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Utilization of open government data: A systematic literature review of types, conditions, effects and users


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This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the types, effects, conditions and user of Open Government Data (OGD). The review analyses 101 academic studies about OGD which discuss at least one of the four factors of OGD utilization: the different types of utilization, the effects of utilization, the key conditions, and the different users. Our analysis shows that the majority of studies focus on the OGD provisions while assuming, but not empirically testing, various forms of utilization. The paper synthesizes the hypothesized relations in a multi-dimensional framework of OGD utilization. Based on the framework we suggest four future directions for research: 1) investigate the link between type of utilization and type of users (e.g. journalists, citizens) 2) investigate the link between type of user and type of effect (e.g. societal, economic and good governance benefits) 3) investigate the conditions that moderate OGD effects (e.g. policy, data quality) and 4) establishing a causal link between utilization and OGD outcomes.
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Safarov. I., S.G. Grimmelikhuijsen, and A.J. Meijer. 2017. Utilization of
open government data: A systematic literature review of types,
conditions, effects and users. Information Polity DOI: 10.3233/IP-160014
Utilization of Open Government Data
A Systematic Literature Review of types, conditions, effects and users
Igbal Safarov, Albert Meijer and Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen
Igbal Safarov (corresponding author) is a PhD researcher at the Utrecht School of
Governance in the Netherlands. His research focuses on open data, open government data
and data-driven social innovations.
Albert Meijer is a Professor of Public Innovation at the Utrecht School of Governance in the
Netherlands. His research focuses on smart cities, government transparency, coproduction in
the public sector and public innovation.
Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen is assistant professor at the Utrecht School of Governance in the
Netherlands. His research interests include, public sector transparency, citizen attitudes,
experimental methods and behavioral public administration.
Utrecht University | Utrecht School of Governance
Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Utilization of Open Government Data
A Systematic Literature Review of types, conditions, effects and users
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the types,
effects, conditions and user of Open Government Data (OGD). The review analyses 101
academic studies about OGD which discuss at least one of the four factors of OGD utilization:
the different types of utilization, the effects of utilization, the key conditions, and the
different users. Our analysis shows that the majority of studies focus on the OGD provisions
while assuming, but not empirically testing, various forms of utilization. The paper
synthesizes the hypothesized relations in a multi-dimensional framework of OGD utilization.
Based on the framework we suggest four future directions for research: 1) investigate the
link between type of utilization and type of users (e.g. journalists, citizens) 2) investigate the
link between type of user and type of effect (e.g. societal, economic and good governance
benefits) 3) investigate the conditions that moderate OGD effects (e.g. policy, data quality)
and 4) establishing a causal link between utilization and OGD outcomes.
Keywords: open data, open government data, utilization, effects, users, conditions
1. Introduction
Open government data has attracted much attention in recent years, becoming part of the
everyday lexicon of transparency activists, NGOs, and public officials. An increasing number
of academic studies focus on Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives and policy-making in
order to explain differences in OGD provisions among various government organizations [1]
[3]. Indeed, there has been considerable scholarly attention devoted to OGD and its
provision by governments [4].
However, numerous OGD studies highlighted that a key problem of OGD lies not so much in
its disclosure, but in its usage, and more precisely the lack of OGD use [5][9]. In recent
years, many scholars have therefore sought to understand what determines OGD usage and
what conditions are necessary [3], [10], [11]. As a result of this surge in academic attention
on OGD usage, a systematic and comprehensive overview of what we know about OGD
utilization is lacking.
There have been two recent systematic literature reviews on OGD. Attard, Orlandi, Scerri, &
Auer [4] aim to assess OGD initiatives and describe the life-cycle of OGD. Attard et al. [4]
focus predominantly on the provision of public data, thus focusing on the supply side of
OGD. Hossain, Dwivedi, & Rana [12] conducted a comprehensive systematic review about
the insights from extant studies and provide a research agenda for future studies. This study
presents the classification of context, perspectives, research methods, benefits and barriers
of open data and information about publications.
Both literature reviews provide important insights about the current state-of-the-art in OGD
research. However, these studies have a broad aim and do not specifically focus on the
utilization of OGD. As we noted, the latter is particularly important because in practice OGD
is barely used and a better understanding is needed to improve this.
Another study, while it is not a pure systematic review, is targeted to provide a taxonomy of
OGD research areas [13]. This study provides 35 research areas of OGD including the
summary of research literature and research objectives. Charalabidis et al. [13] highlight the
importance and relevance of OGD usage and value as a research area which is very
supportive for our study. Comparing the mentioned reviews, our study focuses only the
papers about the public open data specifically utilization of OGD.
We will discuss the literature in four broad categories: the types of OGD utilization, the
subsequent effects, the contextual conditions moderating these effects, and the user groups
of OGD
. These four categories were chosen because it aligns with an often made distinction
in technology acceptance models, which have been widely used and tested (e.g. [14], [15]).
Although these categories are predetermined, the content of these categories is not and will
emerge from the literature itself. Thus the objective of this paper is to present a
comprehensive overview of what the academic literature has found on 1) the types of OGD
utilization 2) effects of OGD usage 3) condition that moderate these effects and 4) who are
identified as users.
The type of utilization covers the various ways in which practitioners employ OGD. For
instance, open data can be utilized as a research tool [16], in hackathons [17], [18], or in data
analytics [8], [19]. It is important to analyze these types according to how they influence the
effects of OGD. The effects constitute the second part of our review. OGD has the potential
to contribute to an array of (positive) outcomes, for example, transparency [20],
accountability [21], or as a source of innovation [22][24]. The third topic in the review is the
moderating conditions. For instance, research has indicated that the potential impact of OGD
usage may be moderated by various conditions, such as low data quality [25], [26] or legal
barriers [27], [28]. The fourth and final factor that we take into account is the users. Many
studies have highlighted users’ roles and participation in the OGD value-extraction process,
defining different user groups, such as developers [28], citizens [29][31], activists, and
NGOs [32], [33].
The contribution of this systematic literature review is twofold. First, it provides an overview
of the current OGD research focusing on the utilisation of OGD. Second, our objective is to
synthesize the current body of knowledge by developing a multi-dimensional framework of
OGD utilization and use this framework as basis to present suggestions for future research.
This also means the systematic literature review will not include all literature on OGD, only the literature that
discusses various factors of OGD utilization.
This article presents a systematic analysis of both tested and hypothesized relations in order to
develop a multi-dimensional framework of OGD utilization. This framework opens up the black box of
OGD utilization by identifying various patterns of usage, user groups, contextual conditions, and
effects. The article begins by outlining our review methodology, after which we present the
descriptive results of the review in the descriptive analysis section. Descriptive analysis presents year
of publications and its dynamics, the countries that the articles dedicated, diversity of methodologies
and other descriptive aspects of selected studies. Next, we discuss thematic analysis in which each
factor of OGD utilization is handled and elements of factors are discussed. The review continues by
synthesizing findings into an OGD utilization framework and discussing avenues for further OGD
utilization research in the “Synthesis and discussion” section. Finally, we discuss conclusion and
research limitations at the end of the review.”
2. Methodology
In order to analyze the existing knowledge, we conducted a systematic literature review
based on the established procedures [34][36]. The design of the literature review consisted
of a systematic collection of articles for the review, a systematic analysis of these articles
and a systematic synthesis of these findings (see Figure 1 below).
Figure 1 General research design
Data collection. To explore the heterogeneous literature in the field of OGD, the following
bibliographic databases were searched: Scopus database; Web of Science database maintained by Thomson
Reuters; Association for Computing Machinery database;
5 ScienceDirect database maintained by Elsevier
Figure 2 Selected primary studies
The searching of the studies was conducted from 1st December, 2015 to 21st January, 2016.
Since the same article can be reached through various scientific databases, the majority of
selected studies (n=65) was retrieved from the first used database (Scopus). The terms
“open government data” and “open data” were used as keywords to search each database
in the title, abstract and keywords of articles. However, “open data” has not been used as a
separate search keyword to keep the search results in the frame of public or government
based open data.
Selection criteria. We attempted to reduce the risk of bias because of data (study) collection
by implementing clear exclusion and inclusion criteria. the following inclusion criteria were
used in our review.
