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Organisational change and employee burnout: The moderating effects of support and job control

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Abstract

As organisations experience rapid change, employee health and well-being has emerged as an important issue. Although organisational change can result in psychological and physical stress among employees (Hylton, 2004), providing positive organisational resources, such as support and job control, may help reduce employee burnout (e.g., Dubois et al., 2014; Leiter and Maslach, 2009; Puleo, 2011). Therefore, using a sample of Canadian health-care staff (N = 202) who were involved in a large-scale organisational change, we investigated: (a) whether perceptions of organisational change stressors were associated with burnout (i.e., exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy), (b) the extent to which supervisor support and job control were directly related to burnout, and (c) whether support and control moderated the relationship between change stressors and burnout. Job control was directly related to all of the burnout components, and support was related to exhaustion and cynicism. Supervisor support buffered the negative relationship between change stressors and exhaustion and between change stressors and cynicism. Job control moderated the negative relationship between change and professional efficacy.

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... The insecurity and turbulence caused by organizational restructuring can be sources of considerable stress for employees and can therefore affect employee well-being negatively (de Jong et al., 2016). To counteract the strain caused by the restructuring, managers' leadership behaviours may therefore be of significant importance to facilitate transitions (Day et al., 2017). Consequently, managers' leadership behaviours have repeatedly been identified as a vital resource in successfully implementing changes in the workplace, and for reducing the negative effects that these changes may have on employee well-being (e.g. ...
... Consequently, managers' leadership behaviours have repeatedly been identified as a vital resource in successfully implementing changes in the workplace, and for reducing the negative effects that these changes may have on employee well-being (e.g. Day et al., 2017;Farahnak et al., 2020). For example, managers' may actively empower employees to engage in the change process, lend them support in solving problems and remove obstacles, that will help them adapt to the new roles and tasks (Stouten et al., 2018). ...
... Managers' constructive leadership behaviours (i.e. actively influencing employees by supporting and enhancing the tasks and strategy of the organization, as well as the motivation and wellbeing their followers; Skogstad, Aasland, et al., 2014) may constitute a resource for employees that can mitigate some negative outcomes of restructuring (Day et al., 2017). For example, in a study by Rafferty and Griffin (2006), employees who reported high supportive managerial leadership during the changeprocess experienced less psychological uncertainty. ...
Article
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This study draws upon conservation of resources theory to investigate if laissez-faire leadership influences employees’ perceptions of role clarity, and two forms of well-being (job satisfaction and work-related burnout), in the context of organizational restructuring. Moreover, role clarity is studied as a mechanism linking laissez-faire leadership to employee well-being. These relationships were tested using a three-wave time-lagged investigation conducted over a two-year period with a sample of 601 employees working in the Swedish process industry. The results of the structural equation modelling analyses showed that laissez-faire leadership was negatively related to role clarity 9 months later. In turn, role clarity mediated the relationship between laissez-faire leadership and employee well-being. This study contributes to the understanding of how laissez-faire leadership in the context of organizational restructuring may affect employee outcomes. We discuss implications for theories and practices, as well as directions for future research. MAD statement The majority of research on leadership during organizational restructuring has focused on positive outcomes of constructive forms of change leadership. However, other forms of leadership, such as laissez-faire leadership, may also play a crucial role for employee outcomes when implementing change. This study is to our knowledge the first to focus on the relationship between laissez-faire leadership and employee well-being in the context of organizational restructuring. We suggest that organizations work actively to include knowledge on this form of leadership in change-leadership training. We also suggest monitoring work-groups’ perceptions of role clarity (as a mechanism directly affected by laissez-fair leadership) during restructuring so that measures can be taken to facilitate transitions when needed.
... Those who reported low levels of control over work were more likely to suffer from diseases such as cardiovascular disease and depression [5e10]. Regarding nurses, less work control is also closely related to nurses' acute fatigue [6e11], burnout [6,7], workelife imbalance [7e12], lower job satisfaction [7,8], poor performance [10,13], and increased intentions of leaving [2,11,14]. Nursing managers should pay attention to the influence of work control on nurses' work attitude, work quality, and organizational goals. ...
... Those who reported low levels of control over work were more likely to suffer from diseases such as cardiovascular disease and depression [5e10]. Regarding nurses, less work control is also closely related to nurses' acute fatigue [6e11], burnout [6,7], workelife imbalance [7e12], lower job satisfaction [7,8], poor performance [10,13], and increased intentions of leaving [2,11,14]. Nursing managers should pay attention to the influence of work control on nurses' work attitude, work quality, and organizational goals. ...
... It emphasizes covering the most crucial areas of control for a worker, such as the variety of tasks performed, scheduling of breaks, the choice of working methods, the order of execution, and predictability of work activities [16]. This tool has been applied to the nursing population and exhibited adequate reliability in previous studies [7,8,10]. ...
Article
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Purpose To modify and test the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Work Control Scale (C-WCS). Methods The translated scale to administered to 840 nurses in Shanghai. Validity was assessed by content validity, construct validity including exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated by the Cronbach’s α and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Result Psychometric analyses of the C-WCS indicate high reliability and good content and construct validity. Conclusions The C-WCS has good psychometric properties and can be used as a valid tool for measuring work control among nurses in China. The C-WCS will help further explore the correlations between perceived work control and organizational quality indicators such as nurses’ satisfaction, job stress, wellbeing or intention to stay. It can also be used in nursing outcome studies of work control strategies.
... 10 Organizational structures may also contribute to work overload that forces nurses to compromise on basic nursing values, leading to ethical dilemmas. 6 Thus, experiences of organizational change come at a price and can be seen as job stressors requiring extra effort over and above the other job stressors inherent in healthcare 8,11 and may moderate the association between IJDs and stress of conscience. Despite constantly intensifying working life and organizational changes in healthcare organizations, we lack research evidence on how these phenomena are experienced from an ethical perspective, here, regarding stress of conscience among healthcare personnel. ...
... However, supervisor's support has been shown to buffer the association between change stressors and exhaustion. 11 Hence, we assumed that management's support may reduce stress of conscience among nurses because if management has taken the nurses' views into consideration, it may, for example, alleviate their psychological uncertainty and fatigue and, thus, help to maintain adequate care quality and therefore not increase stress of conscience. Consequently, we assumed that experiences of organizational change may have a moderating effect on the association between IJDs and stress of conscience. ...
... 44 When nurses feel that, during the change, management has informed them clearly about the goals of the change, taken the personnel's viewpoints into consideration, ensured enough change support, and an immediate manager has discussed the change with their staff, it may be that nurses feel secure and less distressed about the organizational change. 11 Security and less distress may help to maintain nurses' wellbeing, 27 and this may ensure proper care for patients. 39 Proper care may lessen missed care and adverse events to patients, 40,41 which may lower the nurses' frequency of stress of conscience. ...
Article
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Background: Nurses frequently face ethically demanding situations in their work, and these may lead to stress of conscience. Working life is currently accelerating and job demands are intensifying. These intensified job demands include (1) work intensification, (2) intensified job-related planning demands, (3) intensified career-related planning demands, and (4) intensified learning demands. At the same time, many healthcare organizations are implementing major organizational changes that have an influence on personnel. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between intensified job demands and stress of conscience, and whether their association is moderated by organizational change experiences among nurses. Experiences of organizational change may expose employees to stress of conscience or serve as a buffer because employees appraise, involve, and cope with changes differently. Research design: Questionnaires measuring stress of conscience, intensified job demands, and organizational change experiences were completed by nurses (n = 511) in a healthcare district undergoing a major organizational change. Ethical considerations: Throughout, the study procedures were implemented according to the guidelines of the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity and the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments. According to the Finnish regulations, because participation was voluntary, informed consent was requested, and participants were advised of their right to withdraw from the study at will. No permission from an ethics committee was necessary. Findings: Work intensification and personal worry considering organizational change were associated with more severe stress of conscience among nurses. Nurses' experiences of managements' competent handling of organizational change buffered the association between work intensification and stress of conscience. Conclusions: During organizational changes, management may alleviate nurses' stress of conscience by proper communication and support procedures.
... The process of digital transformation in organizations is connected with a wide range of social changes [38] related to the redefinition of the work scope and responsibilities, number of employees, requirements, new tasks, competences and work mode, as well as changes in human team management [18,22,39]. ...
... This resistance among employees can be expressed in terms of passive fears, severe stress, in some cases aggression, as well as professional burnout [8,22]. The transformation of rooted patterns of behaviour and value systems requires targeted and lengthy training measures to be carried out by managers, psychologists and educators [18]. As the main focus of the DT work is on project implementation, change in training programs is limited to communication of changes, procedures and instructions [35]. ...
... related to working with new IT tools, may experience more or less tension -in this case, in the context of the digital transformation -depending on the skills they have (resources), and how much control they have over the situation to meet its demands [22,57,68], (see Fig 1). Employer expectations regarding the implementation of IT solutions constitute an additional stress factor [57]. Uncertainty related to changes in the organization and the fear of being made redundant are the most frequent initial reactions of people informed about such changes [18]. Based on the European Working Conditions Survey, carried out every 5 years, in 2020 [25,27,56] it is possible to identify areas that can be analyzed in the context of employees' stress in combination with digital transformation. ...
Conference Paper
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Digital transformation (DT) is the process of transformation of the business world with the use of information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. It not only has a large impact on organizations – their competitiveness and performance, but also on employee well-being and their stress levels. To measure the stress associated with such digital changes we used the concept of Digital Transformation Stress (DTS), and its verified psychometric surveybased tools. In this study we proposed and verified an alternative, automatic tool to measure DTS based on sentiment analysis of help desk ticket data set. First, we conducted sentiment analysis (SA) of help desk tickets of an international financial company to estimate how employees’ stress could manifest in official written communication. We identified negative emotions markers and analysed the relationships between the ticket registration frequency and negative emotion markers. Our interdisciplinary research confirmed that there is high and positive correlation between the stress measurement results based on the established psychometric survey and sentiment analysis results of help desk ticket data set. We conclude that the novel tool we proposed allows for continuous monitoring of DTS among employees in any organization, without psychometric surveys. It is an attractive alternative to lengthy questionnaires, as it makes better use of employees’ time while continuously monitoring stress levels to evaluate at any time if an intervention, such as training, tool upgrade or any other support is needed to safeguard employee’s job satisfaction and their well-being.
