Conference Paper

Analysis of the Use of Biogas as Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

Conference Paper

Analysis of the Use of Biogas as Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

The article presents the opportunity to power internal combustion engine by treated and non-purified biogas. Internal combustion engines may be operated only within a certain range of parameters of fuel due to the design and method of operation. Furthermore, they are sensitive to changes in chemical composition of the fuel. The aim of the work described in the studies was to test the quality of biogas that can be obtained by methane fermentation of the test material. Considering the treatment of biogas as a consumable in vehicles, its physicochemical properties can be very diverse. It is reasonable therefore to analysis biogas composition of samples from various biogas plants, in the context of the possibility of its use in a motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine. The article presents an analysis of the chemical composition of untreated biogas collected from five representative biogas plants. Then it summarizes the data received with the requirements of the standards referred to European countries and set out the possibility of direct use of untreated and untreated biogas during the operation of vehicles with combustion engines.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... According to Jørgensen et al., pure biogas is not eligible to be substituted for either liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas (NG) in commercial burners without any modification [11]. The same applies to vehicle engines, which are not suitable to be powered by raw biogas [7]. Recent advancements in biogas upgrading technologies, together with problems in the utilization of energy from CHP (mostly heat) and current opportunities for the use of biogas in the transport sector, resulting in a shift from electricity and heat production to biogas to biomethane upgrading [1]. ...
... The same applies to vehicle engines, which are not suitable to be powered by raw biogas [7]. Recent advancements in biogas upgrading technologies, together with problems in the utilization of energy from CHP (mostly heat) and current opportunities for the use of biogas in the transport sector, resulting in a shift from electricity and heat production to biogas to biomethane upgrading [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A significant challenge in sustainability and development of energy systems is connected with limited diversity and availability of fuels, especially in rural areas. A potential solution to this problem is compression, transport, and storage of raw biogas, that would increase diversity and availability of energy sources in remote areas. The aim of this study was to perform experimental research on raw biogas compression concerning biogas volume that can be stored in a cylinder under the pressure of 20 MPa and to compare obtained results with numerical models used to describe the state of gas at given conditions. Results were used to determine the theoretical energy content of raw biogas, assuming its usage in CHP systems. In the study, six compression test runs were conducted on-site in an agricultural biogas plant. Compression time, pressure as well as gas volume, and temperature rise were measured for raw biogas supplied directly from the digester. Obtained results were used to evaluate raw biogas compressibility factor Z and were compared with several equations of state and numerical methods for calculating the Z-factor. For experimental compression cycles, a theoretical energy balance was calculated based on experimental results published elsewhere. As a result, gas compressibility factor Z for storage pressure of 20 MPa and a temperature of 319.9 K was obtained and compared with 6 numerical models used for similar gases. It was shown that widely known numerical models can predict the volume of compressed gas with AARE% as low as 4.81%. It was shown that raw biogas supplied directly from the digester can be successfully compressed and stored in composite cylinders under pressure up to 20 MPa. This proposes a new method to utilize raw biogas in remote areas, increasing the diversity of energy sources and increasing the share of renewable fuels worldwide.
... The source of heat that triggers an explosion can be the working medium from the cylinders that enters through a leaking starting valve or self-ignition caused by a rise in temperature during a rapid inflow (compression) of high-pressure starting air into the starting manifold during start-up, resulting in a flammable mixture at a temperature of approximately 400ºC (Yuzhong and Sasaki, 2003). As can be deduced from the above comparison, the important factor that allows for the reduction in the probability of an explosion is the monitoring of the technical condition (tightness) of the starting valves installed on the heads of the individual cylinder systems (Kazienko, 2018;Piotrowski and Witkowski, 2003). The tightness of the valves will prevent the accumulation of flammable liquids in the engine starting manifold and the supply of heat from the combustion chamber, which may cause ignition. ...