1. We only considered the peer-reviewed articles that were written in English language.
2. Only open government data studies were included in the review thus we excluded studies
regarding open science data, open data from NGOs and international organizations.
3. We included studies that regarded one or more dimensions of utilization: types, effects,
conditions and users. Studies that regarded open government data in general, without
mentioning these dimensions were excluded.
The types of utilization refer to the use and re-use of OGD for a particular purpose, typically
as a field of study or practice. Effects refer to the potential results and outcomes of OGD
utilization from social, economic or good governance perspectives. Conditions refer to the
environmental features or aspects of overall OGD utilization functioning as technical, social
or political paradigms of public data usability. The fourth factor of OGD utilization is users,
which describe individuals or groups that use public data for achieving the targeted effects
and gaining value mostly in the form of product, advantage or practice. Each selected study
was added a data extraction form in Excel to summarize information about publication,
We carried out an additional search on Google Scholar to search for articles containing the keywords “open
government data”. The search results on “Google Scholar” were very similar to our primary search results or
did not meet the requirements of inclusion.
research method, research question, abstract and results, utilization, effects, conditions,
users, research domain and research country.
Data synthesis. Based on the data extraction form, main trends and elements were
determined for each factor of OGD utilization. All elements were grouped and classified
regarding their most common characteristics to understand better the overall picture of
OGD utilization. In the final stage, the factors, elements and their classification were
depicted on the unified OGD utilization framework including connections between factors.
3. Descriptive analysis
This study analyzes 101 academic articles about Open Government Data (OGD) in order to
identify what is known about different types of utilization, the effects of utilization, the key
conditions, and the different user groups. For the purposes of a systematic literature review,
we categorized studies based on the country where the study was conducted. The collected
literature shows that OGD-related studies are primarily conducted in developed countries.
Only a couple of studies are devoted to developing countries, such as Brazil, India, Chile,
Mexico, Russia, and Romania, and regions, such as the Middle East and Latin America. The
most researched countries are the Netherlands (12), the United States (11), and the United
Kingdom (6), which indicates that scholars from these countries contribute significantly to
the field of study. Several studies investigate and compare two or more countries, such as
Sweden and the Netherlands [22]; the European Union [1], [37][39]; the Netherlands and
Brazil [40]; the Netherlands and Greece [41]; and, Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand,
Singapore, the UK, and the US [2].
Figure 3 shows that there is a predominant focus on the USA and the Netherlands. This
means that findings on OGD utilization are mainly found in two countries with strongly
developed economies and longstanding democratic tradition. More research from a more
diverse set of countries is needed to see if current insights about OGD hold in different
institutional contexts.
Figure 3. Number of articles by country
Next, we analyzed the publication trends of open data over time. Figure 4 illustrates the
rapid increase of academic publications about OGD in the last five years. Remarkably, more
than one-third of selected studies were published in 2015 (39 articles), whereas no articles
were found from before 2010. This finding is in line with OGD’s rising popularity in public
policy following the declaration of OGD principles by advocates in 2008 [42] and the
publication of the first Open Government National Action Plan of the United States in 2011.
As governments began investing increasingly in open data infrastructure, funds to study
those investments seem to have followed. This dramatic increase also indicates the need for
a more systematic overview and research agenda.
Figure 4. Number of selected studies by year
Further evidence for the growing popularity of OGD is the distribution of studies published in
journals and presented at conferences. A breakdown of the relevant studies is provided in
Table 1. This table shows that OGD research is mainly published in journals related with e-
government and information science in general. Interestingly, a great deal of papers was
published in official conference proceedings and not in journals. This may be due to the
youngness of the field; it takes a relatively long time to get article published in journals.
Furthermore, we also found many thematic journals that published articles about OGD, such
as Journal of Public Transportation and Journal of Public Health Management and Practice,
etc., that publish OGD-related studies (Table 1). This implies that OGD research is quite
dispersed over various disciplines, such as public administration and information science and
that it is a nascent field with many publications in conference proceedings.
Table 1. Sources of studies
Name of journal
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) - Springer
Government Information Quarterly
International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance
Information Polity
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research
Social Science Computer Review
Hawaii International Conference on System Science
International Conference on Digital Government Research
The variety of publication outlets also resonates with the diversity of methodologies used to
study the topic. The majority of the studies are qualitative (76), while only 25 out of 101 are
quantitative. Four studies combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. Taking into
account that the studies used a broad range of methodologies, those were coded and
generalized in order to clarify and group standard methods. Thus, we found that the
selected studies mostly adopted case studies (54), desk research, which was primarily used
to investigate OGD portals (14), literature reviews (13), document analysis (12), surveys (12),
and interviews (7) to investigate the targeted areas. The imbalance between qualitative and
quantitative studies indicates that there may be room for more quantitative studies on OGD.
4. Thematic analysis
4.1. The types of utilization
We found 70 articles that discussed one or more types of OGD utilization. The reviewed
literature revealed that there are many types of utilization. Some types of utilization were
very broad, such as innovation and decision-making, while others were very specific, such as
creating new stories from data, informal settlement analysis, or climate change research.
Figure 5 lists the types of utilization that were mentioned in at least three different studies.
Figure 5. Number of articles on the types of utilization
Innovation. Figure 5 highlights innovation as the most prominent type of OGD utilization in
the selected studies. The literature mentions various types of innovation, such as business-
driven innovation for the purposes of generating economic value [24] and innovation
spurred by citizens to co-produce public services [21]. In addition, according to the
literature, a lack of public data sharing significantly decreases innovativeness, hinders
entrepreneurial incentives, and prevents the execution of many new business and Internet
start-up plans [43]. In this paper, we included “innovation” as a type of utilization rather
than as an effect of utilization. We acknowledge that, in some cases, innovation can be an
outcome or effect of OGD utilization, in this paper, innovation is seen as an intermediary
variable that generates a broader effect, such as economic gain or societal value. Therefore,
we consider using OGD for innovation as a type of utilization itself (using it for innovative
purposes) and not an effect, as we conceptualize effects more broadly.
Data analytics. Data analytics allow users to utilize released public data more productively
for instance, to create visualizations that are important for discovering and understanding
complex datasets [44]. According to the literature, the development of big data analytics in
the public sector may offer opportunities for predictions and forecasting by combining and
analyzing government data [19], [28]. Furthermore, several studies investigate data analytics
as a tool for different fields of study, including utilizing transportation data for public
transportation services [8], conducting environmental impact analysis [45], and studying
early childhood development [46].
Decision-making. Quality of decision-making partly depends on available data, which is
rapidly transforming with the implementation of digital tools, such as big data and machine
learning. Power, Robinson, Rudd, & Reeson [47] argue that decision-making possibilities
have been improved through the wide variety of OGD available to key decision makers,
experts, and non-experts, including members of local communities. OGD can contribute to
decision-making processes in very diverse ways. It can improve participatory decision-
making [48] real-time transparency of decision-making [9] and enable data-driven decision-
making in the planning process [49].
Anti-corruption. Promoting anti-corruption and the effective use of public resources are seen
as dominant reasons for releasing public data. A lack of information can lead to corruption,
and OGD can be a powerful tool to increase awareness while reducing the misuse and waste
of economic resources due to corruption [11], [50]. . However, most of the released public
datasets on the OGD portals seem less relevant in terms of utilizing them for anti-corruption
purposes, which decreases opportunities to achieve OGD’s anti-corruption possibilities [41],
Smart city. Smart use of technologies is key for enabling urban populations and stakeholders
to participate in and collaborate on urban management to become a ‘smart city’ [37]. Bakici,
Almirall, & Wareham [52] argue that OGD is a main component of smart cities, which also
include smart districts, living labs, initiatives, electronic services, and additional
infrastructure that enable the dynamic generation of new ideas through the utilization of
released public data. Spatial open data infrastructure, which is a core type of open data for
smart cities, may improve urban management [53]. Furthermore Chakraborty, Wilson,
Sarraf, & Jana [49] suggest that a lack of reliable open urban data can negatively impact
urban planning and implementation.
