A comparison of the effectiveness of commercial and natural carbohydrate–electrolyte drinks

  • Poznań University of Physical Education
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare a natural carbohydrate-electrolyte drink (ND), containing salt, banana, water, pineapple juice, lemon juice, and honey, with a commercially available sports drink (CD) in terms of their effectiveness at hydrating and their effects on the maintenance of blood glucose levels and changes in the level of biochemical parameters of the blood. Equipment and methods: The study involved 11 rowers with an average age of 18.0. ±. 2.0 and an average of 3.8. ±. 1.4 years training. Their basic anthropometric and fitness parameters were measured. Then, in two sessions two weeks apart, the subjects performed 80. min of exercise on a rowing ergometer, during which they were administered one of the two tested drinks. Their body weight and blood biochemical parameters (glucose, lactate, HTC, urea, CK, WBC, LYM, MON, GRA, and FRAP) were measured both before and after the exercise. Results: During the exercise with CD, a significant decrease in body weight was reported, while body weight increased during the test with ND. Increases were seen in lactate, CK, WBC, LYM, MON, and GRA after consumption of both drinks.Hydration levels and the level of parameters associated with the maintenance of high physical fitness were comparable for both CD and ND. Despite this, it is necessary to further improve the ND formula.

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... Five of the nine studies concerned the acute effects of honey supplementation (Table 1). In 59 males and 21 females, honey was administered in various doses, frequencies and forms (i.e., solution, gel, or powder) during rowing [45], cycling [46], and soccer specific exercise [47], as well as between running bouts in hot conditions [48], and immediately following resistance exercise [49]. Partly due to the inherent difficulty in consolidating findings from such different methodological approaches, the influence of acute honey supplementation on blood glucose concentrations and insulin responses during and following exercise remains inconclusive. ...
... Five articles have reported perceptual responses from a total of 59 males and 21 females, when honey was consumed before, during, or immediately after exercise (Table 4). A variety of Likert scales were employed to measure constructs relating to taste, texture, gut comfort, and perceived fatigue [45][46][47][48][49]. Although honey may elicit a sweeter taste compared with water [48], no differences in ratings of perceived exertion or perceptions of fatigue, either during or after exercise, were reported with honey as opposed to water or other forms of carbohydrate. ...
... Only one study has reported a statistically significant difference in blood glucose concentrations as a result of consuming a honey-containing supplement. Lagowska et al. [45] observed lower post-exercise blood glucose concentrations when a "natural" carbohydrate beverage containing honey, fruit juice, and banana was consumed during 80 min (2 × 40 min, separated by 5 min) of rowing exercise, compared with a commercially available carbohydrate solution. Whilst the reasons for these findings remain unclear, the differential responses may be attributable to the amount of carbohydrate consumed. ...
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Honey is a natural substance formed primarily of carbohydrates (~80%) which also contains a number of other compounds purported to confer health benefits when consumed. Due to its carbohydrate composition (low glycaemic index, mostly fructose and glucose), honey may theoretically exert positive effects when consumed before, during or after exercise. This review therefore appraised research examining the effects of honey consumption in combination with exercise in humans. Online database (PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus) searches were performed, yielding 273 results. Following duplicate removal and application of exclusion criteria, nine articles were reviewed. Large methodological differences existed in terms of exercise stimulus, population, and the nutritional interventions examined. All nine studies reported biochemical variables, with four examining the effects of honey on exercise performance, whilst five described perceptual responses. Acute supplementation around a single exercise session appeared to elicit similar performance, perceptual, and immunological responses compared with other carbohydrate sources, although some performance benefit has been observed relative to carbohydrate-free comparators. When consumed over a number of weeks, honey may dampen immunological perturbations arising from exercise and possibly improve markers of bone formation. More well-controlled research is required to better understand the role for honey in a food-first approach to exercise nutrition.
... Regarding the oxidative markers, only the HB group showed increased GST in the plasma and increased TAC. Several studies have shown that the jabuticaba peel contains polyphenols of interest that may offer in vivo protection against oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cancer (Lagowska, Podgórski, Celińska, Wiertel, & Kryściak, 2017;Leite-Legatti et al., 2012;Plaza et al., 2016). The administration of these compounds in clinical studies also seems to be effective against oxidative stress induced by exercise (Carrera-Quintanar et al., 2015;Lagowska et al., 2017;Panza et al., 2016;Plaza et al., 2016). ...
... Several studies have shown that the jabuticaba peel contains polyphenols of interest that may offer in vivo protection against oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cancer (Lagowska, Podgórski, Celińska, Wiertel, & Kryściak, 2017;Leite-Legatti et al., 2012;Plaza et al., 2016). The administration of these compounds in clinical studies also seems to be effective against oxidative stress induced by exercise (Carrera-Quintanar et al., 2015;Lagowska et al., 2017;Panza et al., 2016;Plaza et al., 2016). Therefore, the consumption of HB may increase the in vivo potential antioxidant defense. ...
A hydroelectrolytic beverage based on whey permeate plus phenolic extract of jabuticaba peel (HB) was tested by soccer athletes in order to evaluate effects on markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress. The athletes were randomized into three groups: intake of commercial isotonic without antioxidants (CB); water intake (WA) and HB intake. Blood samples were collected before and after the exercise protocol performed by the athletes, to whom the tested beverages were administered. The HB group had a similar behavior to the CB group when we evaluate the markers of urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK), showing positive results in attenuating muscle damage in relation to the WA group. The antioxidant capacity of plasma and glutathione s-transferase increase significantly after the test only for the HB group. Ingestion of HB may be conducive to attenuation of muscle damage and oxidative stress in trained individuals.