... Technological change represents one of many occasions for organizational change (Senior and Swailes, 2010), which is initiated when a new technology or a technology update is introduced at an employee's workplace (Cascio and Montealegre, 2016). Organizational change in general (e.g., task and role change) can be demanding for employees and can affect employee well-being (Day et al., 2017), their attitudes and attachment to the organization (Sung et al., 2017). Many forms of support are recommended during technological change, and this study examines how to most effectively design change support as a means of addressing change demands. ...
... Change demands negatively affect employees during technological change. The stresses of organizational change can affect employee well-being (Day et al., 2017), so it is important that those responsible for change have effective interventions in place, and there is still a great deal of uncertainty about what the best interventions are. Based on our results, whether change practitioners are able to design change support intervention according to the specific change demands (interaction effect), or just provide any kind of support (direct effect), our results show that any form of support provided is useful in affecting technology implementation outcomes positively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Progressing digitalization and technological changes triggered by COVID-19 lockdowns means for organizations that new technologies need to be implemented in shorter time periods. The implementation of new technologies in the workplace poses various change demands on employees. Organizations try to counteract these effects by providing change support in the form of for example training or participation options. However, to date, it is unclear how change demands develop a detrimental effect and whether change support can buffer this relation due to which working mechanisms, and whether the effectiveness of support measures can be increased by matching them to specific change demands. Based on the integrative framework of social support theory, which draws on the job demands-resources model and self-determination theory, we hypothesize that change demands can be most effectively addressed through matching change support. In three consecutive experimental vignette studies (N1 = 89, N2 = 134, N3 = 138) of dependently employed samples, we analyzed the interaction of change demands and change support on attitude to change, satisfaction with the change process, and behavioral intention to use by manipulating the degree of demand (high vs. low) and provided support (high vs. low) and by conducting moderated mediation analyses, and integrated the results meta-analytically. The results show that change demands have a detrimental effect on technology implementation outcomes. In one of the three studies we confirmed a moderating effect of change support. The relation was mediated by perceived frustration, but the mediating effect of psychological need satisfaction was inconclusive. Based on our results, we discuss that the research on matching support requires the evaluation of the personal relevance of the support receiver to increase the chance of achieving a match.
... The business with the market-based management in marketing science that should in the globalpandemic situations within an emerging market, need more the marketer-skill, effort, direction, persistence and the task marketing strategies within the digital-marketing, salesperson experiences and the integration marketing-team as the research gaps from the previous research that could leads to the distinctive marketing-performance and customers value co-creation and an implication on customer loyalty, that it not to be confirm result of the research on the digital-wallet within the fin-tech recently in among firms. (Fu, 2009;Harrigan, Evers, Miles, & Daly, 2017;Xu, Wang, & Wen, 2019), (Bitter & Grabner-Kräuter, 2016;Chang, Jiang, Klein, & Wang, 2019;Day, Crown, & Ivany, 2017) Moreover, the business gap within the level of the customer loyalty to utilize the digital-wallet in Jakarta, could be provide and indicated the fluctuated condition and could describe on entire situations, as show table 1, below: Nevertheless, in global-pandemic have the decreased, more challenging, and need the wellmanagement, while empirical evidence to attempt the best digital-marketing performance to utilize the digital-wallet more broadly in business transactions. (Cooper & Sommer, 2016;Lindsjørn, Sjøberg, Dingsøyr, Bergersen, & Dybå, 2016) Many the digital-wallet have the organizational policy-change because of the global-pandemic within very poor-process in the firms and it could have an impact to the digital-marketing-performance to improve the business-value and the customer loyalty as the task performance in marketing divisions. ...
... (Cooper & Sommer, 2016;Lindsjørn, Sjøberg, Dingsøyr, Bergersen, & Dybå, 2016) Many the digital-wallet have the organizational policy-change because of the global-pandemic within very poor-process in the firms and it could have an impact to the digital-marketing-performance to improve the business-value and the customer loyalty as the task performance in marketing divisions. (Day et al., 2017;Landers, Bauer, & Callan, 2017;Stock, 2016;Tse, Huang, & Lam, 2013) Furthermore, the purpose of this research would be conduct with the synthesis the new-research model to fulfilling of research gap to pursue the distinctive marketing-performance and the costumers value co-creation to improve the customer-loyalty. (Greer, Lusch, & Vargo, 2016;Vargo & Lusch, 2017) Hence, the focus of the latent variables in this inquiries as develop the determinant to leads the digitalmarketing performance and consumer value co-creation to leads the customer's loyalty in the digitalwallet. ...
... Having a work group or committee with representatives for employees can function in a bottom-up manner to help organizations build on the knowledge of the type and scope of challenges they meet as a result of the merger [76], as well as insure participation of employees in matters that affect their work situation. In addition, it can function as a resource to disseminate top-down information, a strategy which has been shown to have a significant negative relationship with anxiety about the change at the time of merger announcements [77]. ...
... In addition, this not only led to the withdrawal of possibly beneficial resources, but also had the ability to interfere with the positive effects of the intervention that materialized premerger. [77] showed how one unit, after a reorganization following an intervention, perceived the loss of gains from a "problem-solving committee" established in the intervention, after their unit directors who supported the committees were replaced. As such, managerial turnover may also play a role in involvement and participation of employees. ...
Article
Interventions to improve organizations are common in both practice and research, but relatively little evaluation research has focused on the long-term effects of an intervention. This study opens a unique window into the longevity of an intervention’s outcomes and the factors that can help to sustain these. In this paper we report a long-term effect evaluation of a comprehensive intervention that focused on developing employeeship and that took place over six years in a University unit (the Intervention Unit, IU). A former evaluation showed that the intervention had been successful in achieving its outcomes in the first three years until 2015. In 2016, a major organizational merger was conducted. This provided a natural opportunity to evaluate the long-term sustainability of the intervention in terms of its effects on the psychosocial work environment. The present long-term effect evaluation is a multi-method study with contextual data from multiple sources and stakeholders. The final survey was administered one year after the merger. In addition to the survey, organizational records were examined and interviews with stakeholders were carried out to examine the contextual issues affecting the intervention. To evaluate the intervention, we used ARK, which is a systematic and validated tool. ANOVA analyses of the intervention- and control groups showed that the positive results were compromised in the follow-up survey (a further three years later). The contextual evaluation with ANCOVA pointed to main changes connected to the organizational merger and especially for the IU.
... B. in Form von emotionaler Erschöpfung oder Burnout (z. B. Day, Crown & Ivany, 2017;Dubois, Bentein, Mansour, Gilbert & Bédard, 2014). ...
... Bestimmte Aspekte des Sozialkapitals (z. B. die soziale Unterstützung durch Kolleginnen und Kollegen oder Vorgesetzte) können darüber hinaus den negativen Einfluss von organisationalen Veränderungen auf die Gesundheit der Beschäftigten abmildern (Day et al., 2017;Rigotti & Otto, 2012 Molter, Stegmaier, Noefer und Sonntag (2008) verwendet, die eine gute interne Konsistenz aufweist (α = .89, Beispiel-Item: "Die Veränderungen gingen einher mit Veränderungen der täglichen Routinen der Mitarbeiter dieser Abteilung"). ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. Die Studie untersucht, welche Merkmale eines Veränderungsprozesses einen Einfluss auf die psychische Beanspruchung der Beschäftigten (kognitive und emotionale Irritation) ausüben und inwiefern diese Zusammenhänge durch Sozialkapitalfaktoren moderiert werden. Als Merkmale des Veränderungsprozesses werden Ausmaß und Nutzen der Veränderungen für die Arbeitseinheit, die Auswirkungen der Veränderungen auf den eigenen Arbeitsplatz sowie der Umfang der Beteiligung am Veränderungsprozess betrachtet. Befragt wurden Beschäftigte einer Organisation, die sich zum Befragungszeitpunkt in einem umfassenden, langfristigen Veränderungsprozess befunden hat (Vollerhebung, n = 219). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich bestimmte Merkmale eines Veränderungsprozesses bedeutsam auf die psychische Beanspruchung der Beschäftigten auswirken. Die Moderatorenanalysen bestätigen, dass positiv empfundene Mitarbeiterführung (Führungskapital) und ein gutes Beziehungsklima (Netzwerkkapital) die Irritation bei denjenigen abpuffern können, bei denen der Veränderungsprozess besonders große Auswirkungen auf den eigenen Arbeitsplatz hat. Außerdem zeigt sich, dass positiv empfundene Organisationskultur sowie Mitarbeiterführung die Irritationen bei denjenigen abpuffern können, die den konkreten Veränderungsprozess als wenig nützlich empfinden.
... Furthermore, the motor vehicles organizational policy-change has alters of the disruptiveeconomics in the recent day within to develop the stakeholders value creation to enhance the market-positions and the performance of the firms-management innovations within the jobexperienced of the enterprise's salesperson of fully electric vehicles venture [7,[10][11][12][13][14]. Thus, an inquiry of the recent research should be conduct to fulfilling of research gap on enhance of the market position for the electric-vehicle industries. ...
... Furthermore, The marketing science would drive within an emerging market intended and improve comprises; the competencies, an employee effort, the well task-direction, attempt the persistence and well choice of the strategies, the supposed an experiences in electric vehicles and encouragement the general-managers and the holistic team-work that it was the research gaps that it was could leads to the consumer's value, consumer durable and the marketing-performance [1,2,3]. The market position was conducted within among resources that it has been not to be confirm result on enhance the electric vehicles business [4,5,6,7]. Nevertheless, in pandemic era and almost entire the automotive industries was need the model-agile management to handle, the leadership should has more responsive and, while empirical evidence to the level of difficulty to attempted the market position within collaboration of the marketing relationship on business to business on the complexity industry of motor vehicles in Jakarta [8,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Owing on decreased the marketing performances on automotive industries- energy generation, and storage industry in many firms. The research inquired of research gap within pursues the market- positions that it was conduct within resources of the corporate. Therefore, the research method conducted the one step approach within the confirmed strategy that conduct within an equation’s structural hybrid-model. The results- data was significantly contributed to the goal setting theory that it could drive to improve and enhanced within an innovation evidence in the digital-marketing and encompassed the marketing strategies that could pursued the market positions within the firms in the automotive fully electric vehicles industry as firms policies that innovation effort in digital marketing more focused than task marketing strategies and top managers.