New services. Service creation over OGD is mostly associated with innovations and smart
city. However, some new services cannot be considered innovative while those services are
new as an approach or a location. OGD also can be utilized to extend existing services,
increase number of functionalities and quality of services. Geographic information and
postcode data can be a resource for improving existing classic services [43]. Service creation
based on OGD is in the early stages of its development which Chan [54] notes that
competitions and increasing awareness are the important factors to extend the participation
of users.
Research. Planning and predicting the potential directions of OGD utilization, particularly in
the research areas are very difficult. OGD allows a researcher to combine his/her internally
collected data and public data in order to test and confirm new hypotheses [25]. OGD can be
utilized for various academic studies such as unemployment research combining UK election
data and non-government open data [25] for ecological research combining data on the
number of trees (OGD) and open street maps (non-government open data) [55] and many
other fields of research. Martin et al. [16] consider the researchers as a part of the open data
ecosystem and argue that there is less awareness of open data among researchers.
Hackathons/competitions. Hackathons and competitions are considered a type of utilization
to create value from released public data. Hackathons are events which focus on developers
and mostly other information technology related stakeholders to work in partnership on a
specific domain or project. Matheus et al. [17] emphasize the importance of contests and
hackathons to develop applications for social control, transparency and improvement of
public policies in healthcare, transportation, education and etc. Hackathons are also
suggested as a significant component of open innovation strategy to spur citizen
engagement, to seek new ideas and improve awareness for utilization of OGD [54]. While
civic hackathons have a positive impact on citizen participation, limited adoption of the
results may decrease their effect, thus pursuing and maintaining the outcomes are
important [18].
4.2. Effects of OGD utilization
We found 83 articles that considered one or more effects of OGD. According to the
literature, OGD utilization has diverse effects, mostly related to generating social and
economic value and achieving good governance. Thematic analysis of selected studies
revealed six prominent effects, which were determined to be so due their occurrence in at
least three studies:
Figure 6. Number of articles on effects
Figure 6 highlights the important difference between ‘estimated’ and ‘established’ effects.
Not all studies that discuss effects employ empirically verified approaches. In addition, some
articles are not intended to confirm or cannot empirically confirm a solid connection
between OGD utilization and the discussed effects. In this regard, the effects can be
classified either as established effects or estimated effects. If the study empirically proved
the effect of OGD, it is considered an ‘established effect’, while hypothetical consideration
and assumed effects are considered ‘estimated effects’. Among 83 articles that discuss one
or more effects of OGD utilization, 19 studies’ approaches to the effects were classified as
established, while 64 out of 83 studies were classified as estimated.
According to this distinction, only one-fifth of the selected articles indicated one or more
established effects of OGD utilization. Nevertheless, the majority of studies either do not
discuss OGD utilization effects at all, or they estimate the potential effects of OGD
utilization. As is clear from the reviewed literature, while OGD has gained extensive
popularity with the recent establishment of many public data portals, Empirical studies have
yet to fully validate the potential effects of OGD utilization. A total of 40 studies considered
transparency and accountability as effects of the release and the utilization of OGD.
Economic development and citizen participation are the next most mentioned effects of
OGD utilization.
Transparency and accountability. Transparency and accountability are the core expected
effects of all OGD initiatives, regardless of the scope, government organization, and type of
data. OGD can be considered an important component of so-called computer-mediated
transparency [56]. Releasing public data decreases information asymmetry and thus
increases transparency and accountability [57]. Moreover, the creation of modern tools
based on OGD [58] promotes the utilization of public data by civil society, which increases
transparency, accountability, and government efficiency by enabling citizens to collaborate
with the government to tackle threats against public interests [59]. However, increasing
transparency and accountability is not an immediate result of releasing public data. These
outcomes require the fulfillment of many preconditions. For instance, the data that is
released must be relevant, and data analytics skills and awareness must be increased.
Murillo [51] argues that although a moderate number of datasets relevant to achieving
transparency have been released, thus their contribution to openness is limited regarding to
provide relevant data.
Economic development. Generally, economic development is perceived as quality and
prosperity improvements realized by innovation, diminishing transaction costs and the
utilization of proficiencies toward realization of new goods and services which positions the
economy on a rising growth trend [60, p. 12]. A main driver for national governments’ to
release datasets is economic development [61]. Availability of public data creates
opportunity for citizens to conduct social control, suggest developments of public services
thus achieve local economic development [33]. The contribution of OGD to the economic
development is mostly related to the establishment of new business, [23] and using OGD for
anti-corruption purposes to reduce the economic loss, hence lead to social and economic
development [50]. Moreover, OGD may contribute to information markets, which
consequently enhance economic growth and efficiency [43]. However, several studies
highlight that open data utilization by private sector is in the initial stage of its development
and does not necessarily effect on the creation of economic value, thus economic outcome
is uncertain [22], [61].
Citizen participation. According to the UN World Public Sector Report 2008, the notion of
citizen participation, which strongly correlates with good governance, is the participation of
citizens in policymaking, including levels of service, budget, and adjusting government
programs toward community needs and building public support [62]. Openness is considered
a strong determinant for participation by citizens and other stakeholders which is
fundamental subject in the studies of public administration [63]. OGD initiatives and
utilization of public data can decrease the citizen participation barrier and encourage
political participation by providing indirect channels into government activities [27]. M.
Janssen et al. [64] discuss citizen participation and self-empowerment as one of the political
and social benefits of open public data. Achieving better results with citizen participation will
essentially be determined by the prerequisites, like specific abilities and skills of the citizens
[37] which is discussed more broadly as an utilization condition in the next section.
Public service development. New public services based on OGD either appears as an
innovation building new services or functional improvement of existing services. The
important contribution of OGD to the public services as regulations, procedures and
standards is a common subject in the literature, emphasizing its capability to foster the
quality of services. By means of information openness, government bodies are expected to
deliver more cohesive, precise and innovative services to the citizens [65]. To improve the
public administration and the outcomes, OGD can be utilized for public service development
creating synergy with citizen participation on policy and service creation [66]. New public
services based on OGD created by citizens increase cooperation between government and
community with real social innovation [52]. Public service development is discussed as an
estimated effect of OGD utilization in the literature with strong expectations by scholars for
improving quality and effectiveness of public services. However, public bodies less willingly
support OGD initiatives with assumption that released data might be utilized to establish
better service applications than existing tools that the government provides [65].
Social value. Although the reviewed literature predominantly discusses social value as an
estimated effect of OGD utilization, there are enormous expectations on OGD for obtaining
more social value with effective utilization of public data. Consequently, social value is one
of the primary driving factors of OGD initiatives by governments and utilization by society
members [22]. Broad aspects of social value generation are discussed in the literature as an
effect of OGD utilization such as social control for efficiency of public services [17], social
innovation for innovative solutions of social problems in cities [52], increase citizen
interaction with government for solving local problems [28] or social value from better
transportation, health care, education and etc. However, getting better results are strongly
depended on the elimination of disabling conditions of OGD utilization regarding
institutional issues, user participation, legislation and technical issues [64].
Trust of citizens. Social and political trust of citizens in government is considered an
important potential effect of increased government openness [67]. While trust is widely
studied subject in political science and public administration, only three OGD related studies
discuss trust of citizens as a social and political benefits of OGD. There is insufficient
empirical verification for utilization - effect relationship between OGD and trust of citizens,
thus trust is an estimated effect of OGD utilization. The trust of citizens effect can only be
achieved under severe circumstances associated with quality of released data, including the
completeness of datasets, accuracy and reliability of OGD that has been collected in a
reliable record management conditions [68]. Depending on complexity and preconditions,
OGD might not create trust in government, even cause negative consequences and bad
experiences [64]. Consequently, transparency and data openness can be considered
supportive effect for improvement of citizen trust [69].
4.3. Conditions of OGD utilization
With respect to the types of utilization and the effects, conditions are a central phenomenon
of OGD utilization. They not only impact the enhancement of effects, but they also increase
the possibilities of utilization. Not surprisingly, the most discussed condition for the use and
re-use of OGD resources is the quality of data, which is followed by legislation/policy, skills,
and infrastructure.
