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Abstract

Alternative university admissions models like the recent consideration of high school ranking by universities in Chile offer the promise of increasing access to higher education by considering academic performance in context of opportunities to learn. The intent is to employ this policy without sacrificing predictive validity of college success. This study explores the theory of action of the high school ranking policy, as well as the high school ranking’s ability to predict students’ persistence in higher education system and in Chile’s higher education institutions using logistic regressions with fixed and random effects (intercepts) and country-wide data. The theory of action shows a main focus on access and a less intense emphasis on the goal of predicting academic success. The access goal is addressed through considerations during the admission process, and there are few efforts geared toward recruitment and graduation. Results also suggest that the high school ranking marginally helps predict college persistence at the institutional level, but only among students attending traditional universities. In light of results, it is recommended that traditional institutions keep working collaboratively to provide new admissions processes that are transparent, equitable, efficient and predict college success.

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... Our institution has an inclusive access policy that favors admissions to higher education of students with very heterogeneous profiles. Some students are admitted for their performance in the university selection test, while others for their results in high school, even if their selection test results were insufficient [9,10]. This politics is oriented to reduce the socio-economic gap in STEM education. ...
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We present the findings of a pilot plan of active learning implemented in introductory physics in a Chilean public university. The model is research based as it considered a literature review for adequate selection and design of activities, consistent with the levels of students’ reasoning skills. The level of scientific reasoning is positively correlated to student success. By contrast to a control group of students following traditional lectures, we observed a significant reduction in failure rate for students that do not yet posses formal scientific reasoning. This profile of student being the majority, we conclude that implementing active learning is particularly suited to first year of higher education in the context of a developing country. It fits the particularities of student profile and typical classroom size, leading to learning improvement and reduction of academic risk as well as being financially sound.
... Aquellos estudiantes que aprueban dichas actividades formales, y egresan con promedios de calificaciones en el 15% superior (Top15%) de cada establecimiento o del total de estudiantes del país que rinden dicha prueba cada año, pueden postular a los cupos que les ofrecen las 29 universidades y 2 institutos profesionales adscritos al PACE; en adelante "estudiantes PACE". Se dispone tanto de evidencia internacional (Galla et al., 2019) como nacional (Larroucau, Ríos y Mizala, 2015;Segovia y Manzi, 2018;SUA-CRUCH, 2017), sobre la alta correlación existente entre los desempeños académicos en la educación secundaria y terciaria, aunque otros estudios han arrojado resultados mixtos con respecto a la capacidad predictiva del puntaje Ranking en el primer año de estudios universitarios (Barrios, 2018;Santelices et al., 2017). En ese contexto, en consistencia con los estudios que en Chile han constatado que la capacidad predictiva Ranking de notas en el segundo año de estudios universitarios es inclusive superior a la de la PSU (Segovia y Manzi, 2018), el PACE exime a los postulantes de los puntajes mínimos de PSU (promedio Lenguaje y Matemática) que exigen las universidades participantes. ...
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This study characterizes students of the 2017 cohort that were prepared, admitted and supported by the Programa de Acompañamiento y Acceso Efectivo a la Educación Superior (pace), in contrast to a control group of students; focusing on their academic performance in three Chilean universities: Universidad Católica del Norte, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and Universidad Católica de Temuco. In agreement with the pace model design, statistical differences in school vulnerability and Pruebas de Selección Universitaria (psu) scores in both groups are extremely high; however, the differences in marks are not statistically significant. The results also depict that, in general, to each of the pace group student corresponds one of the control group with similar final marks but, however, with 200 to 300 more score points in the psu test. The study allows to assess as a whole the relevance and impact of the three components of the pace program: preparation at the high school level, the pace access system, and the effectiveness of the students’ support activities.
