ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: a comprehensive review of the literature


Abstract and Figures

Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important biologically active dietary polyphenol, is produced by certain plant species and is a major component of coffee. Reduction in the risk of a variety of diseases following CGA consumption has been mentioned in recent basic and clinical research studies. This systematic review discusses in vivo animal and human studies of the physiological and biochemical effects of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) on biomarkers of chronic disease. We searched PubMed, Embase, Amed and Scopus using the following search terms: ("chlorogenic acid" OR "green coffee bean extract") AND (human OR animal) (last performed on April 1st, 2015) for relevant literature on the in vivo effects of CGAs in animal and human models, including clinical trials on cardiovascular, metabolic, cancerogenic, neurological and other functions. After exclusion of editorials and letters, uncontrolled observations, duplicate and not relevant publications the remaining 94 studies have been reviewed. The biological properties of CGA in addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have recently been reported. It is postulated that CGA is able to exert pivotal roles on glucose and lipid metabolism regulation and on the related disorders, e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, and hepatic steatosis. The wide range of potential health benefits of CGA, including its anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity impacts, may provide a non-pharmacological and non-invasive approach for treatment or prevention of some chronic diseases. In this study, the effects of CGAs on different aspects of health by reviewing the related literatures have been discussed.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
1 3
Eur J Nutr
DOI 10.1007/s00394-017-1379-1
The potential effects ofchlorogenic acid, themain phenolic
components incoffee, onhealth: acomprehensive review
NargesTajik1 · MahboubehTajik2· IsabelleMack1· PaulEnck1
Received: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017
anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity
impacts, may provide a non-pharmacological and non-
invasive approach for treatment or prevention of some
chronic diseases. In this study, the effects of CGAs on
different aspects of health by reviewing the related litera-
tures have been discussed.
Keywords Green coffee bean extracts· Chlorogenic
acid· Antioxidant· Anti-inflammatory
Coffee, as one of the favourite beverages worldwide,
comprised a variety of chemicals which maintain the
greatest health benefits among the commonly consumed
beverages. Most investigations have so far focused on the
beneficial effects of caffeine [13]. However, knowledge
on potential health benefits of non-caffeine coffee com-
pounds is scarce [4]. Coffee contains many polyphenols,
especially CGAs, which have purported antioxidant abil-
ities [5]. Caffeoylquinic acid, as one of the major coffee
polyphenols, is an ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid
[6] and is often referred to as chlorogenic acid. The term
chlorogenic acids (CGAs), however, stand for the whole
set of hydroxycinnamic esters with quinic acid, includ-
ing caffeoyl-, feruloyl-, dicaffeoyl-and coumaroylquinic
acids. In addition, there are several isomeric forms of
CGA for each of subgroups and different coffee extracts
usually contain different CGAs but the most common
isomer in green coffee beans (76–84% of the total CGA)
or coffee beans (10g/100g) and other plant sources is
5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) [6, 7]. A limited number
of studies exist on the metabolism and bioavailability of
the CGAs in humans. Lafay etal. [8] reported that CGA
Abstract Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important bio-
logically active dietary polyphenol, is produced by cer-
tain plant species and is a major component of coffee.