Figure 7. Number of articles on conditions
The relationships between the utilization of OGD and the acquired effects are not a simply
“drag and drop”. Instead, they require many technological and social pre/post-conditions to
be accomplished that may either enable or disable the utilization process. According to our
observations, 77 studies discussed at least one or several conditions that impact the
utilization of released public data. Some conditions cover very broad aspects of OGD and are
discussed in only one study. These include open innovation strategies [54], information
policy [1], open data ecosystems [16], organizational culture and leadership [31], or
organizational support [45]. The conditions that directly influence OGD utilization and are
discussed in three or more studies are listed below.
Quality of data. Nearly 36 studies mention one or several parameters of data quality that
have impact on use and re-use of public data. In this regard, there are strong theoretical
arguments that quality of data is prerequisite for obtaining better effects from OGD
initiatives and utilization. Potential users and user groups cannot anticipate the expected
benefits that can be achieved, thus users may be unwilling to utilize OGD if data quality is
low [70]. Data quality is a complex and multidimensional concept. The literature generally
identifies timeliness [4], availability of metadata [71], accuracy [72] and usefulness [2] as key
components of data quality. In this regard, quality assurance might be a useful mechanism
to increase effects of utilization and hamper problems regarding OGD utilization [2].
Legislation/policy. Legislation and policy is the most often mentioned condition alongside
data quality [65]. Like all other conditions, legislation and policy can either spur or hamper
both the types of utilization and effects of OGD utilization. Freedom of Information (FOI)
legislation is an important legal backbone and fundamental to enable and enhance OGD
implementation and can reduce resistance of public bodies to opening up government data
[20], [39]. Development of a legal framework is considered one of the main requirements for
further development of OGD initiatives, along with political data publication, data standards
and targeting stakeholders’ interests [27]. However, legislation and policies are not always
supportive for opening up government data. Rather frequently, it is considered as a barrier
for building more resilient OGD initiatives. Particularly, legislative barriers and shortcomings
regarding data protection and funding models need to be solved for opening up more public
data and utilize them without any impediment [31]. Consequently, a clear and harmonized
legal framework is needed to regulate the relationship and eliminate ambiguities between
copyright, privacy, personal data and data openness to achieve the full potential of OGD
Skills. To be able to use OGD, technical skills and knowledge about data is needed, such as
knowledge about statistics or programming. ICT literacy is considered to be a more
significant conditions than financial and other resources in order to establish an innovation
by utilizing OGD [22]. Graves & Hendler [44] argue that whether important group of users,
such as journalists and activists want to obtain benefits from public data, lack of
fundamental skills and expertise regarding data management, data visualization and data
operations hamper getting value and creating positive effects by utilizing OGD. Open data
focused research centers, think tanks and innovation incubators (e.g. Open Data Institute,
Open Knowledge Foundation) have a significant role in development of required skills and
expertise and supporting innovations creation processes and businesses using OGD [22].
Infrastructure. The increasing data generation requires infrastructure that facilitate data
exchange between government bodies and users, such as software for data analytics and
discovery and web-based platforms [24]. OGD infrastructure has specific requirements and
capabilities to address the challenges regarding public data sharing and utilization. For
instance, OGD infrastructures need to integrate various technologies, analysis techniques
and information architectures to support user requirements by using generic or specialized
open data platforms [72], [73]. Particularly, feedback mechanisms between supplier and
users [9], [74] and data processing capabilities [75] are the vital features of OGD
infrastructure which have strong impact on the utilization of OGD.
Availability. Availability of public data is essential element or pre-condition for the value
chain of data-driven innovation and OGD utilization [22]. A variety of available public data
helps users to combine and link diverse datasets for processing and answering questions
that were not possible with a single source and dataset [76]. Availability is considered one of
the strongest enabling factors for data-driven innovation which is believed to be the cause
the social and economic value generation [24]. Availability of OGD is considered to be a
necessary, yet not a sufficient condition for OGD utilization, because this requires the
fulfillment of many other conditions, like skills and technical knowledge, public awareness
and quality of data, to achieve or increase the expected effects of OGD utilization.
Privacy. Elimination of private-sensitive data and other attributes may cause privacy
breaches is the first phase of data preparation for publicly releasing [69]. Complying the data
protection legislation appears to be concerned over how public data be anonymized and
which parts of data be released [28]. Privacy and confidentiality, copyright and misuse of
data are considered foremost possible threats for government decision-makers to freely
release public data [10]. As a result, data policies regarding OGD should address privacy
issues upfront, including not publishing national security related data and to ensure the
compliance of confidentiality and privacy guidelines [72].
4.4. Users of OGD
A systematic approach to understanding the OGD utilization process by investigating users is
particularly important because of their purpose on data usage and because they are
consumers of utilization effects. Generally, 82 studies noted one or many user groups that
utilize OGD. Since the goal of this review is to investigate direct (directly utilizing OGD) and
indirect (consuming effects of OGD utilization) users, eight type of users and user groups
were extracted. Each of these was discussed in three or more studies. Generally, the users
can be divided into two broad groups: revenue-driven service developers and companies;
and public-value-oriented users encompassing journalists, researchers and citizens in
general [30].
Figure 8. Number of articles on users
Nearly half of the selected articles mention citizens as users of OGD. This is primarily
because citizens comprise a very broad user group and the studies are less empirically
focused on a particular user group. Moreover, the reviewed literature shows that users of
OGD are relatively less researched as subjects and authors. Instead, most literature merely
makes estimates about users. Several articles studied users and user groups as stakeholders
in an OGD ecosystem [74] or as part of the study domain [49], [77]. The next most discussed
user group after citizens is the business community. In general, 6 user categories or groups
were determined, with each user category having been discussed in at least 3 articles.
Citizens. Releasing government data is considered to be a key mechanism for reducing the
asymmetry of information among citizens and governments bodies [51], [58]. One study
identifies citizens as primary stakeholders (along with businesses, researchers, and
journalists) that are the major beneficiaries of utilization due to increased participation,
which enables citizens to obtain more insight into government activities [27]. OGD allows
citizens to evaluate the activities of government bodies and to take a more active part in
government decision-making [78]. The most effective way to deliver public value and
address a wide range of community challenges that still need to be improved is through the
creation of mobile applications developed by citizens and built to utilize public data (which
the author calls “citizen apps”) [79]. However, Mainka et al. [80] argues that although there
are limited examples of mobile applications developed by citizens, released government
data does not necessarily result in the rapid spread of application development. Data
analysis skills, the presentation of open data, and data exploration are critical factors for
determining citizens’ ability to achieve accountability, and these require affordable tools for
citizens to analyze and share public data [23]. Therefore intermediary tools that
demonstrate to citizens how they can use open data in familiar ways are necessary [81].
Business. As stated, users are perceived as revenue-driven and public-value driven regarding
their aims to utilize public data in order that businesses and entrepreneurs are forming an
important part of the first category. Susha et al. [22] emphasis that the drivers and motives
behind the establishment of social innovation projects that targeted to solve social problems
are different from those directing to marketable products using public data for commercial
profit. Despite the practical difficulty in observing OGD utilization by business bodies (either
because it is not one of the core activity of business or it is hidden under trade secrets), the
rapid development of data technologies, such as data mining and data analysis, has created
promising chances for research of business as a user of OGD. Very few studies focus purely
on businesses as a user of OGD, yet there are exceptions. For instance, some authors discuss
the development of commercial products over OGD [23], driving factors of OGD utilization
by business [22], diverse business models using open data [77], OGD as a foundation for
entrepreneurial innovations and start-ups [43], utilizing specific datasets for business
decisions [38]. It is believed that accurate and reliable data can support businesses to utilize
those public data for better decision-making [25], [82], although this effect is not yet
empirically validated.
Researchers. Researchers are mostly mentioned in combination of other users like
journalists, NGOs and citizens. Graves & Hendler [44] assume that researchers and
journalists may utilize OGD to investigate public policies, education system, healthcare and
etc. activities of governments. Taking into account the availability of advanced data analytics
tools and high professional competencies of researchers, awareness of data availability,
openness and limited engagement with OGD projects are primary obstacles for utilization of
data by researchers [16]. In addition, to interpret OGD, it is necessary to have precise
knowledge about the context of the data. Therefore, researchers need contextual qualitative
data along with OGD in order to utilize public data effectively for academic purposes [83].