... The Pharmacy industries and business in the global-pandemic situations within the dynamic-market, need more, the communications tools, hi-competencies, regularly of the skill training, and organizational-well mechanism and, the new platform in the pharmacy business as the research gaps from the previous research that could leads to the human resources development within the employee satisfaction, that have been could not always to be confirm result of the research on the Pharmacy venture (J. Hamilton, 2009) (Harrigan, Evers, Miles, & Daly, 2017;Moharam & Shawky, 2012;Syed Saad, Mamunur, & Quazi Akhlaqur, 2016), (Bitter & Grabner-Kräuter, 2016;Day, Crown, & Ivany, 2017) Moreover, to fill this gap, many pharmacy firms have the organizational policy-change become the new-platform business cause to anticipated the global-pandemic in business world within very poorbusiness process of the impact to the employee intellectual capital-performance (Day et al., 2017;Kor, 2016;Stock, 2016;Tse, Huang, & Lam, 2013;Ulum, Ghozali, & Purwanto, 2014). Furthermore, the objective of these inquiries would be conduct within the synthesis the HR management new-research model to fulfilling the find of research gap to achieve the employee satisfaction in the pharmacy industry in Indonesia. ...
... The Pharmacy industries and business in the global-pandemic situations within the dynamic-market, need more, the communications tools, hi-competencies, regularly of the skill training, and organizational-well mechanism and, the new platform in the pharmacy business as the research gaps from the previous research that could leads to the human resources development within the employee satisfaction, that have been could not always to be confirm result of the research on the Pharmacy venture (J. Hamilton, 2009) (Harrigan, Evers, Miles, & Daly, 2017;Moharam & Shawky, 2012;Syed Saad, Mamunur, & Quazi Akhlaqur, 2016), (Bitter & Grabner-Kräuter, 2016;Day, Crown, & Ivany, 2017) Moreover, to fill this gap, many pharmacy firms have the organizational policy-change become the new-platform business cause to anticipated the global-pandemic in business world within very poorbusiness process of the impact to the employee intellectual capital-performance (Day et al., 2017;Kor, 2016;Stock, 2016;Tse, Huang, & Lam, 2013;Ulum, Ghozali, & Purwanto, 2014). Furthermore, the objective of these inquiries would be conduct within the synthesis the HR management new-research model to fulfilling the find of research gap to achieve the employee satisfaction in the pharmacy industry in Indonesia. ...
... Previous evidence has shown that PSS acts as a moderator in the effect of stress on job burnout. For example, Day, Crown, and Ivany (2017) found that PSS buffered the effect of a stressor, organizational change, on exhaustion and cynicism. In a study involving 410 nurses, Huang et al. (2017) found that PSS strongly moderated the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout. ...
Article
Purpose – This study aimed to examine the boundary conditions under which teaching‌‌–research conflict influences university teachers'‌‌‌ job burnout. Methods – Data from 487 teachers of three universities in China were analyzed with structural equation modeling and other statistical approaches.‌ Findings – (a) Teaching–research conflict was positively linked to job burnout; (b)‌‌ perceived supervisory support (PSS) moderated the effect of teaching–‌research conflict on job burnout, and (c) psychological capital (PsyCap) moderated the effect of teaching–research conflict on job burnout. Implications – Universities should manage to increase teachers' PSS and PsyCap so as to buffer the effect of role conflict on job burnout. Originality/value –‌‌‌ Our findings stress the importance of PSS and PsyCap as important external and internal resources and offer new insights on the boundary conditions of teaching–research conflict influencing teachers’ job burnout.
... Studies analysing the relationship between role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout are consistent in pointing out positive associations between these concepts, that is, high levels of role conflict and role ambiguity are related to high levels of burnout [22][23][24][25]. In turn, studies that examine job control and autonomy are consistent in pointing out negative relationships to burnout [26][27][28]. Therefore, we present hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 1. Clarity and consistency will associate negatively with burnout, whereas constraints and consequences will associate positively with burnout. ...
Article
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Many studies have examined the effect of situational strength (clarity, consistency, constraints, and consequences) on organisational behaviour, but little has been investigated about its health effects. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between situational strength and burnout. Specifically, we examined whether situational strength characteristics may be associated with burnout, whether these characteristics are risk (or protective) factors for burnout, and whether a strong situation is related to higher levels of burnout. Examining three samples from different occupations, it was found that clarity and consistency are negatively associated with burnout, being protective factors, while constraints are positively associated with burnout, being risk factors. These results are consistent across the samples. In addition to the direct effects, interaction effects between clarity and consistency in the office employee’s sample (two-way interaction), between constraints and consequences in the samples of office employees and teachers (two-way interaction), and among clarity, consistency, and constraints in the salespeople’s sample (three-way interaction) were also significant, explaining from 20% to 33% of the variance of burnout. We concluded that situational strength is associated not only with behaviour but also with health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Citation: García-Arroyo, J.; Cárdenas Moncayo, I.; Gómez García, A.R.; Osca Segovia, A. Understanding the Relationship between Situational Strength and Burnout: A Multi-Sample Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 162. https://doi.
... And decision control, located at the highest step, relates to control over the decisions regarding organizational policies. The existence of a fair process in the monitoring of processes and the control of decisions (Day et al., 2017), affects the perceptions of employees because they clearly contribute to the creation of organizational processes. For this reason, the effects of workplace spirituality and perceived organizational support over job control are researched in the scope of the research model. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study is to research the effects of the variables of workplace spirituality and perceived organizational support on the variables of organizational citizenship and job control. Workplace spirituality is the existence in an organization of a culture that encourages the experiences of employees throughout job processes and that will gain them a desire to work. Job control expresses an employee's perceived level of authority to make decisions, the opportunities to use their knowledge and skills, and the opportunities to participate in an event. Perceived organizational support is the situation where employees feel the organization's existence safely. The existence of workplace spirituality and organizational support at every organization makes employees a part of the organization and ensures job controls are healthy. A questionnaire comprising questions on a 5-point Likert scale was collected from 394 administrative personnel working at organizations (food companies) in the production sector. Within the scope of the research model, the data obtained were analyzed by IBM SPSS 25 and SPSS Process V3 plug-in. Validating factor analysis of Scale was carried out with the LISREL package program. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that workplace spirituality and perceived organizational support positively affect business control and organizational citizenship. In addition, perceived organizational support has a mediation role in the effect of workplace spirituality on job control and organizational citizenship.
... And decision control, located at the highest step, relates to control over the decisions regarding organizational policies. The existence of a fair process in the monitoring of processes and the control of decisions (Day et al., 2017), affects the perceptions of employees because they clearly contribute to the creation of organizational processes. For this reason, the effects of workplace spirituality and perceived organizational support over job control are researched in the scope of the research model. ...
... In that terms ICT becomes a stressor, especially for the first stages of the system's learning curve and the older inspectors that lack familiarity with ICT. This could also be considered as an organizational change that has been previously associated with high levels of burnout (Day et al., 2017). This stressor combined with rest of the abovementioned stress factors, may become a fertile soil for a number of psychosocial consequences, resulting in anxiety disorders, frustration, job dissatisfaction, and low job performance, and develop into burnout and mental health problems over longer periods of time (O'Driscoll et al., 2010;Salanova et al., 2013). ...
Article
The principal role of labour inspectorates is labour law enforcement and compliance, to secure effective implementation of legal provisions relating to the protection of workers. These aspects can turn the job context of a labour inspector into a really demanding occupation, that may have significant physiological and psychological effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of burnout between labour inspectors in Greece and associated factors. A semi-structured survey was conducted covering job characteristics, perceived job limitations, some associated with economic crisis, and a burnout assessment tool. There were 102 responses collected out of the 245 labour inspectors specialised in occupational safety and health. Two out of three inspectors (67.65%) reported that reduction of their salary resulted by austerity measures, affected their work quality and performance, 92% reported that job demands had significantly increased during the previous year and 55% that their work does not provide the flexibility, while NLI’s framework does not provide support in performing their job related tasks. Our study identified high rates of burnout and a plethora of work-related contributing risk factors such as increased job demands, lack of staff and resources. The establishment of an effective work framework, that would be supportive and protective for inspectors, in a top-down approach, promoting interpersonal relations and providing the necessary degrees of freedom to labour inspectors’ tasks, could significantly reduce the levels of experienced burnout.
... The furthermost fresh educations are (Velmurugan & Sankar, 2017;Filtvedt, 2016;Matei & Abrudan, 2016). Many studies deal with different factors of two-factor theory, such as the moderating effect of support on employee well-being (Guidetti et al., 2018), mediating effect of person-organization fit on workplace spirituality (Afsar & Badir, 2017), moderating impact of supervisor support and job control on organizational change (Day et al., 2017), emotional culture (Barsade & O'Neill, 2016), green atmosphere and job satisfaction (Başol, 2016), and job satisfaction (Monga et al., 2015). (Selye, 1964) has define stress as "an individuals' material as well an emotional reaction to potentially threatening aspects of the environment". ...
... Earlier research on this type of work has shown that remote working does not have to impede employees' social contacts with co-workers [38]. However, the ndings are inconclusive regarding social support and its effects on psychologic well-being and job satisfaction for employees who engage in remote working in general [12,47,48]. Vander Elst et al. [12] showed that remote workers experienced lower social support from colleagues the more extensively they worked from home and that this was related to higher levels of adverse psychologic symptoms, such as cognitive stress and emotional exhaustion. ...
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Background: Digital consultation with primary care physicians via mobile telephone apps has been spreading rapidly in Sweden since 2014. Digital consultation allows remote working because physicians can work from home, outside their traditional primary care environment. Despite the spread of digital consultation in primary care, there is a lack of knowledge concerning how the new service affects physicians’ psychosocial work environment. Previous research has focused primarily on the patients’ point of view and the cost-effectiveness of digital consultation. Hence, there is a paucity of studies from the perspective of physicians, focusing on their psychosocial work environment. The aim of this study was to investigate primary care physicians’ perceived work demands, control over working processes, and social support when providing digital consultation to primary care patients. Methods: The study has a qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews conducted in Sweden in 2019. We used a purposeful sampling strategy to achieve a heterogeneous sample of physicians who represented a broad spectrum of experiences and perceptions. The interviews were conducted by video meeting, telephone, or a personal meeting, depending on what suited the participant best. The interview questions were informed by the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, which was also used as the framework to analyze the data by categorizing the physicians’ perceptions and experiences into the three categories of the model (Demand, Control, Support), in the deductive analysis of the data. Results: Analysis of the data yielded 9 subcategories, which were mapped onto the 3 categories of the JDCS model. Overall, the participants saw numerous benefits with digital consultations, not only with regard to their own job situation but also for patients and the health care system in general even though they identified some shortcomings and risks with digital care. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that physicians perceive working with digital consultation as flexible with a high grade of autonomy and reasonable to low demands. According to the participants, digital consultation is not something you can work with full time if medical skills and abilities are to be maintained and developed.
