native cereal
starch granules. Native lipids in cereal starch granules are mostly
free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, although the content of
lipids in cereal starch granules is positively correlated with the
amylose content of starch (Morrison and others 1984). AMLC
form I is formed after gelatinization of starch in the presence of
endogenous or added lipids (Goderis and others 2014). This en-
dotherm was reported in tamales by Figueroa and others (2016).
Similar values of AMLC form I (average H[RS5-I] 0.16 J/g) sug-
gests that the amount of this amylose complex in all treatments
was similar and differed only in the variety of species as revealed
by a different range of temperature (Table 2). The 4th endotherm
corresponds to AMLC form II and was observed at higher temper-
atures (110 to 130 °C) compared to the AMLC form I (Goderis
and others 2014). According with Tufvesson and others (2000),
if type I complexes are annealed at high temperature (>90 °C),
they are transformed into type II complexes. In tamales processing
the temperature is higher than 90 °C, as it occurs during steam
X-ray diffraction
The X-ray diffractograms of tamales and raw maize samples are
presented in Figure 1. The x-ray diffractogram of maize showed a
typical A-type diffraction pattern showing peaks at d-spacings of
5.80, 5.13, 4.89, 4.45, and 3.84 ˚
A. These values as reported by
Zobel (1988) are characteristic of A-type starch crystal common
in most cereal starches.
The 4 tamal samples formed the inclusion complexes with
fatty acids, as confirmed by V-type patterns displayed in diffrac-
tograms (Figure 1). The V-pattern was inferred from 3 main peaks
corresponding to the Bragg angles 2θat approximately 13°and
20°(Zabar and others 2010; Chang and others 2013). This V-
pattern agrees with the results from Figueroa and others (2016) and
(2013) who indicated that combined treatments involving starch
Figure 2–Blood glucose curves of volunteers after drinking glucose solution
(50 g in 250 mL water) at time 0 or after ingestion of the same amount
of carbohydrate as glucose from total starch (dry basis) in tamales. TN,
Traditional with Ca(OH)2; CN, classic 1% wood ash; EN, ecological with
1% CaCO3; WS, without salt; GLC, glucose solution.
annealing during nixtamalization and heat treatment of the wet
nixtamal are determinant for forming ther mally-resistant starches
of amylose–lipid complexes. The direct effect is an increase in the
gelatinization temperatures with an improved starch granule sta-
bility against collapse at water boiling temperatures in the pozole
(Figueroa and others 2013), quite similar to the behaviors of the
thermal and X-rays properties found in tamales (Figueroa and oth-
ers 2016). In addition, Chang and others (2013) reported that the
relative crystallinity and resolution of the peaks in diffractograms
of the starch–lipid complexes were mainly influenced by amy-
lose content, fatty acid chain length, and the type of the thermal
treatment used.
Glycemic index
GI is used for comparison of the impact of food products with
high amount of carbohydrates on blood glucose after their con-
sumption. The GI of a food cannot easily be predicted from the
basic food components and must be measured as an in vivo re-
sponse relative to a standard (Aston 2006). Figure 2 displays the
behavior of tamales elaborated with different nixtamalization pro-
cess compared to glucose solution as reference. Tamales elaborated
with EN showed lower digestion rate compared to the other nix-
tamalization processes. These observations are in agreement with
the samples showing highest level of TDF and RS for mation
(Table 1). Highest digestibility was found in tamales elaborated
with TN (Figure 2). According to Aston (2006), a low-GI food
is defined as having a GI of 55, and a high-GI food has a GI
of 70. Thus, EN can be categorized as medium GI and TN as
high GI. A reduction in GI induced by nixtamalization process is
a desirable outcome in tamales and would contribute to a better
understanding of the properties of different ethnic foods. Possible
beneficial effects on health of ethnic food with low GI and their
influence in metabolic syndrome and obesity need to be further
Calcium sources used on nixtamalization processes affect the
structure and functionality of starch in tamales. Tamales prepara-
tion processes (masa mixed, steaming, cooling, and stored) induce
RS formation type 3 and 5 (form I and II). The EN and CN pro-
duced tamales with higher resistant starch formation than native
maize or maize boiled without salts. In addition, salts added in
Vol. 00, Nr. 00, 2017 rJournal of Food Science 5
Food Chemistry
Resistant starch formation on tamales . . .
nixtamalization, decrease amylopectin retrogradation, and incre-
ment amylose–lipid complex type II.