Reduction in the risk of a variety of diseases following
CGA consumption has been mentioned in recent basic
and clinical research studies. This systematic review dis-
cusses in vivo animal and human studies of the physi-
ological and biochemical effects of chlorogenic acids
(CGAs) on biomarkers of chronic disease. We searched
PubMed, Embase, Amed and Scopus using the follow-
ing search terms: (“chlorogenic acid” OR “green coffee
bean extract”) AND (human OR animal) (last performed
on April 1st, 2015) for relevant literature on the invivo
effects of CGAs in animal and human models, includ-
ing clinical trials on cardiovascular, metabolic, cancero-
genic, neurological and other functions. After exclu-
sion of editorials and letters, uncontrolled observations,
duplicate and not relevant publications the remaining 94
studies have been reviewed. The biological properties of
CGA in addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
effects have recently been reported. It is postulated that
CGA is able to exert pivotal roles on glucose and lipid
metabolism regulation and on the related disorders,
e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity,
cancer, and hepatic steatosis. The wide range of poten-
tial health benefits of CGA, including its anti-diabetic,
* Paul Enck
1 Department ofInternal Medicine VI: Psychosomatic
Medicine andPsychotherapy, University Hospital Tuebingen,
Frondsbergstr 23, 72076Tuebingen, Germany
2 Faculty ofPhysical Education andSport Sciences,
International Branch ofFerdowsi University ofMashhad,
Mashhad, Iran
Eur J Nutr
1 3
absorbed in an intact form in the stomach of rats. The
majority of CGA hydrolized to caffeic acid and quinic
acid before being absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract
through the action of special esterases in both small and
large (microbial esterases) intestine [9]. After absorption
it is metabolized to glucuronide and sulphate metabo-
lites as the circulating forms in human plasma [5]. Mon-
teiro et al. [10] reported a large inter-individual differ-
ence in absorption and metabolism of CGAs. Hence,
the variability observed between studies may be a con-
sequence of this difference. CGAs exists in raw coffee
and is also widespread in many kinds of seeds and fruits
such as sunflower seeds and blueberries. Lower content
of CGAs has also been detected in potatoes, tomatoes,
apples, pears and eggplants, but consumption of these
sources accounts for nearly 5–10% of that from coffee
beverage source [11]. While much of the CGA is eradi-
cated during the roasting process, coffee beans are still
considered to be a main source of CGA in the human
diet and 5-CQA still remained the major CGA isomer
in roasted coffee [11, 12]. The CGA content of a cup
of coffee (200 ml) differs substantially between 70 and
350mg, depending on the coffee variety [11, 13]. Some
studies reported that green Coffea Robusta beans contain
the most amount of CGA on average while green Coffea
Arabica beans contain the least [14, 15]. Furthermore,
it has also been shown that the brew processing of cof-
fee affects the content of CGA significantly which leads
to existence of various CGA content in different coffee
brew. Ludwig etal. [16] reported that the espresso cof-
fee brew had relatively a higher content of CGA than the
other brew methods. Accumulating evidence has dem-
onstrated that CGA is known for its antioxidant, anti-
carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties; these
health benefits have lately been the focus of many epi-
demiologic studies [17, 18]. It has been proposed to have
benefits on type-2 diabetes (T2DM) [19], obesity [20],
Alzheimer’s disease [21], stroke [22] and on endothe-
lial function as well blood pressure [23, 24]. Despite
the beneficial effects of CGA on health, some studies
revealed the adverse effects of CGA, including head-
ache, diarrhoea and complications in higher doses for
a person with a sensitive stomach [25]. However, there
is no comprehensive investigation regarding the side
effects of chlorogenic acid.
With the increasing incidence of degenerative dis-
eases, the general public is now turning to natural herbal
supplements. As one of these agents, CGAs have been
biologically and medically emphasized and can be
expected to be addressed as a topic for future studies,
medical trends and pharmacology. The purpose of this
review article is to summarize invivo animal and human
studies of the biological effects of CGAs on biomarkers
of chronic disease risk.
We performed electronic searches from the PubMed,
Embase, Amed and Scopus databases using the follow-
ing search terms: (“chlorogenic acid” OR “green coffee
bean extract” OR ‘coffee’) AND (human OR animal)
(last performed on April 1st, 2015). The resulting cita-
tions (n = 1024) were hand-screened to identify in-vitro
studies (CGA effects on cell lines, tissue preparation,
e.g.) (n = 364), these 364 invitro studies were excluded.
Furthermore, we also excluded editorials and letters,
uncontrolled observations, and duplicate and not relevant
publications (n = 566). The remaining papers (n = 94)
were divided according to animal data (n = 69) and
human studies (n = 25), and were subsequently classified
according to CGA effects on cancer genesis, the cardio-
vascular system, metabolic functions and obesity, hepatic
health, inflammation and pain, and central (brain) func-
tions. Study selection was performed by two independent
reviewers. Within each of these subheadings, we will dis-
cuss relevant experimental and clinical findings. Figure1
provides a flowchart on the study selection.
