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Abstract

Many contend that withholding and hoarding makes very little sense in sales organizations that applaud knowledge sharing. Others call knowledge withholding and hoarding an obsolete concept in today's search engine age. Despite this, knowledge withholding remains a systematic and intrinsic sales issue in business-to-business (B2B) firms, for which an analysis exploring salesperson knowledge hoarding behavior does not yet exist. This research examines antecedents of knowledge withholding among B2B salespeople, and its consequential impact on knowledge hoarding behavior. A model is developed and tested using structural equation modeling, followed by a discussion of implications for firms, managers, and salespeople themselves. Findings show that factors related to lack of incentives, personality and the organizational environment, indirectly influence knowledge hoarding behavior through withholding efforts.

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... While existing sales research explores ways to motivate knowledge sharing (Le Bon and Merunka, 2006), most sales studies neglect the modern-day realities surrounding counterproductive knowledge behaviors like evasive knowledge hiding. Although research has examined other counterproductive knowledge behaviors (e.g., knowledge hoarding, see Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), research has yet to examine: salesperson evasive knowledge hiding; its drivers; its consequences; and the managerial and environmental factors that influence these behaviors. ...
... Organizations and sales managers frequently use internal competition among team members to increase individual motivation and performance (Krishnan et al., 2002). Within the context of internal competition, coworkers are transformed into competitors, as they are now seen as genuine threats in a race for scarce resources (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). As such, salespeople are constantly competing against each other not only for compensation (e.g. ...
... Internal competition (a = 0.962),Anaza and Nowlin (2017) þ Some of my coworkers are hostile to one another when one coworker . . . ...
Chapter
Salespeople often face the dilemma of having to protect their personally acquired market knowledge from others in their organization, while also seeming to be a team player. In order to not being perceived as being opportunistic by their colleagues, salespeople have the option of: (1) sharing their information, or (2) neglecting to divulge their knowledge, possibly being perceived as uncooperative, or (3) appearing to share information while in actuality obscuring substantive knowledge, which we call evasive hiding. As a way to protect their knowledge, evasive hiding occurs when salespeople intentionally appear to be openly sharing sales knowledge when they are actually deliberately avoiding the need to provide any useful information to others (Connelly et al. 2012). Research has shown that individuals evasively hide knowledge due to interpersonal and situational factors (Connelly et al. 2014). Yet, knowledge hiding can have serious consequences for performance (Černe et al. 2014; Peng 2013), as salespeople may not consider this to be so detrimental. We surmise that knowledge is a critical source of competitive advantage for individual salespeople, especially when you consider that research has shown a positive relationship between salesperson knowledge and performance (e.g., Mariadoss et al. 2014). To further exacerbate this, firms tend to foster situations where salespeople have to compete with one another in order to enhance sales force productivity, resulting in the unintentional side effect where salespeople end up viewing their colleagues as internal rivals in competition for limited organizational rewards like public recognition, promotion, and financial compensation (Anaza and Nowlin 2017). Therefore, salespeople may act to defend their source (e.g., knowledge) of competitive advantage much like any organization would. Leveraging social exchange theory, we investigate the relational antecedents and customer-directed outcomes of evasive hiding as well as the conditional effects of pushover manager and environmental dynamism. The empirical findings reveal that the antecedents’ effect on evasive hiding are conditional upon the managerially-actionable construct of pushover manager. Evasive hiding was subsequently found to have a negative impact on customer-directed outcomes, particularly at low levels of environmental dynamism.
... While existing sales research explores ways to motivate knowledge sharing (Le Bon and Merunka, 2006), most sales studies neglect the modern-day realities surrounding counterproductive knowledge behaviors like evasive knowledge hiding. Although research has examined other counterproductive knowledge behaviors (e.g., knowledge hoarding, see Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), research has yet to examine: salesperson evasive knowledge hiding; its drivers; its consequences; and the managerial and environmental factors that influence these behaviors. ...
... Organizations and sales managers frequently use internal competition among team members to increase individual motivation and performance (Krishnan et al., 2002). Within the context of internal competition, coworkers are transformed into competitors, as they are now seen as genuine threats in a race for scarce resources (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). As such, salespeople are constantly competing against each other not only for compensation (e.g. ...
... Internal competition (a = 0.962),Anaza and Nowlin (2017) þ Some of my coworkers are hostile to one another when one coworker . . . ...
Article
Purpose Salespeople frequently face the predicament of wanting to protect their market knowledge from coworkers while not appearing recalcitrant. Considering the choice of disclosing information or refusing to disclose, they may choose a third option: appearing to share knowledge while concealing substantive information, which this study calls evasive knowledge hiding. This study surmises that the consequences of these choices impact perceptions of customer outcomes. Using social exchange theory, the purpose of this article is to examine the internal relational antecedents and perceptions of external customer outcomes of evasive knowledge hiding, as well as the moderating effects of pushover manager and environmental dynamism. Design/methodology/approach A moderated mediation model was used to analyze survey data from 234 business-to-business salespeople. Findings Internal competition and coworkers’ past opportunistic behavior increase evasive knowledge hiding. These effects are attenuated if the manager is not a pushover. Evasive knowledge hiding decreases perceptions of external customer outcomes, particularly at low levels of environmental dynamism. Research limitations/implications Data was collected from salespeople, which presents a look from perpetrators themselves. While directly observing salespeople was the goal, sourcing and matching customer and manager data would only strengthen the results. Practical implications Salespeople evasively hide their knowledge if it is in their best interest, which may unwittingly hurt perceptions of customer outcomes. Originality/value This study formally introduces salesperson evasive knowledge hiding into the marketing and sales literature. The research highlights the dark side of social exchange theory by demonstrating how internal coworker relationships affect perceptions of external customer relationships via evasive knowledge hiding. This study also introduces pushover manager as an enabling moderating variable.
... Internal competitive climate refers to the level of rivalry that exists in a salesforce due to perceptions of individual salespeople experiencing better selling outcomes, enjoying more job-related advantages, having better relationships with management, and obtaining higher commissions (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). Salespeople working in organizations with highly competitive climates recognize that their performance is dependent on the comparative standing among their coworkers (Brown et al. 1998). ...
... For example, in a general sense, competition among individuals may result in increased uncertainty and feelings of stress (Beehr, 1998), which leads to adverse consequences in sales (Itani & Inyang, 2015;Jaramillo et al. 2006). Salespeople may also withhold knowledge from others as a result of internal competition, viewing coworkers as challengers and rivals (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). Research has shown that a competitive climate leads to lower levels of work satisfaction and firm commitment (Fletcher et al. 2008). ...
... Accordingly, we argue that higher levels of internal competitive climate will hamper the relationships between salesperson moral identity and other work-related identification (customer and organization), and job-directed outcomes (customer service provision behaviors and teamwork). An internal competitive climate with higher levels of internal competition does not "fit" the values of salespeople with higher moral identity due to how competition can deteriorate the interpersonal relationships between salespeople engaging in unhealthy social comparisons with perceived rivals (e.g., Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). Therefore, we advance the following: H 5a Internal competitive climate weakens the positive relationship between salesperson moral identity and salesperson-customer identification. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to examine the notion of salesperson moral identity as a prosocial individual trait and its associated effects on customer and coworker relationships. In addition, this study examines the underlying processes in which these effects occur as well as the moderating role of internal competitive climate. Our empirical investigation of business-to-business (B2B) sales professionals reveals that moral identity has both direct and indirect effects on a salesperson’s customer- and team-directed outcomes. Specifically, our results demonstrate that salesperson moral identity positively affects both salesperson-customer identification and organizational identification, which, in turn, impact customer service provision and teamwork. Our findings also indicate that internal competitive climate exacerbates the positive effects of salesperson moral identity on customer service provision and teamwork.
... Based on these theories, a series of antecedents were obtained. Specifically, existing research has acknowledged that counterproductive knowledge behaviors are positively associated with knowledge psychological ownership (Ford & Staples, 2010;Huo et al., 2016;Peng, 2013), lack of knowledge sharing rewards (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017), distrust (Webster et al., 2008), knowledge sharing cost (Shen et al., 2019), time pressure ( � Skerlavaj, Connelly, Cerne, & Dysvik, 2018), fear emotion (Fang, 2017), task and relationship conflicts (Semerci, 2019), and occupational stress (Marques, La Falce, Marques, & De Muylder, 2019); and are negatively related to social identity (Stenius, Hankonen, Ravaja, & Haukkala, 2016), perceived organizational support (Tsay et al., 2014), guilt emotion (Fang, 2017), outcome expectations (Lin & Huang, 2010), leader-member exchange (Zhao, Liu, Li, & Yu, 2019), personality like conscientiousness and openness . Moreover, the consequences of counterproductive knowledge behaviors have also been explored. ...
... In particular, we focus on an overarching concept-knowledge withholding behavior-because it covers various counterproductive knowledge behaviors. According to Anaza and Nowlin (2017), knowledge withholding is a conscious behavior in which one person refuses to transfer knowledge to others and is often symbolic of having knowledge but not sharing it. Consistent with this view, TRA is first adopted to explain knowledge withholding. ...
... Although a commitment to promoting knowledge sharing is conducive to improving team creativity and brings about better organizational performance, knowledge withholding is also a common phenomenon, and its impacts on organizational performance cannot be ignored (Babcock, 2004;Connelly et al., 2012;Peng, 2012). Therefore, despite the large number of studies focusing on knowledge sharing and contribution, increasing attention has been paid to counterproductive knowledge behaviors during past few years, such as knowledge withholding, knowledge hiding, knowledge hoarding, knowledge sharing hostility, knowledge sharing ignorance, partial knowledge sharing, disengagement from knowledge sharing, counter-knowledge sharing, and knowledge sabotage (e.g., Abubakar, Behravesh, Rezapouraghdam, & Yildiz, 2019;Anaza & Nowlin, 2017;Husted, Michailova, Minbaeva, & Pedersen, 2012;Israilidis et al., 2015;Martelo-Landroguez, Cegarra;Navarro, & Cepeda-Carri� on, 2019;Serenko, 2019;Singh, 2019;Zhao & Xia, 2017). The concept of knowledge withholding was developed in the expanding literature. ...
Article
This study integrates protection motivation theory and theory of reasoned action to investigate knowledge withholding in cyberspace, which is a highly prevalent counterproductive knowledge behavior but has received limited attention. The research model was tested with 386 valid online survey responses among Chinese Internet users. The results indicate that both threat appraisal (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility) and coping appraisal (response efficacy, self-efficacy) are positively associated with the attitude toward knowledge withholding, and that the attitude toward knowledge withholding and subjective norms about knowledge withholding are positively related to knowledge withholding intentions. In addition, the results also show that attitude toward knowledge withholding significantly mediates the relationships of threat appraisal and coping appraisal with knowledge withholding intentions. We believe that the findings of this study not only provide a new theoretical perspective on understanding knowledge withholding behavior but also offer valuable insights for reducing knowledge withholding behavior in cyberspace. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
... In only one of the articles (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017) was KHi presented as an antecedent of KHo, although the term used for KHi was (Fong, Men, Luo, & Jia, 2018). However, in that article absorptive capacity is seen as a single construct, the authors did not distinguish its two dimensions: potential and realized absorptive capacity. ...
... According to authors such as Anaza and Nowlin (2017), to achieve a broader view of the behaviors it would be necessary to Connelly and Zweig (2015). ...