Higher TDF and lower glycemic index in EN, CN than TN
processes, suggest that RS and TDF content have an effect on
glycemic index. The results of this study support the hypothesis
that nixtamalization process is a helpful tool for the improvement
of glycemic index and potential health benefits of tamales espe-
cially those elaborated using EN.
Rosa Mar´
ıa Mariscal-Moreno and David Santiago-Ramos
thank the CONACYT for the Ph.D. scholarships. We thank
to Mart´
ın Adelaido Hern´
andez-Landaverde, Ver´
onica Flores-
Casamayor, Ger ´
onimo Ar´
ambula-Villa, and Sergio Jim´
Sandoval from Cinvestav-Quer´
etaro for their technical support.
Authors’ Contributions
R.M. Mariscal-Moreno execution of experimental work, in-
terpretation results, and draft writing. J.D.C. Figueroa C´
designed and planned the study. D. Santiago Ramos and J.J. V´
Medina performed some analysis. Rayas-Duarte and Mart´
Flores writing of manuscript.
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6Journal of Food Science rVol. 00, Nr. 00, 2017
... Calcium increase can also be associated with alkalinity increase since higher pH accelerates the removal of pericarp material, thereby promoting calcium interaction with the maize endosperm (Bressani et al., 2004;Rodríguez-Miranda et al., 2011). TNP flour showed a significantly higher crude ash content as compared to ENP flour which is mainly attributed to the calcium source used during alkaline-cooking (Pappa et al., 2010;Mariscal-Moreno et al., 2017). Both TNP and ENP used 1% (w/w) of alkali source but of different molecular weights: MW= 74 g/mol for calcium hydroxide and MW= 100 g/mol for calcium carbonate. ...
... The increase in resistant starch is attributed to the heat treatments during the process' steps that promote the interaction of the starch with proteins, lipids, and its own components, making it less susceptible to enzyme hydrolysis . Moreover, Santiago-Ramos et al. (2015) and Mariscal-Moreno et al. (2017) specified that this increase corresponds mainly as a consequence of amylopectin retrogradation and the formation of amyloselipid complexes. This explication matches the results for amylose and amylopectin contents in which relatively higher values were found in TNP flour than in other nixtamalized flours. ...
... The trend in which the highest increase for soluble dietary fiber content as well as the highest decrease for insoluble dietary fiber content as observed in TNP flour among all nixtamalized flours reflecting the effect of salts on the hydrolysis of pericarp components. This is also true with the results of Mariscal-Moreno et al. (2017) in which the authors stated that hydrolysis by OH − anions as compared to other anions results in higher pericarp losses in the nejayote. Salts used in the ecological and classic processes reduce the pericarp hydrolysis, thereby retaining most of them in the whole grain even after cooking and steeping. ...
