Article

Moral judgement and foreign language effect: when the foreign language becomes the second language

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

While making a decision facing a moral conflict, does your answer vary depending on whether you use your first language or later learned second language? A previous study conducted by Costa, Albert, Alice Foucart, Sayuri Hayakawa, Melina Aparici, Jose Apesteguia, Joy Heafner, Boaz Keysar, and Mariano Sigman [2014. “Your Morals Depend on Language.” PloS One 9 (4): e94842. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094842] has shown that judging moral dilemmas in a foreign language induces utilitarian consistent responses, due to the increased cognitive and emotional distance of that language. In the current study, it is assumed that foreign-language effect might be eliminated when a foreign language becomes a second language. That is, a higher proficiency in L2 and a higher degree of acculturation into L2 culture may reduce utilitarianism in the L2 condition. To test these assumptions a study was conducted with 60 Croatian/German successive bilinguals. The findings show that there was no effect of language native-ness. Participants responded in the same way in both language conditions. The lack of a decision-making difference between the two languages might be related to the high L2 proficiency, frequent use of both languages and high degree of immersion in both cultures. However, it is also possible that other influential factors in moral judgment, such as general embracement of moral rules, thinking style and working memory influence moral decision-making.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Considering the above findings, it seems like the Foreign-Language effect is a rather robust phenomenon. However, some studies have not been able to show this effect on dilemmas other than Footbridge (e.g., Chan, Gu, Ng & Tse, 2016;Hayakawa, Tannenbaum, Costa, Corey & Keysar, 2017;Muda, Niszczota, Białek & Conway, 2018) or were not able to show the effect at all (e.g., Brouwer, 2019;Ĉavar & Tytus, 2018). For example, Ĉavar and Tytus (2018) questioned whether the effect might disappear in highly proficient and acculturated bilinguals. ...
... However, some studies have not been able to show this effect on dilemmas other than Footbridge (e.g., Chan, Gu, Ng & Tse, 2016;Hayakawa, Tannenbaum, Costa, Corey & Keysar, 2017;Muda, Niszczota, Białek & Conway, 2018) or were not able to show the effect at all (e.g., Brouwer, 2019;Ĉavar & Tytus, 2018). For example, Ĉavar and Tytus (2018) questioned whether the effect might disappear in highly proficient and acculturated bilinguals. They tested a group of such highly proficient bilinguals and indeed found consistent moral decisions in both languages, arguing for the need to take measures like language proficiency and age of acquisition into account. ...
... The question is whether the changes in the experimental set-up influence moral decision making. On the one hand, it is possible that this change will not be different from the previous findings (e.g., Brouwer, 2019;Ĉavar & Tytus, 2018;Costa et al., 2014). In this case, it is expected that highly proficient bilinguals will show a reduced or no Foreign-Language effect in the reading task of the experiment but will show an auditory Foreign-Language effect in the listening task. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether the FOREIGN-LANGUAGE EFFECT, an increase in bilinguals' rate of rational decisions to moral dilemmas in their foreign versus their native language, is influenced by emotion and the modality in which the dilemmas are presented. 154 Dutch-English bilinguals were asked to read and listen to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas in Dutch or in English. Importantly, the reading task had the character of a self-paced reading task to resemble the listening task as closely as possible. In both modalities, participants' task was to indicate whether the proposed action was appropriate or not. Results showed that the Foreign-Language effect was present for personal dilemmas only. In addition, an effect of modality demonstrated that participants took overall more rational decisions during the listening than the reading task. These findings give insight in the interplay between language, emotion and task demands, revealing that moral decision making is context-dependent.
... Recently, Čavar and Tytus (2018) tested the boundaries of the Foreign Language effect in the context of moral dilemmas by examining 60 Croatian-German bilinguals who had emigrated to Germany and were both highly proficient and immersed in their L2, German. Čavar and Tytus presented various types of moral dilemmas to their participants (including dilemmas such as the footbridge dilemma, as well as self-serving moral dilemmas such as the submarine dilemma where sacrificing one life will save the lives of many, including one's own life). ...
... As mentioned in the Introduction, moral dilemmas (including the footbridge dilemma) have been found to be strongly affected by the language context in which it is considered in that a second language context increases the tendency of making utilitarian choices (e.g., Corey et al., 2017). However, Čavar and Tytus (2018) failed to find a language effect in their Croatian-German bilinguals using various moral dilemmas. As their findings have been questioned by Białek and Fugelsang (2019), and considering the lack of a language effect for the Swedish-English group in Experiment 1, it is important to examine whether one will be found in the same population as Experiment 1, using a moral dilemma. ...
... The lack of a Foreign Language effect in both the Asian disease problem and the footbridge moral dilemma when testing Swedish-English bilinguals indicates that there are factors or situations (in this case, cultural influence) which diminish the Foreign Language effect, as was also argued by Čavar and Tytus (2018). In light of these results, we attempted to further examine other potential factors, such as linguistic similarity, which might lead to a reduction of the Foreign Language effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
We report three experiments investigating the boundaries of the Foreign Language effect in decision making (examining both risk aversion and moral dilemmas), when the foreign language is culturally influential, or when there is high linguistic similarity between the native language and the foreign language. Specifically, we found no Foreign Language effect in the Asian disease problem (Experiment 1a) or the footbridge moral dilemma (Experiment 2a) in Swedish-English bilinguals, but did find a Foreign Language effect for both these tasks in Swedish-French bilinguals (Experiments 1b and 2b). Additionally, we found no Foreign Language effect for moral dilemmas when the language pair was linguistically similar by testing Swedish-Norwegian and Norwegian-Swedish bilinguals (Experiment 3). These results indicate possible boundaries to the Foreign Language effect in decision making and propose that factors such as cultural influence and linguistic similarity diminish the Foreign Language effect.
... Such consistency is highly desired. To this end, Čavar and Tytus (2018), compared moral judgments of sixty Croatian/German successive bilinguals. Half of them responded in Croatian, and the other half in German. ...
... In CT's experiment this rule is not satisfied, as the authors compare conditions differing in materials and language in which the test was administered, and collected data on speculatively psychologically different subjects. Hence, observing differences between experiments by Costa et al. (2014) and by Čavar and Tytus (2018) cannot be uniquely attributed to acculturation, but could have arisen as a response to many other factors. Čavar and Tytus (2017) and the upper and lower bounds corresponding to the effect size reported by Costa et al. (2014). ...