... Job autonomy has been heavily researched in the areas of job design and decision-making, and a seminal meta-analysis in the eighties revealed that a high level of perceived autonomy was associated with high levels of job satisfaction, commitment, involvement, performance, and motivation, whereas a low level of job autonomy was associated with physical symptoms, emotional distress, role stress, absenteeism, and intent for turnover [31]. Recent studies also supported, on one hand, the positive association between a high level of job autonomy and psychological well-being [32], work engagement [33], and, on the other hand, the negative association between low levels of job autonomy and depressive mood [34], anxiety [35], and burnout [36]. However, there are also some inconsistencies in the available evidence, reporting that job autonomy could be considered a double-edged sword [37], and that too much job autonomy may be detrimental to employees [38]. ...
Article
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Decision-making autonomy may have played a crucial role in protecting, or on the contrary, intensifying the onset of negative psychological outcomes for workers with roles with responsibilities during the lockdown due to the Covid-19 crisis. The present study analyzed the emotional dimension of workaholism in relation to emotional exhaustion, considering decision-making autonomy as a moderator of this relationship, in a sample of 101 managers and freelancers in the middle of the lockdown in Italy (early April 2020). Results showed that the relationship between negative (workaholic) emotions and emotional exhaustion was moderated by decision-making autonomy and this moderation differed for managers and freelancers. In particular, the results showed that in the target of managers high levels of negative emotional experiences related to workaholism and low decision-making autonomy are associated with higher levels emotional exhaustion, while high levels of emotional experiences linked to workaholism and high decision-making autonomy produced significantly lower levels of emotional exhaustion. On the contrary, low levels of job autonomy were associated to higher level of emotional exhaustion when negative (workaholic) emotions were low for the freelancers. Limitations are related to the limited sample and the cross-sectional nature of the study. Practical implications lie in considering decision-making autonomy as a double-edged sword, such that when low it could be a risk for managers and when high it could be a risk for freelancers.
... At the same time, job control can be negatively affected by organizational changes, because changed roles may also involve different rules about the delegation of tasks, the decision-making process involved in the daily work, or changes to how or when the tasks need to be done. Structural changes within an organization have been found to relate to increased role ambiguity, increased workload, and lower perceived control (Chauvin et al., 2014;Day et al., 2017). Only a few studies have focused on the mediating role of job characteristics for the relationship between organizational changes and stress and health outcomes (Bond & Bunce, 2001;Kivimäki et al., 2000;Kivimäki et al., 2001;Tvedt, Saksvik, & Nytrø, 2009), and the present study provides an important contribution in examining this relationship. ...
Article
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An intra-organizational change process involving all middle managers was studied in a public sector organization in Sweden over three time points, spanning two years in total. Using sensemaking and the person-environmental fit literature as well studies on promotion and demotion, hypotheses about the effects of managerial status loss and being offered a non-preferred role (non-preference) on change reactions (job satisfaction, turnover intentions, mental health) are made. Data from 140 middle managers was analyzed with path models, where two process factors (perceived organizational support during the change, procedural justice of the change) and two job characteristics (job demand, job control) were tested simultaneously as mediators. Results revealed that managerial status loss had negative effects on work attitudes but mental health was positively affected over time through decreased job demands. Non-preference had negative consequences for all outcome variables and these effects were mediated through lower procedural justice of the change, lower job control, and for some outcomes, lower perceived organizational support during the change. The results provide insight into how middle managers react to change, and suggest that process justice and job characteristics play an important part in shaping these reactions.
... When employees' basic psychosomatic needs are fulfilled, well-being is facilitated (Ebersold, Rahm, & Heise, 2019). Under an autonomysupportive leadership, employees experience less stress and burnout (Day, Crown, & Ivany, 2017). Where job tasks are boring, stressful, and dangerous, an autonomy-supportive leadership style provides the supportive behavior that results in improved employees' effort and reduces anxiety, lessens the impact of the unpleasant features of the work in addition to enhancing the subordinate's self-confidence (Rana et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Public service motivation is empirically proven to satisfy the psychological needs of public service employees (PSEs). However, with the new generation of PSEs, everchanging demands and innovations are constantly altering the drivers of career satisfaction and well-being. Hence, drawing on the basic psychological needs theory (BPNT), this study proposes an empirical model that investigates the determinants of the Gen-Y of PSEs' well-being and career satisfaction. Analysis of data from 217 Gen-Y public service workers suggests that autonomous-supportive leadership influences the employees' well-being and career satisfaction through the fulfillment of certain basic psychological needs. These findings not only theoretically elucidate the intricacies of the relationship between autonomy-supportive leadership, wellbeing, and career satisfaction of Nigerian Gen-Y PSEs; it also highlights the need for leadership style changes in the Nigerian public service. As unfortunately, the negative impact of the characteristic authoritarian leadership (which is relics of colonial and military governments) will be amplified among the new generation of employees.
... For example, a person who is high in neuroticism and therefore possibly predisposed to resist change is nevertheless likely to react somewhat positively to an organizational change that lowers stress or delivers valued outcomes. Conversely, even those who show significant levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience will probably resist change that is clearly unfavourable and unjust (Bareil, Savoie, & Meunier, 2007;Chawla & Kelloway, 2004;Day, Crown, & Ivany, 2017). ...
Article
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key factor in the creation and development of companies. This study examines the CEO's personal background (personality, proactivity and resistance to change) and its influence on the EO of the organization to determine which factors enhance or weaken EO. We achieve this goal through quantitative research, developing a structural equations model with partial least squares to analyse a sample of 358 Spanish SMEs from different sectors. The results suggest that specific personality dimensions exert substantial influence on the organization's EO. We also analyse individual proactivity and resistance to change as conduits for the effect of personality dimensions on the company's EO.
... Earlier research on this type of work has shown that remote working does not have to impede employees' social contacts with co-workers [38]. However, the findings are inconclusive regarding social support and its effects on psychologic well-being and job satisfaction for employees who engage in remote working in general [12,46,47]. Vander Elst et al. [12] showed that remote workers experienced lower social support from colleagues the more extensively they worked from home and that this was related to higher levels of adverse psychologic symptoms, such as cognitive stress and emotional exhaustion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Digital consultation with primary care physicians via mobile telephone apps has been spreading rapidly in Sweden since 2014. Digital consultation allows remote working because physicians can work from home, outside their traditional primary care environment. Despite the spread of digital consultation in primary care, there is a lack of knowledge concerning how the new service affects physicians’ psychosocial work environment. Previous research has focused primarily on the patients’ point of view and the cost-effectiveness of digital consultation. Hence, there is a paucity of studies from the perspective of physicians, focusing on their psychosocial work environment. The aim of this study was to investigate primary care physicians’ perceived work demands, control over working processes, and social support when providing digital consultation to primary care patients. Methods The study has a qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews conducted in Sweden in 2019. We used a purposeful sampling strategy to achieve a heterogeneous sample of physicians who represented a broad spectrum of experiences and perceptions. The interviews were conducted by video meeting, telephone, or a personal meeting, depending on what suited the participant best. The interview questions were informed by the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, which was also used as the framework to analyze the data by categorizing the physicians’ perceptions and experiences into the three categories of the model (Demand, Control, Support), in the deductive analysis of the data. Results Analysis of the data yielded 9 subcategories, which were mapped onto the 3 categories of the JDCS model. Overall, the participants saw numerous benefits with digital consultations, not only with regard to their own job situation but also for patients and the health care system in general even though they identified some shortcomings and risks with digital care. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that physicians perceive working with digital consultation as flexible with a high grade of autonomy and reasonable to low demands. According to the participants, digital consultation is not something you can work with full time if medical skills and abilities are to be maintained and developed.
... Earlier research on this type of work has shown that remote working does not have to impede employees' social contacts with co-workers [38]. However, the ndings are inconclusive regarding social support and its effects on psychologic well-being and job satisfaction for employees who engage in remote working in general [12,47,48]. Vander Elst et al. [12] showed that remote workers experienced lower social support from colleagues the more extensively they worked from home and that this was related to higher levels of adverse psychologic symptoms, such as cognitive stress and emotional exhaustion. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Digital consultation with primary care physicians via mobile telephone apps has been spreading rapidly in Sweden since 2014. Digital consultation allows remote working because physicians can work from home, outside their traditional primary care environment. Despite the spread of digital consultation in primary care, there is a lack of knowledge concerning how the new service affects physicians’ psychosocial work environment. Previous research has focused primarily on the patients’ point of view and the cost-effectiveness of digital consultation. Hence, there is a paucity of studies from the perspective of physicians, focusing on their psychosocial work environment. The aim of this study was to investigate primary care physicians’ perceived work demands, control over working processes, and social support when providing digital consultation to primary care patients. Methods: The study has a qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews conducted in Sweden in 2019. We used a purposeful sampling strategy to achieve a heterogeneous sample of physicians who represented a broad spectrum of experiences and perceptions. The interviews were conducted by video meeting, telephone, or a personal meeting, depending on what suited the participant best. The interview questions were informed by the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, which was also used as the framework to analyze the data by categorizing the physicians’ perceptions and experiences into the three categories of the model (Demand, Control, Support), in the deductive analysis of the data. Results: Analysis of the data yielded 9 subcategories, which were mapped onto the 3 categories of the JDCS model. Overall, the participants saw numerous benefits with digital consultations, not only with regard to their own job situation but also for patients and the health care system in general even though they identified some shortcomings and risks with digital care. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that physicians perceive working with digital consultation as flexible with a high grade of autonomy and reasonable to low demands. According to the participants, digital consultation is not something you can work with full time if medical skills and abilities are to be maintained and developed.
