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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review family businesses as a subset of sustainable entrepreneurship. It is intended that another avenue of scholarship for the growing interest in family businesses and their continuity across generations will be outlined. Design/methodology/approach – Relevant journal articles were selected and broadly analysed to gather an understanding of the current state of existing sustainable entrepreneurship literature. The main themes extrapolated related to sustainable entrepreneurship and potential directions for future research. Findings – Although sustainable entrepreneurship has been traditionally concentrated in the environmental and social responsibility literature, there are emerging paths where family businesses can be considered alongside community-based enterprise. Research limitations/implications – The findings suggest that future research into sustaining family businesses across generations could be situated under sustainable entrepreneurship scholarship. Originality/value – This paper presents a novel review and summary of recent literature at the juncture of family business and sustainable entrepreneurship. It is useful for directing scholars towards an avenue which has not traditionally had attention from family business researchers. Keywords - Entrepreneurship, Family business, Succession, Sustainable development, Community-based enterprise, Sustainable entrepreneurship

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... In the literature, various aspects of the family business in entrepreneurship have been explored. The role of the family in entrepreneurship has been conceptualized and represented by multiple studies, for example, mapping family with sustainable entrepreneurship (Woodfield et al., 2017), family business succession and its relation with opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship (Tan et al., 2019;Vikstrom and Westerberg, 2010), perceived desirability and perceived feasibility (Kaushik et al., 2020), financing for entrepreneurs (Kumar et al., 2020) and the effect of gender and age on a transitional migrant entrepreneurial journey (Dheer and Lenartowicz, 2020) in a family business context. Moreover, for a successful family business, researchers have suggested five significant resources: ...
... however, some studies have also found that non-family enterprises have some advantages over family businesses (Debellis et al., 2021;Jaskiewicz et al., 2021;Xu et al., 2020). For example, Woodfield et al. (2017) have analyzed family businesses for sustainable entrepreneurship and their ability to sustain across generations under various conditions. They connected family businesses to social and environmental responsivity by mapping them to sustainable entrepreneurship. ...
Article
Purpose Family business has been widely discussed in the literature. Still, a holistic approach summarizing the family business concept in entrepreneurship is fragmented to date. This paper aims to explore the multimedia view of family business research in entrepreneurship and finds the key theme discussed by researchers. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, a systematic literature review on family business and its role in entrepreneurship have been conducted. The literature review consists of bibliometric and content analyzes. Bibliometric research offers quantitative insights, whereas content analysis provides the qualitative evaluation of the literature. Findings The findings suggest that recent research in this area focuses on exploring the role of women entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship in the family business. The literature also finds that because of the nature of family businesses, successors get the opportunity to use their family’s network, social status, financing and opportunity toward a well-developed market. Research limitations/implications This paper may help researchers and practitioners to identify the past and current research trends related to family business and entrepreneurship. Originality/value The concepts from network theory are applied for content analysis to identify and explore various family business and entrepreneurship literature sub-domains.
... As an area of research, CBE is still in a very nascent stage and hence the definition of CBE has been debated by many scholars (Butler and Current, 2021;Soviana, 2015;Woodfield et al., 2017). While some authors have focussed on the commercial nature of CBEs in defining them (Odero, 2004), others have emphasized on the characteristic features that differentiate a CBE from the conventional enterprises (Kerins and Jordan, 2010). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of scholarly literature on community-based enterprise (CBE) through a bibliometric analysis and to comprehend the qualitative dimensions of research in this specific field. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on scholarly papers indexed in Scopus from 1990 to 2021. The bibliometric analysis focuses on journals, documents, writers, organizations and countries. VOSviewer is used for network visualization mapping of citation, co-citation, bibliographic coupling and co-occurrence of keywords. Findings The analysis of the bibliometric aspects of CBE literature reveals an upward trend in publication of CBE documents, with a significant increase of research productivity in the past few years. This behaviour shows that CBE is becoming increasingly popular among academics and practitioners. The document “Toward a theory of community based enterprise” by Ana Maria Peredo is the most cited document. USA has so far published the maximum number of documents in this field. Practical implications This study provides an overview of the current state of research in the subject as well as the primary themes explored in this burgeoning discipline, with the potential to help the researchers identify new topics and gaps that need to be investigated further. Originality/value This work contributes to the literature by conducting a bibliometric analysis that has not yet been explored. It gives an overview of the field’s organization as well as specifics on the major issues explored in this discipline.