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Background The transition from school to higher education (HE) involves multiple challenges including academic issues, motivation and identity adaptation. In this scenario, the role of family, peers and institutions can be fundamental in the success of the transition process. Purpose We sought to deepen our understanding of the transition phenomenon by studying students’ perceptions on HE expectations versus the reality encountered, identifying the main challenges they faced and analysing the strategies used to cope with the difficulties encountered in adjusting to HE. Method This is a follow-up interview study that examined the perceptions of 14 first- and second-year HE students in Chile, who had participated in a previous research study two years earlier whilst in secondary school. Interview data were analysed using a qualitative approach. Findings The analysis identified contrasts between students’ expectations and what occurred during the first two years of HE. Associated with academic difficulties, the students felt that the main challenges included increased complexity of content, time management and study strategies. To cope with these challenges, the evidence suggested that the students adapted their academic strategies and relied strongly on their families and peers. Conclusions Our findings draw attention to a mismatch that can occur between the expectations and the reality that students face once they have transitioned to HE. Implications for institutions include building a transition bridge between secondary and postsecondary education, which goes beyond providing information about funding or the labour market. In terms of supporting successful transition, issues such as academic demand, studying time, study strategies and prior familiarity with HE staff and peers are all relevant aspects for consideration.
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The High School (HS) Ranking is an equity policy aimed at increasing the enrolment of students from underprivileged contexts in selective higher education institutions in Chile. However, HS Ranking is considered as an admission criterion for all applicants, regardless of their contextual characteristics. In this study, we delve into how students from different high school settings interpret and deploy actions to increase their HS Ranking score. Through a Structural Equation Model with validated survey data (9 schools, N = 1.831), our results show that the role of the schools’ context in the deployment of academic strategies to increase HS Ranking score is significant, even after controlling for academic individual motivation. In a scenario of a highly segregated secondary system these results are relevant for the discussion of the role of HS Ranking – an equity-oriented admission policy – in maintaining the higher education inequalities.
Chapter
This chapter addresses the study of the validity of high-stakes assessments, such as those used in the admissions to higher education and professional certification. This study requires, as an initial stage, making explicit the uses that will be given to the scores obtained in those instruments. The specification of the uses can be done through the study of the program theory or logic model. The chapter discusses and gives examples of validity studies that examine the most frequent uses for these types of measures: predictive validity studies and the validity of performance standards. It is argued that the adequate use of high-stakes assessments requires measures that do not present irrelevant variance of the construct. Methodologies for those analyses are presented. It is also proposed that the validity argument should not be limited to the empirical verification of the measures intended goals, but it should also include the possible occurrence of unexpected consequences. Some of the most frequent unexpected consequences in the literature are discussed.
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We analysed the Chilean university student selection processes, comparing ‘First Generation’ and ‘Continuist’ students, using the Chilean Higher Education population databases (2000–2015). Findings confirm that 60 percent of participants in the selection process are First Generation students. The data registers an increasing self‐exclusion phenomenon. Of the students who did not take the selection test after enrolling, 80 percent are First Generation and 18 are enrolled in a selective university, compared to 44 in the Continuist conglomerate. These differences may be explained by cultural capital in the Bourdieu sense, in conjunction with a diversified, massified and marketalised higher education system.
Preprint
Chile has a centralized application system for admission to its most prestigious public and private universities. Prior to 2011, selection was based solely on the students' high school GPA and their scores in the national admission test (PSU).In 2012 an additional admission criterion was introduced-the student's class rank standing relative to previous cohorts in high-school-aimed at increasing equitable access to students from socioeconomically deprived groups. The authors employ an analytic model composed of five dimensions to examine the impact of this policy using data from the 2013 to 2017 admission processes. Results indicate that the introduction of the class-rank measure (CRM) marginally increased university admission of socioeconomically disadvantaged students. However for the remaining dimensions mixed or negative results are reported. The authors conclude with a discussion of the merits and limitations of the CRM policy and suggestions for its improvement.