... This effort expenditure, however, is associated with physiological and psychological costs and may therefore increase emotional exhaustion (Hockey, 1997). In line with previous findings on change-related stressors (e.g., Day et al., 2017), we expect that challenge stressors arising in the course of change have positive lagged effects on strain, maybe even stronger than in a no change work environment. ...
Article
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In an effort to coalesce current occupational stress and organizational change research, the present paper examines the lagged effects of challenge stressors on employee strain and well-being using panel data from two different studies. Guided by the theoretical assumptions underlying the challenge- hindrance stressor framework, we assumed that time pressure and concentration demands are challenge stressors for employees who are not confronted with significant personal or organizational change. Data from a first study (N = 394) showed that both stressors had positive lagged effects on professional efficacy but not on emotional exhaustion. By contrast, we expected that the effects on professional efficacy are lower for employees confronted with a change. Given that organizational change requires high resource investment, we hypothesized that stressor effects depend on constraints for successful coping. Therefore, ambiguity intolerance and procrastination were considered to be moderators. Using a time-lagged quasi-experimental design (change group: N = 140; control group: N = 257), data showed that challenge stressors had positive effects on emotional exhaustion in both groups, but only positive effects on professional efficacy in the control group. Moderator analyses for the change group revealed that time pressure and concentration demands had positive effects on professional efficacy when employees were high in ambiguity tolerance and low in procrastination and negative effects when employees were low in ambiguity tolerance and high in procrastination. Overall, we provide support for positive effects of challenge stressors over time and emphasize the role of coping capabilities in the context of organizational change.
... The present study captures employee voice at two-levels: 1) employee voice with immediate supervisors, and 2) employee voice with departmental/senior leadership. Research in emergency response organizations such as fire and police has, even more so than research in traditional organizations (e.g., Fortune 500 companies), generally focused on lower leadership levels (e.g., Russell et al., 2015;Day et al., 2017;Engel, 2001). 2 Senior leadership does not interact with the day-today operations, but they establish the expectations, organizational strategies, standard operating procedures, career development opportunities, and operational tempo. It is expected that employee voice would be strongest at the immediate supervisor level, since firefighters interact with this manager most often. ...
Article
Fire departments, like other organizations that follow rigid hierarchical structures, face difficulties in being flexible or adaptive enough to address the needs generated by large and complex disaster environments. Research is lacking, however, on the ability of empowerment practices to enhance adaptive performance in emergency response organizations, which today face increasingly complex threats and growing responsibilities. The present study explores the relationships between the empowerment practices of career development opportunities , work autonomy, employee voice with two leadership levels, and department adaptive performance. Moreover, tempo balance and the empowerment practices are tested for interactive effects, a measure we developed to capture firefighter stress and fatigue from excessive mandatory overtime policies. Data were collected from 756 United States firefighters located on the west coast. The results show that the empowerment practices enhance adaptive performance by helping firefighters respond to unpredictable aspects of their work environment. In addition, tempo balance moderates career development opportunities, work autonomy, and adaptive performance, specifically. The findings show that firefighters are better able to overcome stress and fatigue during complex incidents by relying on their training and ability to improvise, meaning these empowerment practices help compensate for poor tempo balance in fire departments from ineffective scheduling.
... Organizational change is a double-edged sword, as it is required for organizational viability (Day et al., 2017) but it is found to impact the workforce negatively and finds resistance (Oreg, 2006). Not surprisingly, planned organizational change often results in failure (Werkman, 2009). ...
Article
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The current study in a blue‐collar context investigates whether a job crafting intervention may facilitate employee adaptation to organizational change, while decreasing exhaustion and increasing positive attitudes towards change and safety behaviour. It was hypothesized that the intervention would increase job crafting behaviours (i.e., seeking resources, seeking challenges, and optimizing demands) resulting in decreased employee exhaustion, and improved change attitudes and employee safety behaviour (i.e., adherence to organization’s standard operating procedures). The quasi‐experimental study revealed that, after the intervention (consisting of a workshop, four weeks of job crafting implementation, and an evaluative session), employees reported an increase in two of the three trained job crafting strategies (i.e., seeking challenges, optimizing demands). Moreover, those who participated in the intervention reported lower levels of exhaustion, improved cognitive and behavioural attitudes towards change, and increased safety behaviour. The intervention was found to improve the affective, cognitive, and behavioural components of a change attitude due to increases in seeking challenges. Results were similar after controlling for quality information and leadership behaviour during the change. It is concluded that a job crafting intervention and resulting job crafting behaviour can be an effective way to achieve successful adaptation to organizational change.
... Notwithstanding all the studies, unsuccessful E-CRM adoptions remain high. Many researchers found that 60% of E-CRM adoption are viewed as unsuccessful in developing countries and only 40% are considered successful [62]; [63]. Previous researchers have determined critical success factors of E-CRM [48]; [64]- [68]. ...
Article
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Electronic customer relationship management (E-CRM) is a modern tool to secure and maintain competitive advantage that focuses on customers. Telecommunication companies nowadays are attentive to the employees, in their effort to enhance job satisfaction through the development of E-CRM. This study aims to integrate theories for a development model to enhance employee satisfaction in telecommu-nication companies that employed the method of summarizing theoretical reviews. This study contributed to the knowledge in the domain of E-CRM and the success factors in organizations. Therefore, it is important to improve a readily available model that combines every theory that correlated with the current study. The adopted model in telecommunication companies ensures the successful adoption of E-CRM that affects employee satisfaction and enhances individual performance. Additionally, this study contributed to the improvement of an integrated model that combines technology, organization, and individual factors influencing telecommunication companies in developing countries.
... Fra arbejdsmiljøforskningen er det velkendt, at manglende kontrol og autonomi i arbejdet kan have en negativ indvirkning på arbejdsmiljøet. Det beskrives blandt andet, hvordan kontrol er vigtigt for et langt og sundt arbejdsliv (Dyreborg et al., 2018;Knardahl et al., 2017;Sundstrup et al., 2018) og at det mindsker risikoen for stress og udbraendthed (Day et al., 2017). Det er desuden påvist, hvordan uregelmaessige arbejdsskemaer kan medføre ustabilitet i indkomsten, en højere grad af arbejdsrelateret stress og sammenstød i familie-og arbejdsliv (Golden, 2015;Lambert et al., 2014). ...
Book
The digital revolution is continuously giving rise to new ways of working via digital platforms (Huws, 2015), which predominantly young people engage in (Garben, 2017; Popescu et al., 2018). These new forms of work challenge our understanding of work, as well as, how work is traditionnally organised (Coyle, 2017; Huws, 2015; Ilsøe, 2017). A key concept for these new developments is the platform economy, which is a term for various business models in which commercial plat-forms act as intermediaries between workers and customers (Ilsøe & Madsen, 2017; Rasmussen et al., 2017). Similarly, social media platforms create opportunities for new types of work (Slots- og Kulturstyrelsen, 2018). The main purpose of the project has been to create knowledge about young people's work in the new digital labour markets, these young people's working environment, and to investigate what instruments can target the challenges these young people face. We have been interested in investigating paid employment among young people under age 30, mediated by digital technologies, and is performed on or through digital platforms or markets. The project is the first of its kind in Den-mark. The results are based on in-depth interviews with 20 young people under 30, who work as platform workers via digital labour platforms, gamers, YouTubers, bloggers and digital nomads. The project has been conducted as a collaborative project with inspiration from the Canadian Knowledge-Transfer-Exchange Model (KTE model) (Van Eerd, 2017) and the research method 'research circles’ (Persson, 2009). Thus, all phases of the project have been developed in close dialogue with practitioners and through six workshops, in which we collaborated with stake-holders within the new digital labour markets. The project contributes with insight into what working environment problems particularly derive from the digital aspect of the work and the new organisation of work via the digital platforms. The insights can be summarised in the following points: • The work in the digital labour markets challenge the traditional organisation of work, as there is often neither an employer nor an employee in a traditional sense. Workers are considered and treated as self-employed. The work is characterised by being highly indivi-dualised and deregulated. • Work via digital platforms thus challenge the traditional two-sided employment relation-ship between an employer and employee; the employment relationship is instead consti-tuted by 3 to 5 actors, of which at least one is a digital platform. Thus, the employment relationship is 3- to 5-sided. • Due to the opaqueness in these employment relations the young workers often lack know-ledge of the responsibility which is delegated to them as self-employed. (In general, and in relation to the working environment). • Digital labour platforms use algorithms to match, rank, and sort jobs and workers. In this way, the labour platforms have delegated management from humans to algorithms. The algorithmic control mechanisms are often experienced as non-transparent by the young workers. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the platforms’ control mechanisms affect the workers’ ‘job control’ and ‘schedule control’ (Wheatley, 2017). From occupational health and safety research, it is well-known that lack of control and autonomy in the work can have a negative impact the working environment. • Young people with platform work receive no or very limited training and introduction. • The young people particularly tell about psychosocial working environment issues, such as blurring of boundaries between work and private life and the lack of colleagues. • Platform work requires a great level of emotional labour (Hochschild, 2012), which in some cases can be experienced as stressful. Within this, the work requires special efforts to uphold a boundary between the professional self and the private self. • The decisive factor in how young people relate to their digitally mediated work, is the stage of their transition process into the labour market. One of the main results of the project is the development of a categorisation of young people employed in the digital labour markets. The categorisation provides an overview of the different forms of work in the new digital labour markets that the young people in our data material participate in. The categories provide insights into how the work integrates in the young people's life situation; how young people relate to their work and working environment; as well as, what working environment problems they experience in the different forms of work in the digital labour market. The categories are: 1. Student worker via digital labour platforms 2. Sabbatical year worker via digital labour platforms 3. Young worker setting off as self-employed on the labour market via digital labour platforms 4. Young people with limited success on social media platforms 5. Extremely successful young people with a social media brand 6. Young people with a media platform as a professionalised hobby. On a general level, the categorisation shows that the work in the digital labour markets plays a very different role in the lives of young people and that the young people have different time perspectives in the work. The work in the digital labour markets is special precisely because it can be carried out while the young people are under education, or while they have other forms of paid employment. The categorisation reflects that age is not always a decisive factor in how young people relate to their digitally mediated work, but instead it is the stage of their transition process into the labour market, that must be regarded as the decisive factor. For all the digitally mediated forms of work which the young workers engage in, the physical working environment depends primarily on the nature of the work, and is unaffiliated with the digital mediation of the tasks. Especially in relation to strain injuries and the risk of accidents it is critical whether the work is done online or offline. The tasks that young people obtain through the digital labour platforms are, for example, cleaning, childcare, copywriting or translation work. The work is often done in the same way as if the young person was employed by an employer within a traditional labour organisation. Therefore, workers are also exposed to the same health and safety risks that we know from traditional payroll labour. However, the risk of work-related accidents and injuries might be more prevalent in platform work due to the temporary and task defined nature of the work which is known to correlate with the risk of injuries (Garben, 2017). In addition, the digital dimension of the work creates a number of risks that are added to these well-known risks. These risks are described in the individual tables in the result section of the report. Here the reader also finds six characters of young workers who work in different areas of the digital labour market, which exemplifies the six categories. Across the categories we see that the young workers tell about limited opportunities for long-term planning, which is experienced as stressful by some workers. While many of the young people who work on different forms of social media platforms tell about a considerable risk of harassment and threats from followers. The qualitative data material are comprised of 20 interviews and materials from the collaborative research process and exchanges with stakeholders in the platform economy, and has provided the basis for mapping types of digital work as well as the types of risk and mechanisms associated with these types of work. However, it is not possible to say anything about how widespread the identified occupational health and safety problems are among this group of workers. We hope to be able to map this knowledge in the future with the developed questionnaire on working environment and health among employees on digital platforms. On several occasions during the project’s collaborative research process, the stakeholder discussed the consequences of the current working environment organisation that lacks the ability to accommodate atypical forms of employment. This means that new business models and forms of employments, at best, challenge the existing Danish Working Environment Act, and, at worst, have the consequence that workers on digital labour platforms in many cases are excluded, and there-fore have limited benefits from the resources and structures provided by the working environment system. The report presents a number of recommendations developed by the stakeholders who participated in the collaborative research process and additional recommendations from the project's researchers. Recommendations include information and advice to young people about the conditions that apply to the digital platforms, as well as the responsibilities delegated to them under current legislation. In addition, the recommendations cover suggestions on how digital platforms may incorporate occupational health and safety considerations into the design of the platforms.