Full-text available
Nixtamalization is an ancient method of processing corn that is said to enhance the nutritional value of maize by improving protein quality, increasing calcium and niacin bioavailability, and reducing phytic acid levels, thus increasing iron digestibility and biovailability. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different nixtamalization processes on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of quality protein maize (QPM) flour and evaluate its potential and acceptability as a flour substitute in Philippine salt bread baking, determined through sensory analysis. Three processes of nixtamalization were employed, namely, traditional, classic, and ecological. Nixtamalized QPM flours, combined with wheat flour in 30:70 ratio, were used in the product development and sensory evaluation of Philippine salt bread. Results revealed that nixtamalization contributed significantly in the pH, color, and particle size of nixtamalized QPM flours. There was a significant increase (P ≤0.05) in the moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, crude ash, calcium, iron, niacin, lysine, tryptophan, total starch, amylose, amylopectin, resistant starch, and soluble fiber contents and a significant decrease in the crude fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), phytate, and insoluble fiber contents of QPM flours after nixtamalization. No significant difference was found in the zinc and total dietary fiber contents among the samples. The Philippine salt bread produced using nixtamalized QPM flours had a high overall acceptability based on two-step sensory analysis. QPM is greatly improved by the ancient technology of nixtamalization and nixtamalized QPM flour showed desirable contributions in terms of the nutritional value and sensory attributes of Philippine salt bread when used as a flour substitute or blend.
... However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated the rehydration kinetics of nixtamalized corn. This being a particularly important process to be described and controlled since during nixtamalization changes in structure and composition occur, the main ones being: removal of the pericarp [7], partial gelatinization of starch [8,9], and calcium uptake [10,11]. These modifications will impact the rehydration kinetics. ...
... Another important aspect is that during the nixtamalization process, partial gelatinization of corn starch has been reported (which occurs at > 70 °C) in the external layers of the endosperm. Starch in raw corn exhibited X-ray diffraction pattern type A, and after nixtamalization, it changed to V-type reflecting changes in their structure [9]. Gelatinization is influenced by temperature but also in the dissociation level of each compound used during nixtamalization [3,8]. ...
... Some additional similarities, however, have been noted between superheating and alkaline experiments with maize starch. Both heating (Fanta et al., 2002) and nixtamalization (Mariscal-Moreno et al. 2017;Mondrag� on et al., 2004) produce a rearrangement of amylose into a V-type (helical) crystalline structure, a conformation not present in native starch, which is comprised entirely of A-and B-type crystals. There is also evidence that nixtamalization results in calcium joining the amylose complex (e.g., Trejo-Gonz� alez et al., 1982). ...
... Therefore, it appears that prolonged contact with the alkaline solution (>24 h) is sufficient to gelatinize starch granules enough to allow amylose to recrystallize into a new spherulitic form in the presence of a divalent cation, such as calcium. The literature indicates that divalent cations (Ca, although Mg also works; Trejo-Gonz� alez et al., 1982:254-256) are a necessary component that allows cross-links among starch molecules to form, enabling crystalline restructuring (into V-type conformations; Mariscal-Moreno et al. 2017;Mondragon et al., 2004) and spherulite formation (Bryant and Hamaker, 1997;Hongsprabhas et al., 2014). ...
Nixtamalization is a cooking technique that has played a significant role for thousands of years in the foodways of indigenous communities throughout the Americas. By cooking maize in an alkaline solution, often made from slaked lime, the process of nixtamalization increases the nutritional value of maize and helps to prevent severe malnutrition in populations dependent on maize as a staple food source. Due to the preservation bias against macrobotanical remains in tropical soils, microbotanical analyses of pottery residues are increasingly used to identify ancient plant use and preparation. However, to date no method has been developed to directly identify nixtamalization in the archaeological record via residue analysis. Through experimental replication of the nixtamalization process we have identified a unique product of the lime-based alkaline cooking process: residues that we conclude are starch spherulites. Here, we detail the range of diagnostic morphologies characteristic of starch spherulites and propose that the presence of starch spherulites found on cooking vessels and grinding stones, or within archaeological sediments, can act as a proxy for the use of the nixtamalization process. Through applications of polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and SEM-EDS, this research lays the groundwork for the direct identification of nixtamalization in archaeological contexts, offering for the first time a direct mechanism with which to assess the inception and expansion of nixtamalization throughout the Americas.
... Studies related to the content of RS in products made from nixtamalized corn have been directed to the effect of this component on serum glucose levels in vivo studies [7,8]. In addition, it has been reported that the content of RS can increase in a food in different ways, for example, during storage [9]. ...