... Concluding the above reasons, the study by Čavar & Tytus (2018) might be considered as a failed replication, or as an uninformative study, but not as evidence for acculturated bilinguals being robust to the moral foreign language effect. A further investigation, with improved design and more power however, might be able answer this extremely interesting question. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bilinguals who consider moral problems in their foreign language tend to endorse causing harm to others that if that leads to good outcomes more than they do in their native language. Čavar and Tytus (2018) reported that this effect disappears when the decision maker is highly acculturated. We challenge the latter conclusion. Specifically, the experiment reported by Čavar and Tytus (2018) utilized unvalidated and potentially unreliable materials, was underpowered, and lacked a control group. Moreover, the re-analysis of the statistical test shows that it fails to convincingly support the reported null finding. We conclude that further examination of the moral foreign language effect is needed to test its boundaries.
... Moreover, the studies did not involve an objective measure of foreign-language proficiency. Research suggests that individuals who are highly proficient in the foreign language do not show the MFLE (Čavar & Tytus, 2018, but note that a control group was missing in this study). However, the fact that sensitivity to norms as well as sensitivity to consequences were lower in the foreign-language compared to the native-language conditions rather speaks against this explanation. ...
... In fact, a study by Čavar and Tytus (2018) suggests that a high level of foreign-language proficiency and a high degree of acculturation in the second language prevent the MFLE. However, because the study did not involve a control group, its finding allows for alternative interpretations such as a generally low replicability of the MFLE irrespective of language proficiency. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest that processing moral dilemmas in a foreign language instead of the native language increases the likelihood of moral judgments in line with the utilitarian principle. The goal of our research was to investigate the replicability and robustness of this moral foreign-language effect and to explore its underlying mechanisms by means of the CNI model—a multinomial model that allows to estimate the extent to which moral judgments are driven by people’s sensitivity to consequences ( C -parameter), their sensitivity to norms ( N -parameter), and their general preference for action or inaction ( I -parameter). In two pre-registered studies, German participants provided moral judgments to dilemmas that were either presented in German or English. In Experiment 1, participants judged eight different dilemmas in four versions each (i.e., 32 dilemmas in total). In Experiment 2, participants judged four different dilemmas in one of the four versions (i.e., 4 dilemmas in total). Neither of the two studies replicated the moral foreign-language effect. Moreover, we also did not find reliable language effects on the three parameters of the CNI model. We conclude that if there is a moral foreign-language effect, it must be quite small and/or very fragile and context specific.
... More specifically, the increase in utilitarian decisions in an L2 was smaller for high than for low proficiency participants because they have developed more emotionality in their L2. Moreover, Ĉavar and Tytus (2018) recently showed that there was a lack of a decision-making difference in two languages in a group of highly proficient bilinguals. On the basis of these findings, it is expected that Dutch-English bilinguals, who are typically highly proficient in English, will show no or a reduced FLE. ...
... The dilemmas were either presented in Dutch or in English. It was expected that the FLE would be reduced or absent in this sample, as high proficiency in the L2 has shown to reduce (Costa et al. 2014;Geipel et al. 2015b) or eliminate the FLE (Ĉavar and Tytus 2018). In line with this expectation, no FLE was found, which supports the notion that increased L2 use and proficiency diminish emotional distance to the L2. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that people make systematically different decisions when faced with a moral dilemma in a native than in a foreign language [e.g. Costa, A., A. Foucart, S. Hayakawa, M. Aparici, J. Apesteguia, J. Heafner, and B. Keysar. 2014. “Your Morals Depend on Language.” PLoS One 9 (4): e94842]. The aim of the current study is to test the limits of this so-called Foreign-Language Effect by examining (1) whether it holds for highly proficient bilinguals of a closely related language pair (i.e. Dutch-English), and (2) whether it can be replicated in an auditory setting. In Experiment 1, 60 Dutch-English bilinguals read moral dilemmas in Dutch or in English, whereas in Experiment 2, a different sample of 60 Dutch-English bilinguals listened to the same dilemmas. After reading or listening, participants’ task was to indicate whether the proposed action was appropriate or not. The results showed that the Foreign-Language Effect was absent in Experiment 1, but present in Experiment 2. These findings aid in understanding the robustness of the Foreign-Language Effect, revealing that in some contexts it may be overcome and/or inhibited, whereas in others it may be enhanced.
... Replicating the current results with distinct types of bilinguals would be useful for generalization purposes. This is particularly relevant considering that preceding studies have highlighted the role of immersion, the level of involvement with a language and the between-languages similarity as potentially modulating factors (see Čavar & Tytus, 2018;Driver, 2020;Dylman & Champoux-Larsson, 2020). Finally, it is important to note that language use per se has been relatively limited in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Using a foreign language can influence emotion modulation, but whether different psychotherapy processes would be affected by a foreign language is still unclear. The current study explored the foreign language effect on the extinction of fear. Method: During the conditioning phase, part of the neutral stimuli presented to the participants were associated with a threat, while they performed a countdown task in their native language. In the extinction phase, participants performed the same task either in their native/foreign language and were informed that the threat would no longer appear. We collected self-reports of fear, and pupil dilation and electrodermal activity as physiological measures of arousal. Results: Extinction was successful, indicated by greater self-reported fear and pupil dilation during the threat condition compared to neutral in the conditioning phase, but no significant differences during extinction. Although the foreign language group presented higher arousal, fear extinction occurred regardless of the linguistic context. Conclusions: Fear extinction via verbal instructions is equally effective in a foreign and a native language context. These results indicate that evidence should be continue to be gathered on the role of foreign languages using basic paradigms with clinical applications.