Although the role of OGD in scientific studies have been less investigated, the increasing
number of studies that handle specific open dataset for research purposes, can be
considered decent foundation for exploring researchers as a user group of OGD utilization.
Developers. Open data developers perform significant role to encourage the adoption of
OGD policies and revealing more and more datasets [28]. OGD initiatives allow developers to
establish professional networks of developers to support development of universal tools and
encouraging the standardization of the utilization processes of OGD [84]. According to
Desouza & Bhagwatwar [79], the majority of the OGD based projects is established by
developers as start-ups. Accompanied by the availability of data resources, a complementary
additions, such as APIs (application program interface - containing protocols and tools for
application development) are considered an essential added value for developers to
establish services based on "live" public data [54]. Finally, taking into account the primary
role of developers in the utilization process, research on cultural and regional features is
needed to get a more comprehensive picture of the role of developers [80] and motivation
of developers [85] in OGD.
NGOs. Building resilient OGD ecosystem strongly requires the involvement of NGOs such as
Open Knowledge Foundation, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Transparency Hacker
Groups or Transparency International, which are very active on constructing guidelines,
promoting discussions, pressing national governments for releasing more data and
organizing events [17]. Although NGOs are estimated less primary user group comparing to
business, media and citizens (particularly for open spending data), they have a professional
interest and expertise for releasing and utilizing public data [86]. Additionally, collaboration
and partnership mechanisms between NGOs and governments by means of contests,
financial and technical supports and grants, offer more effective results [84]. Along with
active role of NGOs on OGD movement as defenders, utilization of specific public data may
add significant input towards realizing their activities which OGD's potential, in this regard,
essentially remains unexplored [87]. Consequently, the literature has mostly discussed the
promoter and campaigner role of NGOs in OGD utilization rather than as an end user of
Journalists. Journalists are a user group that are highly involved in utilization of OGD for their
daily activities to conduct studies and write newspaper articles, including a visualization of
public data [44]. Journalists, for instance, may integrate several datasets for bringing new
insights that individuals may not be able or eager to conduct such research [7]. Moreover,
along with opening up relevant public data, government policy should effort to increase
motivation of data journalists and their community implementing grant programs, supports
of NGOs and targeted funds to solve social problems, particularly corruption and misusing
public resources [88]. The studies mostly handle the journalists as a user group along with
other potential user groups without specific attention thus, some studies discuss journalists
with NGOs and business [86] or journalists with other citizens [59], [81].
Finally, the summary of thematic analysis and classification are presented in the Table 2:
Table 2. Summary of thematic classification
Factors and brief
the use and re-use of
OGD for a particular
purpose, typically as a
field of study or
[22]; [33]; [23]; [44]; [24]; [37]; [28]; [90]; [55];
[54]; [61]; [115]; [9]; [74]; [84]; [52]; [48]; [79];
[112]; [38]; [40]; [18]; [88]; [100]; [81]; [21]; [53];
[105]; [58]; [80].
data analytics
[44]; [28]; [25]; [19]; [8]; [48]; [46]
[47]; [25]; [48]; [96]; [79]; [49]
[51]; [50]; [88]; [11]; [106]; [103]
smart city
[37]; [52]; [40]; [53]; [49]; [80]
[6]; [25]; [55]; [16]; [83]
new services
[48]; [40]; [100]
[17]; [54]; [18]
the potential results
and outcomes of OGD
utilization from social,
economic or good
[4]; [17]; [51]; [71]; [20]; [44]; [6]; [28]; [57];
[97]; [66]; [7]; [101]; [88]; [29]; [10]; [2]; [86];
[31]; [84]; [87]; [59]; [109]; [64]; [79]; [68]; [95];
[83]; [38]; [102]; [21]; [105]; [107]; [58]; [82];
[106]; [39]; [103]; [69]; [91]
[22]; [17]; [32]; [33]; [23]; [27]; [24]; [28]; [90];
[55]; [54]; [61]; [115]; [50]; [8]; [29]; [77]; [30];
[52]; [48]; [64]; [112]; [45]; [18]; [100]; [46]; [41];
[27]; [37]; [57]; [54]; [97]; [66]; [101]; [48]; [9];
[10]; [86]; [64]; [68]; [11]; [103];
public services
[47]; [17]; [33]; [8]; [52]; [79]; [85]
social value
[22]; [17]; [24]; [28]; [30]; [64]
trust of citizens
[64]; [68]; [69]
the environmental
features or aspects of
overall OGD utilization
functioning as
technical, social or
political paradigms of
public data usability
quality of data
[108]; [51]; [71]; [23]; [113]; [6]; [57]; [25]; [55];
[61]; [97]; [26]; [66]; [2]; [16]; [74]; [72]; [87];
[64]; [68]; [95]; [83]; [70]; [73]; [102]; [45]; [81];
[41]; [103]; [49]; [94]; [104]; [80]; [22]; [79]; [5]
[114]; [65]; [51]; [20]; [27]; [78]; [28]; [61]; [115];
[110]; [1]; [74]; [31]; [64]; [39]; [103]; [91]; [22];
[71]; [97]; [68]; [90]; [10]; [99]; [96]; [9]
[116]; [22]; [47]; [24]; [7]; [96]; [10]; [98]; [16];
[74]; [77]; [59]; [64]; [83]; [46]; [82]; [41]; [106];
[39]; [91]; [44]; [37]
[24]; [96]; [9]; [74]; [70]; [73]; [75]; [5]; [91];
[104]; [10]; [85]; [95]
[22]; [71]; [24]; [25]; [97]; [66]; [16]; [40]; [45];
[71]; [28]; [50]; [29]; [10]; [72]; [109]; [39]; [69]
individuals or groups
that use public data
for achieving the
targeted effects and
gaining value mostly in
the form of product,
advantage or practice
[47]; [51]; [23]; [27]; [78]; [44]; [37]; [28]; [61];
[97]; [26]; [115]; [50]; [66]; [19]; [110]; [8]; [96];
[29]; [10]; [2]; [86]; [98]; [30]; [31]; [72]; [84];
[59]; [52]; [109]; [79]; [95]; [83]; [70]; [81]; [21];
[46]; [53]; [105]; [58]; [82]; [11]; [38]; [103]; [69];
[94]; [91]; [104]; [80]
[4]; [22]; [23]; [78]; [25]; [55]; [115]; [110]; [8];
[96]; [9]; [86]; [77]; [48]; [109]; [79]; [112]; [38];
[45]; [76]; [81]; [82]; [41]; [80]
[32]; [6]; [55]; [19]; [8]; [111]; [9]; [16]; [109];
[95]; [83]; [38]; [45]; [76]; [46]; [105]; [82]; [106];
[49]; [94]
[37]; [28]; [54]; [61]; [110]; [101]; [29]; [9]; [84];
[48]; [79]; [112]; [70]; [40]; [18]; [85]; [100]; [46];
[4]; [17]; [51]; [32]; [96]; [88]; [29]; [86]; [84];
[87]; [109]; [82]; [91]
[44]; [26]; [7]; [88]; [9]; [86]; [59]; [81];
5. Synthesis and discussion
5.1 Synthesizing our findings: the OGD utilization framework
The systematic literature review has resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of the
types of OGD utilization, effects, contextual conditions, users and the relations between
these factors. Most importantly we find that most relations between utilization factors are
assumed or hypothesized and not tested empirically. Based on the four categories we
introduced at the start of this article (types, effects, users, conditions), we can now ‘fill’
these categories with insights from the literature in a conceptual framework (Figure 9).
Figure 9. OGD utilization framework
In the proposed OGD utilization framework, two types of utilization can be distinguished
based on the literature: analytic utilization and synthetic utilization. Moodysson, Coenen, &
Asheim [89] distinguish between analytic and synthetic utilization according to types of
knowledge creation as follows: analytic denotes the understanding and explaining of
characteristics of the world and its features, while synthetic contributes to the design or
establishment of something to reach functional objectives. In this regard, analytic utilization
refers to OGD utilization that explains specific features or solves particular problems, such as
public, business, or government problems by implementing a specific set of algorithms to
analyze specific public data sets. On the other hand, synthetic utilization refers to the
utilization of OGD to develop tools and appliances that solve functional problems, such as
delivering better services.
