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Abstract

Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of cinnamon tea in reducing weight among late obese adolescent.Methods: Pre experimental research design was adopted to conduct the study with 30 samples who met the inclusion criteria. Cinnamon tea was given for the samples for 15 days and theirweight and BMI was measured before as well as after the intervention. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results:Out of 30 samples in pretest, 70% of them had overweight and 30% of them had class I obesity with the BMI mean value of 28.75 and2.72 standard deviation. In posttest 20% of them were normal weight, 66.67% of them were overweight and 13.33% of them were Class I obesity.The posttest BMI mean was 27.45 with 3.34 standard deviation. Paired t test revealed that Cinnamon tea was found to be effective in reducing weight at the level of *P<0.05.Conclusion:the findings of the present study revealed that the prescribed cinnamon tea resulted in an improvement reduction of weight. However, we need further studies with larger samples to investigate the effect of cinnamon in reducing the different factors like weight, BMI, hip waist circumference level in obese adolescents.Keywords: Obesity, Childhood obesity, Adolescent, Cinnamon, BMI, Weight, Cinnamon tea
Vol 10, Issue 4, 2017
Online - 2455-3891
Print - 0974-2441
EFFECTIVENESS OF CINNAMON TEA IN REDUCING WEIGHT AMONG LATE OBESE
ADOLESCENCE
MANGALA GOWRI P, MARY MINOLIN T, THENMOZHI P*, MEENA P, VIMALA S
Department of Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Email: thenmozhi.sethu@gmail.com
Received: 30 November 2016, Revised and Accepted: 16 January 2017
ABSTRACT
Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of cinnamon tea in reducing weight among late obese adolescent.
Methods: Pre-experimental research design was adopted to conduct the study with 30 samples who met the inclusion criteria. Cinnamon tea was
given for the samples for 15 days, and their weight and body mass index (BMI) was measured before as well as after the intervention. Data were
analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: Out of 30 samples in pretest, 70% of them had overweight and 30% of them had Class I obesity with the body mass index mean value of
28.75 and 2.72 standard deviation. In post-test, 20% of them were normal weight, 66.67% of them were overweight, and 13.33% of them were
Class I obesity. The post-test body mass index mean was 27.45 with 3.34 standard deviation. Paired t-test revealed that cinnamon tea was found to be
effective in reducing weight at the level of *p<0.05.
Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the prescribed cinnamon tea resulted in an improvement reduction of weight. However, we need
further studies with larger samples to investigate the effect of cinnamon in reducing the different factors like weight, BMI, hip waist circumference
level in obese adolescents.
Keywords: Obesity, Childhood obesity, Adolescent, Cinnamon, Body mass index, Weight, Cinnamon tea.
INTRODUCTION
The term overweight refers to excess body weight for a particular
height, whereas the term obesity is used to define excess body fat.
Obesity has been named among the highly occurring noncommunicable
disease affecting around 39% of world’s population. Worldwide, obesity
trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries
threatening the viability of basic health-care delivery. Indian data
regarding current trends in childhood obesity are emerging. A recent
study conducted among 24,000 school children in South India showed
that the proportion of overweight children increased from 4.94% of the
total students to 6.57% [1].
Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socioeconomic
groups, irrespective of age, sex, or ethnicity. Etiopathogenesis of
childhood obesity is multifactorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine,
metabolic, psychological, environmental, and sociocultural factors.
Many comorbid conditions such as metabolic, cardiovascular,
psychological, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal
disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity.
An individual’s eating and physical activity behaviors are heavily
influenced by social contexts where they are brought up. Adolescent
age group is more vulnerable to consume fast food which contains large
portions of high fat and low fiber food [2]. The sedentary activities such
as television viewing, playing games in the mobile, computer laptop
and tablet are the major causes for childhood obesity [3]. Consuming a
high-calorie diet without adequate exercise to burn off excess fat is the
leading cause of obesity. As we are aware, more the glucose levels imply
more the insulin gets secreted into the blood, and more the insulin
implies more of fat storage which leads to weight gain in the long run.
