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Work centrality and its relationship to work life balance

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The present study was designed to analyse the relationship between work centrality and work life balance of doctors employed in government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh. The study also sought to determine whether age and gender had any relationship with work centrality of doctors. The study was conducted through the sample of 141 doctors employed in various government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh. The data thus collected have been analyzed with the help of SPSS 17. In order to analyze the data the statistical tools viz. Pearson correlation coefficient and Independent sample t-test were used.Bibliographical Note: Sakshi Vashisht is an Assistant Professor at Mittal School of Business (Lovely Professional University). She is pursuing Ph.D. from Himachal Pradesh University Business School (Thesis Submitted). She is M.B.A. (Human Resource Management and Marketing Management) and B.Tech in Information Technology. The author's areas of interest are Human Resource Management and Organization Behaviour.
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research
249
Work Centrality and its Relationship to Work Life Balance
Sakshi Sharma1
1Assistant Professor, Mittal School of Business, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar-Delhi G.T. Road, National Highway 1, Phagwara,
Punjab 144411. Email: sakshi84.sharma@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The present study was designed to analyse the relationship between work centrality and work life balance of
doctors employed in government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh. The study also sought to determine whether
age and gender had any relationship with work centrality of doctors. The study was conducted through the
sample of 141 doctors employed in various government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh. The data thus collected
have been analyzed with the help of SPSS 17. In order to analyze the data the statistical tools viz. Pearson
correlation coefficient and Independent sample t-test were used.
Bibliographical Note: Sakshi Vashisht is an Assistant Professor at Mittal School of Business (Lovely
Professional University). She is pursuing Ph.D. from Himachal Pradesh University Business School (Thesis
Submitted). She is M.B.A. (Human Resource Management and Marketing Management) and B.Tech in
Information Technology. The author’s areas of interest are Human Resource Management and Organization
Behaviour.
Keywords: work life balance, work family conflict, work centrality, work family balance.
INTRODUCTION1.
1.1. Work Life Balance
Work life balance is an increasingly popular term; there is no clear consensus on what it means, although
most definitions do include the concepts of flexibility, juggling and sustainability. Work-life balance is most
frequently used to describe the equilibrium between responsibilities at work and responsibilities outside
paid work; having a work-life balance means that this equilibrium is in the right position for the individual
concerned (Visser & Williams, 2006).
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Sakshi Sharma
International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research 250
Work life balance is a concept that supports the efforts of employees to split their time and energy
between work and the other important aspects of their lives. It is a daily effort to make time for family,
friends, community participation, spirituality, personal growth, self care, and other personal activities, in
addition to the demands of the workplace (Heathfield, n.d.). Although work-life balance has conventionally
been assumed to involve devotion of equal amount of time to paid work and non-work roles, more recently
the concept has been recognized as more complex. Greenhaus et. al., (2002) explains that work-life balance
contains three components viz., time balance, involvement balance, and satisfaction balance. Time balance
concerns the amount of time given to work and non-work roles. Involvement balance means the level of
psychological involvement in, or committed to, work and non-work roles. Satisfaction balance concerns
the level of satisfaction with work and non-work roles.
1.2. Work Centrality
The concept of “work centrality” refers generally to the degree of importance work plays in one’s life
(Paullay, Alliger, & Stone-Romero, 1994). Higher work centrality means that one identifies with one’s work
roles, and sees work as an important aspect of life (Diefendorff, Brown, Kamin, & Lord, 2002). Thus,
individuals who score high on the dimension work centrality attach more importance to the role of work
in their life than the individuals who score low on this dimension of work centrality.
Work centrality differ from the concept of job involvement whereas work centrality refers to the
extent to which people perceive work as a main component of their life, job and work involvement refer
to the extent to which people are immersed in their present job or work (Bal & Kooij, 2011). As such,
work centrality is broader in scope than job or work involvement, because it reflects the importance of
work in general, whereas the scope of job involvement concern the job that a person currently has (Bal
& Kooij, 2011).
Mannheim (1975) defined work centrality as ‘the relative dominance of work-related contents in the
individual’s mental processes, as reflected in responses to questions concerning the degree of concern,
knowledge, and interest invested in the work role relative to other activities and in the individual’s emphasis
on work related sub-identities’ (p. 81).
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY2.