The conditions of OGD utilization are also separated into two categories: technical and
social. Technical conditions are features such as the quality of data, their availability, and the
infrastructure for making them available. Social conditions are of an institutional nature
(legislation, policy, etc.), but they also refer to the skills of users. Both types of conditions are
well studied, since many scholars have recently attended to the availability of data [2], [26],
[27], [51], [55], [66], legal and regulatory issues [1], [61], [78], barriers to and enablers of
OGD [10], [28], and many other conditions that impact OGD utilization. However, each study
concentrated on different types of conditions and used a different methodology to measure
the impact, which makes it difficult to generalize their results.
The review found various hypothesized and established effects of OGD utilization: social
effects include social value generated by utilizing OGD and public services (e.g. [22], [24]),
economic effects include OGD utilization for economic development and increasing the
efficiency of various economic activities (e.g. [28], [90]), and good governance effects include
transparency and accountability, the trust of citizens, and citizen (e.g. [51], [91]).
We found a distinction between direct users those who make use of the open government
data themselves and indirect users those who make use of data that has been processed
by intermediaries. According to the findings of this review, studies that investigate OGD
stakeholders [32] and commercial uses of OGD [77] discuss users more comprehensively.
The authors highlight the benefits of OGD for different users, including commercial
organizations [44], [55], [79], which have extensive expectations for OGD. In addition to
those who have professional skills and technical knowledge, users also include those who
can utilize simple datasets or who consume the effects of OGD utilization. The results show
that most studies globally describe users (like citizens) rather than focusing on specific types
or groups of users, and users’ motivations are less researched. Therefore,
5.2 Challenges and opportunities for future research
The review revealed some gaps in the literature on OGD utilization. First and foremost, we
found that many of the effects of OGD were not empirically tested but only proclaimed.
More rigorous empirical research is needed to assess if the estimated effects of OGD are
actually measurable. Our findings highlight that various relations are proposed but only the
relation between conditions and data utilization has been empirically tested. Below we will
highlight four potential future research directions.
1. Investigate the link between type of utilization and type of users
The relation between users and types of utilization could be studied. In other words, what
types of users are there and in what way does this shape the way OGD is used in practice.
For instance, we know very little which citizens use OGD but more importantly we do not
know the type of utilization that would be interested in. Our review made clear that there is
a wide range of potential utilization types, and some may be more closely aligned with
citizen preferences than other. To improve usage, we would need to better map the link
between who uses OGD and how this type of user will do so. A promising way to enhance
OGD utilization might be to investigate users and their motivation, which could improve the
efficiency and number of utilization types and their positive results.
2. Investigate the link between type of user and type of effects
Another link that warrants empirical attention is the link between types of users and effects.
How will different users social, economic and governance effects? For instance, data
journalist will produce newspaper articles and may influence public debates and possibly
resulting in better governance, whereas entrepreneurs will be likely to try to find a business
model that brings economic gain. So far, the literature has paid little empirical attention to
the conditionality of the type of use, users and potential effects and further research is
Furthermore, there is a strong focus on good governance effects, such as transparency and
accountability. As these are core good governance principles, , but there are other good
governance effects that are currently lacking serious attention. These include citizen
satisfaction [47], cost reduction [28], crowd-sourced monitoring and cooperative planning
[87], fostering competitiveness [52], and better urban planning [79], [80]. Overall, we need
more empirical evidence to prove the estimations made in the literature and to establish
mechanisms for measuring the mentioned effects.
3. Investigate the moderating conditions of OGD effects
The third link in our framework that requires investigation is between conditions and effects.
To result in positive outcomes on society, governance and economy with utilization of OGD,
we need to know more about what conditions moderate these effects. For instance, there
may be utilization for analytic or synthetic purposes, but this will only result in positive
outcomes (stronger economy, better governance) if certain conditions are met. Our review
showed that quality of data, skills, policy and legislation are all potential conditions that
effect the link between usage and outcome. We know very little, however, what conditions
moderate what type of use and which of these conditions are more or less important. We
encourage scholars to develop empirical studies that investigate these conditions as
potential moderating variables between OGD usage and one or more potential outcomes.
4. Establish causal link between utilization and potential OGD outcomes
The fourth and final direction is a more general concern and more difficult to solve research
issue. The causal link between utilization types and effects is another important connection
that requires rigorous research to reveal direct causality relation among a specific utilization
dimensions and its effects. To be able to draw causal inferences other research designs may
be needed. We found that the predominant research type in OGD studies is qualitative or
quantitative (mostly survey based). Although these methods have their merits, they may less
successful in drawing robust causal inferences about cause and effect, as reverse causality
may be an issue.
For instance, on the one hand, using OGD may result in greater wealth when successful
businesses are created. But the reverse possible as well, wealthier jurisdictions (states,
countries, cities) may also have more resources and more enterprises already. To investigate
truly causal effects carefully designed experiments are needed, a trend already witnessed in
some areas related to OGD, such as government transparency [92]. Experiments are useful
to establish cause and effect separately, by carefully manipulating one or two crucial
variables that are expected to cause an effect. For example, to investigate the effect various
types of utilization, in a field experiment a researcher could encourage various slightly
different datasets encouraging data analytics, research, or something else, and closely
monitor results in what type of effect.
5.3 Practical implications
We identified a growing attention on the OGD initiatives, and also an increasing need to
understand the nature of OGD utilization and its factors. In this regard, the systematic
review delivers a ground for practical decision-making regarding OGD utilizations.
Policymakers wishing to achieve better utilization outcomes are advised to evaluate possible
types of utilization in a specific context. Moreover, it is required to understand better the
conditions of OGD utilization process which consist social and technical components. This is
particularly important as the conditions moderate the effects of OGD utilization. Thus a
holistic picture on OGD utilization is needed, including the consideration of diverse user
groups, their requirements and potential effects. In respect of policy, there are strong
implications that the discussed four factors have a substantial role to play in the success of
OGD initiatives, nevertheless evidence is currently not systematic and strong enough to
inform policymakers on how they can consider, support and facilitate potential outcomes.
6. Conclusion
This paper presented the results of a systematic literature review on OGD by analyzing 101
studies which has several limitations. OGD is relatively new field of study so that, there are
limited number of empirical studies which researched OGD utilization. We used only 4 the
most recognized academic databases: Scopus, Web of Science, ACM and ScienceDirect. An
additional search in other databases (Emerald, Taylor & Francis, IEEE and InderScience) did
not result in any new entries in our corpus. The searching process may have also excluded
some relevant studies which cover OGD but named differently such as “open transportation
data”, “open healthcare data” etc. However, we believe that the selected wide-ranging
studies still afford to provide a comprehensive description of the current state of OGD
The review of literature resulted in a OGD utilization framework, consisting of four generic
categories (users, effects, types and conditions) with a variety of subcategories. The
framework shows the multitude of relations between these four categories and also
highlights that we have little empirical knowledge on most of the relations that relate to the
effects of OGD. While most authors highlight positive effects, many studies focus on OGD
initiatives, facilitators, barriers and challenges. Overall, this paper offers an overview of the
current OGD research, and where we can go from here.
Investigating the effects of OGD on social, economic and governance outcomes is a
formidable task however. As we mentioned in the previous paragraph it is hard to try
determine cause and effect. Experimentation with OGD could be a possibility. However, we
also envision that qualitative studies using in-depth interviews may be able to trace causal
mechanism between the utilization of certain OGD initiatives and its effects.
It is important to keep improving our efforts to investigate who, how and why OGD leads to
positive outcomes for society. It is not enough to assume that these effects will occur, and
that they will occur automatically. The key contribution of this paper to the literature is the
framework unravelling the various implicit relationship in research on the use of OGD. The
framework we developed will help future research to systematically analyze the relations
between OGD utilization and various sorts of effects. This is important because while OGD is
proffered as a solution to many issues of public officials, NGOs and activists, yet this promise
is yet to be proven. It is our duty as scholars to show whether and how this promise can be
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... The conditions are grouped into four categories: spatial and temporal coverage (complete, frequent, and timely), high quality (accurate, comparable, and granular), easy to use (are accessible, understandable, and interoperable), and safe to use (are impartial, confidential, and appropriate). The first three groups of the conditions are addressed in the literature on OGD utilization and barriers (Safarov et al., 2017). The last group of conditions is the centre of privacy concerns in the reviewed articles in this study. ...