... It should be noted that the solution presented in the paper is characterized by a high degree of universality. Similar to the diagnosis of starting valves, it is possible to record disturbances in the high-temperature water cooling of individual engine cylinder systems (Bejger and Drzewieniecki, 2015;Bejger et al., 2018, Ptak et al. 2017b, disturbances in water/oil cooling of pistons, deviations in exhaust gas temperature at the outlet of engine cylinders or the lubrication oil temperature of low speed engines. In all the cases mentioned above the system will be exactly the same, the differences will only be the number and type of sensors and the possible settings of the device (Bejger and Gawdzińska, 2011;Derlukiewicz et al., 2016;Majewski et al., 2018;Sakow et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the authors have discussed the subject of fire and explosion hazards during the operation of a modern ship's high-power internal combustion engines. The causes of the occurrence of and the methods of preventing explosions in the starting manifolds of modern piston combustion engines equipped with a pneumatic starting system, with starting valves on the cylinder heads, have been specified. The concept of an active system for monitoring the technical condition of the starting valves has been presented in order to quickly diagnose leakages and reduce the risk of explosion. A conceptual design of a prototype of a non-invasive, new generation leak detector for starting valves and its technical design have been presented. Exemplary implementations of the prototype detector have been shown and its selected functionalities have been discussed. This paper has ended with an assessment of the possibility of further development and the applications of this device.
... The chemical properties of biogas such as purity and composition significantly affect IC engine performance. 67 It is worth mentioning that compressed natural gas (CNG) and biogas have similar compositions, making the use of biomethane as the source of energy in vehicles possible. Table 3 shows the compositions of biogas and CNG. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-energy demand with rapid industrialization and mechanization combined with environmental pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels has driven a shift toward renewable energy. Biogas derived from biomass is a potential renewable energy source that can be used in different sectors such as transportation sector, electricity generation, heat production, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and fuel cells. Moreover, the upgraded biogas can be applied as transportation fuel via an internal combustion chamber (for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles), and electricity station (for electric vehicles). In the present work, a conceptual review of biogas-based electrical power production systems is presented. It is clear that the conventional types of biomass contain a high amount of pollutants and unwanted constituents, which lower the lower heating value (LHV) of biogas fuel. Moreover, the energy and exergy efficiencies of biogas applications
... The chemical properties of biogas such as purity and composition significantly affect IC engine performance. 67 It is worth mentioning that compressed natural gas (CNG) and biogas have similar compositions, making the use of biomethane as the source of energy in vehicles possible. Table 3 shows the compositions of biogas and CNG. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-energy demand with rapid industrialization and mechanization combined with environmental pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels has driven a shift toward renewable energy. Biogas derived from biomass is a potential renewable energy source that can be used in different sectors such as transportation sector, electricity generation, heat production, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and fuel cells. Moreover, the upgraded biogas can be applied as transportation fuel via an internal combustion chamber (for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles), and electricity station (for electric vehicles). In the present work, a conceptual review of biogas-based electrical power production systems is presented. It is clear that the conventional types of biomass contain a high amount of pollutants and unwanted constituents, which lower the lower heating value (LHV) of biogas fuel. Moreover, the energy and exergy efficiencies of biogas applications
... These consortia comprise various facultative or obligate anaerobic microbial groups which work synergistically and convert complex organic substrates into biogas. Biogas with 60-70% of its component being methane is a combustible renewable energy that can be used as an alternative energy source to replace fossil fuels, either by direct combustion to generate heat and electricity, or through upgradation to be used as vehicle fuel and injection into the gas grid [1][2][3][4]. After the on-site demand of the produced biogas is met, the remaining biogas is usually stored as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied biomethane (LBM) for future use. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to study the codigestion of food waste (FW) and three different lignocellulosic wastes (LW) (Corn stover (CS), Prairie cordgrass (PCG), and Unbleached paper (UBP)) for thermophilic anaerobic digestion to overcome the limitations of digesting food waste alone (volatile fatty acids accumulation and low C:N ratio). Using an enriched thermophilic methanogenic consortium, all the food and lignocellulosic waste mixtures showed positive synergistic effects of codigestion. After 30 days of incubation at 60 °C (100 rpm), the highest methane yield of 305.45 L·kg−1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved with a combination of FW-PCG-CS followed by 279.31 L·kg−1 VS with a mixture of FW-PCG. The corresponding volatile solids reduction for these two co-digestion mixtures was 68% and 58%, respectively. This study demonstrated a reduced hydraulic retention time for methane production using FW and LW.