Keeping in mind the review of past studies, the present study was conducted with the following objectives;
1. To study the relationship between work centrality and work life balance (and its dimensions) of
doctors in government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh.
2. To study the difference in work lie balance (and its dimensions) among doctors at varied levels
of work centrality (i.e., low, average and high work centrality).
3. To study the relationship between demographic variables (age and gender) and work centrality.
HYPOTHESIS3.
H01: There is no significant relationship between work centrality and work life balance (and its dimensions)
of doctors in government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh.
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H02: There is no significant difference in work life balance (and its dimensions) among doctors at varied
levels of work centrality (i.e. low, average and high work centrality).
H03: There is no significant relationship between age and work centrality of doctors in government hospitals
of Himachal Pradesh.
H04: There is no significant relationship between gender and work centrality of doctors in government
hospitals of Himachal Pradesh.
H05: There is no significant difference in work centrality of doctors at varied levels of age.
H06: There is no significant difference in work centrality of male and female doctors.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY4.
The study is based on primary data collected through a survey conducted on the sample consisting of 141
doctors employed in government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh. In order to get the required information
a well designed questionnaire was prepared and administered among respondents. Data was collected from
six government hospitals of four districts of Himachal Pradesh namely Kangra, Mandi, Shimla and Solan.
There were 503 doctors working in these six hospitals. Questionnaires were distributed to 215 doctors of
which 141 questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 65% respectively. The respondents
were selected using convenience and judgement sampling techniques. The data thus collected have been
analyzed with the help of SPSS 17. The various statistical tools used were Pearson correlation coefficient,
one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests.
4.1. Reliability
4.1.1. Work Life Balance
In the present study, the WIPL scale had a reliability of a = .92, the PLIW subscale had a reliability of
a = .83 and the WPLE subscale had a reliability of a = .89. Work life balance was assessed with 15-item
scale adapted from an instrument developed and reported by Fisher-McAuley, Stanton, Jolton and Gavin
(2003). Their original scale consisted of 19 items designed to assess three dimensions of work life balance:
work interference with personal life (WIPL), personal life interference with work (PLIW), and work/
personal life enhancement (WPLE). The scale used in the present study is the scale reported by Hyman
(2005), where the original 19 items have been reduced to 15 items, but retains all three dimensions. The
respondents were asked to indicate the frequency with which they have felt in a particular way during
the past three months using a seven point time related scale (e.g. 1 = Not at all, 4 = Sometimes, and 7 =
All the time). Scoring was done as 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 (7 = Not at all, 4 = Sometimes, and 1 = All the time)
for the dimensions of work interference with personal life (except item 7, which was reverse coded)
and personal life interference with work. Higher scores indicated low interference, and lower levels of
interference were interpreted as higher levels of work-life balance. For the dimension work/personal life
enhancement scoring was 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (1 = Not at all, 4 = Sometimes, and 7 = All the time) as the items
were positively worded. The overall work life balance score was computed by adding the score on three
dimensions.
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research 252
4.1.2. Work Centrality Scale
Work centrality was assessed using the 12-item Work Centrality Scale (Paullay et. al., 1994). Participants
were asked to indicate their agreement to a series of items pertaining to the importance of work in their
lives, using a five-point Likert-type Scale, ranging from 1(Strongly disagree) to 5(Strongly agree). A sample
item included “work should only be a small part of one’s life.” Items 1, 6, 9 and 10 were reverse coded. In
the present study internal consistency reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) for this scale was reported
as a = .78.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION5.
5.1. Relationship between Work Centrality and Work Life Balance
H01: “There is no significant relationship between work centrality and work life balance (and its dimensions)
of doctors in government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh.”
To test the hypothesis Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. Table 20.1 shows the results of
Pearson correlation between work centrality and work life balance and its dimensions.
Table 20.1
Correlation coefficient between work centrality
and work life balance and its dimensions
Work Life Balance Correlation
WIPL .32**
PLIW .06
WPLE .36**
WLBT .35**
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
From the results of Table 20.1, work centrality was found to be significantly and positively correlated
with work interference with personal life (WIPL, r = .32**; p < .01), work/personal life enhancement (WPLE,
r = .36**; p < .01) and overall work life balance (WLBT, r = .35**; p < .01). However, no relationship was
found between work centrality and personal life interference with work (WPLE, r = .06; p = n.s.).