... The principal assumption behind the innovation and economic value of OGD is that the released data are not only visited on OGD portals but also reused by developers, journalists, and public and private companies to create social and economic value (Safarov et al., 2017). Therefore, specification of purpose at the time of data collection for OGD is almost impossible given the unknown users and use cases and open license requirement of OGD (Kjaergaard et al., 2020). ...
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This study presents a narrative review of the literature on privacy concerns of Open Government Data (OGD) programs and identifies suggested technical, procedural, and legal remedies. Peer-reviewed articles were identified and analysed from major bibliographic databases, including Web of Science, Digital ACM Library, IEEE Explore Digital Library, and Science Direct. Included articles focus on identifying individual information privacy concerns from the viewpoint of OGD stakeholders or providing solutions for mitigating concerns and risks. Papers that discussed and focused on general privacy issues or privacy concerns of open data in general or open science privacy concerns were excluded. Three streams of research were identified: 1) exploring privacy concerns and balance with OGD value propositions, 2) proposing solutions for mitigating privacy concerns, and 3) developing risk-based frameworks for the OGD program at different governmental levels. Findings suggest that contradictions with Fair Information Practices, reidentification risks, conflicts with OGD value propositions, and smart city data practices are significant privacy concerns in the literature. Proposed solutions include technical, legal, and procedural measures to mitigate privacy concerns. Building on the findings, practical implications and suggested future research directions are provided.
... The accessibility of this information and solutions can better meet end-user information needs. To date, the projected degree of open data persistence use has not been met due to a lack of user engagement and participation in long-term OGD activities (Safarov et al. 2017). Local governments are utilizing this opportunity to increase citizen engagement in political and social concerns as social media becomes a major conduit of online interactive participation (Haro-de-rosario, Sáez-martín & Caba-pérez, 2016). ...
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Website is one of the OGD initiatives that provide input and spread information to the public. This research’s objective is to develop a framework for citizen engagement in using OGD’s website, i.e. Ministry’s websites. This research proposes a few combinations of determinants from the Theory of Human Behavior, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Information System Success Model (ISSM). This research will provide input and information on how the implementation of OGD in Malaysia can become a sustainable innovation in developing a user-friendly website to attract engagement from the public.
... Those studies that make such an attempt, typically address the use and value of government data from one of two perspectives -(1) qualitative, (2) quantitative [2]. For the qualitative perspective, motivations for using data, practices, and experiences of users to reuse data and create or co-create value are typically the subject of research [2,12,[14][15]. For quantitative approach, the reference to quantitative parameters such as the of views and downloads provided by the OGD portals is related to the use of datasets, although it is clear that these parameters may indicate some interest in the dataset and can be used rather as assumptions to draw onto usage trends [2,[16][17], i.e., the fact that a dataset has been viewed does not guarantee that it will be actually used, where even the fact of downloading it is not a guarantee, where its actual reuse transforming it into the value is the expected end-result. For the latter, in turn, the "value" into which a dataset has been transformed is also unclear, i.e., whether this transformation will have either social, economic, or environmental value itself? ...
Open government data (OGD) is seen as a political and socio-economic phenomenon that promises to promote civic engagement and stimulate public sector innovations in various areas of public life. To bring the expected benefits, data must be reused and transformed into value-added products or services. This, in turn, sets another precondition for data that are expected to not only be available and comply with open data principles, but also be of value, i.e., of interest for reuse by the end-user. This refers to the notion of “high-value dataset” (HVD), recognized by the European Data Portal as a key trend in the OGD area in 2022. While there is a progress in this direction, e.g., the Open Data Directive, incl. identifying 6 key categories, a list of HVDs and arrangements for their publication and re-use, they can be seen as “core”/“base” datasets aimed at increasing interoperability of public sector data with a high priority, contributing to the development of a more mature OGD initiative. Depending on the specifics of a region and country - geographical location, social, environmental, economic issues, cultural characteristics, (under)developed sectors and market specificities, more datasets can be recognized as of high value for a particular country. However, there is no standardized approach to assist chief data officers in this, and there is a clear lack of conceptualizations for the determination of HVD and systematic oversight. In this paper, we present a systematic review of existing literature on the HVD determination, which is expected to form an initial knowledge base for this process, including used approaches and indicators to determine them, data, stakeholders.KeywordsOpen Government DataHigh-value DataOpen DataPublic ValuePublic AdministrationStakeholderOpen Data Ecosystem
Furthering Knowledge Sharing (KS) is important among the Open Government Data (OGD) adopters for providing the required impetus for value derivation and innovation endeavors. However, it is pertinent to ascertain if the OGD adopters consider trustworthy and reliable as well as the qualitatively robust OGD for engaging in KS. Thus, the present study seeks to derive inferences from an empirical investigation involving university students in Indian context (n ~ 397) via adapted modular framework with specific focus on the gender differentials. Research findings show that males are more concerned about OGD’s information quality and system quality as far as knowledge sharing is concerned. The study closes with further research pointers and social and practical implications.
Extant research on Open Government Data (OGD) has remained confined to the grappling of issues linked with its conceptual, theoretical and empirical dimensions, however focusing on the supply of OGD physical capital (ODG portals, datasets, etc.), and to a lesser degree on the demand for it (e.g., needs of potential users), but not dealing with relevant OGD human capital (human knowledge and skills concerning OGD). Furthermore, research on meta-analysis or literature reviews has not expanded its scope to unravel the formation of OGD human capital, and especially how the OGD theme is being showcased across universities’ curriculum. The present research aims to contribute to filling this research gap, through an analysis of the OGD-related programs and courses offered at the graduate and post-graduate levels across the top-notch universities identified as per the indicators of the QS World University rankings, 2023. Our theoretical foundation is the widely recognized ‘Human Capital Theory’ from the economic science, which gives prominence to the importance of the human capital (human knowledge and skills) as an important complement of the classical physical capital (e.g., production equipment, ICT capital, etc.). Our findings indicate that there are only small number of courses concerning OGD in these top-notch universities; furthermore, a very small share of them have OGD an main topic, while most of them include only a part concerning OGD. Most of them focus on the exploitation of OGD of a specific thematic domain (mainly urban studies and health), and only a few deal with OGD in general. Furthermore, there is a prevalence of postgraduate courses, offered as part of MSC programs, followed by undergraduate courses, offered as part of BSC study programs, and to a much lesser degree short courses. Also, with respect to the objective of these OGD-related programs and courses, most of them aim at the generation of scientific value from OGD, while a smaller number aim at the generation of social-political value, and only a much smaller number at the development of economic value. Therefore, it can be concluded that the formation of OGD human capital by the examined universities is limited.KeywordsOpen Government Data (OGD)Human CapitalUniversitiesCurriculumMOOCs
Due to the necessity of living conditions and the desire to seek alternative living environments, people have recently focused on virtual worlds. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information about what kind of activities people can do in Metaverse virtual worlds without being dependent on mediator platforms in a decentralized way. Moreover, information is given about the advantages of blockchain-based Web 3.0 technology in virtual environments. The advantages of integrating virtual reality technology into Metaverse virtual worlds and properties of non-fungible tokens are explained. In addition, the most popular Metaverse projects in the crypto coin markets are mentioned with the effects of these projects on society discussed.