Chapter
In modern developing world, there is a growing significance of the contradiction between versatility and ease of manufacturing. Products should exist in many user-centered variants, that are manufactured with the least resources possible. The purpose of this work was to formulate a novel method of modular design and assessment to improve design of multivariant products that undergo evolution of Main Parameters of Value. The proposed method represents a systematic approach in technical system segmentation, that is one of the 40 inventive principles in TRIZ. It is based on identification of system evolution and optimized selection of modules and connections between them. As a part of the method, a novel modular ideality parameter was defined that quantitatively describes segmentation principle in the scope of increase of the useful function, increasing versatility of a product with no to little harm to ease of manufacturing. This approach makes it possible to design multi-variant products that represent a systematic and structured application of a segmentation principle. The application of the methods was shown on an example of a Mobile Biogas Station. It was shown in the study, that modular ideality has an influence on ease of manufacturing and resources usage of multivariant product design.KeywordsModularityTRIZSegmentationIdeality
Article
Technological solutions that allow to reduce the volume of wastes, determine the possibility of development of not only the technology or the company itself, but also environmental parameters that provide potential economic benefits. The relevance of the research consists in the investigation of the degree of quality of possible application of modern technologies of processing organic wastes with extraction of useful products. The objective of the research is the search of methods of cost reduction of the development of mobile plants for the production of biogas. The authors showed the technological structure of proposed solutions, develop the mathematical model, as well as justify the economic benefits as the prospect of application of the resulting model in mass production. The novelty of the research consists in the fact that this approach investigates the flow of organic wastes and their conversion into biogas, and thus into biofuel component, by using biologically active components, which allows to reduce potential damage to the environment almost to zero. It was demonstrated that this method may resolve the issue of accumulated organic wastes in near future.
Book
Full-text available
Spis rozdziałów: Przedmowa (Andrzej Białowiec) 1. Nowoczesne systemy mechaniczno-biologicznego przetwarzania odpadów (Emilia den Boer) 2. Innowacyjne systemy produkcji i wykorzystania biogazu z bioodpadów zgodne z dyrektywami Unii Europejskiej (Adam Cenian, Bartosz Pietrzykowski) 3. Wykorzystanie technik bioaugmentacji w biostabilizacji odpadów (Sylwia Stegenta, Jakub Pulka, Andrzej Białowiec) 4. Problemy techniczne i technologiczne oraz potencjał aplikacyjny toryfikacji odpadów (Paweł Stępień, Marek Mysior, Andrzej Białowiec) 5. Wykorzystanie energii odnawialnej w gospodarce odpadami (Arkadiusz Dyjakon) 6. Innowacyjne metody projektowania obiektów mechanicznych w gospodarce odpadami (Sebastian Koziołek) 7. Współczesne metody wykrywania odorów wraz z modelowaniem ich przestrzennego rozkładu w systemach gospodarki odpadami (Jerzy Zwoździak, Łukasz Szałata) 8. Nowoczesne systemy gospodarki odpadami: „Płać Za Tyle Ile Wyrzucasz” (Jan den Boer, Emilia den Boer, Arkadiusz Dyjakon) 9. Technologie inteligentnego zarządzania gospodarką odpadami wykorzystujące architekturę Internetu rzeczy (Arkadiusz Lewicki) 10. Koncepcja „Zero Odpadów” jako zmiana paradygmatu w gospodarce odpadami (Katarzyna Michniewska)
Article
Full-text available
The analysis covers interrelations between the following factors: the machine movement, states and transformations of particles of the micronized biomass, particle shifts, mixing, grinding of energetic straw and its particles. It has been found that these relationships, among other things, depend on friction conditions, impacts, cutting, structural components of the micronizer as the dynamic movement of the machine structural components and biomass particles) takes place under the conditions of idle movement and workload in order to accomplish an external goal. This paper aims at systematization, calculation and complementary research on micro-grinding performance characteristics idle and operating), for constant and different rotational speeds angular and linear).