... The concept of KHo is presented in only 13 articles (Al-Abbadia et al., 2020; Anaza & Nowlin, 2017; Connelly et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2015; Feng & Wang, 2019; Garg & Anand, 2020; Holten, Hancock, Persson, Hansen, & Hogh, 2016; Pan, Zhang, Teo, & Lim, 2018; Serenko & Bontis, 2016; Su, 2020; Wang, Han, Xiang, & Hampson, 2019b; Wang, Law, Zhang, Li, & Liang, 2019a; Xia et al., 2019;Zhao et al., 2016). In those articles, KHo is defined as knowledge retention, in 5 of them(Anaza & Nowlin, 2017;Feng & Wang, 2019;Holten et al., 2016;Pan et al., 2018;Zhao et al., 2016) it is also explicit that the retained knowledge is not requested. Regarding intentionality, there is some ambiguity, as two articles(Pan et al., 2018;Serenko & Bontis, 2016) mentioned suggest the behavior is intentional and oneWang, Law, et al., 2019a) claims it is unintentional. ...
Article
The present study aims to present a consolidated view of the quantitative research on Knowledge Hiding (KHi) and Knowledge Hoarding (Kho), and the relationship with Knowledge Sharing (KS), and propose guidelines for future research. A systematic literature review was adopted, following rigorous procedures. The articles were searched in Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online, Science Direct, and Emerald. Fifty different articles were analyzed. The oldest article identified is from 2011. They were published in 33 different journals. Only 16 authors published more than one article on the topic. The four behaviors can be perceived as positive when the individual is committed to the organization and negative when the individual is not committed to the organization. A framework that summarizes the suggestions for future research is presented. Understanding the relationships between KHi and KSc, and between Kho and KSd might facilitate the flow of knowledge in organizations. The paper provides an original contribution by considering KS as two processes, collection and donation, highlighting the oppositional relationship between KHi and KSc, and between KHo and KSd. Furthermore, research gaps and further research lines in the KHi, KHo, and KS area are highlighted.
... Finally, "playing dumb" KHi occurs when the individual falsely claims to ignore what was requested. Anaza and Nowlin (2017) argue knowledge accumulation and retention could result from difficulties or impediments to Knowledge Sharing and may represent an interruption of information processing. As an opportunistic behaviour, KHo should remain concealed from colleagues because its recognition might well lead to feelings of distrust and stimulate reciprocal action (Černe et al., 2014). ...
... This failure to share knowledge could be derived from individual characteristics, such as a selfish attitude (Steinel et al., 2010) or contextual factors, such as a lack of time, appropriate channels for communication and unforeseen circumstances (Huo et al., 2016). At the same time, the accumulation of knowledge can result from impediments to sharing rather than personal intent, representing an interruption of information processing (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). ...
... Previous research has claimed that knowledge which is hoarded, even though relevant for individual, group or organisational performance, is not necessarily requested knowledge (characteristic 14) (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017;Connelly et al., 2012;De Geofroy & Evans, 2017;Holten et al., 2016;Qureshi & Evans, 2015;Zhao et al., 2016;Zhao & Xia, 2017). Furthermore, "it is knowledge that has not been requested by another individual" (Webster et al., 2008, p. 3). ...
Article
This article consolidates the notions of Knowledge Hiding (KHi) and Knowledge Hoarding (KHo) and their relationship with Knowledge Collection (KC) and Knowledge Donation (KD). Following a systematic literature review involving content analysis, seventeen characteristics were identified. KHi is related to KC because, when someone hides and does not share the knowledge that somebody else requested, its collection will be impeded. KHo is related to KD, because when people hoard some unrequested knowledge, they avoid sharing what somebody else could take advantage of, even though they may be unaware of that fact. Thus, a new framework that articulates the inherent characteristics of KHi, KHo, KC and KD is proposed. From this new perspective, there is an expectation that future research could deepen the understanding of the incentives and obstacles to knowledge flow, and how their interaction will benefit or harm the performance of individuals and organisations.
... Competitor autonomy is a concept rooted in the economic theory of perfect competition, in which protected knowledge that gives a competitor employee an advantage is shielded from a competitor. Sharing market knowledge with coworkers erodes an employee's competitive advantage as well as the foundation upon which the employee's influence inside the company is built (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). So, there is a strong background for knowledge hiding among the workers due to the internal competition, which enables us to formulate the following hypothesis for analyzing the impact of internal competition on knowledge hiding. ...
... The questionnaire comprised 32 questions over seven sections in total and was adapted from the respective literature. The first section covered the demography of the respondents, the second section was about the organizational performance containing eight items (Ahbabi et al., 2019), the third section was about the lack of rewards on knowledge sharing containing six items (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), internal competition with six items (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), psychological entitlement with four items (Alnaimi and Rjoub, 2021), knowledge-hiding behavior (Černe et al., 2017), and social status of employees with four items (Rhee and Choi, 2017). The items adapted had been face and content-validated from five managers of the financial service industry of China and an academic expert in the knowledge FIGURE 2 | Measurement model algorithm. ...
... The questionnaire comprised 32 questions over seven sections in total and was adapted from the respective literature. The first section covered the demography of the respondents, the second section was about the organizational performance containing eight items (Ahbabi et al., 2019), the third section was about the lack of rewards on knowledge sharing containing six items (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), internal competition with six items (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), psychological entitlement with four items (Alnaimi and Rjoub, 2021), knowledge-hiding behavior (Černe et al., 2017), and social status of employees with four items (Rhee and Choi, 2017). The items adapted had been face and content-validated from five managers of the financial service industry of China and an academic expert in the knowledge FIGURE 2 | Measurement model algorithm. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on knowledge management has rapidly increased in the last decade, leaving a huge gap on how, why, and what triggers knowledge hiding in inter-organizational setups. Furthermore, the fostering factors for knowledge sharing have also remained unexplored because the employees in an organization are unwilling to share their knowledge with others for several reasons. The current study has attempted to explore the reasons that make employees hide their knowledge from other employees in order to excel. The individual factors considered in this study that make employees hide their knowledge are the lack of rewards for knowledge sharing, internal competition, and psychological entitlement. Furthermore, the interesting consequent factor of knowledge hiding in this study was found to be significant. The moderating role of employees’ social status has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between knowledge-hiding behavior and organizational performance. The population of the study was the managerial employees of financial institutions of China and the sample size taken in his study was 446 via convenient sampling technique. The independent factors in this study found significant results of knowledge-hiding behavior, thus approving the mediating role of knowledge hiding in the organizational performance of the financial institutions of China. The software used in this study for the data analysis was smart PLS and the technique used was partial least square SEM for the measurement of the hypothesis of the study. The study’s findings also have certain implications for policymaking in financial institutions that may hinder knowledge hiding practices and support the uninterrupted flow of knowledge among employees.
... As with all advantages, the OKC has some disadvantages [1][2][3]. For instance, the lack of knowledge sharing rewards (e.g., economic incentives), the absence of feedback for knowledge sharing from other users, knowledge infringements, individual traits, personal concerns, etc., lead to knowledge hiding in OKCs [1,[4][5][6]. As a result, a growing number of users are inclined to hide knowledge rather than share knowledge in OKCs. ...
... Theoretical perspectives on counterproductive knowledge behaviors include the conservation of resources theory [9,15], cooperation and competition [16], extended self theory [17], goal orientation theory [18], psychological contract theory [12], and psychological ownership theory [9,19]. From these theories and studies, it was proved that a group of organizational or psychological factors were associated with counterproductive knowledge behaviors: perceptions of competitiveness [5,16,20], performance goal orientation [18,21,22], Machiavellianism [23], social comparison information [18,24], job insecurity [7,25,26], lack of confidence [7,26], neuroticism [5], lack of incentives [5], lack of recognition for knowledge sharing [7], characteristics of knowledge itself [16], and knowledge complexity [27]. ...
... Theoretical perspectives on counterproductive knowledge behaviors include the conservation of resources theory [9,15], cooperation and competition [16], extended self theory [17], goal orientation theory [18], psychological contract theory [12], and psychological ownership theory [9,19]. From these theories and studies, it was proved that a group of organizational or psychological factors were associated with counterproductive knowledge behaviors: perceptions of competitiveness [5,16,20], performance goal orientation [18,21,22], Machiavellianism [23], social comparison information [18,24], job insecurity [7,25,26], lack of confidence [7,26], neuroticism [5], lack of incentives [5], lack of recognition for knowledge sharing [7], characteristics of knowledge itself [16], and knowledge complexity [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Suppressing knowledge hiding is a prerequisite for achieving positive knowledge interactions among people. Most previous studies concentrate on knowledge hiding in organizations, but the quantitative examination of knowledge hiding antecedents in the online knowledge community has been limited. This study investigates individuals' knowledge hiding intentions in the context of the online knowledge community through an integrated framework of protection motivation theory, self-determination theory, and social exchange beliefs. We tested the research model through a valid sample of 377 respondents from Chinese online knowledge community users. The results demonstrate that individuals' threat appraisal (perceived severity and perceived vulnerability) and intrinsic motivation (perceived autonomy and perceived relatedness) are negatively associated with interdependence. Additionally, interdependence within the online knowledge community is proved to negatively affect individuals' knowledge hiding intention. Furthermore, reciprocity and trust moderate the relationship between interdependence and knowledge hiding intentions. This study enriches the academic literature in the knowledge hiding field, and the findings provide an in-depth understanding of knowledge hiding in the context of the online knowledge community.
... For example, from the organisational perspective, researchers have investigated knowledge hiding as being happened due to the venture's organisational climate and culture (e.g., Husted et al., 2012) whereas team level studies consider the context of teams and their motivational climate (e.g., Bogilović et al., 2017). Furthermore, the interpersonal level literature explains knowledge hiding as the consequence of inappropriate interaction among individuals such as distrust (e.g., Č erne et al., 2017) while individualism research stresses the differences among employees in their capabilities and traits for knowledge ownership (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). Although the literature has extensively explored knowledge hiding at the individual, team and organisational level, the interpersonal constructs yet required more investigation (Xiao & Cooke, 2019). ...
... Prior studies investigated knowledge hiding mainly at the individual level (e.g., Anaza & Nowlin, 2017;Bogilović et al., 2017) while more studies at the interpersonal and organisational level are required (Xiao & Cooke, 2019). Therefore, this research looks at knowledge hiding as a consequence of interaction among individuals and contributes to the literature by stressing the interpersonal level determinants. ...
Article
This research is set to address the scant research on the relationship between the key drivers and consequences of knowledge hiding within international entrepreneurial organisations at the interpersonal level. It further aims to compare knowledge hiding behaviour among international entrepreneurs in two diverse contexts of emerging countries versus advanced economies. Therefore, this research employs a total number of ten international entrepreneurs in Iran and Italy and takes advantage of the Multi-Criterion Decision-Making (MCDM) approach. In this regard, DEcision-MAking Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method is applied to disentangle the cause-effect relationship between knowledge hiding components and present conceptual frameworks for the interrelationship of knowledge hiding factors in each context. Furthermore, in order to assess the importance and ranking of factors in Italy and Iran Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) is performed. As such, this research provides different contributions to the knowledge hiding literature as well as key implications for practitioners.
... First, only empirical papers using quantitative or mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) were included because incorporating quantitatively untested theories would have challenged the reliability of the study. Second, we considered KH the "intentional concealing of knowledge" when "requested," as defined in Connelly et al. (2012); the term "knowledge hiding" is sometimes interchangeably used with "knowledge withholding" (Anaza and Nowlin 2017;Peng and Pierce 2015). Third, we considered any study that used KH as an outcome variable. ...
... This negative emotion tends to increase KH. Neuroticism may strengthen the relationship between knowledge request appraisal and emotion because neurotic people have a higher tendency to evaluate a situation emotionally and feel stronger negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress (Anaza and Nowlin 2017;Iqbal et al. 2020). However, this same personality trait may weaken the relationship between emotion and KH response, based on neurotic people's fear of being caught, criticized, and punished (Moeller and Robinson 2010). ...