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Full-text available
El acceso a la educación superior es solo un primer paso a la equidad educativa, el siguiente es lograr la retención del estudiante o, lo que es lo mismo, evitar su deserción. Esta propuesta se centra en la definición de un índice como estimador del riesgo a la deserción individual, utilizando en tal modelación las cadenas de Markov, con base en la aleatoriedad de la ocurrencia del fenómeno de la deserción. El índice sugerido se aplica a una muestra de 5700 estudiantes universitarios de las cohortes anuales 2012-2015 de 8 facultades, todas ellas pertenecientes a una universidad pública y regional de Chile. Los resultados indican que las mayores probabilidades de deserción se presentan en los 2 primeros semestres de estudios, con una probabilidad promedio superior al 39 %, que luego disminuye a lo largo de los años. Esto obliga a las políticas institucionales a una fuerte inversión focalizada en el primer año. Asimismo, disponer de este índice permite una estimación formal para cambios o variaciones temporales del riesgo y cuantificar el impacto de las intervenciones, no solo para el caso en estudio, sino para todo el sistema de educación superior.
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In the United States, race-based affirmative action is becoming increasingly untenable, in the wake of a series of Supreme Court cases and state laws banning the consideration of race in university admissions. In Brazil, meanwhile, affirmative action policies increasingly take into account both racial and socioeconomic considerations in combating historic inequalities in higher education. The contrast is somewhat ironic, given that Brazil, unlike the United States, has a long history of racial intermixing and, in theory, less racial discrimination. However, in both countries, race is closely correlated to poverty and exclusion. Thus, the US could learn much from the intersectional approach to affirmative action implemented by Brazil on a massive scale over the past decade.
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In Chile, from the year 2013, “Class Rank” was introduced as a new factor of university selection in the Chilean admission system, which aim is to improve equity in access to higher university education. This policy has provoked diverse objections and the evaluation carried out has shown almost no impact in altering the inequity of access in general. However, this called diversity of Chilean higher education, is expected to have significant effect in the most selective programs, which have a more socially elitized group of students. This paper analyzes the results of the “Class Rank” mechanism in relation to its objectives, in a set of the highest selective majors. Based on the record of selected applicants from the years 2012 to 2014, an indicator of socioeconomic classification of each student was constructed. The aim of this indicator is to follow the changes in the social composition of the selected students in the most selective programs, before and after the introduction of the “Class Rank” in the admission process. It is concluded that there are no changes in the socioeconomic dimension, from the incorporation of “Class Rank” in the admissions process. At the same time a more open debate is proposed about the relation among the inclusion policies and selection methodologies at higher university level.
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En este proyecto se investigó la capacidad predictiva del desempeño escolar en la educación secundaria y de la Prueba de Selección Universitaria sobre el rendimiento académico en la Universidad de Santiago de Chile. El estudio se realizó utilizando una muestra de aproximadamente veinte tres mil postulantes a la USACH ingresados entre los años 2002 y 2008. El rendimiento académico en la USACH se midió por medio de: (a) el promedio de notas, al primer, segundo y tercer año, (b) la retención al primer y segundo año, la (c) la tasa de reprobaciones al primer, segundo y tercer año, y (d) la titulación oportuna y total. El desempeño escolar se midió a través del Ranking de las notas de enseñanza media. En la investigación se puso especial atención en conocer validez predictiva del tradicional paradigma de mérito académico basado en los resultados de los postulantes en pruebas estandarizadas externas y del paradigma emergente basado en el rendimiento académico en el contexto en el cual los postulantes cursaron los cuatro años de educación media. Este informe tiene, también, como objetivo servir para que las instituciones de educación superior universitaria como el Estado chileno respectivamente (a) tomen decisiones respecto de las exigencia de ingreso entre los postulantes a sus universidad, y (b) focalice las políticas públicas de acceso y financiamiento en la coexistencia de los dos paradigmas de mérito académico que se analizan en el estudio.
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By guaranteeing college admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class, H.B. 588 replaced an opaque de facto practice of admitting nearly all top 10% graduates with a transparent de jure policy that required public institutions to admit all applicants eligible for the guarantee. The transparency of the new admission regime sent a clear message to students attending high schools that previously sent few students to the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. Using 18 years of administrative data to examine sending patterns, we find a sizeable decrease in the concentration of flagship enrollees originating from select feeder schools and growing shares of enrollees originating from high schools located in rural areas, small towns, and midsize cities, as well as schools with concentrations of poor and minority students. We also find substantial year-to-year persistence in sending behavior once a campus becomes a sending school, and this persistence increased after the top-10% policy was implemented.