Article
Full-text available
Fourth generation LPG installations are fuel systems which, apart from their obvious advantages, have numerous disadvantages. One of their weaker elements are the injectors, or rather their improper performance. It was therefore justified to undertake a modification of the alternative fuel system in order to improve its work. The modification itself was preceded by a series of bench and road studies. A mathematical model of the injector was developed, which was later used in simulations. The results of the tests enabled the preparation the fuel system modification project involving the introduction of additional injectors and a system that controls their work. The complete unit was installed in a test vehicle and the modification's effect on the fuel supply process is presented in the results of conducted tests.
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the performance and emission characteristics of a four-stroke spark ignition engine operated on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were investigated experimentally. The LPG was supplied from a LPG tank which was purchased from a local gas distributor. The primary content of LPG is 60% propane and 40% butane. The four-stroke spark ignition engine has an engine capacity of 183 cc and a compression ratio of 6.3:1, and it was coupled to a 5 kW eddy current dynamometer for performance measurement. A 5-gas Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) analyzer was used for CO, CO2, unburnt HC, and NOx measurement. Two sets of experimental data obtained were analyzed; (i) 100% gasoline, and (ii) 5%, 10%, and 20% of LPG in gasoline. It was found that in general, the engine's power output and torque suffer a drop in performance compared to 100% gasoline fueled engine, when tests were evaluated with 5%, 10%, and 20% LPG in gasoline. However, the brake specific fuel consumption, BSFC shows an improvement with LPG as a fuel replacement. The concentration levels of CO, CO2, unburnt HC, and NOx recorded are found to be lower than the gasoline fueled engine.
Article
The using of biogas is growing very fast in the south region of Vietnam owing to its benefit in reducing environmental pollution and improving local economic. The main objective of this research was to convert a conventional direct-injection compression-ignition engine to a completely biogas engine. A prototype gaseous engine was modified from a direct-injection, 4-cylinder diesel engine. Injector nozzles were replaced by spark plugs and spark-ignition system with high-voltage was installed to ignite mixture. Biogas mixer system (venturi type) with electronically control was applied to replace diesel fuel system in order to supply gaseous fuel to the engine. In addition, engine management system with electronically controlled was used to control air-to-fuel ratio, ignition timing according to engine speed and load. The result showed that conversion biogas-based-diesel engine could operate fully with biogas (CH4 62%) at high compression ratio ({e open}=17). The result from this research contributes for the development of high-efficiency biogas engines in Vietnam.
Article
There is growing interest in the use of biogas as a fuel for transport applications. Some of the drivers behind this are the increasing regulation and taxes on waste disposal, an increasing need for renewable fuel sources, the EC's Biofuels Directive, the proposed Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), measures to improve local air quality and the need for clean transport fuels in urban areas. The aim of this paper is to present the potential role of biogas as a transport fuel. Biogas is produced from the process of anaerobic digestion of wet organic waste, such as cattle and pig slurries, food wastes and grown wet biomass. To be used as a transport fuel biogas has to be upgraded to at least 95% methane by volume and it can then be used in vehicles originally modified to operate on natural gas. Biogas fuelled vehicles can reduce CO2 emissions by between 75% and 200% compared with fossil fuels. The higher figure is for liquid manure as a feedstock and shows a negative carbon dioxide contribution which arises because liquid manure left untreated generates methane emissions, which are 21 times more powerful as a greenhouse gas than CO2. Hence there is a double benefit by reducing fossil emissions from burning diesel and reducing methane emissions from waste manure; Biogas will give lower exhaust emissions than fossil fuels, and so help to improve local air quality. The paper sets out the resource that is available for producing biogas, together with the basic details of production technology. It goes on to explore how this gas can be used in vehicles, describing the basic technology requirements. The energy data and the costs of producing on biogas as a transport fuel are presented.