... In view of the importance of knowledge resource management, the prevalence of the knowledge hiding phenomenon, and the harmfulness of knowledge hiding, in recent years, academics have studied the issue of "why employees choose to hide knowledge." It has been found that knowledge traits (Hernaus et al., 2019), individual factors such as personality traits (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), emotional states (Aljawarneh and Atan, 2018), team and interpersonal factors (Khalid et al., 2018;Men et al., 2018;Ghani et al., 2019;He et al., 2020a), and organizational factors (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017;Jha and Varkkey, 2018) are important factors that indirectly induce and even directly cause employee knowledge hiding (He et al., 2021). Workplace stress is also one of the common challenges faced by members of organizations in contemporary society (He et al., 2020b). ...
... In view of the importance of knowledge resource management, the prevalence of the knowledge hiding phenomenon, and the harmfulness of knowledge hiding, in recent years, academics have studied the issue of "why employees choose to hide knowledge." It has been found that knowledge traits (Hernaus et al., 2019), individual factors such as personality traits (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017), emotional states (Aljawarneh and Atan, 2018), team and interpersonal factors (Khalid et al., 2018;Men et al., 2018;Ghani et al., 2019;He et al., 2020a), and organizational factors (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017;Jha and Varkkey, 2018) are important factors that indirectly induce and even directly cause employee knowledge hiding (He et al., 2021). Workplace stress is also one of the common challenges faced by members of organizations in contemporary society (He et al., 2020b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Employee knowledge sharing is critical to the success of creative service enterprises. However, knowledge hiding is prevalent in creative service enterprises. Using 381 advertising agency employees as respondents, we explored the mechanism of action of creative time pressure affecting knowledge hiding. We constructed a regulated dual-path model by drawing on affective event theory, with work passion as a mediating variable and team psychological safety climate as a moderating variable. The results show that creative time pressure increases employees’ knowledge hiding; creative time pressure mitigates knowledge hiding through the effect of harmonious passion, while obsessive passion enhances employees’ knowledge hiding; team psychological safety climate can regulate the relationship between creative time pressure and two types of work passion and the strength of the two paths. Therefore, the mediating effect of harmonious passion is stronger in a high team psychological safety climate, while the mediating effect of obsessive passion is stronger in a low team psychological safety climate.
... First, only empirical papers using quantitative or mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) were included because incorporating quantitatively untested theories would have challenged the reliability of the study. Second, we considered KH the "intentional concealing of knowledge" when "requested," as defined in Connelly et al. (2012); the term "knowledge hiding" is sometimes interchangeably used with "knowledge withholding" (Anaza and Nowlin 2017;Peng and Pierce 2015). Third, we considered any study that used KH as an outcome variable. ...
... This negative emotion tends to increase KH. Neuroticism may strengthen the relationship between knowledge request appraisal and emotion because neurotic people have a higher tendency to evaluate a situation emotionally and feel stronger negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress (Anaza and Nowlin 2017;Iqbal et al. 2020). However, this same personality trait may weaken the relationship between emotion and KH response, based on neurotic people's fear of being caught, criticized, and punished (Moeller and Robinson 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to understand the psychological process behind employees’ knowledge hiding (KH) behaviors in organizations. KH is an intentional act of concealing knowledge when it is requested by a colleague and can lead to counterproductive consequences for the organization. Therefore, this study synthesized previous studies (n = 88) on KH through a systematic literature review. We used the cognitive–motivational–relational (CMR) theory of emotion to create a framework for the studies’ findings. Based on the framework, the psychological process behind KH has two stages—personal goal generation and the knowledge-request event appraisal process, each of which contains its own CMR process. In the first stage, an individual’s internal and external attributes related to the organization shape their personal goals. In the second stage, an individual appraises the features of a knowledge-request event in terms of both their personal goal and the internal and external attributes that created the goal. If the knowledge request is appraised as harmful for the personal goal, emotion arises and leads to the manifestation of KH. This study contributes to the knowledge management literature as, to our knowledge, it is the first to propose a CMR theory-based framework to understand the overall psychological process behind KH.
... In order to avoid further loss of knowledge resources, knowledge owners hide more knowledge in the face of knowledge requests from colleagues, that is, job insecurity has a significant positive impact on employees' knowledge hiding. Anaza and Nowlin (2017) found that the opportunism of knowledge seekers positively affected the knowledge hiding of knowledge holders [8]. Akgun (2017) found in their research on software development teams that knowledge absorption capacity of knowledge seekers is an important reason for knowledge owners to hide knowledge [9]. ...
... In order to avoid further loss of knowledge resources, knowledge owners hide more knowledge in the face of knowledge requests from colleagues, that is, job insecurity has a significant positive impact on employees' knowledge hiding. Anaza and Nowlin (2017) found that the opportunism of knowledge seekers positively affected the knowledge hiding of knowledge holders [8]. Akgun (2017) found in their research on software development teams that knowledge absorption capacity of knowledge seekers is an important reason for knowledge owners to hide knowledge [9]. ...
Conference Paper
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... In some cases, there may even be perceived risk associated with transferring one's knowledge (Becerra, Lunnan, & Huemer, 2008). For instance, a knowledge coach may be dissuaded from transferring their knowledge due to concerns about compromising their own personal source of value within the firm (i.e., possessing unique competencies that no one else has; Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). In regards to tacit KT, it is therefore likely that knowledge sources will want to ensure they are adequately compensated for their investment in the process. ...
... In what can be an onerous, but often highly-rewarding practice, we expected that protégés would exhibit motivations to partake in knowledge coaching that differed from their knowledge coaches. As discussed, individually-possessed tacit knowledge can constitute a significant professional advantage in terms of being able to provide value for the firm (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). At times, this knowledge may even be transferrable, providing a worker with skills that he or she can take with them beyond any given organisation, making them an attractive potential hire. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the global rise of the knowledge worker, there is an increasing interest in effective knowledge transfer practices within the firm. This interest is especially prevalent in regards to the transfer of tacit knowledge-knowledge that is difficult to describe and transmit to others. In this chapter, the authors consider how the emerging practice of knowledge coaching can be utilised as a means to transfer tacit knowledge between experts and protégés within the firm, and consider the individual-level factors that influence whether the process yields success. In doing so, they report the results of a study examining the impact of individually-possessed national cultural values on motivation to engage in knowledge coaching, and put forward several avenues for future research.
... In terms of personality traits, scholars focus mainly on the influence of the Big Five personality traits, in particular neuroticism. For example, reveal that employees with high conscientiousness and low neuroticism are less likely to hide knowledge, while people with high neuroticism are more likely to hide knowledge (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). verify the effects of a "dark triad of personality" (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) on different dimensions of knowledge hiding. ...
... First, the knowledge sharing culture has been proved to be closely related to the extent to which the knowledge hiding behavior can be accepted and adopted by the members of the organization (Connelly et al., 2012). For example, Anaza and Nowlin (2017) point out that the lack of incentives for knowledge sharing and the lack of supervisor feedback on subordinates' knowledge sharing will lead employees to hide knowledge. Jha and Varkkey (2018) highlight that a lack of organizational recognition of knowledge sharing and workload increase due to knowledge sharing increase employee knowledge hiding. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a review of scientific articles addressing the topic of knowledge hiding in organizations. Based on a descriptive analysis, bibliometric analysis, and content analysis of a sample of 81 articles published in the academic journals in the Web of Science from 2012 to 2020, we identify the main areas and current dynamics of knowledge hiding research. Our results show that the central research themes of knowledge hiding include five clusters: concept and measurement, antecedents, consequences, theories, and influence mechanisms. Based on our findings, we suggest future research should further develop the concept and dimensions of knowledge hiding; probe deeper into the consequences of knowledge hiding; explore multilateral, cross-level, and collective knowledge hiding; employ innovative theoretical perspectives and research methods to study knowledge hiding; and address how cultural and other contextual factors may shape the knowledge hiding behavior.
... While knowledge sharing is a positive aspect of knowledge management, knowledge hoarding is a negative aspect (Holten et al., 2016). Anaza and Nowlin (2017) used the theory of knowledge stickiness to study the behavior of knowledge hoarding, which relates to the interruption of knowledge flow in the organization because of the employee's refusal to share knowledge. The authors indicated that this theory has been utilized to explain the problems of knowledge transfer and technical innovation. ...
... Knowledge hoarding was measured via six items related to knowledge accumulation by employees, and knowledge share refuse, as well as a syndrome of "knowledge is power" that leads employees to hoard knowledge. These items were adapted from Birkinshaw and Sheehan (2002), Husted and Michailova (2002), du Plessis (2005) and Anaza and Nowlin (2017). Finally, innovation performance was measured by innovation speed, innovation magnitude, administrative innovation, product and service quality and lead-time innovation. ...
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The positive impact of knowledge management on innovation performance is no longer a mystery. However, the moderating role of knowledge hoarding remains undisclosed. There-fore, the present study aims to explore the moderating role of knowledge hoarding on the ef-fect of knowledge management on innovation performance. On the ground of its design as a descriptive research, a questionnaire-based survey was developed, validated, and administered to a sample of 314 managers chosen from commerce and service organizations. Using multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), the results indicated that knowledge management processes (knowledge acquisition, dissemination, storage, sharing and application) exerted significant effects on innovation performance. Moreover, Knowledge hoarding exerted a significant negative effect on innovation performance. However, the re-sults indicate that knowledge hoarding did not moderate the effect of knowledge management processes on innovation performance. This finding can be explained by the fact that, despite the negative impact of knowledge hoarding on innovation performance, this effect did not af-fect the relationship between knowledge management processes and innovation performance and this may be due to the nature of knowledge hoarded by employees in terms of relevance and scarcity. In the light of these findings, the study recommends that it is necessary to determine whether employees hoard knowledge, and distinguish how important this knowledge is for innovation performance. In fact, this is the contribution of the current study to knowledge management literature.
... Motivation to share belongs to the so-called subjective obstacles to KS (Canestrino and Magliocca, 2016). Notably, people without a solid personal motivation are not likely to share knowledge (Stenmark, 2001); thus, a Knowledge Hoarding (KH) establishes, threatening the continuity of the organization's knowledge base and innovativeness (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017;Trusson et al., 2017;Bilginoglu, 2019;Canestrino and Magliocca, 2019;Khelladi et al., 2022). KH refers to "an individual's deliberate and strategic concealment of knowledge and information or the fact that they may possess relevant knowledge or information" (Evans et al., 2015, p. 495). ...
... According to the authors, individuals wish to protect what they know since their competitive advantage relates to "the quality and value of the knowledge he or she possesses'' (Husted and Michailova, 2002, p. 65). Since knowledge is often considered "hard-won, " people may develop a strong feeling of personal ownership, thus collecting and storing information that could be useful in the future (Husted et al., 2012;Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). Reasons for hoarding were also examined by Du Plessis (2005), Willem and Buelens (2007), Yang (2007), Kuo and Young (2008), Yamao et al. (2009), Tseng (2010, and Wang and Noe (2010). ...
Article
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In today’s knowledge economy, knowledge and knowledge sharing are fundamental for organizations to achieve competitiveness and for individuals to strengthen their innovation capabilities. Knowledge sharing is a complex language-based activity; language affects how individuals communicate and relate. The growth in international collaborations and the increasing number of diverse teams affect knowledge sharing because individuals engage in daily knowledge activities in a language they are not native speakers. Understanding the challenges they face, and how they manage the emerging difficulties is the main aim of this manuscript. For this purpose, an explorative case study was conducted in an international university research project, namely the TED project. Both interviews and direct observations were employed to understand the phenomenon better and deliberately triangulate data and improve validity. Results show that non-native language use determines the emergence of different language proficiency, depending on the nature of the knowledge domain–job-related vs. non-job-related. Within non-job-related knowledge domains, the lack of linguistic abilities, summed to the perceived cultural diversities, mainly affects people’s propensity to engage in personal and more intense social relationships. Under such circumstances, tacit knowledge sharing is reduced with negative consequences on the project’s long-term innovative performance. Since the project is still running, detecting language challenges will allow the partners to design and apply effective measures to support cooperation with language and cultural barriers. Among them, code switching, adopted by “bridge” actors, already emerges as tool supporting communication and knowledge exchange.