... Green Business had become one of the most sought-after and discusses topic within the realm of business and management for the past 3-4 years, in which, many research or studies tend to put some emphasize on understanding which factors could ultimately affect consumers' decision in buying, purchasing, consuming or using green products (Byrch et al., 2007;Loucks et al., 2010;Fernando, 2012;Hogevold et al., 2015;Woodfield et al., 2017;Wilson et al., 2019;Wilson et al., 2021;Lamptey et al., 2021). Meanwhile, in the other hand, there have also been some studies which try to put their focus from the other point of view, in which, many studies had also tried to deeply understand why there have been some companies which are willing to conduct their business activities in accordance with the concept of green business, and why there have also been some companies which decline or refuse to follow the trend of shifting their focus on doing their businesses in a more sustainable way (Braun, 2010;Gibbs and O-Neill, 2012;Martinez, 2014;Pillania, 2014;Harrington et al., 2016;Wilson, 2019;Wilson, 2020;Wilson and Jessica, 2020;Couckuyt and Van looy, 2020;Couckuyt and Van looy, 2021) In this case, there have been several factors which could explain some companies' decision and stance of not conducting their business activities in accordance within the concept of green marketing, such as the amount of costs which these companies will bear during the process of producing green products, consumers' low level of knowledge regarding what is green products (and which aspects differentiate green products and the non-green ones), and the attitude or their target markets (or consumers) of mainly focusing on the price of the product compared to the impact that using the product had on the surrounding society or environment (in which, in this case, these types of consumers usually consider the price level of the product as the basic standard in determining which products that consumers will buy). ...
Article
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Green business, green marketing or sustainable business activities had emerged as some of the most discussed and most popular concept within the realm of business, in which, due to the continuous destruction of wildlife and environment all around the world, many people, non-governmental organizations, entrepreneurs, companies and government had constantly pushed and urged many businesses to do or conduct their business activities in a proper and sustainable way which won't have any damaging or negative impact toward the surrounding environment. Meanwhile, at the same time, consumers were also constantly being "pushed" by these same parties to play a more active role in ensuring that the negative impact of these business activities toward the environment won't escalate by stop consuming, buying or using non-green product which is not sustainable and could bring a dire impact toward the nature and the surrounding environment in the future. Therefore, this community services activities were designed or conducted in order to give some information, suggestions, or understanding to both businesses and consumers, not only in order to ensure that both of these parties will fully understand the main concept of green business, but also in order to ensure that both parties will eventually and actually conduct both of their businesses and consumption activities in a more sustainable way
... This is evident in the completion of only a few PhD studies centred on exploring family businesses in New Zealand (e.g. Hirsch, 2013;Kilkolly-Proffit, 2016;Woodfield, 2012) that has produced related research articles (Hirsch, 2011;Kilkolly-Proffit, 2013;Woodfield & Husted, 2017;Woodfield et al., 2017a;Woodfield et al., 2017b). Over the past few decades, there have been other research articles and reports published in an ad-hoc manner; however, these have mainly concentrated on small businesses or small-and medium-sized entreprises (SMEs) with references to family businesses (de Bruin & Lewis, 2004;Keating & Little, 1997;Lewis et al., 2005;New Zealand Government, 2016). ...
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This paper seeks to identify and summarise the big issues at the intersection of family businesses and employment relations business literatures. Family businesses have additional complexities compared with non-family businesses. Thus, the aim of this paper is to throw light on why this intersection is of interest in New Zealand and rationalise the need to research employment relations in the context of family businesses. We first present family businesses as an area for research by outlining the landscape of family businesses in New Zealand, followed by a review of the foundations of family business and employment relations research. We then highlight and discuss three overarching themes: familiness or family dynamics; formalisation/professionalisation; and incorporating employment relations perspectives. Finally, we conclude with future research directions and canvas potential research questions to introduce ways researchers can enhance our understanding of employment relations in family firms.