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The tortilla is a foodstuff that has a short shelf-life, causing great losses to the industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate, for the first time, the physicochemical properties and resistant starch (RS) content of flours. These were obtained from nixtamalized corn tortillas made with traditional and industrial (commercial) methods, stored at 4 °C for 7, 15, and 30 days. The flours were characterized by measuring particle size distribution, color, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), viscosity, calcium, and RS content. Additionally, chemical proximate analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal analysis were conducted. Storage at 4 °C increased the friability of tortillas and shifted the particle size distribution toward a greater content of coarse particles in corn tortilla flours. The commercial corn tortilla flours showed higher WAI and WSI values than the traditional corn tortilla flours. On the other hand, the traditional corn tortilla flours exhibited higher RS content values than commercial corn tortilla flours as well as peak viscosity. X-ray diffractograms revealed the presence of amylose-lipid complexes (RS5) in experimental samples. The thermograms evidenced three endotherms corresponding to corn starch gelatinization and melting of type I and type II amylose–lipid complexes.
... Gels from nixtamalized starch were softer than those from raw starch, due to partial gelatinization accrued during nixtamaliza- tion. Moreover, nixtamalization increases the content of resistant starch(Mariscal-Moreno et al., 2017; Rendon-Villaboles, Bello- Pérez, Osorio-Díaz, Tovar, & Paredes-López, 2002) which may result in low glycemic food. However,Mendez-Montealvo et al. (2008) re- ...
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Cereal and legume diets make up the bulk of caloric sources for a majority of households in the developing world. They contain macro- and micronutrients as well as phytochemicals embedded as one matrix. Some phytochemicals are antinutritional factors which can bind nutrients thereby hindering their bioavailability. While there are other methods that can be used to enhance nutrient utilization from such foods, we summarize how food processing methods such as extrusion and nixtamalization are employed to break the food matrix and release these nutrients. Both extrusion and nixtamalization can break down complex carbohydrates into simpler, more soluble forms while at the same time inactivating or denaturing protein inhibitors and other antinutritional factors. Such disruptions of complexes within the food matrix are essential for harnessing optimum nutritional and health benefit from these foods. We present mechanistic approaches explaining how these processes enhance nutrient and mineral bioavailability and phytochemical bioactivity while minimizing the undesirable effects of antinutritional factors that coexist in the complex food matrix.
... [16] Moreover, some nutritional properties that have been reported are high protein-efficiency ratio, as evaluated in rats fed with EN tortillas, suggesting the nutritional improvement of the ecological nixtamalized products. Finally, masa and tortillas elaborated with EN showed good appearance and excellent sensorial characteristics compared to those produced by TN. [36,37] As a principal technological advantage, the pH reduction in the water waste solution apparently diminished the ecological impact. However, the use of large amounts of water is not considered as a viable solution for large-scale production of tortillas and nixtamalized products. ...
Traditional nixtamalization produces the “gold standard” tortilla, but the process is ecologically nonviable, and high nutrimental and phytochemical losses are reported. Many alternative nixtamalization technologies have emerged and at least fourteen processes have been reported with scientific evidence in improving the nutrimental/nutraceutical properties, reduction of contaminant effluents, processing time and water use. Despite all the alternative processes developed during the last decades, none of them has been successfully adopted by the tortilla industry because of the extra equipment and time required to implement those new technologies even when the nutritional and sensorial benefits of the obtained products have been proven. The objective of this review is to propound a new classification according to their principal purposes, and describe in detail the most important alternative technologies to produce tortillas and the specifications about the processing factors involved, including their advantages, disadvantages, and disagreements of each one. Moreover, chemical, nutrimental and functional properties affected by the different processes are addressed from the grain, nixtamal, nixtamalized flours, masa, and tortillas.
