ChapterPDF Available

Machiavellianism Scale (Mach-IV)

Authors:
Article
Machiavellianism is one of the most studied dark traits, frequently predicting antisocial and immoral behaviors (e.g., cheating, white collar crimes). The MACH-IV is the most popular questionnaire to assess the construct. However, this measure presents some limitations that led researchers to propose two refined versions: The Two-Dimensional MACH-IV (TDM) and the Trimmed MACH. In the present research, we aimed to adapt the MACH-IV and its refined versions in the Brazilian context, making direct comparisons about their psychometric properties. Specifically, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, we verified that the models with better fit were the two-factor structure of TDM and the one factor structure of Trimmed MACH. However, both presented low reliabilities. Further, we verified that the MACH-IV and its short versions present significant associations with Machiavellianism subscales of the Dirty Dozen and the Short Dark Triad, besides a consistent pattern of correlations with low agreeableness, low endorsement of social values, and high endorsement of personal values. Our findings provide evidence of validity for the MACH-IV and its refined versions in the Brazilian context, allowing transcultural studies.
Article
Full-text available
Three socially aversive traits-Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy-have been studied as an overlapping constellation known as the Dark Triad. Here, we develop and validate the Short Dark Triad (SD3), a brief proxy measure. Four studies (total N = 1,063) examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the subscales in both community and student samples. In Studies 1 and 2, structural analyses yielded three factors with the final 27 items loading appropriately on their respective factors. Study 3 confirmed that the resulting SD3 subscales map well onto the longer standard measures. Study 4 validated the SD3 subscales against informant ratings. Together, these studies indicate that the SD3 provides efficient, reliable, and valid measures of the Dark Triad of personalities.
Article
Full-text available
The MACH-IV was investigated (N = 528) with item response theory to elucidate its psychometric properties and suggest a trimmed version, the MACH*. The core content of the MACH-IV seemed to be cynicism/misanthropy and the MACH* was formed from the 5 most informative and precise MACH-IV items. The MACH* showed good internal consistency and construct and criterion validity comparable to the MACH-IV. The MACH-IV and MACH* measure most precisely at average to above average levels of Machiavellianism. Implications for theory and measurement of Machiavellianism are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
A new measure of Machiavellianism, the Machiavellian Personality Scale (MPS), was developed and validated over two studies. Machiavellianism is conceptualized as one's propensity to distrust others, engage in amoral manipulation, seek control over others, and seek status for oneself Study I developed and tested the factor structure of the scale, whereas Study 2 provided evidence for the convergent, divergent, and criterion-related validity of the MPS. The results of these studies supported the a priori factor structure of the MPS and indicated that it is a valid predictor of such outcomes as job satisfaction, task performance, and counterproductive work behaviors.
Article
Machiavellianism represents a tendency to manipulate and exploit others in a social world perceived to be hostile. Research has been inconsistent regarding psychopathology associated with this aspect of personality. This has been partially due to focusing on Machiavellianism as a unidimensional, as opposed to multidimensional, construct. Thus, this study aimed to investigate associations between Machiavellianism and psychopathology from a multidimensional perspective. The participants were 1478 US undergraduates aged between 18 and 53 years (M = 19.55, SD = 3.22; 39% male) and 218 Australian undergraduates aged between 17 and 60 (M = 20.09, SD = 4.56; 33% male). To address psychometric issues in the Mach-IV scale, item analysis and confirmatory factor analyses were used to derive its multidimensional structure. Structural equation modelling tested unique associations of Machiavellian views and tactics with six psychopathological constructs: depression, fear, anxiety, impulsivity, externalising psychopathology, and thought dysfunction. Results from the US and Australian samples suggest that Machiavellianism is best viewed as a two-dimensional construct consisting of views and tactics. Furthermore, the US study showed that Machiavellian views uniquely predicted all areas of psychopathology, whereas tactics predicted only externalising domains. These findings demonstrate the multidimensional nature of Machiavellianism and highlight its distinctive psychopathological implications.
Article
Conducted a psychometric investigation of the MACH IV scale. Factor analyses performed on data from 2 different samples of respondents (133 certified disadvantaged business entrepreneurs and 117 nonminority construction contractors) suggest empirical difficulties in the number and nature of dimensions underlying the scale. Comparable analyses of a satisfaction scale developed by S. Hunt and L. Chonko (1984) and administered at the same time to the same Ss as the MACH IV scale indicated no similar difficulties with the satisfaction scale's empirical validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The construct of Machiavellianism: Twenty years later Hillsdale
  • B Fehr
  • B Samson
  • D L Paulhus