... deontological) decisions or judgments associated with FL contexts (e.g., Cipolletti et al., 2016;Costa et al., 2014;Geipel et al., 2015a). Crucially, while several studies have demonstrated a Foreign Language Effect on moral decision-making (MFLE), others have not been able to replicate this effect in contexts other than personal versions of the Trolley dilemma (e.g., Chan et al., 2016;Geipel et al., 2015a;Hayakawa et al., 2017), or have failed to report behavioral differences associated with FL contexts altogether (e.g., Białek et al., 2019;Brouwer, 2019;Čavar & Tytus, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The moral foreign language effect (MFLE) describes how people’s decisions may change when a moral dilemma is presented in either their native (NL) or foreign language (FL). Growing attention is being directed to unpacking what aspects of bilingualism may influence the MFLE, though with mixed or inconclusive results. The current study aims to bridge this gap by adopting a conceptualization of bilingualism that frames this construct as a composite and continuous measure. In a between-group analysis, we asked 196 Italian–English bilinguals to perform a moral dilemmas task in either their NL (i.e., Italian) or FL (i.e., English). In a within-group analysis, we evaluated the effects of FL age of acquisition, FL proficiency, and language dominance – all measured as continuous variables – on moral decision-making. Overall, findings indicate that differences within bilinguals’ language experience impact moral decisions in an FL. However, the effect of the linguistic factors considered was not ubiquitous across dilemmas, and not always emerged into a MFLE. In light of these results, our study addresses the importance of treating bilingualism as multidimensional, rather than a unitary variable. It also discusses the need to reconceptualize the FLE and its implications on moral decision-making.
... Further, the official language of both the UM-SJTU JI and SBC is English, and all course instruction takes place in English. As a result, all participants in this sample are bilingual (Chinese-English), high-level English speakers, sidestepping difficulties associated with administering ethical measures in foreign languages (Čavar and Tytus 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in engineering ethics has examined the effects of education on the ethical knowledge and reasoning of students from mostly WEIRD (Western educated industrialized rich democratic) cultures. However, it is unclear that findings from WEIRD samples are transferable across cultures. China now graduates and employs more STEM (science technology engineering mathematics) majors than any other country, although little work has examined the ethical perspectives and education of these students. Therefore, a study was conducted exploring the kinds of ethical issues Chinese engineering students expect to encounter (expectations), the importance they attach to being ethical (motivations), and their relations to various curricular and extra-curricular factors, including sources of ethical influence, nature and extent of ethics education, and perceived usefulness of ethics education. 163 Chinese engineering majors from two Chinese-foreign educational institutes in Shanghai, China completed a survey. Results indicate participants were most likely to expect to face ethical issues related to fairness, and that the perceived usefulness of ethics education was predictive of both ethical expectations and motivations, followed by encountering instructors who cared about ethics. The extent of ethics education was related to ethical expectations but not motivations. The implications of these findings and directions for future work are discussed.
... In other words, in the native Chinese context, but not the English foreign context, participants would make more altruistic decisions at a cost to themselves in the harm frame compared with the help frame condition. Furthermore, recent studies suggested that language background factors might be an essential modulator of the foreign language effect during moral or risky decision making (Čavar & Tytus, 2018;Dylman & Champoux-Larsson, 2020;Miozzo et al., 2020). Therefore, we investigated whether individual differences in language background factors also modulated the foreign language effect during the altruistic decision process. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the foreign language effect within an altruistic decision making process. Chinese-English bilinguals made altruistic decisions in their native (L1: Chinese) and second language (L2: English). The decisions were framed in two ways: either as "not to harm" (harm frame) or as "to help" the other person (help frame) at one's economic cost. Behavioral results suggest that bilinguals might behave more altruistically in the harm frame than the help frame (i.e., framing effect) in their native language but not in their foreign language. Electrophysiological results show that the modulation of the framing effect in the native versus foreign language originated in the early ERP components (N1 and N2) and did not present in the late positive potential (LPP). These findings suggest the foreign language effect most likely results from the reduced emotional reaction in a foreign compared to the native language.
... Some findings in the literature show that when completing personal moral dilemmas, bilinguals tend to make more utilitarian choices in their FL compared to their NL (e.g., Brouwer, 2021;Cipolletti, McFarlane, & Weissglass, 2016;Corey et al., 2017;Costa et al., 2014;Driver, 2020;Dylman & Champoux-Larsson, 2020;Geipel, Hadjichristidis, & Surian, 2015a;Romero-Rivas & Rodríguez-Cuadrado, 2020;Shin & Kim, 2017). However, there have been several studies which have not found a moral FLE, or found it in only some conditions (e.g., Brouwer, 2019, see also Muda, Walker, Pieńkosz, Fugelsang, & Białek, 2020;Č avar & Tytus, 2018;Dylman & Champoux-Larsson, 2020). For example, Dylman and Champoux-Larsson (2020) did not find an effect with linguistically similar languages, whereas Č avar and Tytus (2018) did not find an effect in balanced bilinguals (e. g., Croatian-German bilinguals who were equally proficient in both languages) who were highly immersed (living in the FL country, Germany). ...
Article
Emerging evidence shows bilinguals employ different decision-making strategies in their foreign language compared to their native language (known as the Foreign Language Effect). When completing moral dilemmas, accumulating research findings indicate that bilinguals are more likely to endorse the utilitarian option. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate whether linguistic variables (proficiency, immersion, and language similarity) moderate utilitarian responding to moral dilemmas in a foreign language. A systematic literature search extracted experiments comparing binary responses to moral dilemmas among bilingual participants. Analyses confirmed a moral Foreign Language Effect within personal dilemmas, though this effect was moderated by self-reported reading proficiency, whereby bilinguals with higher self-reported reading proficiency were less likely to make a utilitarian choice. Our findings suggest that not all bilinguals may experience a Foreign Language Effect, with low self-reported reading proficiency being the most likely indicator of whether their response tendencies to a moral dilemma change in the foreign language.
... Ivaz et al., 2015), but other factors such as immersion and cultural influence have been proposed to modulate it (e.g. Čavar & Tytus, 2018;Dylman & Champoux-Larsson, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effect of second language use on the experienced vividness and emotionality of negative autobiographical memories. Fifty native Swedish speakers with English as their second language were asked to recall a negative episodic memory from their past in their native language. Half the participants were then asked to reactivate the same memory in their first language while the other half were asked to reactivate it in their second language, and then rate their experienced vividness and emotionality a second time. Following this reactivation, experienced emotionality was reduced for both groups of participants, with a similar magnitude of reduction for both groups. Experienced vividness, however, was only reduced for the group who reactivated the memory in their second language. No difference in intrusion frequency was found between the groups at a one-week follow-up. The results provide increased insight into how a second language can affect the experienced emotionality and vividness of a negative autobiographical memory.