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High-school grades are often viewed as an unreliable criterion for college admissions, owing to differences in grading standards across high schools, while standardized tests are seen as methodologically rigorous, providing a more uniform and valid yardstick for assessing student ability and achievement. The present study challenges that conventional view. The study finds that high-school grade point average (HSGPA) is consistently the best predictor not only of freshman grades in college, the outcome indicator most often employed in predictive-validity studies, but of four-year college outcomes as well. A previous study, UC and the SAT (Geiser with Studley, 2003), demonstrated that HSGPA in college-preparatory courses was the best predictor of freshman grades for a sample of almost 80,000 students admitted to the University of California. Because freshman grades provide only a short-term indicator of college performance, the present study tracked four-year college outcomes, including cumulative college grades and graduation, for the same sample in order to examine the relative contribution of high-school record and standardized tests in predicting longer-term college performance. Key findings are: (1) HSGPA is consistently the strongest predictor of four-year college outcomes for all academic disciplines, campuses and freshman cohorts in the UC sample; (2) surprisingly, the predictive weight associated with HSGPA increases after the freshman year, accounting for a greater proportion of variance in cumulative fourth-year than first-year college grades; and (3) as an admissions criterion, HSGPA has less adverse impact than standardized tests on disadvantaged and underrepresented minority students. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for admissions policy and argues for greater emphasis on the high-school record, and a corresponding de-emphasis on standardized tests, in college admissions.
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This article explores the determinants of persistence in the Chilean higher education system, considering academic and socio-demographic factors as well as the role of financial aid. The financial aid policy for students in Chile has undergone major changes over the last decade, which has allowed individuals from usually underrepresented income groups to enroll in higher education institutions. This analysis combines information from four public administrative agencies, obtaining a sample of over 75 % of all high school graduates for the period 2007-2010. Methods include descriptive statistics, logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM). Both continuous persistence and reentry were studied at the system and at the institutional level for all four cohorts. Descriptive results show that short- and long-term dropout rates at the system level are high, and dropout rates are even higher at the level of institutions. Findings from the PSM show that the non-subsidized state loan is the instrument that displays the strongest correlation with persistence and it holds homogeneously across students from different socioeconomic groups. Among grants, we find consistently positive effects of need-based grants targeting low-income students attending technical institutions. We provide educational policy recommendations based on our findings.
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This paper examines the relative merits of early and delayed offer schemes in attracting under-represented students to university. Following the introduction of a demand-driven system and the establishment of national growth and equity targets, Australian universities have increased the number of offers made to students before the release of Australian Tertiary Admission Ranks. The majority of public universities now operate an early offer scheme, often explicitly to increase their proportions of traditionally under-represented students. By contrast, the University of Melbourne and the University of Western Australia have developed delayed offer schemes, whereby entry to professional courses depends primarily on achievement within a generalist undergraduate degree. Under both models, institutions seek to reduce their reliance on Australian Tertiary Admission Rank, which has been shown to be correlated with socio-economic status. The paper considers both models with respect to their transparency, efficiency, predictive validity and equity.
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To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based interpretations and uses. Validation then can be thought of as an evaluation of the coherence and completeness of this interpretation/use argument and of the plausibility of its inferences and assumptions. In outlining the argument-based approach to validation, this paper makes eight general points. First, it is the proposed score interpretations and uses that are validated and not the test or the test scores. Second, the validity of a proposed interpretation or use depends on how well the evidence supports the claims being made. Third, more-ambitious claims require more support than less-ambitious claims. Fourth, more-ambitious claims (e.g., construct interpretations) tend to be more useful than less-ambitious claims, but they are also harder to validate. Fifth, interpretations and uses can change over time in response to new needs and new understandings leading to changes in the evidence needed for validation. Sixth, the evaluation of score uses requires an evaluation of the consequences of the proposed uses; negative consequences can render a score use unacceptable. Seventh, the rejection of a score use does not necessarily invalidate a prior, underlying score interpretation. Eighth, the validation of the score interpretation on which a score use is based does not validate the score use.