... Panel data were obtained through services provided by Qualtrics. Qualtrics is an online survey-administering company (Long et al., 2011;Anaza and Nowlin, 2017) that provides prescreened respondents appropriate to the study requirements (Hagtvedt, 2011). Qualtrics develops panels based on respondents' qualification. ...
... Recruiting study participants through reputed research organizations has been validated in previous research, especially when the focus of the study is on managers (Ferguson et al., 2017;Nguyen et al., 2017). In addition, screening and qualifying questions were used in the survey to maintain the relevance of the sample (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017;Ferguson et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the alignment between organizational capabilities is idiosyncratic to an organization or a predictable pattern of alignments can be identified across organizations. Design/methodology/approach Survey design is used to collect data from upper- and mid-level managers of organizations operating in the software industry. A total of 219 responses are used to test the study hypotheses. Partial least squares structural equation modeling and regression analysis are used for data analysis and hypotheses testing. Findings Results suggest that the alignment between strategic thinking and absorptive capacity is different for organizations with a prospector-type strategic orientation compared to organizations with other types (defenders and analyzers) of strategic orientations. The study also finds that the pattern of alignment holds for each dimension of absorptive capacity. Originality/value There is limited research on the alignment between the three types of organizational capabilities (metaphysical, dynamic and ordinary). This may have transcended from arguments that if organizational capabilities are truly idiosyncratic, they should not be expected to follow a predictable pattern of alignments across organizations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to empirically investigate and provide evidence that the alignment between organizational capabilities is contingent on the strategic orientation of the organizations. The findings offer hope for the development of a generalizable theory of organizational capability alignment in organizations.
... Investigate how an salespeople in collectivist cultures cope differently with attachment anxiety as compared to those in individualistic society and how power distance or masculinity impacts attachment anxiety Anaza and Nowlin (2017) Identify the individual effect of recognition and financial rewards on knowledge withholding and hoarding. Examine if recognition and financial rewards (or their lack) could have differential effects on withholding and hoarding. ...
Article
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In sales settings, negativity typically manifests in two forms. Negative psychological states (NpS), such as stress, burnout, and/or depression can result from sales activities. Negative sales behaviors are actions counter to the expected behaviors associated with the sales role. Both NpS and negative behaviors lead to reduced performance and disengaged employees. Yet, despite their importance, no single analysis of how these various negative topics are related exists. Thus, the present research utilizes the systematic literature review approach to investigate NpS and behaviors in sales settings. The present research contributes to the literature in four main ways, through: (1) explication of forty-nine salient constructs; (2) identification of NpS and behaviors construct roles in prior research; (3) systematic review of past research and trends; and (4) presenting a comprehensive set of future research opportunities.
... In contrast to the positive effects of mastery climates, research suggests that a performance climate will increase the occurrence of knowledge-hiding behaviour (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017) and, therefore, enhance the negative impact of knowledge hiding on creativity (Černe et al., 2014). Organisations could assess the internal competition between employees, in that the perceived cost and benefit of knowledge hiding are bound to be higher in an individualistic and competitive work environment . ...
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Knowledge can be a strategic asset for organisations, particularly for knowledge-intensive organisations. Drawing from social exchange theory (SET), this study examines the direct relationship between human resources management (HRM) practices and workplace knowledge-hiding behaviour (WKHB). This study analyse data obtained from 270 organisational employees in the telecommunication and information technology sector in Jordan using quantitative approach and applying partial least squares structural equation modelling with bootstrap resampling. The findings suggest that HRM practices reduce knowledge-hiding behaviour in terms of recognition, fair rewards, competence development, fair rewards, and information-sharing practices. In addition, this study found that employee education is positively related to workplace knowledge-hiding behaviour: higher-educated employees hide information more than their counterparts. These findings offer a better understanding of the relationship between HRM practices and workplace knowledge-hiding behaviour in a developing country context.
... Respondents were found through the help of an online panel (Qualtrics). The use of online panels has been well documented in the literature, especially in B2B studies (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017;Nguyen et al., 2018). Respondents recruited through the Qualtrics panel had various demographic profiles, including business-to-business marketing managers and senior executives. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which an organization’s pursuit of radical and disruptive innovations and refinement of existing processes and incremental innovations influence the brand management capability, and subsequently, the brand performance in business-to-business firms. Design/methodology/approach The key informant approach is used for data collection. Panel data are obtained using the services of a reputable research firm. Existing scales are used to measure all the focal constructs. Partial least squares based structural equation modeling is used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results of this study indicate positive associations of both exploitative and exploratory innovation types with brand management processes. These findings signify the need for organizations to balance both these innovation types to maximize their performance. Research limitations/implications This study prescribes an insight into the complex relationship that exists between organizational ambidexterity, brand management processes and brand performance, providing a framework that reconciles the seemingly conflicting goals of relevance and consistency in the development of brand management capability. Practical implications Given that very few firms can achieve ambidexterity, this study provides a means to maximize the potential of this organizational process. Originality/value This study borrows from the existing research on brand management to argue that organizations are required to balance both exploitative and exploratory innovation types to maximize their performance.
... Research on the contextual antecedents of knowledge hiding has found clear implications for relationship conflict. For example, knowledge hiding is positively associated with a competitive work environment (Jha and Varkkey, 2018;Vuori and Okkonen, 2012;Anaza and Nowlin, 2017;Murayama and Elliot, 2012), organizational politics (Malik et al., 2019) and workplace ostracism (Zhao et al., 2016). Despite these indications that relationship conflict may be associated with knowledge hiding, to the best of the authors' knowledge, only one article (Semerci, 2019) has explored this possibility, and only as a main effect. ...
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Purpose Although studies have demonstrated that knowledge hiding is an important inhibitor of organizational innovation, current research does not clearly address how intragroup relationship conflict influences knowledge hiding. This study aims to identify the underlying mechanism between intra-group relationship conflict and knowledge hiding. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on affective events theory (AET), the authors propose a theoretical model and empirically test it by applying hierarchical regression analysis and a bootstrapping approach to data from a multi-wave survey of 224 employees in China. Findings Consistent with AET, the empirical results show that envy mediates perceived intragroup relationship conflict and knowledge hiding. As predicted, trait competitiveness moderates the indirect effect of perceived intragroup relationship conflict on knowledge hiding via envy. Originality/value The results support an AET perspective whereby knowledge hiding is shaped by relationship conflict, envy and trait competitiveness. This study introduces the novel proposition that relationship conflict and competitiveness influence envy, and consequently knowledge hiding.
... Most of the existing work have investigated how cyber incivility results to psychological distress, negative affect and intention to quit (Heischman et al., 2019;Park et al., 2018;Williams and Loughlin, 2015); revenge (Tripathi and Lim, 2014); lower work engagement, motivation and energy (Giumetti et al., 2013); job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Lim and Teo, 2009;Ballon, 2018;Park et al., 2018). The mechanical stages process by which knowledge hoarding behavior emerge as a result of organizational (Zhao and Xia, 2017), situational (Jain, 2012) and personal (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017) factors have been conceptually explored. However, mechanical process such as member-to-member and/ or superior-to-member remains an underexplored area. ...
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Purpose – The current explanations in the cyber incivility and knowledge hoarding literature suffer from two problems. The first is a lack of cogent explanation of cyber incivility and knowledge hoarding from social exchange theory (SET) perspective. The second is the unexplained attenuating propensity of justice on the connection between cyber incivility and knowledge hoarding, more specifically, interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a simple random sampling method to obtain cross-sectional data from 223 employees working in IT and telecommunication service companies in Jordan. The obtained data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique also known as variance-based structural equation modeling. Findings – By applying SET theoretical lens and PLS-SEM, the authors show that cyber incivility exerts strong impact on knowledge hoarding, and interactional justice may not always function as a buffer. That is, the association between cyber incivility and knowledge hoarding is not impacted by interactional justice levels. Originality/value – The contribution of this paper builds on the lack of practical comprehension on the association between cyber incivility and knowledge hoarding and the role played by interactional justice. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Keywords Interactional justice, Incivility, Knowledge hoarding, Workplace mistreatments
... The investigation into the antecedents of knowledge sharing has been extensive; notably, current literature demonstrate that psychological ownership (Peng et al., 2015), a weak emotional intelligence (Geofroy et al., 2017), and perceived competition (Jha et al., 2018;Anaza et al., 2017;Pan et al., 2014) can negatively influence a willingness of a person to share his knowledge. On contrary, some studies document that the presence of competition is not associated with knowledge hiding (Connelly et al., 2014, Connelly et al., 2009, thus suggesting a research frontier. ...
Technical Report
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The study reports the results of experimental study on how intensity of competition among individuals affects knowledge hiding behavior where payment is independent of performance (flat-wage). I study the impact of competition intensity on the extent of knowledge hiding behavior among university students. The results turn out to be rather surprising; in particular knowledge hiding decreases when the competition grows intense. Also, the low level of competition compared to no competition leads to higher performance. The policy implications of this research would be to maintain the oversight of competition level in organizations; too much contest may dampen performance.
... Previous studies have suggested that quitting is often a last resort to resolve misfit, and those who misfit may first engage in other behaviors (Follmer et al., 2018). As their additional knowledge can create an advantage for these employees, they may hide knowledge for their own gain, to prevent potential loss, or to maintain relative status (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017;Van Der Vegt et al., 2006), so as to compensate their misfit. Therefore, we encourage future research to investigate cognitive-based mechanisms more generally to explain the PRQ-knowledge hiding relationship. ...
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Integrating relative deprivation (Crosby, 1984) and social comparison (Buunk & Gibbons, 2007) theories, this paper extends perceived overqualification to the dyad level with perceived relative qualification, and proposes that the two may lead to employees’ knowledge hiding from relevant peers through a complex interpersonal process. Across two studies, with 940 dyadic‐level observations (Study 1) and 245 dyadic‐level observations (Study 2), respectively, the social relations modeling analyses revealed that an employee who perceived himself/herself as overqualified for the job was more likely to hide knowledge from his/her peers on the team. Furthermore, when the employee perceived himself/herself as relatively more qualified than a specific peer, he/she was more likely to hide knowledge from this peer because he/she was both contemptuous and envious of this peer. Finally, the relationship between the focal employee's relative qualification to a specific peer and his/her knowledge hiding from this peer via his/her contempt and envy of this peer, respectively, was stronger when his/her perceived overqualification was low than when it was high. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... We introduce the technostress construct into the field of R&D employee knowledge hiding, adding a new insight into the antecedents of knowledge hiding. Through a systematic literature review, we found that, although certain literature explores the antecedents of knowledge hiding from the individuallevel factors, including demographic variables, personality traits (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017;Pan et al., 2018), and cognitive and psychological aspects (Wu, 2020;He et al., 2021b), the existing research scarcely explores knowledge hiding from the perspective of digital technology stress. On the basis of the perspective of technical stress, this study creatively introduces the concept of technostress, explores its influence on knowledge hiding, and carefully analyzes the influence of five sub-dimensions (i.e., overload, invasion, complexity, insecurity, and uncertainty). ...