... Such an agenda advocates the use of alternative forms of hybrid organizations such as for-profit enterprises like B Corps, not-for-profit enterprises like cooperatives, and not-for-profit organizations like foundations (e.g., Muñoz, Cacciotti, & Cohen, 2018). Sustainability influences entrepreneurial behavior, processes, and outcomes, which are currently mostly explored from an individual perspective (Woodfield, Woods, & Shepherd, 2017). ...
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The purpose of this chapter is to investigate how intra-family communication influences the entrepreneurial spirit over generations within business families and thus the decision of the offspring to succeed in the family business. Therefore, we used mixed data including current family business and entrepreneurship literature, gathered interviews from our past research, and our consultancy experiences in family firms. Our results show that narratives within the intra-family communication, especially when considering business-related topics, can affect the perception of the family business and thus the entrepreneurial spirit of the next generation in both positive and negative directions. Consequently, these narratives should create a positive image of running a family firm, which increases the probability that children with a family business background act more entrepreneurially and like to take over a family business with all the inherent responsibilities. Derived from our results, we developed a seven-step action plan for business families who want to keep or even promote the entrepreneurial spirit within their family across generations, which is, besides the theoretical insights, the main contribution of this chapter.
... Entrepreneurship orientation aids in the sustainability of family-owned businesses [19,33,56,57]. This is because their activities revitalize these companies [33]. ...
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Family businesses often face significant challenges while trying to develop and increase their sustainability throughout generations. This is often due to their inability to properly manage the knowledge required to develop their resources to increase sustainability. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between processes of managing knowledge, dynamic capabilities, and innovative performance in an Indonesian family company in order to improve business performance. This is qualitative research with a single case study used to obtain data from nineparticipants in an Indonesian family company ("Ardiles") that focuses on footwear. The findings showed that a family company that mobilizes knowledge can improve its members' dynamic capabilities for proper business management and growth. Furthermore, the frequent process of mobilizing knowledge improves family members' dynamic capabilities to create new ideas. This creative process helps to improve its innovative performance, thereby creating a sustainable competitive advantage among family companies.
... With the era of machine learning, artificial intelligence and IoT, data can become competitive advantage for the company (Woodfield et al., 2017). Consumer's preferences and behaviours can be studied from data very easily. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of dynamic capabilities for the survival of family-owned business (FOB) in Pakistan. The paper aims at examining the impact of digitization on business landscape for FOBs. Design/methodology/approach Data for this research were collected using in-depth interviews. About 24 interviews were conducted with the owners of 24 FOBs in four different states of Pakistan. Interviews were translated and transcribed. By using GIOIA methodology, first-order concepts, themes and aggregate dimension were identified that explained the additional dynamic capabilities needed for family businesses in digital era. Findings The results of the data analysis revealed that family businesses are struggling to cope with thriving digital market. Digital mind-set is needed to survive in the market. The ability to respond to change is needed. The intelligence and wisdom needed for creating and maintaining an intellectual asset should be used by investing in new technologies. Importantly, businesses need to maintain an emotionally and artificially intelligent brand. Research limitations/implications The research is based on four different states of Pakistan. By focussing on each state could generate more data. The research is focussed on Pakistan to know about the dynamics of emerging economies. Replicating same research on other developing countries can bring more results. Lastly, it is a purely qualitative research. A quantitative analysis could bring a new context to the problem. Practical implications Understanding the challenges of family businesses for coping in digital market helps other family businesses to get a know-how before entering the market. Digital presence can help in building the brand but when not handled correctly can damage the brand as well. Investing in additional capabilities can provide a competitive advantage to family businesses. Family businesses possess a passion for the idea which helps to build the narrative for the brand. Originality/value This research is contributing to highlight the scenario of an emerging economy by studying the challenges of FOB in digitization. The literature provides more information and theories regarding developed countries. This research is a picture of developing economy and how wave of digital era has transformed the business landscape. In-depth interviews were conducted for deep insights which helps in contributing towards family business research.
... One of the goals of this study is to attempt to extend knowledge about intergenerational focus groups. In this sense, analyzing the entrepreneurial behavior is relevant to the continuity of a family business to achieve developmental gains for individuals and their networks through the legacy and contributions to the wider society (Woodfield, 2012;Woodfield, Woods, & Shepherd, 2017). However, identifying the entrepreneurial behavior across generations can be difficult and there is a need to prepare the heirs to the next generation of family business. ...