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One of the most traditional foods in Mexico is pozole (a soup of maize grains with pork). Maize starch interacts with fatty acids during its preparation, generating amylose-lipid complexes. This study aimed to determine the effect of lard concentration on the formation of amylose-lipid complexes and their effect on the physicochemical properties of the starch after pozole preparation. Three maize varieties were nixtamalized and cooked, using 0, 6, 8, and 10 % lard. Grain physical parameters, viscosity, resistant starch, and detailed characterization of starch granules were analyzed. X-ray diffraction patterns showed structural damage in the crystalline starch structure. Two of the maize varieties showed an amylose-lipid endotherm with the addition of lard. The viscosity profile was affected by grain hardness and heat treatment, whereas lard addition decreased the viscosity of samples. The addition of higher percentages of lard (8 and 10%) favors the formation of amylose-lipid complexes, as shown in thermal properties and resistant starch.
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Objetivo: En el presente trabajo se evaluó la sustitución parcial de harina de maíz nixtamalizado por harina de triticale y de arroz y su efecto sobre la textura de los tamales utilizando diez mezclas. Metodología: Se evaluó la dureza, adhesividad, cohesividad y gomosidad de los tamales, así como el tamaño de partícula y contenido de amilosa de las harinas utilizadas para elaborarlos. Resultados: Se observó que los tamales con mayor contenido de arroz tendían a ser más duros seguidos por los de maíz y triticale. A medida que en las mezclas se incrementaba el arroz la dureza del tamal era mayor, mientras que con el aumento de triticale la adhesividad aumentaba, el maíz produce tamales con dureza y adhesividad intermedios. En cuanto al tamaño de partícula de las harinas, la que presentó mayor tamaño fue la de triticale seguida por maíz y arroz; la harina de arroz contiene la mayor cantidad de amilosa, seguida por la de maíz y finalmente triticale. Limitaciones: Si bien el estudio muestra la posibilidad de elaborar tamales con otros granos y la influencia de estas mezclas sobre la textura del tamal, es necesario ahondar en el conocimiento sobre la relación existente entre los ingredientes que conforman la matriz particularmente la función de la fracción proteica. Conclusiones: La dureza de los tamales se debe a la contribución de los componentes unitarios derivado de las propiedades de cada harina. Las harinas con gránulos más pequeños y homogéneos producen tamales más duros, pero menos adhesivos. La relación amilosa-dureza indica la fuerte influencia de este componente sobre la textura del tamal.
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The effect of addition of mango peel (MP) and decocted roselle calyces (DRC) powder to tortilla chips was studied to analyze the supplementation potential of these underexploited plant residues possessing attractive nutraceutical properties. Supplementation of either MP or DRC at two different levels (5.0 and 10%) increased total phenols and ABTS radical scavenging and modified the color and morphology of the tortilla chips. The addition of MP or DRC to nixtamalized maize flour increased the insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents in the tortilla chips (1.30 and 4.90 times, MP; 1.47 and 4.15 times, DRC). Partial dehydration of the tortilla prior to frying produces a low-fat tortilla chip. In this context, tortilla chips enriched with MP and DRC exhibited a lower in vivo Glycemic Index (GI) compared to the control. Acceptable tortilla chips were obtained by incorporating 5 and 10% MP. The results suggest that the use of MP or DRC may be an interesting way to both increase dietary fiber content to control the glycemic index and to improve the functional properties of tortilla chips.