... For example, Brouwer (2019) found no language effect on moral decision-making in highly proficient Dutch-English bilinguals, but Brouwer (2020) did. Cavar and Tytus (2018) also failed to find a language effect on moral decision-making in highly-acculturated Croatian-German bilinguals (but see Białek and Fugelsang 2019 for critique of their conclusions and Krautz andČavar 2019 for their responses). While Dylman and Champoux-Larsson (2020) found language effect on neither moral decisionmaking nor framing in highly acculturated Swedish-English bilinguals, Miozzo et al. (2020) did find a language effect on moral dilemmas and framing bias in native Italian-Venetian and Italian-Bergamasque bilinguals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have shown that “framing bias,” a phenomenon in which two different presentations of the same decision-making problem provoke different answers, is reduced in a foreign language (the Foreign Language effect, FLe). Three explanations have emerged to account for the difference. First, the cognitive enhancement hypothesis states that lower proficiency in the FL leads to slower, more deliberate processing, reducing the framing bias. Second, contradicting the previous, the cognitive overload hypothesis, states that the cognitive load actually induces speakers to make less rational decisions in the FL. Finally, the reduced emotionality hypothesis suggests that speakers have less of an emotional connection to a foreign language (FL), causing an increase in rational language processing. Previous FLe research has involved both FL and non-FL speakers such as highly proficient acculturated bilinguals. Our study extends this research program to a population of heritage speakers of Spanish (HS speakers), whose second language (English) is dominant and who have comparable emotional resonances in both of their languages. We compare emotion-neutral and emotion-laden tasks: if reduced emotionality causes the FLe, it should only be present in emotion-laden tasks, but if it is caused by cognitive load, it should be present across tasks. Ninety-eight HS speakers, with varying degrees of proficiency in Spanish, exhibited cognitive biases across a battery of tasks: framing bias appeared in both cognitive-emotional and purely cognitive tasks, consistent with previous studies. Language of presentation (and proficiency) did not have a significant effect on responses in cognitive-emotional tasks, but did have an effect on the purely-cognitive Disjunction fallacy task: HS speakers did better in their second, more proficient language, a result inconsistent with the reduced emotionality hypothesis. Moreover, higher proficiency in Spanish significantly improved the rate of correct responses, indicating that our results are consistent with the cognitive overload hypothesis.
... Recent research by Thoma and Baum suggests that FLEs for risky-choice framing tasks disappear once the cognitive load for using and responding in an L2 is not as heavy, either due to a simpler task (see Winskel et al., 2016), or because of a higher L2 proficiency. Similar, recent studies did not find an FLE (Brouwer, 2019;Čavar & Tytus, 2018;Muda et al., 2020(but see Białek & Fugelsang, 2019, for a challenge of some of the conclusions)) in moral decision making tasks with highly proficient and acculturated L2 speakers. ...
Article
Full-text available
In decision-making people react differently to positive wordings than to negatives, which may be caused by negativity bias: a difference in emotional force of these wordings. Because emotions are assumed to be activated more strongly in one's mother tongue, we predict a Foreign Language Effect, being that such framing effects are larger in a native language than in a foreign one. In two experimental studies (N = 475 and N = 503) we tested this prediction for balanced and unbalanced second language users of Spanish and English and for three types of valence framing effects. In Study 1 we observed risky-choice framing effects and attribute framing effects, but these were always equally large for native and foreign-language speakers. In our second study, we added a footbridge dilemma to the framing materials. Only for this task we did observe a Foreign Language Effect, indicating more utilitarian choices when the dilemma is presented in L2. Hence, across two studies, we find no Foreign Language Effect for three types of valence framing but we do find evidence for such an effect in a moral decision task. We discuss several alternative explanations for these results.
... Thus, frequency of use, acquisition order, linguistic dominance, context of acquisition, age of acquisition, and proficiency are considered as key aspects affecting the perceived emotionality of language (Boucher & Osgood, 1969;Dewaele, 2004;Pavlenko, 2004Pavlenko, , 2012. Consistent with this theory, it has been shown that moral judgments are harsher in people with a higher FL proficiency (Geipel et al., 2015a) and early bilinguals show no FLE (Brouwer, 2019;Čavar & Tytus, 2017;Wong & Ng, 2018), probably because higher linguistic competence and earlier age of acquisition increase the emotional impact of the FL, making it closer to that of the NL. Nevertheless, the absence of the FLE in early bilinguals is debated (Białek & Fugelsang, 2019;Brouwer, 2020). ...
Article
In recent years, a growing body of literature has shown that being in a foreign language (FL) context affects the way in which people make choices. This phenomenon is known as the foreign language effect (FLE). The FLE affects both moral decision-making and risk-aversion tendencies, but no cumulative evidence is available. Herein, we aimed to estimate, through a meta-analytical approach, the effect of being in an FL context as compared with that of a native language (NL). We found 17 studies matching our criteria and, in total, 47 experiments were included (N = 38 investigated the FLE in the moral decision-making domain; N = 9 investigated the FLE in the risk-aversion domain). Results showed that FL affects participants' decisions as compared with NL in both the moral decision-making and risk-aversion domains, inducing participants to be more willing to accept harm in order to maximize outcomes in the former and reducing risk aversion in the latter. In addition, two metaregressions were performed on the studies that investigated the moral decision-making domain in order to assess whether participants' proficiency in the FL, or NL-FL similarity, moderated the observed effect. Our findings indicate that proficiency in the FL does not moderate the observed effect, while NL-FL similarity does. Our results support previous findings on the FLE and provide suggestions for future research.
... Finally, recent research has complicated the understanding of the FLE, finding no effects in linguistically similar languages (Dylman & Champoux-Larsson, 2020;Maekelae & Pfuhl, 2019), but observing a FLE in Italian local dialects (Miozzo et al., 2020). A report shows no effects of language in highly acculturated individuals (Cavar & Tytus, 2018, but see Białek & Fugelsang, 2019 for a commentary on why the evidence for this claim is weak). Hence, some linguistic and cultural factors certainly play a role in driving the FLE. ...