... Karasek suggests that more worker participation and control over their work situation leads to less stress among workers. Following this perspective, a number of studies find that autonomy and control in work are pivotal factors in worker experiences of work-related stress (Bjarte et al. 2005;Thompson et al. 2006), burnout (Day et al. 2017), anxiety and depression (Bjarte et al. 2005), and in better worker health (Bond & Bruce 2003). ...
Article
Drawing on interviews with 12 young adults in the Danish digital labor market, this article investigates how young workers on digital labor platforms experience the tension between ‘algorithmic management’ and autonomy. Digital labor platforms promise autonomy to workers, but the study shows that the platforms in varying degrees exert control over the labor process in different stages of the work. The inherent non-transparency of the algorithmic management systems makes it difficult for the young workers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the platforms. While the young workers’ autonomy in some important ways is restricted by the algorithmic management systems, the young workers have all chosen the platform work because they feel that it allows them to control where and when they work. We propose the conceptualization ‘the double autonomy paradox of young workers’ to describe this phenomenon.
... Individuals could benefit from strong social connectivity and then increase their possibility of having a higher level of PMH (Tajvar et al., 2018). More decision control and social support in the workplace can be viewed as central resources to fulfill job targets and improve employees' wellbeing (Day et al., 2017). Notably, we found statistically significant differences in path coefficients across different socio-demographic groups. ...
Article
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The present study aimed to investigate the mediating effect of social support in the relationship between decision authority and positive mental health as well as the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics closely related to this relationship among working populations. Data analyzed was from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health 2012. A total of 15,867 individuals with complete information on past 12-month work experience prior to the data collection were included in this study. Mediation analysis suggested that social support could partially mediate the association between decision authority and positive mental health. Multiple group analysis indicated that the higher mediation effect of social support was more likely to be reported by males, people from middle- and high-income groups, and those doing service and white-collar jobs. Findings on roles of social support and socio-demographic characteristics in the relationship between decision authority and positive mental health could lay the groundwork to articulate and develop effective strategies to promote positive mental health in the workforce.
... 3. Certificate: The majority of the sample members are holders of bachelor's degree, with 36.1% of the sample being followed by the technical diploma certificate, 34%, and 25.5% (4.2%). 4. Duration of service: It was found that the majority of the sample of those who had served in the job less than (10) years, where they accounted for (70.2%) followed by the category (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) years in second place and by 27.6% 20 years and over) ranked last by (2.2%). ...
... Neste trabalho, as relações com a exaustão e com o cinismo são moderadas ou bem perto disso. Embora a pesquisa de Day et al. [9] seja sobre um constructo mais amplo que o utilizado nesta pesquisa, mudanças organizacionais, e em um contexto diferente (saúde) o resultado deste trabalho difere do apresentado pelos autores nas três dimensões do burnout, com exceção da relação da instabilidade da tarefa e a eficácia. ...
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RESUMO Mudanças são comuns durante o processo de desenvolvimento de software. Essas mudanças podem aumentar a percepção de instabi-lidade dos desenvolvedores de software. Entender a relação entre essa percepção fatores humanos que estão presentes o processo é importante para tentar mitigar e prevenir problemas. Um desses fatores é o burnout. O burnout é considerado uma doença que pode impactar em diversos fatores na Engenharia de Software, como a produtividade, o turnover, mas principalmente a saúde dos de-senvolvedores. Portanto, entender a relação da instabilidade e do burnout pode ajudar os envolvidos a prevenir e montar estrategias para que os desenvolvedores possam se sentirem melhores e, con-sequentemente, produzirem mais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo principal identificar e descrever as relações entre instabilidade e o burnout na percepção dos membros que participam do processo de desenvolvimento de software. Para chegar neste objetivo foi realizado um survey cross-section que teve sua amostragem por conveniência, com 411 respondentes, em que os participantes foram selecionados por autosseleção. Além de identificar relações entre as variáveis, também foram aplicadas técnicas de análise fatorial confirmatória. Os principais resultados deste trabalho são: A relação entre a percepção do burnout e a instabilidade da equipe, tecnoló-gica e da tarefa, que é positiva e significativa para as dimensões da exaustão e do cinismo. Para a dimensão da eficácia, ela foi negativa e fraca com as instabilidades tecnológicas e da equipe e não existe com a instabilidade da tarefa. Além disso, a exaustão é percebida com maior frequência pelos entrevistados. Já a instabilidade com maior percepção de frequência pelos praticantes é a da tarefa. Os re-sultados encontrados são importantes, pois, tanto o mercado quanto a academia podem guiar seus esforços para diminuir a percepção do burnout e da instabilidade nos engenheiros de software. Ademais, novas pesquisas podem ser realizadas buscando verificar o impacto da instabilidade sobre os desenvolvedores, trazendo uma nova pers-pectiva de monitorar a percepção da instabilidade no contexto de desenvolvimento de software. Estudos sobre Aspectos humanos também são importantes para o contexto da Engenharia de Software [19], pois podem ajudar a entender como os engenheiros de software respondem às deman-das do seu trabalho e a como ter um ambiente de trabalho mais adequado. Um desses aspectos é o do burnout de trabalho, que pode ser definido como uma síndrome em que os estressores de um trabalho alteram as respostas às atribuições de tarefas de maneiras negativas [27]. Como consequência do burnout, os indivíduos têm comportamen-tos destrutivos como conflitos pessoais, cansaço, bem como eventos organizacionais indesejados, tal qual a rotatividade, o absenteísmo e a redução do desempenho no trabalho [46]. O burnout é um constructo investigado em diferentes áreas, como da saúde, devido a seu impacto no trabalho e à quantidade de pessoas diagnosticadas com a síndrome. Um exemplo disso é o relatório do Gallup, com uma amostra de 7.500 trabalhadores de diversas áreas afirma que cerca de 23% têm sintomas de burnout todos os dias[48]. Em algumas situações, em determinadas profissões, como médicos e enfermeiros, esse número pode chegar até a 82% [20]. A saúde do trabalhador pode ser afetada negativamente pelo burnout do trabalho. Para Salvagioni et al. [37], existem riscos à saúde que o burnout ajuda a maximizar, como diabetes tipo 2, pro-blemas no coração, depressão, insônia, uso de drogas e problemas intestinais. Recentemente, a OMS classificou o burnout no traba-lho como uma doença com o lançamento do CID-11 (Classificação Internacional de Doenças). O burnout não é só um problema de saúde pública, como também um problema econômico. Em um estudo promovido por Sicking [42], cerca de dez por cento dos dias de licença médica na Alemanha foram causados por problemas de burnout, gerando, assim, alto custo e reduzindo os lucros. Em computação, em 2001, Huarng [14] investigou a incidência de burnout do trabalho e encontrou que ao menos 39% dos respon-dentes tinham pelo menos uma das dimensões do burnout muito elevada, indicando, assim, que possuíam burnout, resultado seme-lhante a Cook [5] em 2015.
... It is also associated with a tendency towards self-criticism [31], which is exacerbated by the increased responsibility derived from the peer-to-peer nature of platform work. It has been concluded that direct contact with clients or customers, together with the constant monitoring of activity, are features directly related to burnout [32]. Burnout implies an emotional deterioration of the employed population, together with a tendency towards the depersonalisation of the individuals, and, finally, a deterioration of mental health and health in general [33]. ...