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Objective:This paper aims to understand the transgenerational entrepreneurship process in family businesses.Method:This study was based on a qualitative research using three focus groups. Originality/Relevance:Aspects related to the intergenerational entrepreneurship in the context of family businesses have drawn the attention of researchers who focus both on family businesses and entrepreneurship. Therefore, it is relevant to analyze how entrepreneurship occurs across generations in order to overcome the simplification of research on entrepreneurshipin the context of family business.Results:This study allowed understanding the similarities and differences of transgenerational entrepreneurship in family businesses regarding five topics: relevance of the founder, challenges, governance, and influenceof the heirs who are not involved in managing the family businesses. Theoretical/methodological contributions:The study presents propositions with the aim to integrate entrepreneurship in the context of family businesses while highlighting the role of founders, heirs, their challenges and governance practices
... One of the goals of this study is to attempt to extend knowledge about intergenerational focus groups. In this sense, analyzing the entrepreneurial behavior is relevant to the continuity of a family business to achieve developmental gains for individuals and their networks through the legacy and contributions to the wider society (Woodfield, 2012;Woodfield, Woods, & Shepherd, 2017). However, identifying the entrepreneurial behavior across generations can be difficult and there is a need to prepare the heirs to the next generation of family business. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This paper aims to understand the transgenerational entrepreneurship process in family businesses. Method: This study was based on a qualitative research using three focus groups. Originality/Relevance: Aspects related to the intergenerational entrepreneurship in the context of family businesses have drawn the attention of researchers who focus both on family businesses and entrepreneurship. Therefore, it is relevant to analyze how entrepreneurship occurs across generations in order to overcome the simplification of research on entrepreneurship in the context of family business. Results: This study allowed understanding the similarities and differences of transgenerational entrepreneurship in family businesses regarding five topics: relevance of the founder, challenges, governance, and influence of the heirs who are not involved in managing the family businesses. Theoretical/methodological contributions: The study presents propositions with the aim to integrate entrepreneurship in the context of family businesses while highlighting the role of founders, heirs, their challenges and governance practices.
... Evidence From the USA and Spain 2009;De Massis, Di Minin, & Frattini, 2015), has pushed a growing number of higher education institutions, such as universities and business and management schools, to introduce family business education programmes in their curricula (De Massis & Kotlar, 2015;Sharma, Hoy, Astrachan, & Koiranen, 2007). Family business education at prominent universities provides high-level support for family SMEs due to such complexities of a family and their needs to the dynamics of a competitive business which can be quite challenging (Woodfield, Woods, & Shepherd, 2017). ...
Chapter
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Driven by increasing awareness of the importance of family firms in most countries, the interest in family business studies is growing at a rapid pace. The entrepreneurial potential of family-owned businesses has been gaining even more attention among scholars and institutions since the 1980s and 90s. This fact joined to the fact that family firms are the most extended type of businesses all around the world, has pushed a growing number of higher education institutions to introduce family business education programs in their curricula. Family business education at prominent universities provides high-level support for family SMEs due to such complexities of a family and their needs to the dynamics of a competitive business which can be quite challenging. It is therefore attractive to investigate and compare what characterizes the family business education programs in USA and Spain, including an overview of the most recent offerings among the most prominent higher education institutions.
... Various related topics now appear in the sustainable entrepreneurship literature. For example, Woodfield et al. (2017) examine the issues related to sustaining family businesses. Further, family business research has found collaborative innovation to be an effective way to overcome innovation barriers (Feranita, Kotlar & De Massis, 2017), which is a part of SBMI. ...
Article
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Sweden's agriculture industry has faced many challenges in recent years. Among the most severe challenges are the decrease in the number of small and medium-sized farms, the decrease in the number of people employed in agricultural activities, and the increase in governmental regulations and legislation governing such activities. At the same time, the demand that agriculture contributes to sustainable social and ecological development has increased. Although research shows that sustainable business model innovation (SBMI) contributes to the creation of sustainable businesses and to the development of a sustainable society, Swedish agriculture has not been at the forefront in the use of SBMI. The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers to SBMI in Swedish agriculture in order to understand why farmers seldom engage in SBMI. This qualitative study follows the Gioia methodology and data for the analysis were acquired in semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs at six family farms in Sweden. The paper makes a theoretical contribution to the research on SBMI with its focus on sustainable entrepreneurship in the Swedish agricultural industry. The paper concludes that the barriers to SBMI are external, internal, and contextual.