Resistant starch (RS; types 1 to 5) cannot be digested in the small intestine and thus enters the colon intact, with some types capable of being fermented by gut microbes. As a fiber, types 1, 2, 3, and 5 are found naturally in foods, while types 2, 3, and 4 can be added to foods as a functional ingredient. This narrative review identifies RS content in whole foods commonly consumed in the United States. Scientific databases (n=3) were searched by two independent researchers. Ninety-four peer-reviewed articles published between 1982 and September 2018 were selected in which the RS was quantified and the food preparation method before analysis was suitable for consumption. The RS from each food item was adjusted for moisture if the RS value was provided as percent dry weight. Each food item was entered into a database according to food category, where the weighted mean±weighted standard deviation was calculated. The range of RS values and overall sample size for each food category were identified. Breads, breakfast cereals, snack foods, bananas and plantains, grains, pasta, rice, legumes, and potatoes contain RS. Foods that have been cooked then chilled have higher RS than cooked foods. Foods with higher amylose concentrations have higher RS than native varieties. The data from this database will serve as a resource for health practitioners to educate and support patients and clients interested in increasing their intake of RS-rich foods and for researchers to formulate dietary interventions with RS foods and examine associated health outcomes.
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Objective: To examine prospectively the relationship between glycemic diets, low fiber intake, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Design: Cohort study. Setting: In 1986, a total of 65173 US women 40 to 65 years of age and free from diagnosed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes completed a detailed dietary questionnaire from which we calculated usual intake of total and specific sources of dietary fiber, dietary glycemic index, and glycemic load. Main outcome measure: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Results: During 6 years of follow-up, 915 incident cases of diabetes were documented. The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with risk of diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol and cereal fiber intake, and total energy intake. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, the relative risk (RR) of diabetes was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.71, P trend=.005). The glycemic load (an indicator of a global dietary insulin demand) was also positively associated with diabetes (RR= 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16-1.86, P trend=.003). Cereal fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of diabetes when comparing the extreme quintiles (RR=0.72, 95% CI, 0.58-0.90, P trend=.001). The combination of a high glycemic load and a low cereal fiber intake further increased the risk of diabetes (RR=2.50, 95% CI, 1.14-5.51) when compared with a low glycemic load and high cereal fiber intake. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that diets with a high glycemic load and a low cereal fiber content increase risk of diabetes in women. Further, they suggest that grains should be consumed in a minimally refined form to reduce the incidence of diabetes.
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Tamales were produced using a traditional nixtamalization process. The nixtamal was milled into masa, mixed with shortening and boiled to prepare tamales. Enzymatic methods and DSC enthalpies were used to investigate resistant starch (RS) and starch-lipid complexes (resistant starch 5; RS5). The addition of shortening to masa showed an endotherm of lipid melting with To(m), Tp(m) and Tf(m) of approximately 40°C, 44°C and 50°C, respectively. Processing masa by boiling at >90°C for 2 h to make tamales showed three endotherms: one related to amylopectin retrogradation (RS3), one to starch gelatinization (G) and one to Type I complex (RS5). The retrograded amylopectin presented temperatures of 49°C, 55°C and 60°C for To(RS3), Tp(RS3) and Tf(RS3), respectively. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that during processing starch Type A complexed with lipids to form a Type V (RS5) amylose-lipid starch complex. The RS5 in tamales estimated by DSC affected blood glucose levels from in vivo tests.
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Nixtamalization is an ancient process developed by the Mesoamerican cultures. Initially, volcanic ashes were used and then calcium hydroxide in commercial production, and more recently nixtamalization with calcium salts (NCS) has been proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NCS on carbohydrate digestibility and antioxidant capacity in the elaboration of blue maize tortillas. NCS in blue tortillas showed a high amount of total dietary fiber (14.27 g/100 g), the main fraction being insoluble dietary fiber. The contents of resistant starch and slowly digestible starch did not change with the nixtamalization process. The predicted glycemic index value was lower in blue tortillas with the NCS process (58) than with the traditional nixtamalization process (71). In general, NCS in blue tortillas presented a higher antioxidant capacity than traditional tortillas (ferric reducing antioxidant power method), indicating that phenolics present in blue maize maintain their activity after cooking. It can be concluded that the nutraceutical features (high dietary fiber content and antioxidant capacity) of blue maize tortillas are enhanced when they are elaborated with the NCS process.