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In the publication Uses of work and forms of governance: precarious work as a tool of discipline Alonso and Fernández [1] discuss a concept that is relevant in order to understand the roots of precarious work. It consists of observing the phenomenon of precarious work in disciplinary terms. These authors argue that: “in order for the worker to fulfil the company’s objectives, the need is not to supervise them, but for them to be responsible for their own supervision” [1] (p. 235). We know precarious employment as “a means for employers to shift risks and responsibilities on to workers” [2] (p. 30), a definition specified by Vosko as “one characterised by uncertainty, low pay and limited social benefits” [3] (p. 2). The conditions that we consider to be the hallmarks of precariousness are based on this conceptual corpus: temporary employment, involuntary part-time work, low pay or the deterioration of working conditions [4–7]. These elements have been deeply analysed, and their detrimental effects on welfare are widely debated [8]. Because of the conceptual breadth involved, the International Labour Organization (ILO) documentation has begun to introduce the term ‘atypical employment’ to refer to all forms of employment that are the opposite of standardised employment [9]. Standardised employment is assumed to be the one culturally desired by the population, though there are two considerations: atypical employment is so widespread and varied that it requires greater specificity in order to define the phenomena of precariousness more accurately. At present, only 25% of the world’s workers are in what could be considered standardised employment [10]. Secondly, understanding precarious employment means understanding that it has an interactive dimension with the rest of the spheres of life and thus generates precarious lives [11]. These elements come together in the idea of the discipline of precariousness, which helps to understand the neoliberal discursive dimension that legitimises employment in poor conditions: given the scarcity of employment, it begins to be seen as a privilege which, however hard the conditions, should not be given up [12].
... In sum, they feel like they are not reaching their goals. Day et al. (2017) also mentioned in their study employee burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, for example employees having a negative, cynical attitude about their jobs and lower professional efficacy that is to say that employees usually consider their task accomplishments in a negative way and all of these are the main outcomes of CWBs in organizations. ...
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This study mainly focuses on the employee behaviors which are dealt with the counterproductive work behavior (CWB) that jeopardizes the legitimate interests of an organization by leading to two major negative outcomes in the end, such as higher levels of employee turnover and employee burnout. CWBs not only harm the individuals in organizations or customers but also lead to huge hidden costs for the organization such as affecting the organizational and individual performance in a negative way, hampering to reach organizational goals and the loss of organizational reputation. Hence, since CWBs cover harmful behaviors that violate the norms for appropriate behavior in organizations, if they are overlooked or the necessary precautions aren’t taken at the beginning, just like within the perspective of the broken windows theory, they become bigger and bigger problems that are hard to solve in organizations. To sum up, in this study, the CWBs that are the antecedents of employee burnout and employee turnover will be outlined and in the conclusion section, the solutions and the recommendations will be made in order to reduce the negative effects of CWBs in organizations.
... Based on (Hackman & Oldman, 1980) job characteristics model and (Karasek Jr, 1979), job control refers to having autonomy and control over one's job and has been associated with improved psychological health and positive outcomes (Dubois et al., 2014;Kuoppala et al., 2008). Employees' degree of autonomy or decision authority over tasks and control over their jobs have a profound impact on their stress level, health and occupational wellbeing, motivation and productivity (Day, Crown, & Ivany, 2017;Fila, Purl, & Griffeth, 2017;Ganster & Fusilier, 1989). Thus, job control allows employees to intervene when facing high job demands and reduce potential resource loss. ...
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Drawing from the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and job characteristics model (JCM), this study examined the relationship between emergency rescue workers’ surface acting and turnover intentions through emotional exhaustion. We hypothesized that task significance is a pertinent boundary condition that attenuates the surface acting–emotional exhaustion relationship. We also introduced job control as another boundary condition in the emotional exhaustion–turnover intentions relationship. Three-wave data gathered from 256 emergency rescue workers revealed that participants’ surface acting increased their emotional exhaustion which triggered their intention to quit. Task significance was found to moderate the surface acting–emotional exhaustion relationship, such that the interaction effect at medium and high levels drastically reduces the exhaustion level of emergency workers. Individuals with high job control show high turnover intentions in the case of those with medium and high emotional exhaustion. These findings have significant implications for human resource management research and practice, especially around job design for those emergency rescue workers likely serving as emotional laborers.
... Consequently, the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the employees' adaptation to new working conditions and increased job demands. Therefore, DT in these conditions can be a substantial source of stress in the workplace (Day et al., 2012(Day et al., , 2017Tarafdar et al., 2015;Legner et al., 2017) for some employees (Tims et al., 2012). ...
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Generally, the solutions based on information and communication technologies (ICT) provide positive outcomes for both companies and employees. However, the process of digital transformation (DT) can be the cause of digital transformation stress (DTS), when the work demands caused by fast implementation of ICT are elevated and employees’ resources are limited. Based on the Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) Model we claim that DT, rapidly accelerating in the COVID-19 pandemic, can increase the level of DTS and general stress at work. To reduce these negative effects of DTS, we propose the online intervention aimed to strengthen employees’ resources, such as self-efficacy. In this article we evaluate the effectiveness of the blended intervention, based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and social cognitive therapy, composed of a prototyped online training (e-stressless) and series of interactive online workshops. In a longitudinal study, we examined the change in DTS, perceived stress at work, attitudes toward DT, self-efficacy and burnout in two time points, before and after the intervention. We compared five groups of participants (558 in total), three groups not qualified (n = 417), and two groups qualified to intervention (n = 141). Our results revealed that the designed blended intervention decreased DTS and one of the dimensions of burnout, namely disengagement. More specifically, the results showed that in the group of active participants of the blended intervention DTS significantly decreased [MT1 = 3.23, MT2 = 3.00, t(432) = 1.96, p = 0.051], and in the group of ineligible participants DTS significantly increased [MT1 = 1.76, MT2 = 2.02, t(432) = 4.17, p < 0.001]. This research paves way for the creation of blended online intervention which could help in addressing employee digital transformation stress before it starts having adverse effects on employee performance and well-being.
... Workplace stressors can lead to job burnout, and job burnout is a kind of psychological reaction to long-term exposure to stressors. Organizational change in the changing environment may form new work stressors, which will lead to negative health consequences for employees (Day et al., 2017;White et al., 2020). Chen and Ye (2020) constructed a conceptual model of young employees' job burnout to clarify the influencing factors and structural dimensions of young employees' job burnout. ...
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Employee safety behavior is critical for occupational health in work environments threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, the widespread and increasingly serious job burnout of employees is a complex and difficult problem for enterprises to handle during any epidemic. Therefore, it is helpful to identify and discuss job burnout and other main psychological factors that affect safety behavior to find appropriate solutions. Using the PLS-SEM method, the study explored the relationship between job burnout and safety behavior against the epidemic, as well as the mediating role of psychological contract. According to the local guidelines for controlling COVID-19, this study revised the safety behavior scale. Data were collected by structured questionnaires in May to July 2020 from Chinese employees ( N = 353) who resumed their work after the outbreak of the pandemic. The findings confirmed that job burnout has a negative impact on safety behavior, and psychological contract play a partial mediating role in mitigating the negative impact. Specifically, the transaction dimension and relationship dimension of psychological contract negatively affected safety behavior while the development dimension of the psychological contract was not directly related to safety behavior. It is suggested that enterprises should take effective measures to reduce employees’ job burnout and implement flexible psychological contract management and intervention, so as to effectively improve the performance of work safety behavior. Based on the multidimensional model, the findings of this study shed light on promoting safety behavior to prevent the spread of epidemics.
... 3. Certificate: The majority of the sample members are holders of bachelor's degree, with 36.1% of the sample being followed by the technical diploma certificate, 34%, and 25.5% (4.2%). 4. Duration of service: It was found that the majority of the sample of those who had served in the job less than (10) years, where they accounted for (70.2%) followed by the category (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) years in second place and by 27.6% 20 years and over) ranked last by (2.2%). ...
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The study tackled the impact of the attitudes of individuals in organizations toward organizational change. Organizational change has become one of the most important issues that concern organizations. The change is the only constant in the work of organizations. The organization is an open system imposed on it to ensure its stability and growth. Light of the opportunities and challenges of the environment in which it is active. The importance of research is based on its theoretical and applied content on the subject of organizational change and its impact on the objectives of the organization. In this research, we address the theoretical and philosophical framework of the subjects of individuals' attitudes and organizational change. The fact that the individual working in the organization is a fundamental part of the organization is part of the objectives of the organization. On the influential role of individual attitudes towards organizational change. The research included a group of employees at various administrative levels. The data and data were collected through a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. The data were processed using computerized statistical methods. The research came out with a set of conclusions and recommendations that answer the research questions and hypotheses, which states: What are the dimensions of variation in attitudes taken by individuals in the face of organizational change?
... We know from the founding figures of the theory of professional stress, Karasek and Theorell (1990) and later Siegrist (1998), that autonomy, social support, higher demands and discrepancies between effort and reward are determinants of workplace wellbeing. In the context of neoliberal reforms, healthcare professional's occupational welfare is primarily threatened by two overarching factors of professional distress (Lornudd et al., 2015;Vézina and St-Arnaud, 2011): a deficit in managerial support (Blackstock et al., 2015) and a reduced job control (discretionary autonomy) (Wilson, 2015;Day et al., 2017). While highly relevant, the available literature offers limited insight into the lived experience of healthcare social workers outside individual determinants of well-being. ...
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This study examined the lived experience of Canadian clinical social workers in light of the organizational context in which they work. The literature indicates an alarming rise of occupational psychological distress in social workers, which aligns with the rise of the neoliberal ideology within the Canadian healthcare sector. While we know that organizational constraints and structural reforms affect social worker's workplace well-being, it remains unclear how these changes are represented by front-line practitioners and how they affect the provision of social services in healthcare settings. To deepen our understanding of this issue, we conducted a thematic analysis of thirty semi-directed interviews with social workers currently practicing in three Canadian cities (Ottawa, Moncton and Winnipeg). Discussions of daily work life, responsibilities, autonomy and subjective understandings of the social worker's role revealed which organizational constraints were the most significant in everyday practice and how they relate to their professional identity and mandate. Provincial healthcare reforms were generally found to have negative effects on clinical social workers, whose struggles for recognition were impaired by the fundamentally neoliberal ideologies behind the large-scale restructuring of service provision, themselves at odds with the humanistic principles of social work. Our findings further suggest that structural changes under the New Public Management frame could be detrimental to both the quality of services provided by clinical social workers and their well-being. Overall, this investigation highlights the importance of organizational improvements in the workplace through systemic changes that would concurrently target managerial expectations, resources allocation, autonomy, work-life balance and respect for professional values.
... Few studies have analysed the impact of innovation on workers' well-being. Rather, the literature focuses on organisational changes or restructuring (Day et al., 2017;Denton & Davies, 2003), concerns about change (Guidetti et al., 2018) or management innovation (Bryson et al., 2009) as impacting health negatively. In the homecare sector, 'WISDOM Research' showed that working within innovations improves job satisfaction if a workplace innovation regarding work organisation is implemented (Casini et al., 2018). ...
