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In vitro Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Viscumneoside III and Homoflavoyadorinin B Isolated from Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album)

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Abstract

Various bioactive substances are found in mistletoe, including viscumneoside III (1) and homoflavoyadorinin B (2), both which inhibit tyrosinase. These two compounds are mainly found in the EtOAc fraction of the mistletoe extract and demonstrate higher rates of tyrosinase inhibition than ascorbic acid, which was used as a control. Our results suggest that mistletoe extracts can be utilized in skin whitening cosmetics.

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... The UHPLC-MS chromatogram identified 33 major compounds in D. morbifera extract ( Figure 2, Table 1). As listed in Table 1, we found that D. morbifera extract contains many phenolic and flavonoid compounds known as natural antioxidants, such as 1-O-Caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid, and Corchoionoside, 3,7,8,3 ,4 -Pentahydroxyflavone, whereas apocynoside I inhibits CYP2C9, which causes aging and lowers disease resistance, and Viscumneoside III inhibits tyrosinase, which impedes skin whitening [37]. ...
... Quercetin is known to inhibit MMP-1, which encourages the imbalance or collapse of collagen molecules in UV-irradiated skin [38]. Caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid, and Corchoionoside,3,7,8,3',4'-Pentahydroxyflavone, whereas apocynoside I inhibits CYP2C9, which causes aging and lowers disease resistance, and Viscumneoside III inhibits tyrosinase, which impedes skin whitening [37]. Quercetin is known to inhibit MMP-1, which encourages the imbalance or collapse of collagen molecules in UV-irradiated skin [38]. ...
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Recently, utilizing natural bioactive compounds for active ingredients in cosmetics has become a growing worldwide trend. More and more studies aim to identify the sources of herbal ingredients for applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. Additionally, in order to optimize the safety of natural ingredients, choosing an environmentally friendly extraction method also plays an important role. In this work, an eco-friendly extraction technique for Dendropanax morbifera using microwave treatment and microwave-assisted Dendropanax morbifera extract (MA-DME) was investigated. The results indicate that higher yields of MA-DME were obtained than with conventional methods and that D. morbifera’s antioxidant properties were enhanced. Moreover, we found that MA-DME exhibited extraordinary antioxidant, anti-aging, and skin-whitening activities. We suggest MA-DME as a potential cosmeceutical ingredient than could be utilized for comprehensive protection of human skin.
... The mistletoe was collected from an oak tree in Jeongseon in South Korea, then dried under ambient condition before being used in this study, as previously described [16]. views (a ,b ,c ). ...
... The mistletoe was collected from an oak tree in Jeongseon in South Korea, then dried under ambient condition before being used in this study, as previously described [16]. ...
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Tyrosinase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. Nowadays mushroom tyrosinase has become popular because it is readily available and useful in a number of applications. This work presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, especially that derived from mushroom, and describes its biochemical character and inhibition and activation by the various chemicals obtained from natural and synthetic origins with its clinical and industrial importance in the recent prospects.
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Mushroom tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a copper containing oxidase that catalyzes both the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones, and then forms brown or black pigments. In the present study, the effects of some flavonoids on the oxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) have been studied. The results show that flavonoids can lead to reversible inhibition of the enzyme. A kinetic analysis showed that the flavonols are competitive inhibitors, whereas luteolin is an uncompetitive inhibitor. The rank order of inhibition was: quercetin > galangin > morin; fisetin > 3,7,4;-trihydroxyflavone; luteolin > apigenin > chrysin.
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Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) such as glycolic acid (GA) and lactic acid (LA) have been reported to be effective in treating pigmentary lesions such as melasma, solar lentigines, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. The mechanism of this effect might be due to epidermal remodeling and accelerated desquamation, which would result in quick pigment dispersion. However, the direct effect of AHAs on melanin synthesis has not yet been well studied. To elucidate such a direct effect of AHAs on melanogenesis, we performed melanin assays, growth curve determinations, Northern and Western blotting for melanogenic proteins [tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2], and tyrosinase and, 4-dihydroxyphenylalaninechrome tautomerase enzyme activity assays using mouse B16 and human melanoma cells. GA or LA (at doses of 300 or 500 microg/ml) inhibited melanin formation in similar dose-dependent manner, without affecting cell growth. Although the mRNA and protein expression or molecular size of tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 were not affected, tyrosinase activity was inhibited. To see whether GA and/or LA directly inhibit tyrosinase catalytic function, the effect of GA and LA on human tyrosinase purified from the melanosome-rich large granule fraction of human melanoma cells was performed. GA or LA were shown to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity directly, but this effect was not due to the acidity of GA or LA, because adjusting the pH to 5.6 (the pH of GA and LA at concentrations of 2500 microg/ml), did not affect tyrosinase activity. Taken together, these results show that GA and LA suppress melanin formation by directly inhibiting tyrosinase activity, an effect independent of their acidic nature. GA and LA might work on pigmentary lesions not only by accelerating the turnover of the epidermis but also by directly inhibiting melanin formation in melanocytes.
Growth enhancement and cytotoxicity of Korean mistletoe fractions on human cell lines
  • S Lee
  • M Lee
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Lee, S., M. Lee, G. Choi. 2003. Growth enhancement and cytotoxicity of Korean mistletoe fractions on human cell lines. Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science 11:62-70 (in Korean).
Screening of tyrosinase inhibitor from plants
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Jung, S., N. Lee, S. Kim and D. Han. 1995. Screening of tyrosinase inhibitor from plants. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology 27:891-896 (in Korean).