Article
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Technostress as an antecedent factor exploring knowledge hiding continues to be seldomly discussed in the digital era. Based on the job demand-resource theory, this article introduces work exhaustion as a mediator variable and constructs a model that the five sub-dimensions of technostress (i.e., overload, invasion, complexity, insecurity, and uncertainty) affect knowledge hiding for R&D employees. Similarly, this study analyzes the moderation of workplace friendship as the resource buffering effect. Based on data from the 254 questionnaires of the two-stage survey, empirical results show that: (1) Techno-invasion, techno-insecurity, and techno-complexity have significant positive effects on work exhaustion, and techno-invasion has the greatest effect. However, techno-overload and techno-uncertainty have no significant relationship with work exhaustion. (2) Work exhaustion plays a mediating role in the relationships between the three aspects of technostress (techno-invasion, techno-insecurity, techno-complexity) and knowledge hiding; However, its mediating effects are insignificant in the relationships between the two aspects of technostress (techno-overload and techno-uncertainty) and knowledge hiding. (3) Workplace friendship negatively moderates the relationships between the two aspects of technostress (techno-invasion and techno-insecurity) and work exhaustion, leading to less knowledge hiding. Nonetheless, its negative moderation for the relationships between the two aspects of technostress (techno-overload and techno-uncertainty) and work exhaustion are insignificant. Empirical results further show that workplace friendship positively moderates the relationship between techno-complexity and work exhaustion.
... Knowledge concealment behavior among subordinates can originate from their managers (Arain et al., 2020), as managerial behaviors are the role models that influence subordinates' actions. The extant research suggests that elements, structures, and conditions that signal knowledge concealment should be explored (Bari et al., 2019;Offergelt et al., 2019), such as leadership styles (Xiao & Cooke, 2019), traits (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017;Pan et al., 2016) and work environment (Singh, 2019). The intensification of information exchange among service employees (Cantor & Li, 2019;Cho, 2019) is required for efficient services (Kirillova et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Knowledge hiding depresses outcomes at the individual, team, and organizational levels, yet its causes are not sufficiently studied. This research studied numerous vital antecedents of knowledge hiding that are previously not examined together. We used social learning theory to explain the mechanism and conditions that induce knowledge hiding. The three-phased data were collected from 121 sales and marketing employees working in life insurance companies of Pakistan through an online survey using the measures validated in prior research. The results supported that self-serving leadership propels knowledge hiding in subordinates by signalling tolerability of such behavior. The employee Machiavellianism and a competitive work environment strengthened this relationship. The findings add to the literature on leadership and knowledge hiding behavior by examining how workers perceive knowledge hiding signals from their leaders, especially when the leader himself demonstrates self-serving conduct. The implications of these findings for theory and practices are discussed.
... Previous studies have validated the use of reputed research organizations for participants' recruitment, especially, when the focus is on managerial capability (Ferguson et al., 2017;Nguyen et al., 2018). Also, a screening question was embedded in our survey instrument as a cross-check to maintain the relevance of study participants (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Recently, researchers have highlighted the limited attention that has been devoted to managerial capabilities as micro-foundational elements of absorptive capacity. Strategic thinking is one such managerial capability that guides managers during the development of organizational capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influence of managerial strategic thinking on the development of absorptive capacity. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using a sample of 324 senior-level and mid-level managers from the software industry. PLS-SEM was used to test the hypothesized relationships. Findings Study results indicate that managerial strategic thinking is positively related to absorptive capacity, as well as to each of its four components – acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation. Originality/value The current study adopts a micro-foundations perspective and delves into the development and orchestration of organizational capabilities. This study is the first to empirically investigate the relationship between managerial strategic thinking and absorptive capacity. Prior literature on absorptive capacity has focused on its influence on phenomena that are downstream to absorptive capacity, e.g. innovation, new product development and firm performance. The research offers new insights into the relationship between absorptive capacity and managerial strategic thinking, a hitherto unexplored upstream phenomenon. Scholars have theorized that managerial strategic thinking plays a pivotal role in managerial decisions, making it a critical factor in developing the absorptive capacity of an organization. The authors believe that the empirical evidence of the theorized relationship offers valuable insights that will aid scholarly research on organizational capabilities.
... ICS = Inclusion-of-Customer-in-the-Self. (e.g., Anaza & Nowlin, 2017). Efficient knowledge sharing between the salesperson and customer will ensure better structure and utilization of customer knowledge, leading to better salesperson performance (Sharma et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Although the effects of salesperson social media use have recently received significant scholarly attention, there remains critical research gaps that, if addressed, can further broaden our understanding of the impact of sales-person social media use in business-to-business settings. Grounded in construal level theory and the related psychological distance framework, we suggest that salesperson social media use increases salesperson inclusion-of-the-customer-in-the-self by reducing the psychological distance between the salesperson and their respective customers. More so, we posit that this relationship is positively moderated by salesperson moral identity, such that the relationship is strengthened at higher levels of moral identity. Furthermore, we identify a potential three-way interaction by considering the role of salesperson gender in driving this interactive relationship. Our results, based on survey responses from 158 business-to-business salespeople, lend support to our theoretical model and shows that the moderating effect of salesperson moral identity on the relationship between salesperson social media use and salesperson inclusion-of-customer-in-the-self is stronger for females than it is for males. Additionally, we find that salesperson inclusion-of-customer-in-the-self is related to higher salesperson customer knowledge, which, ultimately, improves salesperson performance. In the light of our findings, we discuss subsequent managerial and theoretical implications. https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1dnnL4WstQJk7
... ,Al-Abbadi, et al. (2020),Prabhakar et al. (2018),Schneider et al. (2013),Evans et al. (2014),Anaza and Nowlin (2017),Zhao and Xia (2017),Webster et al. (2008), Bilgino glu(2019), Ford and Chan (2003), Holten et al. (2016) Disengagement 3 Ford and Staples (2010), Holten et al. (2016), van-Knippenberg and Schippers (2007) Knowledge withholding (a refusal to share, intentional, distrust and strategic concealment, less than the actual) 13 Webster et al. (2008), Holten et al. (2016), Anaza and Nowlin (2017), Al-Abbadi, et al. (2020), Evans et al. (2014), Zhu et al. (2019), Connelly, et al. (2012), Bolino and Turnley (2009), Scandura (1999), Lin and Huang (2010), Tsay, et al. (2014), Sun et al. , et al. (2014), Bogilovi c, Cerne and Škerlavaj (2017), Evans, et al. (2014), Webster et al. (2008), Anaza and Nowlin (2017), Cerne et al. (2014), Lin and Huang (2010), Tsay, et al. (2014), Ford and Staples (2010), Ipe (2003), Connelly et al.,(2012), Brophy (2005), Darnon, et al. (2010), Zhu et al. (2019), Penney, et al. (2011), Bock, et al. (2005); Pan et al. (2018), Riaz, et al. (2019), Yang and Treadway (2016), De-Clercq, et al. (2019), Farooq and Sultana (2021) Perceived knowledge hoarding (simple, rationalized and self-reported) 1 Evans et al. (2014) Private intellectual capital (autonomy over own knowledge and knowledge as power syndrome) 5 Al-Abbadi et al. (2020), Inkpen and Tsang (2005), Zhu et al. (2019), Phelps et al. (2012), Bilgino glu (2019) Accumulation of knowledge (evasive hiding, lack of sharing, playing dumb and rationalized hiding) 8 Connelly et al. (2012), Bai (2020), Webster et al. (2008), Anaza and Nowlin ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to analyze the relationship between workplace ostracism and knowledge hoarding. The study also proposes a mediational role of organizational climate in the relationship between workplace ostracism and knowledge hoarding. Design/methodology/approach The procedure used in the study is a systematic literature review covering workplace ostracism, knowledge hoarding and organizational climate from 1986 to 2021. The studies were explored using keyword searches such as “Workplace ostracism”, “Knowledge hoarding” and “Organizational climate” from the selected databases, namely, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Findings The systematic review of 146 articles found most studies suggesting that workplace ostracism affects employees’ personal and professional relationships and is a precursor to knowledge hoarding behaviours. The workplace ostracism–knowledge hoarding relationship has a logical explanation as knowledge hoarding is often perceived as counter-normative, which can reduce the performance of a hoarder, leading to behaviours such as ostracism and expulsion. The review proposes that organizational climate plays a significant role in improving the workplace ostracism and knowledge hoarding relationship. The study introduces some fundamental propositions towards the development of a model for future research. Originality/value The study attempts to uncover a series of relationships between workplace ostracism, knowledge hoarding and organizational climate, which may enhance academic discussion and offer clarity to the conceptualization of these two fields.
... Moreover, knowledge hiding by coworkers leads employees to receive less information than required , and it may create ambiguity about ideas for which knowledge request was made (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). However, this ambiguity can be overcome when employees with high creative self-efficacy get the support for creative activities by supervisor. ...
Article
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Purpose Knowledge sharing is believed to enhance creativity; however, the purpose of this study is to find out how and when knowledge hiding perception of target affects creativity of IT professionals. Design/methodology/approach Using a temporally segregated survey based data from IT professionals, this study investigates a three-way interplay of knowledge hiding, supervisor support for creativity and creative self-efficacy to examine employee’s creativity. Time lagged data were collected from 253 respondents working in IT-based organizations across Pakistan. Findings Findings provide interesting insights revealing that knowledge hiding perception of target enhances target’s creativity through the mechanism of benign envy. Another appealing finding is that the three-way interaction effect of supervisor support and creative self-efficacy is found to weaken the effect of knowledge hiding perception on employee creativity. Originality/value This is first of its kind study which is specifically related target’s knowledge hiding perception with their own creativity among IT professionals. This study further explores the mechanism of benign envy as a motivational drive through which target’s knowledge hiding perception enhances creativity. The cumulative role of conditional factors that affect knowledge hiding perception to creativity link from target’s perspective has also been clarified. Most of the studies focus on benefits of knowledge sharing and ignoring the outcomes of knowledge hiding.
... Qualtrics, a highly reputable online panel organisation, was used to obtain data from Greek consumers of luxury brands. Even though each panel of respondents is prequalified by Qualtrics, to be consistent with a previously employed research approach (Anaza & Nowlin, 2017), three screening and qualifying questions ensured that the sample was appropriate. First, annual income was assessed. ...
Article
Luxury brand consumption has remained strong even in countries with recessions. This study explores the role of personal factors, socio-cognitive factors, and potential marketing forces, in driving consumers' luxury purchase intentions in a market that is struggling to recover from a recession-Greece. Data were collected using a self-administered survey via an online panel. The results indicate that consumers' need to escape and impulsiveness are positively associated with luxury brand purchase intentions in a recession. Sales promotions moderate the relationship between escape, self-expression, and luxury brand purchase intentions. Consumers' perceptions about the recession effect on society also moderate the relationship between escape, self-expression, social status, and luxury brand purchase intentions. This study contributes to the literature and practice of luxury branding in recession by identifying the interplay between various personal, social, and marketing factors that can influence luxury brand purchase intentions in a recessionary environment. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Psychological knowledge ownership (leading to controlled hiding): According to the theory of psychological ownership, employees may develop a feeling of ownership when they invest a large amount of time, effort and attention in acquiring, creating and keeping control of some specific knowledge (Pierce et al., 2001). Psychological ownership influences knowledge hiding (Peng, 2013;Serenko and Bontis, 2016;Huo et al., 2016;Bhattacharya, 2019) and knowledge hoarding (Anaza and Nowlin, 2017). Grant (1996) highlights that the individual who created knowledge has the rights to its ownership and not the organization and individuals consider knowledge as property, as something to be owned as an asset (Nonaka, 1994;Dalkir, 2005). ...