... The researchers' and scholars' interest towards the employment in the family business has recently increased significantly [2]. This is due to the complication of economic situation in the country, which makes the population to search for additional, and sometimes, basic jobs. ...
Article
This paper presents the results of a study about particular personality traits that entrepreneurs display. Supported by a survey involving 1,135 responses from students enrolled in master's degree programmes taught across five cities in Spain, we identified the relevant characteristics that determine the personality traits of a likely entrepreneur. We found some key aspects such as previous knowledge of the business, high level of initiative, open-mindedness and coming from an entrepreneurial family environment, with no other distinctions made for other factors. In a second analysis, we compared students enrolled in entrepreneur-related courses (EMBA and MBA) with students enrolled in other disciplines and found significant differences between groups. Finally, we compared all results based on gender to obtain more relevant conclusions.
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The majority of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the wine industry are family owned and operated providing a unique organisational structure to study environmental sustainability engagement. However, researchers at the intersection of environmental sustainability (ES) and family businesses tend to oversimplify family businesses as homogeneous regarding ES. Therefore, the broader goal of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of heterogeneities among family firms related to ES. The paper aims to understand how family firms portray different aspects of family influence (family goals, family values, culture and ethics, and the imprints of the founders and the next generation) in their ES disclosures. Family logics are used as a theoretical lens to analyse family influence. A qualitative content analysis of 72 corporate websites of family firms operating in the New Zealand wine industry was conducted. Antecedents of heterogeneities were revealed with a discussion of three typologies of family firms: family first, business first and upstarts.
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This chapter delineates how entrepreneurial families can build engagement through entrepreneurship by developing or investing in new sustainable ventures. Sustainable ventures strive for the dignity and long-term survival of our planet. They are out most important since human activities affect the life and balance of social-ecological systems on our planet. We thereby propose that engagement is essential for capturing the opportunities for sustainable venturing that emerge in interactions and connections between individuals, family, business and the earth’s biosphere. Such engagement facilitates the development of a business purpose that includes and goes beyond financial profits. We connect insights from the family entrepreneurship literature with those from the sustainability literature and suggest three sustainable venturing processes that can help develop engagement with entrepreneurship in the business family. We call these processes igniting family entrepreneurship through sustainability; interplaying between family entrepreneurship and a purpose for sustainability; and interfacing between family entrepreneurship and sustainability. Through these processes, we argue that sustainability provides an opportunity of involving different generations and branches of a family to build commitment around a purpose, and shared values and principles in new sustainable ventures that stretch beyond the traditional financial goals of the business.
Chapter
Driven by increasing awareness of the importance of family firms in most countries, the interest in family business studies is growing at a rapid pace. The entrepreneurial potential of family-owned businesses has been gaining even more attention among scholars and institutions since the 1980s and 90s. This fact joined to the fact that family firms are the most extended type of businesses all around the world has pushed a growing number of higher education institutions to introduce family business education programs in their curricula. Family business education at prominent universities provides high-level support for family SMEs due to such complexities of a family and their needs to the dynamics of a competitive business which can be quite challenging. It is therefore attractive to investigate and compare what characterizes the family business education programs in USA and Spain, including an overview of the most recent offerings among the most prominent higher education institutions.
Chapter
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Sustainability of small, medium, and micro enterprises has been an issue due to the lack of strategic capability of many entrepreneurs. This chapter examines the strategic capabilities that are necessary for the sustainability of small, medium, and micro-enterprises. A literature review approach was adopted by the authors to examine the relationship between the measures of strategic capability of small, medium, and micro-enterprises, and the sustainability measures of the small, medium, and micro-enterprises. The result shows that there is a positive relationship between strategic capability and sustainability of small, medium, and micro-enterprises. The measures of strategic capability include sensing, seizing, transforming, and innovative capabilities. The sustainability measures of the small, medium, and micro enterprises are strategic objectives, customer satisfaction, and retention, organisational value, networking, availability of resources, innovation capability, profitability, and organisational competitiveness.