... The first use of those beverages is occurring usually before the age of 12 years old [18]. For children and teenagers, CEDs and alcohol will have a negative impact and influence on collagen and hyaluronic acid biosynthesis and degradation, obesity, serious cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, grow retardation and so on [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. The research conducted by Costa et al. [29,30] and Gallimberti et al. [31] proved that after using energy drinks, the children and teenagers experienced many symptoms as upset stomach, rapid speech, insomnia, anxiety/agitation, tremors, racing heart, heart palpitations and visual disturbances. ...
... The drinks used for recovery may contain magnesium. In addition, the use of proteins and honey can help, especially for the recovery [22,40,52] The sport drinks usually contains mostly monosaccharides and disaccharides ranging from 6 to 9% weight/volume. Hypohydration may occur during high-intensity effort over a period of several hours, if higher amounts of carbohydrates will be used. ...
Aims Sports drinks, when used by adult athletes, can have significant performance benefits. Sports drinks provide carbohydrates, electrolytes and fluids to the body, and help the body hydration, before, during, and after physical activity. The carbohydrates supply the muscles with fuel during exercise. The main electrolyte from sport drinks is sodium, which improves the drive to drink and can assist with fluid replacement. One of the main aim of using sport drinks is hydration, without decreasing sodium level in order to prevent hyponatremia. The addition of protein may be beneficial to prevent muscle damage and may improve or maintain subsequent performance over consecutive days. Other active ingredients (as vitamins) may play a role in energy metabolism or in free radical defense, but are usually found in small amounts and it is unclear if they have any direct performance benefits. Caffeine improves reaction time and if consumed few hours before anaerobic/resistance exercise may improve the performance, but has no effect on repeated high-intensity training. Conclusion Sport drinks are useful only for adults athletes involved in endurance training, but are not recommended for children and adolescents. Sport drinks have the proper amounts and concentrations of carbohydrates and electrolytes to help the physical performance, in comparison with energy drinks, caffeinated energy drinks or other beverages.
... Lagowska et al (2017) studied 11 well-trained rowers over two sessions of 80 minutes of strenuous, sports-specific activity. The researchers found no difference in measures of performance and hydration in well-trained rowers when comparing a commercial sports drink against a beverage comprised of salt, banana, pineapple juice, lemon juice and honey [28]. In a similar study, water, sports drink, or sugarcane juice were substituted for energy drinks. ...
Introduction The main aim of the present review is to describe the advantages of using honey for general population and for athletes during endurance training, and to show its benefits as a healthy natural product, used as a huge energy source for human body. Conclusion Honey represents a sustainable and a natural food source which offers many advantages and health benefits through its antioxidant properties, antibacterial and antiseptic effects, as well as antifungal activity. Due to its properties and health benefits, an alternative medicine branch based on honey, called apitherapy, was developed during the last decades.
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Although it is recognized that dehydration and acidification of the body may reduce the exercise capacity, it remains unclear whether the qualitative and quantitative shares of certain ions in the drinks used by players during the same exertion may affect the indicators of their water–electrolyte and acid–base balance. This question was the main purpose of the publication. The research was carried out on female field hockey players (n = 14) throughout three specialized training sessions, during which the players received randomly assigned fluids of different osmolarity and minerals contents. The water–electrolyte and acid–base balance of the players was assessed on the basis of biochemical blood and urine indicators immediately before and after each training session. There were statistically significant differences in the values of all examined indicators for changes before and after exercise, while the differences between the consumed drinks with different osmolarities were found for plasma osmolality, and concentrations of sodium and potassium ions and aldosterone. Therefore, it can be assumed that the degree of mineralization of the consumed water did not have a very significant impact on the indicators of water–electrolyte and acid–base balance in blood and urine.
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The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training.
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This Position Stand provides guidance on fluid replacement to sustain appropriate hydration of individuals performing physical activity. The goal of prehydrating is to start the activity euhydrated and with normal plasma electrolyte levels. Prehydrating with beverages, in addition to normal meals and fluid intake, should be initiated when needed at least several hours before the activity to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to return to normal levels. The goal of drinking during exercise is to prevent excessive (>2% body weight loss from water deficit) dehydration and excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avert compromised performance. Because there is considerable variability in sweating rates and sweat electrolyte content between individuals, customized fluid replacement programs are recommended. Individual sweat rates can be estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise. During exercise, consuming beverages containing electrolytes and carbohydrates can provide benefits over water alone under certain circumstances. After exercise, the goal is to replace any fluid electrolyte deficit. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive replacement program is merited.
Efficacy of different carbohydrate sources to supply energy during exercise
  • A E Jeukendrup
Jeukendrup AE. Efficacy of different carbohydrate sources to supply energy during exercise. Medicina Sportiva 2001;5:247-57.
Gastic emptying of liquids and the effects of exercise
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Beckers EJ, Rehrer NJ. Gastic emptying of liquids and the effects of exercise. Medicina Sportiva 2000;4:51-60.
Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study
  • J Carvalho-Peixoto
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Carvalho-Peixoto J, Moura MR, Cunha FA, Lollo PC, Monteiro WD, Carvalho LM, et al. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2015;40(7):725-33.