From the results it can be inferred that higher the work centrality, the lower is the work interference
with personal life, higher is the work/personal life enhancement, and higher is the overall work life balance.
Hence the hypothesis H01 is partially rejected for the dimensions of work interference with personal life, work/
personal life enhancement and for overall work life balance. However, it is accepted for the dimension of
personal life interference with work.
5.2. Work Life Balance of Doctors at Varied Levels of Work Centrality
5.2.1. Classification of Doctors
To test the hypothesis H02, doctors were classified into three groups (see Table 20.2), based on the scores
obtained in the questionnaire as those with
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(a) Low centrality
Score < (Mean - 0.5 S.D.)
(b) Average work centrality
Score between (Mean - 0.5 S. D.) and (Mean + 0.5 S.D.)
(c) High work centrality
Score > (Mean + 0.5 S.D.)
Table 20.2
Classification of doctors on the basis of work centrality scores
Variables
Classification
Low Average High
N % Mean N % Mean N % Mean
Work centrality 32 22.69 27.56 68 48.22 35.89 41 29.07 44.73
5.2.2. Work Life Balance at Varied Levels of Work Centrality
H02: “There is no significant difference in work life balance (and its dimensions) among doctors at varied
levels of work centrality (i.e. low, average and high work centrality).”
One-way ANOVA was employed to find whether there is any significant difference in work life balance
and its dimensions among doctors at low, average and high level of work centrality.
Table 20.3
Test of homogeneity of variance – Work centrality
Work Life Balance Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
WIPL 7.749 2 138 .001
PLIW 4.115 2 138 .018
WPLE 2.301 2 138 .104
WLBT 1.575 2 138 .211
Table 20.3 shows the results of Levene’s Test of Homogeneity of variance. The significance value is
greater than 0.05 for the dimensions WPLE and WLBT. The assumption of homogeneity of variance is
supported for these dimensions. But for the dimensions WIPL and PLIW the significance value is less than
0.05, which means the assumption of homogeneity of variance is not met and therefore two robust tests
(Brown-Forsythe and Welch) were conducted that should be accurate when the assumption homogeneity
of variance is not supported.
Table 20.4
Robust tests of equality of means – Work centrality (Doctors)
Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
WIPL Welch 6.302 2 64.172 .003
Brown-Forsythe 6.391 2 91.290 .003
PLIW Welch .016 2 73.248 .984
Brown-Forsythe .014 2 96.222 .986
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research 254
Table 20.4 shows the results of robust test of equality of means. The F value for WIPL was found
to be significant (F = 6.302, p < 0.05). The result implies that there is a significant difference in work
interference with personal life among doctors with low, average and high work centrality. The F value for
PLIW was found to be insignificant (F = .016, p < 0.05), implying no significant difference in personal life
interference with work among doctors at varied levels of work centrality.
Table 20.5
ANOVA table for work life balance of doctors at varied levels of work centrality
Work life balance Sources of variance Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
WPLE Between Groups 465.753 2 232.877 7.27 .001
Within Groups 4419.523 138 32.026
Total 4885.277 140
WLBT Between Groups 3108.363 2 1554.181 6.67 .002
Within Groups 32137.297 138 232.879
Total 35245.660 140
Table 20.5 shows the results of ANOVA analysis. F values were found to be significant on the
dimension WPLE (F = 7.27, p < 0.05) and WLBT (F = 6.67, p < 0.05). The results suggested significant
differences in work/personal life enhancement and overall work life balance of doctors at low, average
and high levels of work centrality.
Since the groups were found to be significantly different on the dimensions WIPL, WPLE and on
WLBT in one-way ANOVA, the post hoc test was employed to identify the pair of groups that contributed
to significant differences. The results of the comparison are summarized in Table 20.6 and Table 20.7.
Table 20.6
Games Howell post hoc analysis for comparison of work life balance
of doctors at varied levels of work centrality
DV (I) Wceng (J) Wceng Mean
Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound Upper Bound
WIPL Low Average –5.39706*1.77275 .010 –9.6832 –1.1110
High –7.85976*2.39046 .004 –13.5821 –2.1374
Average Low 5.39706*1.77275 .010 1.1110 9.6832
High –2.46270 1.97824 .432 –7.2236 2.2982
High Low 7.85976*2.39046 .004 2.1374 13.5821
Average 2.46270 1.97824 .432 –2.2982 7.2236
*.The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
**DV – Dependent variable
Table 20.6 shows the results of the Games-Howell post hoc analysis. The details presented in the table
revealed that the p-value for WIPL between low and average and low and high groups was less than 0.05,
implying that the mean scores between low and average and low and high groups differed significantly at
the 5% level of significance. However, the p-value for average and high groups was found to be greater
than 0.05, implying that there were no significant differences among these groups. The results imply that
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research
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work interference with personal life differed significantly among doctors with low and average and low and
high work centrality, however, does not differ significantly between doctors with average and high work
centrality. Work interference with personal life was found to be lowest among doctors with high work
centrality, followed by doctors with the average work centrality and doctors with low work centrality.