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Today’s society faces major challenges in meeting future global food demands and solving biodiversity loss, and it quickly needs to find ways in addressing these issues. The places to look for solutions come from the economic sectors that employ the most powerful pressure on these issues such as agriculture. Apiculture, as a branch of agriculture is being more and more recognized as sustaining human life and contributing to sustainability. However, the sector records a progressive decline of honey bees. Therefore, a rapid restructuring needs to take place in agricultural markets, in general, as well as in apiary agribusinesses. Although important, technological progress is insufficient in providing the necessary changes to achieve long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability, which should be considered both within and between generations. Consequently, sustainable business models encourage sustainable development through a triple bottom line approach and provide an analytical tool for firms into assessing the different aspects that are combined in order to create value. Since literature has paid little attention to the sustainable development in the apiary agribusiness, the present paper aims to link the two using a business model perspective and bring arguments in favor of moving to a sustainable business model.
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In steering towards the future, innovation managers are commonly advised to dismiss the old and make way for the new. However, such “recency bias” may significantly limit a firm’s innovation potential and prevent it from realizing the benefits of past knowledge. We argue that the temporal dimension of innovation deserves more research attention. Combining prior research on innovation, dynamic capabilities and family business, we conceptualize a new product innovation strategy called innovation through tradition (ITT) and identify its underlying capabilities of interiorizing and reinterpreting past knowledge. The illustrative cases of six long-lasting family businesses (Aboca, Apreamare, Beretta, Lavazza, Sangalli and Vibram) are analyzed and discussed, hence exemplifying how firms that build long-lasting and intimate links with their traditions can be extremely innovative while remaining firmly anchored to the past. These examples help visualize theoretical concepts and recognize the potential advantages of past knowledge in terms of value creation and capture. We develop an agenda for future research aimed at improving our understanding of the temporal search processes involved in the ITT strategy, within and outside the family business field, and thus contribute to innovation and organizational learning studies. Managers of non-family firms can learn from the family businesses that successfully use ITT to create and nurture a competitive advantage and emulate them by leveraging rather than discarding tradition.
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This book establishes a chronological trace of the entrepreneur as treated in economic literature in order to give a more wholesome perspective to contemporary writings and teachings on entrepreneurship. It focuses on the nature and role of the entrepreneur, and of entrepreneurship, as revealed in economic literature as early as the eighteenth century, when Richard Cantillon first coined the term 'entrepreneur'. The authors then trace how Joseph Schumpeter's perspective, among other's, on entrepreneurship came to dominate the world's understanding of the term. Due to Schumpeter's dominant influence, entrepreneurship has come to occupy a primary role in the theory of economic development. In this book Hébert and Link discuss various key topics including the German Tradition, the Austrian and the English School of thought as well as individuals such as Alfred Marshall and Jeremy Bentham. The historical survey also illustrates the tension that often exists between "theory" and "practice" and how it has been difficult for economic theory to assimilate a core concept that plays a vital role in social and economic change. Finally, the book exposes the many different facets of entrepreneurship as they have been perceived by some of the great economists throughout the ages. © 2009 Robert F. Hébert and Albert N. Link. All rights reserved.
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Further reflecting on the study of organizational behaviour (OB) in family business (FB), this rejoinder piece discusses and integrates the points raised in the three thoughtful commentaries and our original article. We start by highlighting the general agreement between us and the commentators on three points: (1) that family firms are theoretically distinct from non-family firms due to significant involvement of kinship ties in the enterprise; (2) there is paucity of research at the interface of OB and FB and (3) there is an abundance of interesting research questions at this interface with the potential to benefit both domains of study. Next, we discuss and elaborate on the research possibilities on time, teams and positive organizational study, suggested by the commentators. An illustrative list of interesting research questions at the OB-FB interface that extend and enrich our agenda for future research is shared. We conclude that not only is FB a promising context for behavioural scholars to investigate, the timing is perfect for such investigations.