Article
Bilinguals, in their foreign language, are spared from several decision-making biases. We examined this "Foreign Language Effect" in the context of logical reasoning, in which reasoners are required to track the logical status of a syllogism, ignoring its believability. Across three experiments, we found the reverse Foreign Language Effect; foreign language reasoners are less able to evaluate the logical structure of syllogisms, but no less biased by their believability. One path to succeeding in reasoning tasks is always engaging in reflective processing. A more efficient strategy is metacognitively tracking whether belief-based intuitions conflict with logic-based intuitions and only reflecting when such conflict is present. We provide evidence that foreign language reasoners are less accurate because they struggle to detect belief-logic conflict, and in turn fail to engage in reflective processing when necessary to override the incorrect, intuitive response. We propose that foreign language reasoners are less able to detect belief-logic conflict either due to weakened intuitions or due to a more conservative threshold for the detection of conflict between multiple competing intuitions. Data for the experiments can be accessed publicly at https://osf.io/phbuq/
... As demonstrated, however, various situations can lead to a decrease in this so-called foreign language effect, such as when the second language is the language of communication in a long-term romantic relationship where the second language is the language of communication (Dewaele & Salomidou, 2017). There are even some studies showing that the foreign-language effect in moral dilemmas can disappear in the case of long-term immersion in the second language country, such as was the case in a study investigating moral decision in Croatian-German bilinguals living in Germany (Čavar & Tytus, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Culture, language and emotion all influence and affect our daily lives in their own manner. Although there is a large body of research suggesting that these factors interact with each other in intricate ways, they have traditionally been studied independently of each other. Furthermore, although biculturalism and bilingualism are not new phenomena, they are now prevalent globally to the extent that research investigating culture or language cannot be complete without taking them into account. Thus, in this paper, we discuss how culture, language and emotion may mutually influence one another in a globalized world where biculturalism and bilingualism are commonplace and suggest how future research could investigate these individual factors jointly.
... Therefore, the inclusion of these particular types of bilinguals, where the second language is learnt at a later age and in the classroom context, resulted in a foreign language effect in these studies. In a recent study, Cavar and Tytus (2017) investigated moral decision-making in a mix of early and late Croatian-German bilinguals living in Germany. They found that participants responded similarly to the hypothetical dilemmas in both their languages. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of cultural and language factors in moral decision-making in Hindi–English bilinguals in comparison with English monolinguals living in Australia. The study included 166 Hindi–English bilingual participants who completed the survey in either their first or second language, and a comparison group of 127 English monolingual participants. Participants were presented with six hypothetical moral dilemmas (original trolley/footbridge), Waterpark (impersonal/personal), Family Game Show (impersonal/personal) requiring them to either save the lives or winnings of five people by sacrificing the lives or winnings of one person or not and to make moral judgments about these decisions. A cultural effect was found in moral decision-making as individuals from a Western background were more likely to engage in utilitarian decision-making, and rate it as more appropriate, than those from an Indian background to the monetary-loss Waterpark and Family Game Show dilemmas. In addition, similarities were found in decision-making choices to the trolley and footbridge dilemmas in the two cultural groups. Overall, no significant foreign language effect was found in the Hindi–English bilinguals. The foreign language effect may not extend to more proficient second language learners or acculturated bilingual speakers.
... Our participants who had English as a second language tended to report many years of fluency in the language (Table 1) and were all immersed in an Anglophone environment. Our findings are similar to those by Čavar and Tytus (2018), who did not report a 'foreign language effect' in moral decision-making due to high proficiency for the second language and frequent usage of both languages. In order to investigate this further, a richer set of background questions related to language should be incorporated, including questions related to proficiency, usage, and age of acquisition for each language. ...
Article
We spend much of our time consuming stories across different types of media, often becoming deeply engaged or transported into these stories. However, there has been almost no research into whether processing a story in one’s non-native language influences our level of transportation. We analyzed three existing datasets in order to compare engagement with English-language stories for those who reported English as their first language and those who reported English as their second language. Stories were presented as text (Study 1), audio (Study 2), and short films (Study 3). Across all studies, equivalent levels of narrative transportation between language groups were found, even after accounting for age and years of English fluency. These results are in contrast to some previous proposals that emotional reactions are attenuated during non-native language processing, despite equivalent levels of comprehension. Our evidence indicates that individuals processing a narrative in their second language feel just as transported into the story as those processing the same narrative in their native language.
... It might be true that the vividness of mental imagery is the reason for the results of the mentioned studies ( Hayakawa and Keysar, 2017), but one can argue that proficiency and acculturation in L2 can influence this cognitive faculty and diminish the differences between L1 and L2. Accordingly, Cavar and Tytus (2017) showed that when testing high proficiency Croatian-German bilinguals, they exhibit the same performance in moral judgment in L1 and in L2. In other words, second language proficiency is a determining factor in cognitive functioning, and in this case, we can assume that vividness of mental imagery increases in correlation to L2 proficiency. ...
Thesis
Questions regarding the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis have reached new depths: instead of asking does language affect thinking, we are now asking how, when, and in what way languages affect our cognitive functioning. In our study, we continue the line of visual hybrids experiments done by Shen, Gil, et al. (Shen, Gil & Roman 2006; Shen & Gil, 2010; Mashal et al., 2014; Shen & Gil, 2017) using the conceptual hierarchy (CH) effect to further investigate the conceptual processing of Arabic bilinguals when using different languages and linguistic mediums. In our first two experiments, we used picture description task with visual hybrid images, and examined CH effects in 3 language conditions, Colloquial Arabic (CA), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and Hebrew (H). In the first experiment, we used an oral description task, and we found no CH effect in any of the language conditions, but there was a significant difference in CH between CA and H. In the second experiment, we used written description task and we found CH effects in all of the language conditions. The third experiment was a control experiment on Hebrew native speakers with an oral description task, and since we found a significant CH effect in this sample but not in the Arabic speakers sample we concluded that Arabic bilingualism is a unique case that needs a special treatment in the linguistic and psycholinguistic research. The surprising differences in the conceptual processing between speaking and writing suggest that Arab bilinguals have a special state of ‘thinking for writing’ as in Slobins’ ‘thinking for speaking’ (1996, 2003). These findings are reflected in the diglossic state of the modern Arabic language.
... However, when the statistical results of a pairwise comparisons are considered, it becomes evident that only the Surgery dilemma differed consistently and significantly from all the other problems, including the Footbridge one. This is already illustrated by the descriptive information in Table 1 in the main paper (Čavar and Tytus 2018) in the main paper. The Surgery scenario attracted the lowest scores from all the dilemmas in both languages, thus pointing to a deontological preference amongst our participants. ...
Article
The moral foreign language effect has been investigated with increased interest with both evidence for as well as against it being demonstrated. In a recent publication, Białek and Fugelsang (in press) critically evaluated our previous publication (Čavar and Tytus, 2017) aiming to establish boundaries of this effect. In the current reply, we address the criticism and encourage further investigation of this phenomenon with groups of participants who experienced the atrocities of war, accounting for factors, such as language proficiency, amount of language and culture exposure and/or degree of acculturation, which can mediate the degree of emotionality.