Table 20.7
Tukey HSD analysis for comparison of work life balance of
doctors at varied levels of work centrality
DV (I) Wceng (J) Wceng Mean
Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound Upper Bound
WPLE
Low Average –4.10662*1.21316 .003 –6.9809 –1.2323
High –4.63567*1.33488 .002 –7.7984 –1.4730
Average Low 4.10662*1.21316 .003 1.2323 6.9809
High –.52905 1.11896 .884 –3.1802 2.1221
High Low 4.63567*1.33488 .002 1.4730 7.7984
Average .52905 1.11896 .884 –2.1221 3.1802
WLBT
Low Average –9.57169*3.27142 .011 –17.3226 –1.8208
High –12.70046*3.59964 .002 –21.2290 –4.1719
Average Low 9.57169*3.27142 .011 1.8208 17.3226
High –3.12877 3.01739 .555 –10.2778 4.0203
High Low 12.70046*3.59964 .002 4.1719 21.2290
Average 3.12877 3.01739 .555 –4.0203 10.2778
*.The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
**DV- Dependent variable
Table 20.7 shows the results of Tukey HSD post hoc analysis. On the dimension WPLE, the p-value
between low and average and low and high groups was less than 0.05, implying that the mean scores
between low and average and low and high groups differed significantly at the 5% level of significance.
However, the p-value for average and high groups was found to be greater than 0.05, implying that there
were no significant differences among these groups. The results imply that work/personal life enhancement
differed significantly among doctors with low and average and low and high work centrality, however,
does not differ significantly between doctors with average and high work centrality. Work/personal life
enhancement was found to be highest among doctors with high work centrality, followed by doctors with
the average work centrality and doctors with low work centrality.
In addition the details presented in the table revealed that overall work life balance differed significantly
among doctors low and average and low and high work centrality (p < .05), however, does not differ
significantly among doctors with average and high work centrality (p > .05). Overall work life balance was
found to be highest among doctors with high work centrality, followed by doctors with the average work
centrality and doctors with low work centrality.
Hence, hypothesis H02 is partially rejected for the dimensions of work interference with personal life,
work/personal life enhancement and for overall work life balance. However, it is accepted for the dimension
of personal life interference with work. The results imply that work interference with personal life, work/
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research 256
personal life enhancement and overall work life balance of doctors differ significantly at varied levels of
work centrality, whereas, personal life interference with work does not differ significantly at varied levels
of work centrality.
5.3. Relationship between Demographic Variables and Work Centrality
In order to find out the relationship between demographic variables and work centrality of doctors employed
in government hospitals of Himachal Pradesh, Pearson correlation coefficient was employed and the results
are shown in Table 20.8. From the table, it is clear that age was significantly and positively correlated with
work centrality (WCEN, r = .33**; p < .01). Furthermore, the table shows no significant correlation between
gender and work centrality of doctors (WCEN, r = .09; p = n.s.).
Table 20.8
Correlation coefficient between work centrality and
demographic variables
Variables WCEN
Age .33**
Gender .09
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
On the basis of this analysis, the hypothesis H03 i.e. there is no significant relationship between age and work
centrality of doctors employed in government hospitals of H.P. is rejected.
The hypothesis H04 i.e. there is no significant relationship between gender and work centrality of doctors employed in
government hospitals of H.P. is accepted.
5.4. Work Centrality of Doctors vis-a-vis Varied Levels of Age
The information presented in Table 20.10 reveals that the total sample of doctors belongs to two groups on
the basis of their age. The groups are ‘below 30’ and ’31 and above’. The means scores of work centrality
for these two groups were compared by using t-test. The result of this comparison is given in Table 20.9.