Article
Purpose The significance of managing and sharing employee knowledge for successful organizational change, innovation, and for sustainable advantage has indeed been suggested by research since the last few decades. Despite numerous attempts to foster the sharing of knowledge in organizations, employees may not always be willing to share knowledge attributed due to personal beliefs or situational constraints leading to hiding of knowledge. This article provides a theoretical basis by identifying and illustrating the present and the possible myriad of knowledge hiding (KH) events by employees within organizations. Design/methodology/approach Drawing literature from numerous sources, this paper adopts synthesis and provides a review of the literature and proposes framework. Findings This paper identifies six broad drivers which may lead to KH, including: driven by situation explain the reason for unintentional hiding as a result of performance and competition leads to individual to have a motive to hide knowledge, driven by psychological ownership leads to controlled hiding, driven by hostility and abuse by employees or managers leads to victimized hiding and lastly driven by identity and norms leads to favoured hiding. Furthermore, this study uncovers three potential future events, which need managerial attention: negative reciprocity, influenced disengagement and perceived disengagement. Originality/value This paper also offers new insights to managers to understand the present events and foresee the possible reasons about the KH behaviour and how they can strategize to reduce these events and undergo organizational change.
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Purpose This study aims to identify and classify the range of antecedents of counterproductive knowledge behavior (CKB) to provide a better understanding of their implications for addressing CKB. Design/methodology/approach The study includes three studies. Using meta-analysis (Study 1) and meta-synthesis (Study 2), the authors reviewed extant primary quantitative and qualitative studies to aggregate information on the antecedents of CKB identified to date. In Study 3, these antecedents were modeled schematically by using the matrix of cross-impact multiplications (MICMAC) analysis. Findings The meta-analysis and meta-synthesis (Studies 1 and 2) yielded 28 antecedents of CKB. These were categorized into five groups of characteristics, relating to the workplace, leadership, interpersonal, individual differences and knowledge. Then, in Study 3, the antecedents were categorized according to their interrelatedness and strength of effects (using four quadrants comprising autonomous, dependence, driving and linkage factors). Originality/value This study takes an integrative approach to the CKB literature, both by aggregating underlying constructs (knowledge hoarding, hiding, etc.) and in aggregating quantitative and qualitative literature. This prevents silos and integrates knowledge across a range of CKB studies. Besides, the authors reveal the relative role of antecedents by modeling them.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the manner in which market orientation types facilitate the development of brand management processes (strategic brand management and internal branding), and brand performance. Design/methodology/approach The research model is assessed using data collected from brand executives. Existing scales are used to measure all the focal constructs. Partial least squares-based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using the Smart-PLS 3.0 software is used to check for the psychometric properties of the scales and to test the hypotheses. Findings The results of this study indicate that proactive and reactive market orientation influence the internal branding and strategic brand management. The mediating role of strategic brand management in the relationship between proactive market orientation (PMO) and brand performance is significant. Similarly, internal branding mediates the relationship between PMO and brand performance. Also, strategic brand management and internal branding mediate the relationship between responsive market orientation (RMO) and brand performance. Results also indicate that market turbulence negatively moderates the relationship between strategic brand management and brand performance. Research limitations/implications Building on literature from brand management, organizational capabilities and market orientation, this study explicates the role of PMO and RMO in influencing different strategic brand management and internal branding, and subsequently, brand performance. The perspective used in this study provides an insight into how organizations can develop and manage brands from a process perspective. Practical implications To develop the brand management capability, organizations may benefit from cultivating processes that seek to meet the latent customer needs through explorative and proactive information seeking, and at the same time, pursing processes that focus on capturing the existing customer and competitor trends in the market. Social implications This study hopefully helps marketers realize that brand management function needs to move toward being more dynamic in nature. Originality/value This study borrows from the existing research on market orientation, branding and brand management to argue that organizations are required to not only maximize the brand returns in the existing market but also to adapt to the changes in the future.
Article
Purpose Knowledge withholding is an important but under-studied topic, which refers to the phenomenon that individuals give less than full effort to contributing knowledge. This study aims to investigate the differential effects of task characteristics on individuals’ knowledge withholding behavior in online space, this study develops and empirically verifies a theoretical model that covers the five core task characteristics in job characteristics model (autonomy, identity, feedback, skill variety and significance), knowledge sharing self-inefficacy and withholding effort in sharing knowledge. Design/methodology/approach Using an online survey method, this study collected empirical data from 351 general internet users from 30 provincial administrative units in China. The data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling technique of partial least squares. Findings The analysis results indicate that autonomy negatively affects, while identity, skill variety and significance positively affect users’ knowledge withholding behavior in online space through the mediation of knowledge sharing self-inefficacy, and that three task characteristics (autonomy, identity and feedback) strengthen the relationship between knowledge sharing self-inefficacy and knowledge withholding. Practical implications This study provides valuable insights for reducing knowledge withholding behavior in online space. Operationally, different levels of task characteristics such as autonomy, identity and feedback can be set to prevent users from perceiving themselves as inefficacious, and to weaken the behavioral expression of knowledge sharing self-inefficacy. Originality/value This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the differential effects of task characteristics on knowledge withholding in online space, and improves the cognition of the boundaries of withholding effort in sharing knowledge in online space.
Article
Knowledge hiding is an intentional attempt by an individual to withhold knowledge. Though knowledge hiding as a research area has gained popularity only in recent years, the withholding of information has been a concern for business organizations for a long time, having significant implications for knowledge management. Accordingly , knowledge hiding as a construct has received enough deliberations from the practitioners. However, academic researchers have called for more systematic research on knowledge hiding, giving us enough motivation to carry out a research study on the same. First, this article attempts to decipher the term "knowledge hid-ing" by defining it and differentiating it from several synonymous terms. Second, some of the existing knowledge hiding frameworks are analyzed. Finally, a morphological analysis of the selected literature, including a qualitative rating, estimating the extent of the work is undertaken, which throws light into the areas that have already been studied and underscores the pertinent 184 research gaps worthy of further investigation. In addition to the identification of these distinct research gaps, the analysis categorically establishes two outcomes. The findings suggest that around half of the total research literature on knowledge hiding evolved in the last 2 years, which makes it a salient area of research. The extent of work done in knowledge hiding , captured by an average qualitative rating score of 2.55 out of 5 underscores that this novel construct bears large research potential. Therefore, a morphological analysis , as carried out in this article, strengthens the current understanding on knowledge hiding and provides the impetus for further research in the area.
Article
Purpose Although scholars have provided sufficient empirical evidence on the effectiveness of organizational rewards in managing knowledge sharing, little attention has been paid to the relationship between organizational rewards and knowledge hiding. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to investigate the effects of financial and nonfinancial rewards on employees' knowledge-hiding behavior as well as the moderating role of task attributes. Design/methodology/approach This paper examines the hypotheses by conducting a time-lagged survey from a sample of 186 knowledge workers in Chinese high-tech firms. Findings The findings of this study reveal that financial rewards are positively associated with knowledge hiding, whereas nonfinancial rewards have a negative effect on knowledge. Moreover, task interdependence significantly moderates the effects of organizational rewards on employees' knowledge-hiding behavior. In addition, the interaction between nonfinancial rewards and task complexity is negatively related to knowledge hiding. Originality/value This study is one of the first to investigate the effects of financial rewards and nonfinancial rewards on employees' knowledge-hiding behavior, as well as the moderating roles of task interdependence and task complexity.
Article
Purpose A community of practice (CoP) is believed to be a driver for knowledge creation but it can hinder knowledge sharing across boundaries. Drawing on social cognitive theory, this study aims to investigate how a CoP within a single unit promotes knowledge sharing with other units by examining the mediating effect of the members’ learning goals (LG). Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling was conducted using a two-wave survey data on nurses from eight Japanese hospitals ( n = 263). Findings The results indicated that LG fully and positively mediated the effect of a CoP on the knowledge-sharing intention of one unit toward other units and that LG fully and negatively mediated the effect of a CoP on knowledge withholding (KW) from other units. Practical implications Knowledge managers need to note that intellectual benefits from experienced CoP can play a key role in reducing the perceived risks associated with members’ knowledge sharing and in creating effective knowledge sharing with other units. Originality/value The main contribution is to identify the process by which CoP promotes knowledge sharing and prevents KW across boundaries mediated through LG. This study is the first to quantitatively show how LG cross inter-professional barriers caused by CoPs.
Article
Purpose To sustain firm profitability, it is critical for sales managers to direct business-to-business (B2B) salespeople to generate revenues by simultaneously acquiring new customers and selling to current customers. However, emerging research indicates territory-based B2B salespeople have a preferred customer engagement orientation that reflects a tendency for engaging in selling activities to new (i.e. hunters) and/or existing (i.e. farmers) customers, suggesting that managerial ambidexterity directives could have deleterious effects on salespeople. This paper aims to address this possibility by investigating the moderating effects of salesperson regulatory focus on the relationship between managerial directives for salesperson ambidexterity and salesperson job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a mixed-method approach by using a field study of 106 matched sales manager–salesperson dyads from a large Fortune 500 B2B industrial distributor sales force and an experiment involving 152 B2B salespeople from a cross-section of industries. Findings The results indicate that sales manager ambidexterity requests reduce salesperson job satisfaction. However, the findings also demonstrate that salesperson regulatory focus moderates these negative effects such that the negative effect of manager ambidexterity requests on job satisfaction is reduced for salespeople with high vs low levels of regulatory focus ambidexterity balance. The results from the cross-sectional experimental study illustrate the cognitive mechanism that helps explain why this occurs. Research limitations/implications The Fortune 500 firm used in Study 1 uses a territory-based generalist sales force model where salespeople are not incentivized to prioritize hunting over farming (and vice versa). As a result, the findings may not generalize to firms with hunting/farming incentive systems or to those that operate in particular industries requiring a focus on either hunting or farming. Practical implications The findings show why managers attempting to direct territory-based salespeople to increase their ambidexterity behaviors may undermine the job satisfaction of certain salespeople by triggering a decrease in motivation while the same directives have the opposite effect for other salespeople. The findings also demonstrate salesperson reactions to ambidexterity requests, which provide additional insights for effective salespeople hiring, training and management. Originality/value The findings have implications for better understanding the effectiveness of sales management leadership directives. The study also offers a promising direction for future research to investigate salesperson receptivity to managerial controls.
Article
Knowledge hiding research has traditionally focused on the ways in which knowledge is hidden in the context of interactions between employees. This study advances knowledge hiding research by highlighting the benefits of moving away from the dyadic level of analysis to a multilevel analysis across individuals, groups, and organizations. We also elaborate how knowledge hiding is influenced both by the nature of knowledge and by the modes of knowledge creation in organizations. We propose a theoretical framework that juxtaposes the nature of knowledge – tacit vs. explicit and component vs. architectural – against the four modes – socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization – of the knowledge creating process in organizations. The framework developed in our study also enables us to identify four distinct root causes of knowledge hiding in organizations – functional bias, misaligned incentives, dysfunctional resource allocations, and value incongruence.
Article
Purpose Drawing on the stress and coping theory, conservation of resources (COR) theory and social role theory, this study aims to investigate the impact of social media overload on knowledge withholding behavior and examine the gender differences in social media overload, engendering knowledge withholding. Design/methodology/approach By hiring a professional online survey company, this study collected valid responses from 325 general social media users. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, bootstrapping method and multi-group analysis were used to test the proposed theoretical model. Findings The empirical results reveal that three types of social media overload positively affect users' knowledge withholding behavior and that emotional exhaustion significantly mediates the above relationships. The multi-group analysis demonstrates that gender differences do exist in the decision-making process of knowledge withholding; for example, females are more likely than males to become emotionally exhausted from social media overload, while males are more likely than females to engage in knowledge withholding behavior in the case of emotional exhaustion. Originality/value This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by examining the relationship between social media overload and knowledge withholding, verifying the mediating role of emotional exhaustion as the key mechanism linking them, and narrowing the research gap of lacking gender differences research in knowledge withholding literature.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop a model for business to business salesperson performance (SP) with a service ecosystems perspective. Design/methodology/approach To achieve the research aims, classical grounded theory was used. The data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 20 sales managers and main sales actors. Findings After coding and analyzing the data, salesperson institutional performance is introduced as a core category including three main dimensions of regulative, normative and cognitive-cultural performance. Multi-level factors determining SP are identified and performance results are introduced in a multi-level long term way. The sales actors, macro variables, actors’ orientations and sales method are introduced as circumstances, while salesperson stressors are presented as covariants deterring the fulfillment of salesperson’s activities. Originality/value This study focuses on the contributions of the salesperson in the alignment of institutional arrangements or the results of their being institutionalized, as well as determining the factors and variables affecting it.