Provides latest research on methodologies and intelligent systems for technology enhanced learning Covers result of 13th International Conference on Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning Focuses on the increasing role of intelligent systems to shape Technology Enhanced Learning for knowledge societies
The increasing availability of Open Data gives birth to a fertile field for interested stakeholders to create value out of them; however, limited technical expertise and poor awareness are crucial barriers to their exploitation. Because of these reasons, there is an urge for learners to acquire data and information literacy competencies, which are essential for 21st-century skills, and become familiar with available Open Data sources and their potential uses. To promote the dialogue around activities to boost recognition of Open Data and improve users’ skills to work with them, we proposed a series of workshops to introduce Italian high school learners to searching for, authoring, and building effective communication based on Open Data. This article describes an ongoing activity and details its organization, reports preliminary results on learners’ engagement, and discusses both challenges of the remote setting as well as promising learning outcomes.KeywordsOpen DataData literacyWorkshopsK-12 learners
Open Data can be freely used, created, and shared by anyone. However, initiatives to let K-12 learners exploit Open Data are rare in literature. To advance the dialogue around methods to increase awareness of Open Data and improve users’ skills to exploit and disseminate them, HETOR regularly organizes workshops with high-school learners to let them create, publish, and exploit Open Data by SPOD since 2017. This article reports on Data Exploitation and Dissemination activities proposed by HETOR and the observed results regarding the quantity and quality of produced outcomes. According to the discussion, learners successfully created value from Open Data authoring multimedia or data stories due to their active participation. While the remote setting experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic strengthened inequalities, learners enjoyed the HETOR projects and submitted data stories of sufficient quality valuing their local cultural heritage. KeywordsOpen DataData StoriesData ExploitationWorkshopEducationHigh-schoolLearningEngagement
Open Government Data (OGD) pose that public organisations should freely share data for anyone to reuse without restrictions. However, the rawness of this data proves to be a challenge for data or information seekers. OGD-based solutions, such as interactive maps and dashboards, could help seekers overcome this difficulty and use OGD to satisfy needs, helping them to work effectively, solve problems, or pursue hobbies. However, there are several challenges that need to be considered when designing solutions, such as seekers wanting to solve problems rather than consuming information and aiming for quick wins over quality. Previous research has classified OGD solutions, focusing on general concepts. The next step is to reveal helpful patterns in OGD solutions, helping seekers. This paper presents a taxonomy with 24 criteria to classify these patterns. It was tested on 40 OGD solutions, and the resulting classifications were grouped in a cluster analysis, identifying 16 key criteria and 6 clusters. The clusters are (1) simple-personalised, (2) proactive multi-visual, (3) lightly-facilitated exploration, (4) facilitated data-management, (5) facilitated information exploration, and (6) horizon solutions. One unexpected finding is that helpful patterns do not cluster following themes, types, or purposes of solutions. Another finding is that the importance of key criteria varies between the clusters.KeywordsOpen Government Datasolutiontaxonomyclassificationcluster analysisinformation behaviour
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This paper develops and tests a theoretical model, which proposes to examine cities’ commitment to the concept of open government data (OGD) according to three typical levels. Level 1, Way of Life, indicates high commitment to OGD; Level 2, On the Fence, represents either a low or erratic commitment; Level 3, Lip Service, refers to either scarce or no commitment. This study shows that these types exhibit distinct behavior in four key indicators: (1) Rhythm, (2) Coverage, (3) Categorization, and (4) Feedback. This theoretical framework is examined using longitudinal mixed-method analysis of the OGD behavior of 16 US cities over a period of four years, using a corpus of municipal quantitative metadata and primary qualitative data. This methodology allows us to represent, for the first time, cities’ evolving OGD commitment, or “OGD heartbeat”.
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Purpose Based on previous inventories, this article extends our knowledge on public administration experiments by focusing on their experimental type, design, sample type and realism levels and external validity. Our aim is to provide an overview of experimental public administration and formulate potential ways forward. Design/methodology/approach We examine the current state of experimental public administration, by looking at a systematic selection of ISI ranked experimental publications in major public administration journals (1992-2014) and recommend ways forward based on this review. Findings There is a rise in experimentation in public administration in recent years, this can be attributed mostly to some subfields of public administration. Furthermore, most experiments in public administration tend to have relatively simple designs, high experimental realism and a focus on external validity. Experimental public administration can be strengthened by increasing diversification in terms of samples, experimental designs, experimental types and substantive scope. Finally, we recommend to better utilize experiments to generate usable knowledge for practitioners and to replicate experiments to improve scientific practice. Originality/value This paper contributes to literature on experimentation in public administration by drawing on a systematic selection of papers and assessing them in depth. By means of a transparent and systematic selection of publications, various venues or ways forward could be presented.
Conference Paper
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Two important trends in government that are emerging in the recent years have been on one hand the exploitation of the Web 2.0 social media, supporting a more extensive interaction and collaboration with citizens, and on the other hand the opening of government data to the citizens through the Internet, in order to be used for scientific, commercial and political purposes. However, there has been limited attempt of integrating them. Using a design science approach a second generation of open government data (OGD) platforms has been developed, which offer to the users both the ‘classical’ first generation functionalities, and also a comprehensive set of additional novel Web 2.0 features. The latter aim to provide support to the users in order to generate value from ODG. They enable users to become ‘prosumers’, both producing and consuming data. These novel capabilities for performing various types of processing, information and knowledge exchange, and collaboration were found to be useful and valuable by users in a first evaluation.
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The frequency of extreme weather events has accelerated, an apparent outcome of progressive climate change. Excess water is a significant consequence of these events and is now the leading cause of insurance claims for infrastructure and property damage. Governments recognize that plans for growth must reflect communities’ needs, strengths and opportunities while balancing the cumulative effects of economic growth with environmental concerns. Legislation must incorporate the cumulative effects of economic growth with adaptation to weather events to protect the environment and citizens, while ensuring that products of growth such as buildings and infrastructure are resilient. For such a process to be effective it will be necessary for the private sector to develop and operate cumulative effect decision support software (CEDSS) tools and to work closely with all levels of government including watershed management authorities (WMAs) that supply environmental data. Such cooperation and sharing will require a new Open Data information-sharing platform managed by the private sector. This paper outlines that platform, its operation and possible governance model.
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Research on open government data focuses mainly on standards for publishing data and access to data. In this study of the uptake of Digital Post in Denmark open data is applied in the analysis of the course of events leading up to the implementation of the mandatory digital mail-box. The study reflects on the impact of communication via local print media and discusses the body of literature which focuses on print media as a vehicle for communication to citizens. The study opens for a discussion of how open government data-sets give new opportunities for generating scholarly insights but also how it can challenge the position of researchers.
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This paper aims to present and analyse the Open Government Data (OGD) legislation framework in force in the current Italian legal system. The previous legislation has been compared with the recently enacted Legislative Decree about transparency (the so called Transparency Act d.lgs. 33/2013). After discussing the normative contest, this paper completes the theoretical analysis with an empirical research conducted on the Italian Municipalities’ web sites (35 portals) in order to deeply understand the connection between the Open Government Data legislation and the new Transparency Act. The aim of this comparison is to test and prove our theory about the fact that the Transparency Act doesn’t enable and reinforce the OGD – as FOIAs do – but it subtracts resources, human capital, skills, funds and motivations. The Transparency Act, in fact, implements an old-style model of web site oriented to a "Public Administration centered" paradigm instead of an "ODG centered" one. The authors, finally, wants to identify a method to combine the two different approaches, having a unique production workflow of data and documents in Open Data format, with a semantic web metadata classification that qualify the information.
In this paper we present a necessarily brief overview of the legal and regulatory aspects of Open Government Data in Italy. The thesis of the article is that in Italy some regulatory issues and a still inadequate culture do not allow this innovation to fully develop its potential. Despite those critical elements, in the last few years a growing number of local governments have opened up their public data and published them on the web, allowing users to reuse them for broad purposes. In this regard, the paper considers the example of the strategy of opening up public sector information of the Autonomous Province of Trento.
Conference Paper
Although the recently launched Open Government Data (OGD) movement promised to provide a number of benefits, recent studies have shown that its full potential has not yet realized. The difficulty in exploiting open data seems surprising if we consider the huge importance data have in modern societies. In this paper we claim that the real value of OGD will unveil from performing data analytics on top of combined statistical datasets that were previously closed in disparate sources and can now be linked to provide unexpected and unexplored insights. To support this claim, we describe the linked OGD analytics concept along with its technical requirements and demonstrate its end-user value employing a use case related to UK general elections. The use case revealed that there is a significant relationship between the probability one of the two main political parties (i.e. Labour Party and Conservative Party) to win in a UK constituency and the unemployment rate in the same constituency.