Children and adolescents of poor socioeconomic status tend to consume
less quantities of fruits and vegetables and to have a higher i ntake of
total and saturated fat [4-6]. Early rebound of body mass index (BMI)
is linked to glucose intolerance and diabetes in adults [7]. The risk of
obesity persisting into adulthood is higher among obese adolescents
than among younger children [8]. Observations suggest that up to 80%
of overweight adolescents will become obese adults [9].
Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and
significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two
decades have witnessed an increase in health-care costs due to obesity
and related issues among children and adolescents. The treatment
of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a
multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary
management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary
behavior, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery.
Weight loss is the best way to combat obesity. There are many nutritional
supplements, herbs, and spices that can provide benefits for weight
loss. Cinnamon is one such spice that is used for weight loss especially
combined with honey. Several available experimental evidence suggests
that cinnamon can play role in balancing body insulin levels, cholesterol
levels, glucose levels aiding in weight loss. Thus, cinnamon can be opted
as among wise options for weight loss and management. Cinnamon
is common as well as among the oldest known spice, condiment and
flavoring agent in the world [1].
A research group from Germany published a study in 2014
demonstrating role of cinnamon in mediating changes in metabolic
pathways leading to decrease in liver fat and balancing blood glucose
levels. A Canadian Research Group published their study in Molecular
Nutrition and Food Research, 2006. The study concluded that the rate of
glucose uptake by 3T3 adipocytes (adipose cells) increased on treated
with cinnamon extract. Another study published in Diabetic Journal
published the research which elucidated possible role of cinnamtannin
B1 as the active molecule responsible for elevating glucose uptake by
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.
org/licenses/by/4. 0/) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i4.16420
Research Article
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Gowri et al.
glucose transporter Type 4, increase in glucose metabolism, inhibiting
gluconeogenesis, decreasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and
increasing high-density lipoprotein levels which mean that weight
can be managed by managing one’s blood pressure (BP) and blood
glucose levels [10]. Balijepalli et al. had reviewed the pharmacological
actions of Cinnamomum species and literature on scientifically
proven biological uses of Cinnamomum using the databases; PubMed,
Scopus, Science Finder and Google Scholar. Scientific studies have
shown that the Cinnamomum species possess anesthetic, anodyne,
antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet,
antioxidant, antipyretic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiulcer,
antiviral, chemopreventive, choleretic, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic,
immunostimulant, lipolytic, and sedative activities [11]. Cinnamon is a
highly delicious spice used in sweet and savoury foods. It has the lots of
nutritional facts and medicinal value. Among many potential effects of
cinnamon the researchers interested to conduct a study to determine
the effectiveness of cinnamon on reducing the weight of the obese late
adolescent.
METHODS
The research approach used in the study was quantitative approach
using pre-experimental one group pre- and post-test research design.
The study was conducted with 30 samples in Saveetha College of
Nursing after obtaining approval from ethical clearance with reference
number 014/05/2016/IEC/SU and formal permission from the
authority. The samples who met the inclusion criteria were selected
by convenient sampling technique. Adolescents with Class II obesity,
obesity due to the side effects of medication or disease condit ion,
peptic ulcer, oral mucosal ulceration, and obesity-related diseases
were excluded. Explained the study in detail and obtained informed
consent from the samples. Demographic variables were collected by
self-administered questionnaire and followed by weight and height was
checked by standardized and calibrated digital scale and stadio meter.
BMI was calculated and classified obesity according to the World health
Organization guidelines. Samples were received the 50 ml of cinnamon
tea which contains 5 g of cinnamon powder for 15 days in the mo rning
in empty stomach. At the end of 15th day, level of obesity was assessed.
Confidentiality was maintained throughout the procedure. Collected
data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics.
RESULTS
Distribution of demographic variables
In this 30 late obese adolescents were recruited during the study
period, of these, the majority of the sample were female and fall in the
age group between 17 and 18 years. 100% of them were non-vegetarian
and 63.33% of them were consuming more frequently. Around 76% of
them had no family history of obesity and history of childhood obesity.