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The article describes a test-blind admission initiative in a Chilean research university aimed at expanding the inclusion of talented, albeit educationally and socially disadvantaged, students. The outcomes of the test-blind admission cohort were compared with those of students admitted via the regular admission procedure to the same academic program. The outcomes of interest were first-term college grade point average, dropout rates, graduation rates and the quality of the first-year university experience. Given the extremely adverse entry conditions of the test-blind cohort, the results of their academic performance are encouraging. In terms of graduation rates within a time lag of one calendar year, no significant difference was observed between the regular admission and the test-blind admission.
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The degree to which SAT scores and high school grade-point average (GPA) predicted first-year college GPA (FGPA) and college graduation was exam-ined for four groups: Hispanic students whose first language was Spanish and Hispanic, Black, and White students whose first language was English. The percentage of variance in FGPA jointly explained by high school GPA and SAT score varied from 7% to 20% across groups. Survival analyses showed that high school GPA had a statistically significant influence on graduation in the White/English group; SAT had a significant effect in the Hispanic/English and White/English groups. The regression and survival analyses revealed interesting differences in achievement patterns between the Hispanic/Spanish and Hispanic/English groups, demonstrating the value of taking language background into consideration in educational research. She specializes in applied statistics and educational testing and is currently developing instructional materials in educational measurement and statistics for K–12 teachers and administrators. JEFFREY C. SKLAR is an assistant professor in the. His specialties include nonparametric regression, research methods in education, and statis-tics education. The work presented in this article was conducted while he was a gradu-ate student and postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
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Libro de metodología cualitativo para investigación en las ciencias sociales. La utilización de la computadora, el uso de datos y la recolección de los mismos. Se describen detalladamente numerosos métodos de datos y análisis.
Fair Admissions to Higher Education: Research to Describe the Use of Contextual Data in Admissions at a Sample of Universities and Colleges in the UK. Cheltenham: Supporting Professionalism in Admissions
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High school ranking: inclusion with excellence
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Gil, F., Paredes, R. and Sánchez, I. (2013). High school ranking: inclusion with excellence [El ranking de las notas: inclusión con excelencia], Temas de la agenda pública, Año 8, No 60, Políticas Públicas UC.
Selection and Participation in Higher Education. University Selection in Support of Student Success and Diversity of Participation, Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE)
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Cuidado con el Ranking
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Inclusión del ranking de notas en el proceso de admisión 2013: posibles efectos en la equidad de acceso a la educación superior [Inclusion of the Ranking of High School Grades in the Process of Admission 2013: Potential Effects in the Equity of Access to Higher Education]
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Efecto de la incorporación del ranking de notas en el proceso de admisión a las universidades chilenas [The Effect of Including High School Grade Rankings in the Admission Process for Chilean
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Larroucau, T., Ríos, I. and Mizala, A. (2015) 'Efecto de la incorporación del ranking de notas en el proceso de admisión a las universidades chilenas [The Effect of Including High School Grade Rankings in the Admission Process for Chilean Universities]', Pensamiento Educativo. Revista de Investigación Educacional Latinoamericana 52(1): 95-118. doi:10.7764/PEL.52.1.2015.8.
The Relationship between SAT Scores and Retention to the Third Year: 2006 SAT Validity Sample
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Los ajustes y desajustes que ha experimentado el sistema de admisión desde 2012 [PSU: The matches and mismatches that the admission system to higher education has experienced since
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Preparing College Students for a Diverse Democracy: Final Report to the U.S. Department of Education
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Predicción de notas en Derecho de la Universidad de Chile: ¿sirve el ranking?
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The intersection of race and class in Brazilian affirmative action: lessons for the U.S. debate', Article presented in the Council for International Higher Education pre conference
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Lloyd, M. and Carneiro, A.M. (2015) 'The intersection of race and class in Brazilian affirmative action: lessons for the U.S. debate', Article presented in the Council for International Higher Education pre conference, Association for the Study of Higher Education, at Denver, Colorado.
Equidad en la admisión universitaria: teorías de acción y resultados
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July) ‘Determinantes de Desempeño Universitario:¿Importa la Habilidad Relativa?’ [Determinants of academic achievement in the university: does relative ability matter?]
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El caso del programa Propedéutico en la
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