Table 20.9 shows detail analysis of work centrality in relation to age of doctors. The p-value or the
significance value corresponding to the F test of equal variances assumed is greater than 0.05 for WCEN
(.562). This suggested that independent two sample t-test with equal variances assumed should be used
to compare the mean scores of work centrality and its dimensions at varied levels of doctors’ age. The
p-value of t-test with equal variances assumed is less than 0.05 for WCEN (.000) which means there are
significant differences in work centrality of doctors in age group ‘below 30’ and age group ‘31 and above’.
Work centrality was found to be higher among doctors in the age group ‘31 and above’ (M = 39.3, see
Table 20.10) than doctors in the age group ‘below 30’ (M = 34.6, see Table 20.10).
Hence, the hypothesis H05 i.e. there is no significant difference in work centrality of doctors at varied levels of age
is rejected. The results imply significant difference in work centrality of doctors at varied levels of age.
Higher work centrality was found among doctors in higher age group. The results of the present study are
supported by the findings of the study of Kostek (2012). Kostek (2012) reported age as an antecedent to
work centrality. According to the researcher, as people enter the middle of their lives they will have had more
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research
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Table 20.9
Test for Equality of Means (Work centrality in relation to age and marital status)
WCEN
Levene’s Test for
Equality of Means t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. T df Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean
difference
Std.
Error
difference
95% Confidence
Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Age Equal variances
assumed
.338 .562 –4.232 139 .000 –4.660 1.101 –6.837 –2.483
Equal variances
not assumed
–4.262 123 .000 –4.660 1.093 –6.824 –2.495
Gender Equal variances
assumed
11.12 .001 –1.077 139 .284 –1.281 1.189 –3.633 1.071
Equal variances
not assumed
–1.205 136 .230 –1.281 1.063 –3.384 .8219
Table 20.10
t-test descriptive statistics (in relation to age)
Marital Status N Mean Standard Deviation
Age Below 30 84 34.6 6.50
31 and above 57 39.3 6.27
time in the work force allowing for work to become a stronger part of their identities. People in the middle
of their lives often have responsibilities requiring their financial stability which contributes significantly to
the importance of working. As the amount of time devoted to career building and development, as well
as the need to provide financial stability, people in the middle to late stages of their lives should exhibit
greater work centrality (Kostek, 2012).
5.5. Work Centrality of Doctors in Relation to Gender
The information presented in Table 20.12 reveals that the total sample of doctors belongs to two groups
on the basis of their gender. The groups are ‘male’ and ’female’. The means scores of work centrality for
these two groups were compared by using t-test. The result of this comparison is given in Table 20.11.
Table 20.11 shows detail analysis of work centrality in relation to gender of doctors. The p-value or
the significance value corresponding to the F-test of equal variances assumed is less than .05 for WCEN
(.001). This indicates that the independent two sample t-test with equal variances not should be used to
compare the mean scores. The p-value of t-test with equal variance not assumed was WCEN (.284). The
p-value for WCEN was found to be greater than .05 which suggested that there is no significant difference
in work centrality of male and female doctors. Overall work centrality was found to be similar in case of
male (M = 36.11, see Table 20.12) than male (M = 37.39, see Table 20.12) doctors.
Hence hypothesis H06 i.e. there is no significant difference in work centrality of male and female doctors is accepted.
The results inferred that there is no significant difference in work centrality of male and female doctors.
However, the finding of the present study goes contrary to the observations made by Lorence (as cited
in Kostek, 2012 ) who suggested that men take on the role of career builder and provider for the family
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research 258
Table 20.11
Test for Equality of Means (Work centrality in relation to gender)
WCEN
Levene’s Test for
Equality of Means t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. T df Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean
difference
Std.
Error
difference
95% Confidence
Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Gender Equal variances
assumed
11.12 .001 –1.077 139 .284 –1.281 1.189 –3.633 1.071
Equal variances
not assumed
–1.205 136 .230 –1.281 1.063 –3.384 .8219
Table 20.12
t-test descriptive statistics (in relation to gender)
Marital Status N Mean Standard Deviation
Gender Male 90 36.11 7.62
Female 51 37.39 4.97
economically, while woman are traditionally raised to accept more family-centered roles. Thus, men tend
to invest relatively more resources in developing their careers and as a result their identity as a worker
becomes more prevalent while woman tend to allocate their resources to family building, and view their
role in the workplace as a less important part of themselves.