The majority of them had no stress and no habits of doing yoga and
exercise as shown in Table 1.
Level of obesity before and after the intervention
Among 30 samples, in pretest 70% of them had overweight and 30% of
them had Class I obesity. In post-test, 20% of them were normal weight,
66.67% of them were overweight, and 13.33% of them were in Class I
obesity as shown in Fig. 1.
Mean and standard deviation of BMI and weight in late obese
adolescents
The pretest mean of BMI was 28.75 with 2.72 standard deviation, and
post mean was 27.45 with 3.34 standard deviation. The pretest mean of
weight was 72.05 with 8.98 standard deviation, and post mean was 69.2
with 7.41 standard deviation as shown in Table 2.
Effectiveness of cinnamon extract in reducing weight among late
obese adolescent
The calculated “t” value for weight in the study group was t=5.96 which
is found to be statistically significant at the level of *p<0.05 level as
shown in Table 3.
Table 1: Distribution of demographic variables of the
participants
S. No. Demographic variables Frequency (%)
1 Age in years
17-18 19 (63.33)
19-20 10 (33.34)
21 1 (3.33)
2Sex
Male 7 (23.33)
Female 23 (76.67)
3 Dietary habits
Vegetarian 0 (-)
Non-vegetarian 30 (100)
4 Frequency of eating
Less frequent 11 (36.67)
More frequent 19 (63.33)
5 Habits of consuming junk food
Never 8 (26.67)
Occasional 8 (26.67)
Often 14 (46.66)
6 Family history of obesity
Yes 8 (26.67)
No 22 (73.33)
7 History of childhood obesity
Yes 7 (23.33)
No 23 (76.67)
8 Sleeping pattern
Regular 14 (46.67)
Irregular 16 (53.33)
9 Stress
Yes 2 (6.67)
No 28 (93.33)
10 Habits of doing exercise/yoga
Yes 7 (73.33)
No 23 (23.33)
Fig. 1: The level of obesity before and after the intervention
among the participants (n=30)
Table 2: Distribution of pre- and post-test mean and standard
deviation of BMI and weight in late obese adolescents
Physical
Parameters
Mean±SD
Pre-test Post-test
BMI 28.75±2.72 27.45±3.34
Weight 72.05±8.98 69.2±7.41
BMI: Body mass index, SD: Standard deviation
Table 3: Determine the effectiveness of cinnamon extract in
reducing weight among late obese adolescent
Level of Weight Mean±SD Paired t-test
Pre-test level of weight 72.05±8.98 t value: 5.96
df: 29
p<0.05
Significant
Post-test level of
weight
69.2±7.41
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Association between the pretest level of obesity and demographic
variables
Chi-square test reveals that there is a significant association between
dietary habits, Habits of doing exercise/yoga at the level of *p<0.05
with the level of obesity.
DISCUSSION
The last two decades of the previous century have witnessed dramatic
increase in health-care costs due to obesity and related issues among
children and adolescents [12]. Diet and exercise are fundamental
elements for losing weight. In this study, the Chi-square test also founded
that there is an association between the dietary habits and the level of
obesity. Although many complementary therapies are promoted for the
treatment of obesity, few are truly therapeutic. The present investigation
examined the effect of cinnamon tea intervention on the reduction of
obesity among 30 late obese adolescence. Numbers of studies related
to the effects of cinnamon in reduction of weight among human being
are very limited. There are few research studies have been undertaken
in rats as animal study which proven that consumption of cinnamon
extract on BP and blood glucose level which shows that drastic reduction
in BP and insulin secretion as well utilization. Khan et al. studied the
effects of 1, 3, and 6 g/day of whole cinnamon powder on fasting blood
glucose and serum lipids in 60 people with poorly controlled Type 2
diabetes from Pakistan and after 40 days of supplementation fasting
blood glucose decreased by 18-29%, cholesterol decreased by 12-26%,
LDL cholesterol decreased by 7-27%, and triacylglycerol decreased
by 23-30% [13]. More recently, Mang et al. supplemented 79 people
with Type 2 diabetes from Germany with 3 g/day cinnamon powder
or a placebo for 4 months, and the findings of the study concluded that
moderate effect in reducing fasting plasma glucose concentration in
diabetic patients with poor glycemic control [14].