Article
Purpose Using an institutionalist lens, this study aims to identify factors that influence the knowledge sharing behaviour of volunteers engaged in collaborative, cross-cultural and project-focussed development work. Design/methodology/approach Following an inductive research design, the authors conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with volunteers to explore the practicalities of knowledge sharing in the context of development aid projects and to examine contributing factors, such as personality, motivations, experience and variations in team members’ understanding of the nature and objective of projects. Findings Through exploring the experiences of volunteers working on cross-cultural development aid programmes, the authors identify and discuss the ways in which the preparation of volunteers and the structuring of project work is shaped by managerialist modes of thinking, with an emphasis on the creation of an environment that is conducive to sustainable knowledge sharing practices for all stakeholders involved. Originality/value The examination of volunteer development work tendency towards institutional isomorphism is a novel contribution intersecting the areas of knowledge sharing in the project, volunteer-led and culturally diverse environments.
Article
In the current era of a knowledge-based economy, where the main driver is knowledge transfer, knowledge hiding among employees has become a stumbling block. Drawing on the protection motivation theory, we provide another explanation for employees’ engagement with knowledge-hiding behavior. Specifically, we argue that knowledge hiding is a preventive coping mechanism against the threat induced by supervisors’ dark triad of personality traits. We also introduced mattering and job security as cognitive mediations between the supervisor’s dark triad of personality traits and subordinates’ knowledge-hiding behavior. Our results indicate that the supervisor’s dark personality traits enhance subordinates’ knowledge-hiding behavior, mediated by low mattering perception and threatened job security. We also provide a list of knowledge-hiding antecedents studied over the past ten years. Theoretical and practical contributions along with future research directions are also presented.
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Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of workplace incivility on knowledge hiding behavior. The study also empirically analyzed the moderating effect of psychological entitlement between workplace incivility and knowledge hiding behavior. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study utilized a cross-sectional survey design to collect the data using a structured questionnaire. The participants were selected using convenience sampling. A total of 465 academicians participated in the study belonging to Pakistan's different higher education institutions. Findings: The findings revealed that workplace incivility positively impacts knowledge hiding behavior. Moreover, psychological entitlement moderated the relationship between workplace incivility and knowledge hiding behavior. Implications/Originality/Value: The current study highlighted the examination of the antecedent of knowledge hiding behavior. The personality disposition has been studied as a moderator between incivility and knowledge hiding. This study disclosed how psychological entitlement could change a person's tendency to share knowledge with peers.
Article
Purpose Drawing on the organizational buying decision-making framework, the purpose of this study is to investigate how sales orientation (SOCO) affects buyers’ conflict, salesperson-owned loyalty and buyers’ propensity to end a supply relationship when selling firms use a single versus multiple salesforce go-to-market strategy. Design/methodology/approach Survey data was analyzed with a sample of organizational buyers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. Findings Findings reveal that a selling firm’s go-to-market salesforce strategy moderates certain relational aspects of the buyer–salesperson relationship, consequently influencing a buyer’s decision to end a supply relationship. Research limitations/implications Empirically, these findings indicate that the effects of selling orientation on conflict, salesperson-owned loyalty and exit intentions are not only based on the salesperson’s efforts but are conditional on the selling firm’s go-to-market strategy, particularly with the implementation of multiple salespeople selling to a particular industrial buyer. Practical implications These results suggest that a salesforce go-to-market strategy conveys serious consequences on buying decisions. Given that a go-to-market strategy involving multiple salespeople impacts the buyer’s relationship with the selling firm to a greater degree, managerial oversight must remain present when selling firms decide to pursue such a go-to-market strategy. Originality/value The empirical investigation of a salesforce go-to-market strategy is an original pursuit. Specifically, this study shows that while it is critical that buying and selling firms monitor buyer–salesperson relationships as the basis for supply partnerships, these exchanges are largely contingent on the selling firm’s go-to-market strategy.
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Uneven economic development due to varying strategic resource endowments has led to increasing competition between cities, regions and countries. This study examines the impact of different government's policies on place branding performance because place branding is a crucial strategy that distinguishes the region from its competitors. This research used primary data and surveys have been collected from managers of companies in Zhejiang Province. The findings of PLS-SEM show that government policies (supply-side, demand-side, and environmental) have significant impacts on place branding performance with boosting, pulling, and guiding effects. Market environment and Inter-firm collaboration partially mediate between government policies and place branding performance. Inter-firm collaboration directly mediates supply-side and environmental policy on place branding performance. Moreover, according to the Importance-Performance map analysis, demand-based policies are more important than supply-based and environmental-based policies in place branding performance. The study concluded that the government could put more effort into the pulling effect of demand-based policies on place branding performance. This research enriched the relationship between government policies, inter-firm collaboration/market environment and place branding performance. This study provided valuable insights on how governments can further promote the active participation of enterprises in regional branding and enhance place branding performance in practice, which encourage governments to conduct place branding to new statures.
Chapter
Die Herausforderungen des Strukturwandels werden in Abhängigkeit von der Größe und des Standortes eines Unternehmens unterschiedlich bewertet. Dabei gibt es im Vertrieb verschiedene Probleme, die durch Kooperationen gelöst werden können. Basierend auf einer Umfrage unter Vertriebsmanagern der Sicherheitsventilbranche ist eine differenzierte und nach Unternehmensclustern bewertete Übersicht über die Herausforderungen des industriellen Strukturwandels im Vertrieb entstanden. Die Auseinandersetzung mit diesen Problemen ermöglicht es, das eigene Unternehmen in den Kontext einzuordnen und über ähnliche Herausforderungen nachzudenken. Außerdem werden einige etablierte Kooperationen aus der Praxis vorgestellt, die sich bewährt haben, um auf die Herausforderungen zu reagieren.
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The authors assess the effects of trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate on self-set goal levels and sales performance. The results indicate an interaction between trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate, such that (1) salespeople who are high in trait competitiveness set higher goals when they perceive the organizational climate as competitive and (2) salespeople who are low in trait competitiveness set relatively low goals, regardless of their perceptions of competition in the organizational climate. Results also indicate that a self-set goal level is related strongly to performance and that self-efficacy has strong direct and indirect effects on sales performance. The authors also discuss implications for theory and practice.
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The exchange of information among organizational employees is a vital component of the knowledge-management process. Modern information and telecommunication technology is available to support such exchanges across time and distance barriers. However, organizations investing in this type of technology often face difficulties in encouraging their employees to use the system to share their ideas. This paper elaborates on previous research, suggesting that sharing personal insights with one's co-workers may carry a cost for some individuals which may yield, at the aggregate level, a co-operation dilemma, similar to a public-good dilemma. A review of the research on different types of public-good dilemmas provides some indications of the specific interventions that may help organizations encourage the kind of social dynamics that will increase overall knowledge sharing. These interventions can be classified into three categories: interventions aimed at restructuring the pay-offs for contributing, those that try to increase efficacy perceptions, and those that make employees' sense of group:identity and personal responsibility more salient.
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This paper investigates knowledge hoarding, defined as an individual's deliberate and strategic concealment of information, and perceived hoarding, defined as coworkers' beliefs that an individual is engaged in hoarding. We hypothesize that knowledge hoarding increases an individual's job performance by enhancing bargaining power and influence, whereas perceived hoarding decreases the individual's job performance because coworkers withdraw social support. We further suggest that knowledge hoarding and perceived hoarding are both detrimental to unit performance because they hurt work-related interactions and impair the unit's ability to respond quickly to problems. Using a sample of 297 individuals embedded in 41 units in the U.S. Forest Service, we find that the positive effect of hoarding on individual performance is mediated by bargaining power, whereas the negative effect of perceived hoarding on individual performance is mediated by social support. In addition, individual hoarding and perceived hoarding both diminish unit performance. Collectively, our results reveal the mixed fortunes that befall individuals and their organizations as a result of knowledge hoarding and suspected hoarding activity.
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This article presents a framework for exploring salesperson(s) resistance to sharing market intelligence in emerging markets in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors propose that resistance to sharing market intelligence with relevant others, including the firm, coworkers, intermediaries, and sales managers, is a function of various individual, leadership, and organizational (firm) factors. This framework helps researchers understand how and why resistance develops among salespeople. Moreover, implications from these findings are presented to assist practitioners who wish to persuade and encourage African salespeople to share market intelligence for the benefit of their firms.
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Many organizations are using knowledge management systems (KMSs) to facilitate knowledge sharing. However, few studies have empirically investigated how individual characteristics and organizational work practices influence knowledge sharing. Based on accountability theory, the person-situation interactional psychology perspective, and the five-factor model of personality, this study uses a quasi-experimental design to investigate how two accountability-inducing management practices-evaluation and evaluation plus reward-and their interactions with personality characteristics influence knowledge sharing using a KMS. One hundred employees from a Chinese software company participated in the study. The authors found that both evaluation and evaluation plus reward had a positive relationship with knowledge sharing. Greater levels of knowledge sharing occurred in the evaluation-plus-reward condition compared with the evaluation condition. Also, knowledge sharing was influenced by the interaction between evaluation plus reward and conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience. Implications of the study results for research and practice are discussed.
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The scope of research on the development of salespeople has been very limited, in part because of an incomplete conceptual framework of salespeople's life and career changes. As a first step toward improving this situation, this article presents a framework of developing career concerns in the form of career stages. Career objectives, developmental tasks, personal challenges, and psycho-social needs of each career stage are discussed, and propositions are developed regarding the influence of career stages on salespeople's effectiveness.
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This article examines knowledge sharing in business environments and cultures that are hostile to knowledge sharing, focusing on knowledge sharing as it relates to individual behavior. Knowledge hoarding, apprehension about failures, and the Not-Invented-Here syndrome are examined, drawing on the examples of six Russian companies, including three with Western ownership. In knowledge-sharing hostile environments it is inadequate to apply traditional means for managing knowledge-sharing processes. Instead of encouraging, stimulating, and aligning incentives, managers need to initially force knowledge sharing in order to transform their organizations into knowledge-embracing cultures. Concrete guidelines for overcoming the barriers to knowledge sharing are outlined.
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New developments and trends in selling and sales management are creating demands and opportunities that require adaptation and new approaches on the part of both sales organizations and academic researchers. This paper summarizes critical dimensions of change in the environment that affect the practice of selling and sales management and introduces the papers that follow in this Anniversary Special Issue of JPSSM.
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Individuals' knowledge does not transform easily into organizational knowledge even with the implementation of knowledge repositories. Rather, individuals tend to hoard knowledge for various reasons. The aim of this study is to develop an integrative understanding of the factors supporting or inhibiting individuals' knowledge-sharing intentions. We employ as our theoretical framework the theory of reasoned action (TRA), and augment it with extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces and organizational climate factors that are believed to influence individuals' knowledge-sharing intentions. Through a field survey of 154 managers from 27 Korean organizations, we confirm our hypothesis that attitudes toward and subjective norms with regard to knowledge sharing as well as organizational climate affect individuals' intentions to share knowledge. Additionally, we find that anticipated reciprocal relationships affect individuals' attitudes toward knowledge sharing while both sense of self-worth and organizational climate affect subjective norms. Contrary to common belief, we find anticipated extrinsic rewards exert a negative effect on individuals' knowledge-sharing attitudes.