CONCLUSIONS6.
The main objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between work centrality and work life
balance. The study found significant and positive relationship between work centrality and work interference
with personal life, work/personal life enhancement and overall work life balance. The results of the
suggested that higher the work centrality, the lower is the work interference with personal life, higher is the
work/personal life enhancement, and higher is the overall work life balance. The results are supported by
the findings of a number of studies. Hyman et. al., (2003) found that organizational pressures, combined
with lack of work centrality, result in work intruding into non-work areas of employee lives. Walia (2011)
also reported positive correlation between work centrality and work life balance. The study reported that
individuals who have high work centrality, i.e., who give high priority to their work in life, keep their work
above other pursuits, derive satisfaction in life from work and have personal life goals work oriented, tend
to show less interference of work with personal life, are able to derive energy from work for personal life
and exhibit high level of work life balance. Carr, Boyar & Gregory (2008) indicated that individuals who
are more work-centered are not negatively influenced by work interference with family conflict. Burnett
et. al., (n.d.) found that those who rate work as being central to life may allow it to eclipse their personal
relationships, or in other words the findings actually suggested that those who are more fulfilled in the
work are also more fulfilled at home.
In addition, the findings of the study demonstrated that work interference with personal life, work
personal life enhancement and overall work life balance differed significantly among doctors at varied
levels of work centrality. Work life balance was found higher in case of doctors who scored high on work
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International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research
259
centrality followed by doctors with average and low work centrality. Furthermore, the study sought to
determine the relationship between demographic variables and work centrality of doctors. The study found
significant and positive correlation between age and work centrality of doctors. Work centrality was found
to be higher among doctors in the age group ‘31 and above’. No significant correlation was found between
gender and work centrality of doctors.
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... [5][6][7][8][9][10].The study demonstrates the importance of the concept of work-life balance in the workplace.However, it has also established the diverse needs arising from employees with no particular method to address theneeds (Oludayo OA et al., 2018). Regardless of the factors that enhances, personal factors are considered most effective than the professional factors affecting the work life balance(Ritika Arora & Dr. Vally ,2018).greater the centrality of the work, the loweris the degree to which work interferes with personal life, the more the augmentation of work/personal life, and the greater the overall work-life balance ., (Sakshi Sharma, 2017).This paper also reveals How are these imbalances causing problems for female employees such as stress, intention to leave, and burnout ?. (Tiwari , 2017) . Work interference with personal life (WIPW) and Personal life interference with work (PLIW) have negative relationship with job satisfaction and work personal life enhancement have positive relationship with job satisfaction. ...
... Além disso, Kostek (2012) evidenciou que pessoas que valorizam o trabalho como um aspecto importante das suas vidas apreciam mais seus respectivos trabalhos, permanecem mais tempo nas organizações, contribuem além do previsto em suas funções, ganham mais dinheiro e exibem menos sintomas psicológicos negativos do que aqueles que não valorizam o trabalho como algo importante em suas vidas. Similarmente, resultados encontrados por Sharma (2017) indicam que quanto maior a centralidade do trabalho, menor é a interferência do trabalho na vida pessoal, maior é o aprimoramento da vida pessoal/profissional e maior é o equilíbrio global da vida profissional. Walia (2011), por sua vez, também encontrou correlação positiva entre a centralidade do trabalho e o equilíbrio entre vida profissional e pessoal. ...
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Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the degree to which the meaning of work, specifically the work centrality dimension, and the types of achievement goal orientations at work, predict professional fulfillment. Originality/value: The main contribution is to provide background for the identification of antecedents of a concept yet narrowly studied, which is professional fulfillment, signaling how counselors and organizations may facilitate the greater achievement of what is most valued in a career. We evidence the need to consider work an important sphere of life and to invest efforts in self-development to attain professional fulfillment. Design/methodology/approach: This is quantitative, survey-type research involving 140 people who have been working for at least 6 months. An online questionnaire was answered containing absolute and relative work centrality, achievement goal orientation at work and professional fulfillment scales, as well as socio-demographic questions. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and multiple regression analysis. Findings: Significant relationships of prediction were found between work centrality and professional fulfillment, as well as between one of the types of goal orientation and professional fulfillment. The results support two of the three predicted hypotheses, in addition to converging with previous research on the positive impacts of work centrality and the mastery approach orientation.