This study findings reveal that consuming cinnamon tea with 5 g/day
with honey for 2 weeks leads to significant reduction in weight at the
level of p<0.05 which was in concordance with a study conducted by
Vaf a et al. They had conducted a clinical trial recently with 44 samples
by administration of 3 g of cinnamon per day for 8 weeks and reported
that cinnamon may have a moderate effect in improving glycemic
status indicators and fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c),
triglyceride, weight, BMI, and body fat mass decreased significantly
compared to baseline [15]. Qin et al. had conducted the study to assess
the effect of the 30 and 300 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks cinnamon
extract on the insulin action in awaked rats by the euglycemic clamp
and further analyzed possible changes in insulin signaling occurred
in skeletal muscle, and the results suggest that the cinnamon extract
would improve insulin action via increasing glucose uptake in vivo,
at least in part through enhancing the insulin-signaling pathway in
skeletal muscle [16].
Other studies are also indirectly supporting these study findings. Kumar
and Prakash had conducted a comparative analysis of antioxidant
activity and phytochemical screening of some Indian medicinal plants
with composition of Cassia fistula, Acacia catechu, Cinnamomum cassia
and Citrus limon in bark extracts and showed the antioxidant properties
of medicinal plants playing part significantly in anti-inflammatory,
heart failure, and carbohydrate metabolism disorders [17]. Akilen et al.
had conducted a study was to review and evaluate the effect of short-
term administration of cinnamon on BP regulation and it shows that
significant reduction in systolic BP (SBP) by 5.39 mmHg and diastolic
BP by 2.6 mmHg at 95% confidence interval. Although cinnamon shows
hopeful effects on BP-lowering potential, it would be premature to
recommend cinnamon for BP control because of the limited number
of studies available [18]. Mustaffaa et al. had designed this study to
evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Cinnamomum
iners leaves, and the findings concluded that C. iners leaves showed
antidiabetic properties and hypolipidemic effects. The increased
antidiabetic potential of CF over ME and SF-1 over CF is presumably
due to its partial purification achieved by fractionation which resulted
in increase in quantity of cinnamic aldehyde [19]. Wainstein et al. had
conducted a study with 59 subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus by
administration of 1200 mg of cinnamon per day and results revealed
that SBP declined from baseline values by 3.4±11.4 mmHg. Although
cinnamon added to the diets of spontaneously hypertensive rats has
been shown to decrease SBP [20]. Kalsi et al., 2015, had conducted a
study on current treatments for Type 2 diabetes, their side effects
and possible complementary treatments and the findings of the study
suggested that there is an urgent need to come up with complementary
treatments such as physical exercise, dietary supplements, and
nutraceuticals that can be used as therapy along with the drugs to
reduce the dependence on the drugs and better manage the disease.
Nutraceuticals include cinnamon and garlic among the cinnamon
promotes insulin secretion and glucose uptake [21].
These study findings are accordance with this study directly and
indirectly because of the study shows that significant reduction in blood
sugar and BP which in turn decrease the weight and BMI. However, this
study mainly and only focused on the obese adolescence, and the findings
may not be applied to the adults obese because they are influenced by
many extraneous variables such as habits such as smoking, alcoholism,
physical inactivity, and comorbid problems like diabetes mellitus and
hypertension. The result of the study is limited in biochemical markers
related to obesity such as lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, and HbA1c.
Hence, the investigators planned to conduct further study with adult
obese with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension by measuring
related biochemical markers.
CONCLUSION
Consuming cinnamon tea is cost-effective do not cost extra time
and it is effective in decreasing the body weight which will he lp to
reduce the obesity and prevent the obesity-related complications.