... The analyses disclosed that moral choices are influenced by the four conceptual factors even when presented in a foreign language, in accordance with the findings from [13]. Although this result is in contrast with previous studies, showing that participants provide more utilitarian judgements when the dilemma is posed in a foreign language ([37, 38] but see [61] for a contrasting result), a recent study has shown that the foreign-language effect is present when participants are highly proficient in the foreign (L2) language [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Moral dilemmas are a common tool in moral decision-making research. However, they are often hardly comparable across languages and cultures. Here, we propose a methodology to adapt, convert and test moral dilemmas in languages diff erent from English, by outlining the process followed for the creation of the comprehensive 4CONFiDe set. Methods: To evaluate cultural eff ects, English and Italian versions of the 4CONFiDe were evaluated by English-native speakers profi cient in Italian, and Italian-native speakers profi cient in English (Study 1). To assess the contribution of the four conceptual factors used by Christensen et al. to the levels of arousal, valence and familiarity experienced with each dilemma, an independent group of Italian native speakers (n = 112) completed the 4CONFiDe set (Study 2). Results: Both linear mixed models and Bayesian statistics confi rmed that moral choices were made irrespective of participants' native language and dilemmas' version, suggesting that the translation was culturally-representative. Moreover, they showed that the proposed dilemmas were perceived by participants with diff erent degrees of arousal, pleasantness and familiarity based on some of the conceptual factors and that three of the four conceptual factors (Personal force, Intentionality and Evitability) determined participants' moral choices. Conclusions:Standardized, culturally-equivalent moral dilemmas provide researchers with a tool that allows further developments of the fi eld.
Article
This study examines whether the foreign language effect mitigates reactions to value-inconsistent sociopolitical content. We examined 69 English–Spanish bilinguals and 31 Spanish–English heritage bilinguals, half of whom did the experiment in their native language and half in their second language. Participants were administered a survey in which trial emotiveness was manipulated by using the quantifiers some and all (e.g., Some Trump supporters are racists vs. All Trump supporters are racists ). The some-types ( n = 30) served as a baseline for the all-types ( n = 30). After each target, participants rated their willingness to be prosocial (e.g., holding the door for a stranger) on a scale of 1–7, 1 being totally agree and 7 being totally disagree . Our results suggest that processing emotional information in a second language is less emotional than in a first language and that such a decrease in emotionality results in the neutralization of offense taken. However, individual differences in linguistic profiles across participants, as well as contextual framing, lead to discrete value judgments. Proficiency, learner type, political affiliation, and context type affect willingness to engage in prosocial behavior. As a group, the bilinguals showed no decrease in their willingness to engage in such behaviors, regardless of context type; speakers of higher proficiency and stronger political values increase prosocial sentiment; and lower proficiency and weaker views lead to neutral prosocial sentiment.
Article
Full-text available
This study addresses whether there is anything special about learning a third language, as compared to learning a second language, that results solely from the order of acquisition. We use a computational model based on the mathematical framework of Linear Discriminative Learning to explore this question for the acquisition of a small trilingual vocabulary, with English as L1, German or Mandarin as L2, and Mandarin or Dutch as L3. Our simulations reveal that when qualitative differences emerge between the learning of a first, second, and third language, these differences emerge from distributional properties of the particular languages involved rather than the order of acquisition per se, or any difference in learning mechanism. One such property is the number of homophones in each language, since within‐language homophones give rise to errors in production. Our simulations also show the importance of suprasegmental information in determining the kinds of production errors made.
Article
Full-text available
Foreign languages blunt emotional reactions to moral dilemmas. In this study, we aimed at clarifying whether this reduced emotional response applies to the emotions related to the self, empathy, or both. Participants were presented with moral dilemmas, written in their native or foreign language, in which they could sacrifice one man or themselves in order to save five lives (or do nothing and therefore leave five people to die). They were more willing to sacrifice themselves when processing the dilemmas in their foreign language. Also, empathy scores were reduced when responding in the foreign language, but were no reliable predictors of participants’ responses to the dilemmas. These results suggest that processing a foreign language reduces emotional reactivity due to psychological and emotional self-distance.
Article
Previous research has shown that bilinguals respond differently to moral dilemmas posed in each of their languages, tending to make deontologically-based decisions (based on right or wrong) in their first language and utilitarian decisions (bringing about the most good) in their second language. In the present study, we tested several predictors of bilinguals’ moral reasoning: language (L1 Russian or L2 English), gender, proficiency, age, and dilemma. We included two different personal moral dilemmas: one involving saving the lives of others (by killing a fat man) and one involving saving one’s own life (by killing a baby). Russian-English bilinguals responded to one of these dilemmas in Russian and the other in English. The results showed only two significant predictors of responses: dilemma and age. The bilinguals made more deontological decisions for the dilemma about saving others and more utilitarian decisions for the dilemma involving saving their own lives. The participants who gave deontological responses were slightly older than those who gave utilitarian responses. We argue that factors other than language may be more important in bilinguals’ moral reasoning.
Article
Because of the quickening pace of globalisation, recent years have witnessed a rise of bilingualism throughout the world. Prior research has documented a range of cognitive benefits and costs of being bilingual. The current work uncovers another potential positive side of being bilingual: the control of overconfidence in peer-comparison problems. Based on previous findings that bilingualism is positively related to enhanced cognitive functions, we predict that individuals’ overconfidence will be negatively correlated with their bilingual experience and this relationship will be independent of crosscultural learning and of the modality of the bilingual experience. In line with our theoretical perspective, significant negative associations emerged between L2 proficiency and overconfidence scores in both Chinese speaking learners of English and English-speaking learners of Chinese (Studies 1–3). These results suggest that the inverse relationship between bilingualism and overconfidence cannot be accounted for by the effects of acculturation. Additionally, such associations were also observed in Chinese-Chinese Sign Language bimodal bilinguals (Study 4). The robust findings across different cultures and modalities suggest that as individuals learn to master two languages, the bilingual experience may reduce their overconfidence bias and nudge them to make more rational judgment and decision-making in comparison to monolingual groups.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is a transdisciplinary study on the fundaments of cognition, considering this process at human level as the combination of biological and (multi)cultural values. The main idea is to describe the skill of human beings for using several heuristics for task-solving activities as a process of combining and blending techniques, something that is called here as “blended cognition”. This rich and complex way of dealing with multi-heuristic frameworks provides not only a more adequate model for the understanding of real human cognition, but also it is of the most interest for the design of creative and adaptive artificial intelligences.