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The objective of this work was to study the formation of resistant starch in tortillas from an ecological nixtamalization process and compared with the traditional nixtamalization process. The resistant starch (RS) increased trough the all steps of tortilla production. It was found that the increment of the RS corresponds mainly to the formation of RS5 (V-amylose-lipid complex) but in tortillas two major types of RS coexist: RS5 and RS3 (retrograded starch). In general, tortillas from the ecological nixtamalization process gave higher values of protein, lipids, total dietary fiber, insoluble fiber, soluble fiber and resistant starch compared to tortillas from the traditional nixtamalization process and commercial flour. The highest glycemic index (GI) occurs in the tortilla from commercial flour, whereas tortillas from 0.4% CaCO3 and 0.6% CaSO4 were classified as medium-GI (GI 50-70) food group. Tortillas from 0.6% CaCl2 had the lowest value of GI. The ecological nixtamalization processes caused significant differences in quality and nutritional properties of tortillas.
Starch-fatty acid complexes were prepared using swelled normal cornstarch (NC) and lauric acid (LA). Two different modes of adding LA to the starch slurry were employed; i.e. either adding the LA to the heated starch suspension (method I) or adding the LA to the starch suspension and then heating (method II). Effects of the modes of adding LA on the V-amylose complex distribution and digestibility were studied. Lipid content determination indicated that method I is favorable to the formation of V-amylose complex. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic examination indicated that NC LA complex prepared by method I seemed to be more swollen, and the V-amylose complex distributed throughout the granules, while NC LA complex prepared by method II was mainly distributed on the surface of starch granules. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal property demonstrated that method I was more beneficial to the formation of more crystalline structure than that of method II. The in vitro digestibility investigation showed that the addition of LA through method I had the ability of slowing the hydrolysis of starch.
Objective. —To examine prospectively the relationship between glycemic diets, low fiber intake, and risk of non—insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.Desing. —Cohort study.Setting. —In 1986, a total of 65173 US women 40 to 65 years of age and free from diagnosed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes completed a detailed dietary questionnaire from which we calculated usual intake of total and specific sources of dietary fiber, dietary glycemic index, and glycemic load.Main Outcome Measure. —Non—insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.Results. —During 6 years of follow-up, 915 incident cases of diabetes were documented. The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with risk of diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol and cereal fiber intake, and total energy intake. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, the relative risk (RR) of diabetes was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.71, Ptrend=.005). The glycemic load (an indicator of a global dietary insulin demand) was also positively associated with diabetes (RR=1.47; 95% CI, 1.16-1.86, Ptrend=.003). Cereal fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of diabetes when comparing the extreme quintiles (RR=0.72,95% CI, 0.58-0.90, Ptrend=.001). The combination of a high glycemic load and a low cereal fiber intake further increased the risk of diabetes (RR=2.50, 95% CI, 1.14-5.51) when compared with a low glycemic load and high cereal fiber intake.Conclusions. —Our results support the hypothesis that diets with a high glycemic load and a low cereal fiber content increase risk of diabetes in women. Further, they suggest that grains should be consumed in a minimally refined form to reduce the incidence of diabetes.
Three different crystalline amylose–glycerol monostearate (GMS) complexes with increasing thermal stability can be distinguished: type I, type IIa, and type IIb. All complexes consist of GMS-loaded amylose helices that pack hexagonally into lamellar habits. The complex melting points are proportional to the thickness of the lamellae and depend on the amount of water in the system. For type I complexes, SAXS experiments reveal folded amylose chains and a lamellar thickness governed by the presence of two stretched lipid molecules per amylose helix. In the conversion from type I to type IIa complexes, the short amylose chains unfold and assume a stretched conformation, which increases the number of aligned lipid molecules within the helices to four. In type IIb complexes, another pair of lipid molecules is added. The derived quantitative relation between crystal layer thickness, water content and melting point for amylose–GMS complexes also predicts the melting points of other amylose–monoacyl glycerol complexes.