The amount and frequency of cinnamon that reduces the weight
among obesity adolescent not sufficiently examined in research
studies. Hence, it is difficult to determine the amount, frequency and
duration of consumption of cinnamon which provides the best benefit
to obese adolescents. In this study, we proposed that 5 g of cinnamon
containing tea with honey for 2 weeks. In conclusion, the findings of
this study revealed that the prescribed cinnamon tea resulted in an
improvement reduction of weight. However, we need further studies
with larger samples to investigate the effect of cinnamon in reducing
the different factors like weight, BMI, hip waist circumference level in
obese adolescents.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Researchers thank all the participants for their valuable contribution.
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... To examine the same, a research study was done to establish the effect of cinnamon on obesity, the study proposed samples to have 5 g of cinnamon containing tea with honey for 2 weeks. The findings of this study depict that the prescribed cinnamon tea resulted in an improvement weight reduction [11]. ...
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... Accessed January 12, 2005. 10. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar - sweetened drinks and childhood obesity : a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet. 2001;357:505–508[CrossRef][Web of Science][Medline]. 11. ...
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Indian medicinal plants (Casia fistula, Cinnamomum cassia, Acacia catechu and Citrus limon) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity, phytochemical composition and vitamins content. Methanolic extracts of the bark of these plant species showed high antioxidant activity and Casia fistula possessed the highest percent inhibition of DPPH (91.66%) amongst all studied plants. The results also revealed the presence of substantial amount of bioactive constituents comprising alkaloids (1.31 to 1.64 mg/100g DW), flavonoids (36.2 to 76.2 mg/100g DW), saponins (0.883 to 2.251 mg/100g DW), tannins (0.45 to 0.85 mg/100g DW) and total phenol content (110 to 210.2 mg/100g DW) where Casia fistula was observed comparatively richer source of these phytochemicals. The medicinal plants had the erratic concentrations of vitamins and contained carotenoids (104 to 135 mg/100g DW), ascorbic acid (18.05 to 55.04 mg/100g DW), thiamine (0.12 to 0.28 mg/100g DW), riboflavin (0.11 to 0.42 mg/100g DW) and niacin (0.02 to 0.08 mg/100g DW). The results provided the evidence that the studied medicinal plants are to be potent source of natural antioxidant and medicinally important compounds.
Article
Experimental and some clinical evidence suggests that ingestion of cinnamon may improve metabolic measures in individuals with diabetes; however, few human studies have been designed to examine this association as their primary objective. In this study adult subjects 30 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes were randomized to treatment with 1,200 mg/day cinnamon or matched placebo. Blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, physical examination, and blood and urine chemistry were measured at baseline and at the 12-week follow-up end-of-treatment visit. In total, 59 subjects (40.7% female; mean age, 63.05±10.85 years) were recruited. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) declined from baseline values by 3.4±11.4 mm Hg in the cinnamon group and increased by 1.9±10.2 mm Hg in the placebo group (P=.06). In repeated-measures analysis, a significant by-treatment difference over time was detected (P=.02). However, when baseline SBP was included in the model as a covariate, change from baseline SBP was no longer associated with treatment. Although cinnamon added to the diets of spontaneously hypertensive rats has been shown to decrease SBP in a dose-dependent manner, results of the present study in humans suggest that the by-treatment difference in change-from-baseline SBP was a function of regression to the mean rather than a treatment-associated change.
To identify the ways in which fruits and vegetables are consumed by children, to provide estimates of their intakes compared with recommendations, and to estimate the percentage of children meeting those recommendations. We examined 3 days of dietary data from respondents in the US Department of Agriculture's 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. All foods reported in the survey were disaggregated into their component ingredients; all fruit and vegetable ingredients were assigned specific weights to correspond with a serving as defined by current dietary guidance materials; and the number of servings of each fruit and vegetable was tallied. A total of 3148 children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years in the 48 conterminous United States. Percentages of fruit and vegetable servings consumed in various forms, mean number of servings consumed per day, and percentage of persons meeting various recommendations by sex/age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Nearly one quarter of all vegetables consumed by children and adolescents were french fries. Their intakes of all fruits and of dark green and/or deep yellow vegetables were very low compared with recommendations. Only one in five children consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Pediatricians should encourage the consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially dark green and deep yellow vegetables, by children.