Article
Full-text available
Biased processing of threatening information may play a casual role in the development of anxiety disorders. Even though empirical evidence points to the fact that preattentive bias can predict subjectively experienced distress in response to a stressor, it is still unknown whether it could be useful in predicting the physiological reactivity in response to a stressor. In the present study, the emotional Stroop task was used to measure preattentive bias. Whereas Stroop interference for masked threat words (i.e., preattentive bias) was found to be positively associated with emotional distress (self-reported) in response to a laboratory stressor, this association was reversed when the autonomic reactivity (electrodermal activity) was used as a measure of emotional response to the very same stressor. Also, neither of these effects were a function of pre-existing anxiety levels. The negative association between preattentive bias and autonomic reactivity corresponds to the autonomic inflexibility seen in clinical anxiety (or very high scores of trait anxiety) when exposed to stressful events. Results were discussed in terms of an inability to automatically inhibit the processing of threatening cues that seems to be a vulnerability marker for anxiety.
Article
Full-text available
A growing literature examines how affective processing may be weaker in a foreign language than in a native language. This article reviews mechanisms that could underlie this effect and then delves into practical implications. The most common category of explanations is that emotional resonances in the discourse context accrue to utterances because human memory is inherently associative. One application concerns forensic investigations. Compared to emotional phrases in a native language, emotional phrases heard or read in a foreign language elicit weaker skin-conductance responses (SCRs). In one study involving a mock crime, SCRs elicited by a foreign language were high and insensitive to emotionality, suggesting a stress response. A second application is decision making, given recent findings that judgments in a foreign language are influenced by emotional content. This raises the question of how to assess the real-world importance of this provocative laboratory finding. A third application is the emotional and logical appeal of advertising slogans. In multilingual regions, marketers could direct appeals to consumers in their native language to sell luxury items. In contrast, ads using a less proficient or foreign language may be most effective for selling items that will increase work productivity.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether and how processing information in a foreign language as opposed to the native language affects moral judgments. Participants judged the moral wrongness of several private actions, such as consensual incest, that were depicted as harmless and presented in either the native or a foreign language. The use of a foreign language promoted less severe moral judgments and less confidence in them. Harmful and harmless social norm violations, such as saying a white lie to get a reduced fare, were also judged more leniently. The results do not support explanations based on facilitated deliberation, misunderstanding, or the adoption of a universalistic stance. We propose that the influence of foreign language is best explained by a reduced activation of social and moral norms when making moral judgments.
Article
Full-text available
The topic editors, Cornelia Herbert and colleagues, have noted that language has historically been assumed to be independent from emotions. The historical backdrop to this is the long reign of faculty psychology, which viewed the human mind as composed of discrete abilities (see discussion in Barrett, 2013). The mental modularity popularized by Chomsky (1965) and Fodor (1983) continued this view following the cognitive revolution of mid-century. Emotion had no role in information processing psychology, leading to its neglect in the cognitive sciences (Cromwell and Panksepp, 2011). Indeed, the classic emotion-cognition divide has been criticized in the past decades by theorists who are otherwise not natural allies (e.g., Damasio, 1994; Cromwell and Panksepp, 2011; Lindquist, 2013). An alternative to faculty psychology is psychological construction (Lindquist, 2013). On this view, mental abilities and mental states like emotions are constructed from the dynamic interaction of physiological states, situation-specific information, and conceptual knowledge. In the modular view of mind, emotion and language should have little overlap in their processes and representations. However, according to psychological constructivism, an emotional reaction can be influenced by any aspect of the on-going situation, such as the language being spoken, which is the topic of this commentary. I describe here findings on the emotionality differences between a native and a foreign language. Bilingual speakers 1 frequently report that swearing, praying, lying, and saying I love you feel differently when using a native rather than a foreign language (see, e.g., Pavlenko, 2005; Dewaele, 2010). My goal is to highlight the relevance of this body of work for the theoretical assumptions regarding language-emotion independence.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on moral flexibility, a term that the authors use that people are strongly motivated to adhere to and affirm their moral beliefs in their judgments and choices, they really want to get it right, they really want to do the right thing, but context strongly influences which moral beliefs are brought to bear in a given situation. It reviews contemporary research on moral judgment and decision making, and suggests ways that the major themes in the literature relate to the notion of moral flexibility. The chapter explains what makes moral judgment and decision making unique. It also reviews three major research themes and their explananda: morally prohibited value trade-offs in decision making; rules, reason, and emotion in trade-offs; and judgments of moral blame and punishment. The chapter also comments on methodological desiderata and presents understudied areas of inquiry.
Article
Full-text available
Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.
Chapter
Full-text available
Publicly available acculturation measures are systematically reviewed based on three criteria: scale descriptors (name of the scale, authors, year, target group, age group, subscales, and number of items), psychometric properties (reliabilities) and conceptual and theoretical structure (acculturation conditions, acculturation orientations, acculturation outcomes, acculturation attitudes, acculturation behaviors, conceptual model and life domains). Majority of the reviewed acculturation measures are short, single-scale instruments that are directed to specific target groups. Additionally, they mainly assess behavioral acculturation outcomes than acculturation conditions and orientations. Regarding the psychometric properties; most measures have an adequate internal consistency; yet cross-cultural validity of the instruments have not been reported. Guidelines for choosing or developing acculturation instruments are provided in the chapter.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to draw on recent studies of bilingualism and emotions to argue for three types of modifications to the current models of the bilingual lexicon. The first modification involves word categories: I will show that emotion words need to be considered as a separate class of words in the mental lexicon, represented and processed differently from abstract and concrete words. The second modification involves conceptual representations: I will demonstrate that emotion concepts vary across languages and that bilinguals' concepts may, in some cases, be distinct from those of monolingual speakers. The third modification involves emotionality: I will argue that emotionality is an important feature of the bilingual lexicon, where different languages and word types display different levels of emotionality. I will also show how differential emotionality affects code-switching and language choice in bi- and multilinguals.