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In this monograph we focus on family entrepreneurship and offer tutorial coverage of the subject, research retrospectives as well as a state-of-the-art review. The core of this contribution is family entrepreneurship, a developing field that studies entrepreneurial behaviors of family, family members and family businesses by taking into account the possible interplays among them. We offer a conceptualization together with a review of the literature as well as a research agenda of this field. Our conceptualization of family entrepreneurship makes it possible to disentangle complex relationships that characterize the field while the review of the literature offers some examples of how entrepreneurial behaviors can be affected by the family business context. The proposed research agenda offers some guidelines for future research that should advance our knowledge of family entrepreneurship.
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Sustainability entrepreneurship (SuE) is an emergent field of study that focuses on the founding and growth of firms that combine the creation of economic value with the pursuit of the environmental and social objectives of sustainable development. A review of the SuE literature is carried out from a critical management studies perspective and five main themes are identified. The article notes that the field is powerfully influenced by its roots in ‘green’ entrepreneurship and that authors are generally uncritical of the concepts of ‘sustainable development’ in relation to entrepreneurship. From the perspective of bottom-of-the-pyramid populations it is suggested that these trends involve both risks and opportunities. The author calls upon scholars to integrate a broader range of voices and entrepreneurial topics under the sustainability entrepreneurship umbrella, and suggests that the field make greater use of concepts of sustainable development that are participatory and embedded in nature.
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The contributions and shortcomings of past entrepreneurship research can be viewed within the context of six research design specifications: purpose, theoretical perspective, focus, level of analysis, time frame and methodology. The authors suggest a unifying definition of the field of entrepreneurship. The recent trend toward theory driven research that is contextual and process oriented is encouraging. It is time for entrepreneurship researchers to pursue causality more aggressively. Exploratory studies that are not theory driven should be discouraged unless the topic is highly original. Implications for practicing entrepreneurs are discussed.
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Whereas existing research on the longevity of family firms has focused on the survival of firms, this article investigates transgenerational entrepreneurship of families. By building on the transgenerational entrepreneurship research framework, the authors argue that by shifting from firm to family level of analysis, one gains a deeper understanding of family firms’ ability to create value across generations. The authors find evidence for their argument in that such a level shift reveals extended entrepreneurial activity, which is missed when focusing exclusively on the firm level. The study introduces and empirically explores the construct of family entrepreneurial orientation, which may serve as an antecedent to transgenerational value creation by families.
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This article examines the relationship between altruism and agency costs in family business through an in-depth case study of a family firm. We found that altruism reduced agency costs in the early stages of the business, but that agency problems increased as the venture became larger and more established. Moreover, we suggest that altruistic behavior need not be confined to family and close kin, but may extend through networks of distant kin and ethnic ties. We thus present a more complex view of the agency relationship in family business than is often portrayed in the existing literature.
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This futuristic commentary reviews family business research since its beginning more than 30 years ago. Prior to 2000, disciplinary roots, professional organizations, and early milestones are identified. More recent books, journals, and special issues are noted, and conceptualizations, theories, and databases are compared and contrasted. Lastly, current and future research paths or directions are identified and discussed, and researchers are challenged to move ahead into new and different research arenas.
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Surprisingly, the majority of U.S. family firms offer employed family members short- and long-term performance-based incentive pay. We draw on the household economics and altruism literatures to explain why family firms might feel compelled to do so and develop theory that predicts when this practice will be beneficial. Results based on data obtained from 883 family firms show that altruism, as reflected by the parents' estate and share transfer intentions, moderates the effect of these pay incentives as our theory predicts. As such, this article helps explain both how altruism influences agency relationships in family firms and why business practice in family firms differs from those found in other types of firms.
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This research develops the argument that four types of market imperfections (i.e., inefficient firms, externalities, flawed pricing mechanisms and information asymmetries) at once contribute to environmental degradation and that they also provide significant opportunities for the creation of radical technologies and innovative business models. We show that these opportunities establish the foundations for an emerging model of sustainable entrepreneurship, one which enables founders to obtain entrepreneurial rents while simultaneously improving local and global social and environmental conditions. To advance this new field, we offer suggestions for a research agenda focusing on two areas: the relationship between market imperfections and entrepreneurial opportunities, and the emerging field of sustainable entrepreneurship.
Global data points " , available at: www.ffi.org/page/globaldatapoints
  • Family Firm Institute
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