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Innovative programs that emerge in response to the rapidly changing care needs of older adults provide an opportunity to study the transformations in working and employment conditions within the homecare sector. This study seeks to understand how innovations introduced in the homecare sector have affected the well‐being of homecare workers providing non‐medical domestic support to older adults who wish to age in place. Our study is based on a participatory approach involving homecare workers exposed to two innovations in Wallonia (Belgium) that relate to flexible working hours, worker training, and technological equipment. We conducted a literature review, six semi‐structured individual interviews with managers, and eight workshops based on the ‘Group Analysis Method’ involving 9 to 12 homecare workers. The results revealed that the innovations deteriorated working conditions, intensified occupational psychosocial risk factors, and impacted work‐life balance. This gave rise to tensions that ultimately had a negative impact on the well‐being of workers and on the quality of their care relationship with older adults/caregivers, while also weakening the viability of the services. The workers proposed some avenues to improve and regulate these tensions.
... While studies have documented the impact of change-related demands (or stressors) on employee reactions to change (e.g. Chauvin et al., 2014;Day et al., 2017), the dual nature (i.e. hindrance vs challenge) of such demands has been largely ignored. ...
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Purpose Organizational change is usually stressful and destabilizing for employees, for whom coping with the induced stress is primordial to commit to the change. This paper aims to unravel how and when change recipients can enact different coping strategies and, ultimately, manifest different forms of commitment to change. Design/methodology/approach We propose a theoretical model that identifies challenge appraisal and hindrance appraisal as two primary appraisals of organizational change that fuel, respectively, proactive and preventive coping strategies and, indirectly, affective and normative forms of commitment to change. Moreover, this framework suggests that coping strategies and commitment are influenced by the secondary appraisal of two vital resources – resilience and POS – allowing individuals to react effectively to primary change-related appraisals. Finally, the relationship between coping strategies and the components of commitment to change is proposed to be moderated by employees' regulatory focus. Findings Using appraisal theory and conservation of resources theory as guiding frameworks, our integrated model describes the antecedents, processes and boundary conditions associated with coping with the stress of organizational change and how they ultimately influence commitment to it. Originality/value This is the first theoretical paper to identify a conditional dual path to disclose the different reactions that change recipients can manifest in response to the stressful aspects of organizational change.
... Teams at work constitute particularly relevant groups, because they offer individuals comparable perspectives and thus validation of thoughts and feelings [56,57], which could reduce the effect that worries have on depressive complaints. Indeed, studies show that social support helps individuals cope better with stress [58,59], prevents moral injury [60] and burnout [61,62], and buffers COVID-19 worries' negative effect on health [63]. Therefore, team social climate is expected to function as an important contextual resource in preserving psychological health, by buffering the effect of worries about infections on depressive complaints (Hypothesis 3b). ...
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Maintaining hospital workers' psychological health is essential for hospitals' capacities to sustain organizational functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers' personal resilience can be an important factor in preserving psychological health, but how this exactly works in high stakes situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, requires further exploration. Similarly, the role of team social climate as contributor to individual psychological health seems obvious, but how it exactly prevents workers from developing depressive complaints in prolonged crises remains under investigated. The present paper therefore applies conservation of resources theory to study the relationships between resilience, team social climate, and depressive complaints, specifically focus-ing on worries about infections as an important explanatory mechanism. Based on questionnaire data of 1126 workers from five hospitals in the Netherlands during the second peak of the pandemic, this paper estimates a moderated-mediation model. This model shows that personal resilience negatively relates to depressive complaints (β = −0.99, p < 0.001, 95%CI = −1.45-−0.53), partially as personal resilience is negatively associated with worries about infections (β = −0.42, p < 0.001, 95%CI = −0.50-−0.33) which in turn are positively related to depressive complaints (β = 0.75, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.31-1.19). Additionally, team social climate is associated with a lower effect of worries about being infected and infecting others on depressive complaints (β = −0.88, p = 0.03, 95% CI = −1.68-−0.09). These findings suggest that resilience can be an important individual level resource in preventing depressive complaints. Moreover, the findings imply that hospitals have an important responsibility to maintain a good team social climate to shield workers from infection related worries building up to depressive complaints.
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Based on a three-year inductive field study of an attempt at radical change in a large firm, I show how middle managers displayed two seemingly opposing emotion-management patterns that facilitated beneficial adaptation for their work groups: (1) emotionally committing to personally championed change projects and (2) attending to recipients' emotions. Low emotional commitment to change led to organizational inertia, whereas high commitment to change with little attending to recipients' emotions led to chaos. The enactment of both patterns constituted emotional balancing and facilitated organizational adaptation: change, continuity in providing quality in customer service, and developing new knowledge and skills. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Administrative Science Quarterly is the property of Administrative Science Quarterly and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Organizational transitions may be difficult to implement if employees resist the change. 'Participation' and 'education' (Kotter and Schlesinger, 1979) are hypothesized to enhance commitment to change, however mechanisms for those effects are unclear. In a sample of employees from seven relocated organizations, a test of our model showed that the effects of justification (a form of education) on intent to remain are mediated by outcome and procedural fairness judgements. Voice (a form of participation) showed no effects on fairness judgments, perhaps because employees did not expect voice in relocation decisions. Supplementary analyses yielded no evidence for direct effects of voice and justification on intention to remain. The findings extend our understanding of fairness to transition settings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Organizational Behavior is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Mental health treatment of military service members places unique demands on providers as their patients experience combat stress. This study assessed levels and predictors of burnout among mental health providers (N = 97) at military facilities, using a self-administered survey of demographic and work-related measures and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Burnout levels were comparable to studies of civilian mental health providers but were less severe than those of the Maslach Burnout Inventory normative sample. Working more hours, having more patients with personality disorders, increased patient caseloads, female gender, and being a psychiatrist were predictive of higher burnout scores. Having more confidants at work, a greater percentage of patients with traumatic brain injury, more clinical experience, and being a psychologist predicted lower burnout scores. These findings suggest that burnout levels among military providers are similar to those among civilian providers and may be alleviated by interventions targeting general institutional risk factors.
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The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.
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The Maslact Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a copyrighted instrument that must be obtained directly from the publisher, Mindgarden, Inc. For details about how to obtain the MBI and its Manual, please visit the Mindgarden website using the link shown below. MINDGARDEN WEBSITE FOR MBI: http://www.mindgarden.com/117-maslach-burnout-inventory?utm_source=MBI+and+AWS+Customers&utm_campaign=0a742675a1-MBI_Manual_Fourth_Edition_Release8_23_2017&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_1118b1ac54-0a742675a1-43999273 Please note that the company offers special pricing for students, making it very affordable. For details about how to obtain permission to use the MBI for your research as a student, please visit the Mind Garden website using the link shown below. MINDGARDEN WEBSITE FOR MBI, use by students: http://www.mindgarden.com/content/14-researcher-student If you have any questions, you can contact Mindgarden directly by visiting this website: https://www.mindgarden.com/contact-us
Chapter
Organizational role stress All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages. The study of role stress perhaps really began before or during the time of Shakespeare when Shakespeare's Jacques so poignantly noted, prior to Orlando's entrance onto the stage with Adam, that we are all mere actors playing multiple roles on the stages of life. On our various stages, we take upon ourselves different roles to play, and it is the expectations of others around us (e.g., supervisors and coworkers) rather than those of a playwright and audience that guide our behaviors on the stage set of the workplace. Even Shakespeare's Macbeth states that “life's but a walking shadow, a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage.” Here, Macbeth is ...
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Conservation of resources (COR) theory proposes that both individual characteristics and environmental factors predict stress reactions, but does not consider interactions between individual variables and the immediate social context. Using theories regarding the frog-pond effect, which relates to how an individual perceives themselves in relation to that of those around them, and relative deprivation, we tested the hypothesis that employees who were personally more affected by a potential stressor, yet were in an organizational unit less affected by that stressor, would report more negative outcomes than employees who were subjected to the same stress but were in more affected units. Utilizing multilevel modelling and departmental- and individual-level data from a university experiencing severe budget cuts, it was found that both individual perceived budget cut impacts and departmental impacts were related to less job satisfaction, reduced affective commitment, greater perceptions of psychological contract breach and increased turnover intentions, supporting COR theory. Interestingly, as predicted by the frog-pond effect and relative deprivation theory, affected academic staff within departments that were less affected by the cuts had more negative responses than equally impacted individuals in more affected departments. We concluded that the frog-pond effect is relevant to work stress research and practice.
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Organizational change and restructuring is often perceived as leading to increased occupational stress, impacting negatively on the psychological well-being of employees. This pragmatic study investigates the role of social support and dispositional affect as moderators of role stress post-restructuring for employees in a public utility company. A total of 176 employees, including 37 managers, 60 graded staff and 78 industrial staff completed a self-report questionnaire, approximately 1 year postrestructuring, retrospectively assessing role conflict, ambiguity, overload and positive and negative feedback pre- and post-restructuring. Results suggested that overall role stress increased for managers/ senior officers and graded staff, but not for industrial staff. Social support was linked with lower role stress, more positive feedback and less negative feedback at post-restructuring. For certain role stressors this impact was moderated by dispositional affect, but the effect was not consistent across occupational groups. Positive affect enhanced the effect of manager support in reducing role conflict for graded staff, and the effect of co-worker support in increasing positive feedback and reducing negative feedback for industrial staff. Findings suggest that managers should pay particular attention to support and feedback for employees during periods of chronic occupational stress following organizational restructuring.
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Recovering substance abuse therapists had a higher sense of personal accomplishment than nonrecovering therapists. Therapists who had more social support had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. Length of service was related to greater depersonalization and greater personal accomplishment. Burnout was strongly associated with occupational stress. Personal stress was associated with depersonalization.
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Evidence is presented that (a) employees in an organization form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, (b) such perceived organizational support reduces absenteeism, and (c) the relation between perceived organizational support and absenteeism is greater for employees with a strong exchange ideology than those with a weak exchange ideology. These findings support the social exchange view that employees’ commitment to the organization is strongly influenced by their perception of the organization’s commitment to them. Perceived organizational support is assumed to increase the employee’s affective attachment to the organization and his or her expectancy that greater effort toward meeting organizational goals will be rewarded. The extent to which these factors increase work effort wou