Article
Full-text available
The dual process model of moral judgment (DPM; Greene et al., 2004) argues that such judgments are influenced by both emotion-laden intuition and controlled reasoning. These influences are associated with distinct neural circuitries and different response tendencies. After reanalyzing data from an earlier study, McGuire et al. (2009) questioned the level of support for the dual process model and asserted that the distinction between emotion evoking moral dilemmas (personal dilemmas) and those that do not trigger such intuitions (impersonal dilemmas) is spurious. Using similar reanalysis methods on data reported by Moore, Clark, & Kane (2008), we show that the personal/impersonal distinction is reliable. Furthermore, new data show that this distinction is fundamental to moral judgment across widely different cultures (U.S. and China) and supports claims made by the DPM.
Article
Full-text available
Recent work shows an important asymmetry in lay intuitions about moral dilemmas. Most people think it is permissible to divert a train so that it will kill one innocent person instead of five, but most people think that it is not permissible to push a stranger in front of a train to save five innocents. We argue that recent emotion-based explanations of this asymmetry have neglected the contribution that rules make to reasoning about moral dilemmas. In two experiments, we find that participants show a parallel asymmetry about versions of the dilemmas that have minimized emotional force. In a third experiment, we find that people distinguish between whether an action violates a moral rule and whether it is, all things considered, wrong. We propose that judgments of whether an action is wrong, all things considered, implicate a complex set of psychological processes, including representations of rules, emotional responses, and assessments of costs and benefits.
Article
A growing literature demonstrates that using a foreign language affects choice. This is surprising because if people understand their options, choice should be language independent. Here, we review the impact of using a foreign language on risk, inference, and morality, and discuss potential explanations, including reduced emotion, psychological distance, and increased deliberation.
Article
We examine whether the use of a foreign language, as opposed to the native language, influences the relative weight intentions versus outcomes carry in moral evaluations. In Study 1, participants were presented with actions that had positive outcomes but were motivated by dubious intentions, while in Study 2 with actions that had negative outcomes but were motivated by positive intentions. Participants received the materials either in their native or a foreign language. Foreign language prompted more positive moral evaluations in Study 1 and less positive evaluations in Study 2. These results show that foreign language reduces the relative weight placed on intentions versus outcomes. We discuss several theoretical accounts that are consistent with the results such as that foreign language attenuates emotions (triggered by intentions) or it depletes cognitive resources.
Article
The study reported in this article investigated the proficiency in French of a group of anglophone adult L2 learners of the language, all of whom reported passing regularly for native speakers of French. Tests were administered to these learners to gauge their proficiency in different aspects of French, including a lexico-grammatical measure. A regional accent recognition instrument, which required the correct identification of three French regional accents, formed the subsequent element of the testing process. Questionnaire and narrative data were also collected from participants with respect to their attitudes and motivation as well as their fluency before arrival in France; of the 20 participants, three scored within native ranges on all tasks. With regard to these three, a number of affective variables seemed to play a markedly more important role than maturational factors in the high attainment recorded. In this article, such affective variables will be more closely examined, and their possible role in accounting for the achievement of native-like proficiency in an L2 is explored in some depth.
Article
I regard myself as an advocate of animal rights—as part of the animal rights movement. That movement, as I conceive it, is committed to a number of goals, including: the total abolition of the use of animals in science; the total dissolution of commercial animal agriculture; the total elimination of commercial and sport hunting and trapping.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Bilingual speakers report experiencing stronger emotions when speaking and hearing their first language compared to their second. Does this occur even when a second language is learned early and becomes the dominant language? Spanish Á / English bilinguals who had grown up in the USA (early learners) or those who were first exposed to English during middle childhood while residing in a Latin American country (late learners) listened to words and phrases while skin conductance was monitored. Stimuli included taboo words, sexual terms, childhood reprimands ('Go to your room!') and single words which functioned as a neutral baseline. Consistent with the hypothesis that a second language is less emotional for the late learners, emotional expressions (i.e. reprimands) presented in the first language elicited larger skin conductance responses than comparable expressions in the second language. For the early learners, no such difference was obtained, indicating that age of acquisition of the second language and proficiency modulate speakers' physiological reaction to emotional language.
Article
The long-standing rationalist tradition in moral psychology emphasizes the role of reason in moral judgment. A more recent trend places increased emphasis on emotion. Although both reason and emotion are likely to play important roles in moral judgment, relatively little is known about their neural correlates, the nature of their interaction, and the factors that modulate their respective behavioral influences in the context of moral judgment. In two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using moral dilemmas as probes, we apply the methods of cognitive neuroscience to the study of moral judgment. We argue that moral dilemmas vary systematically in the extent to which they engage emotional processing and that these variations in emotional engagement influence moral judgment. These results may shed light on some puzzling patterns in moral judgment observed by contemporary philosophers.
Article
Three studies test eight hypotheses about (1) how judgment differs between people who ascribe greater vs. less moral relevance to choices, (2) how moral judgment is subject to task constraints that shift evaluative focus (to moral rules vs. to consequences), and (3) how differences in the propensity to rely on intuitive reactions affect judgment. In Study 1, judgments were affected by rated agreement with moral rules proscribing harm, whether the dilemma under consideration made moral rules versus consequences of choice salient, and by thinking styles (intuitive vs. deliberative). In Studies 2 and 3, participants evaluated policy decisions to knowingly do harm to a resource to mitigate greater harm or to merely allow the greater harm to happen. When evaluated in isolation, approval for decisions to harm was affected by endorsement of moral rules and by thinking style. When both choices were evaluated simultaneously, total harm -- but not the do/allow distinction -- influenced rated approval. These studies suggest that moral rules play an important, but context-sensitive role in moral cognition, and offer an account of when emotional reactions to perceived moral violations receive less weight than consideration of costs and benefits in moral judgment and decision making.
The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism
  • François Grosjean
  • Ping Li
Grosjean, François, and Ping Li. 2013. The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Emotionality Differences between a Native and Foreign Language: Implications for Everyday Life
  • Catherine L Caldwell-Harris
  • Ozgur Celenk
  • Fons J R Van De
  • Vijver
Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L. 2015. "Emotionality Differences between a Native and Foreign Language: Implications for Everyday Life." Current Directions in Psychological Science 24 (3): 214-219. doi:10.1177/0963721414566268. Celenk, Ozgur, and Fons J. R. Van de Vijver. 2011. "Assessment of Acculturation: Issues and Overview of Measures." Online Readings in Psychology and Culture 8 (1): 1-22. doi:10.9707/2307-0919.1105