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The paper evaluates the centrality of work to employees in two growing employment sectors, call-centres and software development. The paper then examines evidence for extensions of work into household and family life in these two sectors. Extensions are identified as tangible, such as unpaid overtime, or intangible, represented by incursions imported from work, such as exhaustion and stress. The study finds that organisational pressures, combined with lack of work centrality, result in work intruding into non-work areas of employee lives, though intrusions manifest themselves in different ways according to type of work, levels of worker autonomy and organisational support.
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The current study sought to explain a largely overlooked theme in psychological contract literature, that is, how individual factors are related to formation of psychological contract. It investigated the relationship between work centrality, psychological contracts, and job attitudes. It was expected that people with higher work centrality would be less likely to have a transactional contract and more likely to have a relational contract. Furthermore, it was expected that psychological contract mediates the relations between work centrality and job attitudes. Finally, we expected age to moderate the relations between work centrality and the psychological contract, with stronger relations for older workers than for younger workers. Based on life span psychology, it was argued that work centrality becomes an important factor for older workers in deciding whether or not to invest in the relationship with the organization. The study was conducted among 465 employees in a Dutch health care organization. Structural equation models supported the mediating effect of psychological contract types in the relations between work centrality and three job attitudes (work engagement, job satisfaction, and turnover intention). Moreover, it was found that the relations between work centrality and psychological contract were indeed stronger for older workers than for younger workers.
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The authors clarified the relationship between 2 concepts that have been confused, and often used interchangeably, in the literature. Job involvement was defined as the degree to which one is cognitively preoccupied with, engaged in, and concerned with one's present job. Work centrality was defined as the degree of importance that work, in general, plays in one's life. Questionnaire measures consistent with these definitions were constructed and tested. Data were collected from 313 human services employees. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that, consistent with the authors' hypothesis, job involvement and work centrality appear to be 2 distinct constructs. There was also evidence to confirm the hypothesis that there are 2 distinct components of job involvement: job involvement–role and job involvement–setting.
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Research has explored the role of work—family conflict (WFC), including the antecedents and consequences of this construct. However, few studies have examined the specific role that work—family centrality plays in moderating the relationship between WFC and organizationally related outcomes. Using a sample of 129 employees from a manufacturing plant, we test the moderating influence of work—family centrality on the relationship between WFC and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and retention. Results indicate that when individuals view work as being more central to their lives, the negative relationships between WFC and organizational attitudes and organizational retention is suppressed.
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This study develops and measures a concept of Work-Role Centrality, mainly from a cognitive perspective, and examines by means of questionnaire data its distribution in a representative sample of 778 males participating in the labor force in Israel. It also investigates the relationship between specific job rewards and work-role centrality for the five major occupational categories in this sample. Its results show that work-role centrality is a fairly reliable and valid measure: groups of different ethnic origin, educational level, employment status, and occupation differ in their work centrality, in the directions hypothesized a priori. It also demonstrates that for each occupational category, work centrality is related to intrinsic, material, social, and hygienic rewards, regardless of the importance assigned to these rewards. For all groups the strongest relationship is with intrinsic rewards. The findings concerning the relationship with intrinsic rewards corroborate previous studies, while the other relationships were not previously found.
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A recent meta-analysis by Brown (1996) concluded that job involvement was unrelated to job performance. The present investigation proposed that the null findings reported in this meta-analysis stem from the choice of performance criteria and the use of job involvement measures that are confounded with work centrality in the primary studies included in the meta-analysis. The current study found that job involvement, when assessed with a recently published measure (Paullay et al., 1994), is a significant predictor of supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and in-role performance, controlling for work centrality and other individual difference variables. Consistent with recent findings, there is evidence that sex moderates some of the job involvement and OCB relationships, with females having a stronger, positive relationship between these constructs than males. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We examined the relation between work–family balance and quality of life among professionals employed in public accounting. Three components of work–family balance were assessed: time balance (equal time devoted to work and family), involvement balance (equal involvement in work and family), and satisfaction balance (equal satisfaction with work and family). For individuals who invested substantial time in their combined work and family roles, those who spent more time on family than work experienced a higher quality of life than balanced individuals who, in turn, experienced a higher quality of life than those who spent more time on work than family. We observed similar findings for involvement and satisfaction. We identified the contributions of the study to the work–family balance literature and discussed the implications of the findings for future research.
Happy homes and productive workplaces
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