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Can an assessment of individuals’ narcissism help explain the quality of a respondent’s ethical judgment? How is the relationship between religiosity and ethical judgment moderated by the effects of narcissism? With a sample of 385 undergraduate business majors, this study uses a taxonomic approach to examine the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity as well as orthodox Christian beliefs on ethical judgment. Three distinct clusters were identified: Skeptics, Nominals, and Devouts. Surprisingly, of the three clusters, Nominals and Devouts were the only groups impacted by narcissism, although Skeptics overall demonstrate the worst ethical judgment.
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Most managers would probably agree that positivity is something they value in employees, yet selection research has virtually ignored the relation between employee positivity and job performance. This article suggests that a broad personality trait, labeled positive self-concept or core self-evaluations, is a potentially important personality trait in the prediction of job performance. Positive self-concept consists of four specific traits previously studied in isolation: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and (low) neuroticism or emotional stability. Data analyzed from 12 samples revealed that these specific traits are strongly correlated and comprise a common factor. Drawing from four motivation theories, we argue that the principal reason positive self-concept is linked to job performance is because positive employees are more motivated to perform their jobs. We also argue that, in some jobs, positive self-concept may be an ability factor. Finally, we discuss various implementation issues involved in using positive self-concept in selection decisions. Overall, this article suggests that positive self-concept is a trait deserving of more attention in selection research and practice.
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Salesperson cooperation has become a crucial issue for the overall performance of most sales organizations. The authors examine the antecedents of task-specific, cooperative behaviors of salespersons toward other salespeople working in the same organization. The main theses of the study are that (1) the four major antecedent categories of factors—relational, task, organizational, and personal— constitute, collectively, the primary determinants of salesperson cooperation and (2) each antecedent category exerts, independently, significant influence on the cooperative behaviors of salespersons. The results support the main theses and provide useful insights for sales managers attempting to foster cooperation among salespeople. The relative impact of each antecedent category, as well as the effects of specific variables within each, is discussed.
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This chapter discusses why employees keep their knowledge to themselves. Despite managers’ best efforts, many employees tend to hoard knowledge or are reluctant to share their expertise with coworkers or managers. Although many firms have introduced specialized initiatives to encourage a broader dissemination of ideas and knowledge among organizational members, these initiatives often fail. This chapter provides reasons as to why this is so. Instead of focusing on why individuals might share their knowledge, however, we explain why individuals keep their knowledge to themselves. Multiple perspectives are offered, including social exchange, norms of secrecy, and territorial behaviors.
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Relationship marketing-establishing, developing, and maintaining successful relational exchanges-constitutes a major shift in marketing theory and practice. After conceptualizing relationship marketing and discussing its ten forms, the authors (1) theorize that successful relationship marketing requires relationship commitment and trust, (2) model relationship commitment and trust as key mediating variables, (3) test this key mediating variable model using data from automobile tire retailers, and (4) compare their model with a rival that does not allow relationship commitment and trust to function as mediating variables. Given the favorable test results for the key mediating variable model, suggestions for further explicating and testing it are offered.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether and how knowledge hoarding, functions as antecedent and consequent of work related negative acts, as a measure of bullying. The authors investigate the relation as mediated by trust and justice. Design/methodology/approach Data stem from a longitudinal study in which questionnaire responses were collected twice from 1,650 employees in 52 workplaces. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the two models. Design-based corrections were made to accommodate the multi-level structure of data. Findings The analyses showed that knowledge hoarding was both an antecedent and a consequent of negative acts. First, over time, knowledge hoarding was indirectly related to negative acts mediated by trust and justice. Second, negative acts were both directly and indirectly related to knowledge hoarding over time. The study thus points to the existence of a vicious circle of negative acts, psychological states of trust and justice, and knowledge hoarding behaviours, which presumably will affect both individual and organizational outcomes negatively. Research limitations/implications The use of already collected, self-report data, single-item measures, and the two-year time lag could pose potential limitations to the study. Practical implications Preventive and repair actions could potentially impact both negative acts and knowledge hoarding by focusing on increasing the social exchange quality at work unit level. Originality/value This paper combines two strands of research, that of bullying at work and that of knowledge management, within which research on knowledge hoarding has been an under-researched area.
Article
Boundaries are a defining characteristic of organizations, and boundary roles are the link between the environment and the organization. The creation, elaboration, and functions of boundary spanning roles are examined, with attention to environmental and technological sources of variation in the structure of boundary roles. Eleven hypotheses integrate the material reviewed and are amenable to empirical test. Future research should overcome problems created when organizations are treated as “wholes” or single entities.
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This meta-analysis evaluated predictors of both objective and subjective sales performance. Biodata measures and sales ability inventories were good predictors of the ratings criterion, with corrected rs of .52 and .45, respectively. Potency (a subdimension of the Big 5 personality dimension Extraversion) predicted supervisor ratings of performance (r =.28) and objective measures of sales (r =.26). Achievement (a component of the Conscientiousness dimension) predicted ratings (r =.25) and objective sales (r=.41). General cognitive ability showed a correlation of .40 with ratings but only .04 with objective sales. Similarly, age predicted ratings (r =.26) but not objective sales (r = -.06). On the basis of a small number of studies, interest appears to be a promising predictor of sales success.
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The transfer of innovation between organisational members has recently drawn attention from both academia and business because corporate competitiveness is linked directly to the diffusion of innovation through an organisation. As the spread of innovation within an organisation depends on the efficient transfer of knowledge between members, this study focuses on the concept of knowledge withholding, which is known to disrupt this transfer. First, Herzberg's two-factor theory is used to prove that knowledge sharing and withholding are separate concepts and to explain the difference between them. Second, past studies on knowledge management are shown to have overlooked knowledge withholding in favour of knowledge sharing, leading to a paucity of information on the former. Third, knowledge withholding is classified into two separate behaviours: the intentional hiding and the unintentional hoarding of knowledge. Finally, four territorial behaviours related to knowledge withholding are summarised in order to suggest areas of future study.
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Students' knowledge-withholding behavior is an obstacle to social knowledge construction in the context of management education. Although prior studies have explored the factors that influence knowledge-sharing intention, few studies have investigated the factors that affect the intention to withhold knowledge. This study aims to investigate the factors that affect students' knowledge-withholding intention in the context of undergraduate management education by integrating the concepts of the Big Five personality traits, social identity theory, and social exchange theory. Data collected from 365 undergraduate management students in Taiwanese universities were tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling approach. The results indicate that perceived social identity, expected rewards, and expected associations directly affect knowledge-withholding intention, and that extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience indirectly influence knowledge-withholding intention through the mediation of perceived social identity. In addition, expected associations enhance the negative effect of perceived social identity on knowledge-withholding intention. The findings provide several important theoretical and practical implications regarding students' knowledge-withholding behaviors in the context of management education.
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This study focused on the conditions under which job dissatisfaction will lead to creativity as an expression of voice. We theorized that useful feedback from coworkers, coworker helping and support, and perceived organizational support for creativity would each interact with job dissatisfaction and continuance commitment (commitment motivated by necessity) to result in creativity. In a sample of 149 employees, as hypothesized, employees with high job dissatisfaction exhibited the highest creativity when continuance commitment was high and when (1) useful feedback from coworkers, or (2) coworker helping and support, or (3) perceived organizational support for creativity was high.
Article
Purpose ‐ This paper extends the sales literature by moving beyond salespeople's role as knowledge gatherers to their role as knowledge sharers with personnel outside the sales unit. The aim is to develop and test a conceptual model to establish how pay-for-performance (economic factor) affects knowledge sharing behaviour under the contingency roles of coworker relationship quality (social psychological factor) and knowledge sharing norms (sociological factor). Design/methodology/approach ‐ Using the Dun & Bradstreet database, the authors collected responses from 374 salespeople in 51 Canadian industrial firms through an on-line survey. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as multiple salespeople were nested within the organization and the data were comprised of individual- and organizational-level constructs. Findings ‐ When there is misalignment between rewards and knowledge sharing behavior, motivational loss hampers knowledge sharing. However, when employees are provided with an environment that fosters high coworker relationship quality and consensual knowledge sharing norms, the motivational loss resulting from the incongruence between pay-for-performance and knowledge sharing behavior is mitigated. Research limitations/implications ‐ Implications regarding how salespeople's knowledge sharing contributes to relationship marketing along with practical ramifications for how sales managers can encourage knowledge sharing are discussed. Originality/value ‐ This study contributes to the sales literature (e.g. control, key account management, expanding role of sales) by testing a model that integrates different theoretical perspectives to examine what types of control mechanisms and which combinations of these controls affect salespeople's engagement in knowledge sharing behaviors.
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The ethics of sales is an important, but neglected, topic in business ethics. I offer criticisms of what others have said about the moral duties of salespeople and formulate what I take to be a more plausible theory. My theory avoids the objections I raise against others and yields plausible results when applied to cases. I also defend my theory by appeal to the golden rule and offer a justification for the version of the golden rule to which I appeal. I argue that salespeople have prima facie duties to do the following: 1. warn customers of potential hazards, 2. refrain from lying and deception, 3. fully and honestly answer questions about what they are selling, and 4. refrain from steering customers toward purchases they have reason to think will harm the customers. The paper concludes with a brief appendix that discusses the implications of the ethics of sales for the social responsibilities of business.
Article
Managers and academics alike acknowledge that salespeople can play a pivotal role in intraorganizational knowledge-sharing behaviors with coworkers outside the sales unit (i.e., finance, engineering, production, design, etc.). To this end, this study contributes to the extant sales literature by delineating how and under what conditions salespeople’s knowledge-sharing behaviors are motivated. The study reports two sets of findings that contribute to the sales literature. First, in response to a strong autonomy climate, self-efficacy and coworker relationship quality mediate the relationship between autonomy climate strength and knowledge-sharing behaviors. Second, drawing on situational strength theory, the research finds that knowledge-sharing behaviors benefit from coworker relationship quality under weak but not strong norms. The hypotheses are tested by employing a multilevel modeling technique that uses a sample of 222 salespeople from 38 organizations. Implications for sales theory and practice are discussed.
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The purposes of this study are to (1) investigate the extent to which salespeople and sales managers are utilized within a firm's marketing information system, (2) examine the nature of information provided by the sales organization to the M.I.S., and (3) explore characteristics associated with effective implementation of an M.I.S. Two hundred and thirty-five sales managers and sales executives were interviewed. The results indicate that information solicited from the sales force and sales management tends to be limited and primarily pricing-related. Most respondents indicated limited or no formal recognition/reinforcement of sales force and sales management participation in the M.I.S.
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Firms make significant investments in customer relationship management (CRM) information systems with the intention of making better marketing decisions. These efforts have been facilitated by technologies supporting collection and analysis of customer and competitor information. Firms will not get the best out of their CRM information systems when sales forces are not involved in the process of gathering information. This paper reports findings from a study assessing the involvement of sales forces in firms’ information gathering activity. Specifically, the participation of salespeople in the gathering of marketplace information, the support provided, and the focus of information gathering efforts were examined.
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This study explores the role of the sales force in formulating and executing marketing strategies. Specifically, the relationships between sales force activities such as providing information about customer needs, hiring and training salespeople, and assessing new market segments and four marketing strategies (market penetration, product development, market development, diversification) are examined. Results indicate that the use of sales force activities is related to a firm's strategic choices, and that the relationships vary by firm size and type of offering.
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The personality dimensions agreeableness and conscientiousness were hypothesized to account for commonly shared variance between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Findings from 99 employees in the United Kingdom and the United States indicate that these two dimensions do indeed account for substantial variance in satisfaction and that conscientiousness also accounts for unique variance in one dimension of OCB. Satisfaction accounts for unique variance in OCB not explained by either of these personality dimensions. No evidence was found for differences in main or moderated effects in the U.K. and U.S. samples.