Article
Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily. As a renewable energy, biodiesel has been receiving increasing attention because of the relevance it gains from the rising petroleum price and its environmental advantages. This review highlights some of the perspectives for the biodiesel industry to thrive as an alternative fuel, while discussing opportunities and challenges of biodiesel. This review is divided in three parts. First overview is given on developments of biodiesel in past and present, especially for the different feedstocks and the conversion technologies of biodiesel industry. More specifically, an overview is given on possible environmental and social impacts associated with biodiesel production, such as food security, land change and water source. Further emphasis is given on the need for government’s incentives and public awareness for the use and benefits of biodiesel, while promoting policies that will not only endorse the industry, but also promote effective land management.
Article
There are numerous ways to assess and compare biofuels. Gross energy per hectare reflects the quantity of product produced per unit of land. Net energy per hectare reflects the parasitic demand associated with the product per hectare. Gross and net energy per hectare are far superior for grass biomethane than rape seed biodiesel. For a biofuel made from residues the descriptor (MJ of biofuel produced per GJ of fossil fuel displaced) is more instructive; this reflects the relative efficiency of the biofuel. Of issue in the assessment is how to deal with co-products, by-products and residues. The allocation methodology allows for a variety of answers to be generated. UCO biodiesel has a good energy balance for any allocation approach; tallow biodiesel has a poor net energy unless credit is given for the co-production of meat and bone meal as a substitute fuel. To be deemed sustainable by the EU Renewable Energy Directive a value of 60% GHG savings is required for facilities built post 2017. A further crucial consideration is: how much fuel can be produced? This study shows that indigenous biodiesel produced in Ireland and grass biomethane may be deemed sustainable but only grass biomethane may produce a significant quantity, potentially satisfying the 10% renewable energy in transport target for 2020 as opposed to only 1.23% in total from all indigenous biodiesel systems.
Article
There are currently strong incentives for increased use of renewable fuels in the transport sector worldwide. However, some bioethanol and biodiesel production routes have limitations with regard to resource efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gases. More efficient biofuel systems are those based on lignocelluloses and novel conversion technologies. A complementary strategy to these is to increase the production of biogas from the digestion of organic residues and energy crops, or from byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel production. Compared with other biomass-based vehicle fuels available so far, biogas often has several advantages from an environmental and resource-efficiency perspective. This provides the motivation for further technological development aiming to reduce costs and thereby increased economic competitiveness of biogas as a vehicle fuel.
Wykorzystanie złóż gazu ziemnego do napędu pojazdów samochodowych
  • E Król
Report on technical assessment of different vehicle storage options
  • A Fuganti
  • S Rosa
  • Di
  • M Tassan
  • P Bonham
  • M Ahlm
Klasyfikacja gazowych kotłów grzewczych w aspekcie efektywnego wykorzystania gazu
  • D Derlukiewicz
  • S Koziołek
  • M Ptak
  • M Słupiński
Samochodowe instalacje zasilania gazem
  • A Sowa
Traffic biogas production, resources, environmental impacts, and implementation in the European Union
  • A Lampinen
Wybrane problemy produkcji i wykorzystania biogazu
  • A Kupczyk
  • A Prządka
  • I Różnicka
Podstawy budowy silników
  • S Luft