1024 Articles retrieved from
search of literatures
566 Articles retrieved for
detailed evaluation
94 Articles retrieved
Excluded for: uncontrolled
observations, No relevant and
duplicate publications,
editorials and letters
364 Excluded for in vitro
25 Human data
69 Animal data
Fig. 1 Flowchart for article selection process
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Cardiovascular health andCGA
Effects ofCGA onblood pressure
There were 23 studies that examined the association
between CGAs consumption and cardiovascular health
(Table1). 15 were on animal models and eight on humans.
To the best of our knowledge, the first study to report an
association between green coffee been extracts (GCE) and
its metabolites on blood pressure was published in 2002
[23]. Suzuki etal. compared the effects of oral administra-
tion of green coffee bean extract rich in CGA in spontane-
ously hypertensive rats (SHR). The short-term administra-
tion of 180, 360, and 720 mg GCE (CGA content: 28%)
decreased blood pressure levels in a dose-dependent man-
ner for each group. The long-term administration of GCE
(0.25, 0.5 and 1% of diet) decreased the systolic blood pres-
sure (SBP) dose dependently (199, 186 and 179 mmHg,
respectively, vs. 211mmHg on control diet). It is notable
that they did not find any significant change in the normo-
tensive group (control rats) [23].
In 2006, Suzuki et al. [24] reported a difference in
the hemodynamic effect between roasted instant cof-
fee (200mg CGA) and GCE (200mg CGA). Single oral
administration of GCE significantly decreased SBP in SHR
while roasted coffee had little effect on it, both groups
received the same amounts of CGA and in spite of the pres-
ence of caffeine (6%) in the GCE-treated group. So they
performed another experiment and found that hydroxyhyd-
roquinone (HHQ) inhibited the hypotensive effects of CGA
in SHR dose-dependently [24]. However, HHQ generated
by roasting coffee beans inhibits the blood pressure lower-
ing effects of CGA in SHR [26].
Several mechanisms have emerged on how chlorogenic
acid decreases blood pressure, including the stimulation of
NO production through the endothelial-dependent pathway,
the reduction of free radicals through inhibiting NAD(P)H
oxidase expression and activity, and inhibition of angioten-
sin-converting enzyme [27, 28].
The findings mentioned above were subsequently
confirmed in further research in humans with moderate
hypertension. In one randomized, double-blind placebo-
controlled trial, the effects of GCE rich in CGA on blood
pressure in 117 untreated patients with mild hypertension
were analyzed. Test subjects were randomly divided into
four groups who then consumed 180 ml of drink, con-
taining 0 (placebo), 46, 93 and 185 mg of GCE (CGA
content: 54%). After 28days, it was found that GCE pro-
moted a remarkable decrease in systolic (1.3, 3.2, 4.7
and 5.6 mmHg, respectively) and diastolic blood pres-
sure (DBP) (0.8, 2.9, 3.2 and 3.9mmHg, respectively) in
a dose dependent fashion [29]. In a placebo-controlled,
randomized clinical trial, Watanabe etal. [30] studied 28
patients with mild hypertension who consumed a diet rich
in GCE in fruit and vegetable juice (140 mg CGA) or a
daily placebo for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood
pressure was significantly reduced by 10/7 mmHg at the
end of treatment. Finally, in another double-blind, rand-
omized controlled trial with more participants (n = 203),
Yamaguchi et al. [31] reported the beneficial effects of
CGA on blood pressure in mild hypertension patients. The
participants were assigned to five groups to receive HHQ-
free coffee containing 0 (control), 82 (low-dose), 172 (mid-
dle-dose) and 299mg (high-dose) of CGA. After 4weeks,
a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure was seen. It is
noticeable that all above human studies used beverages free
of HH-Q.
In addition, the effects of CGA on blood pressure in
healthy subjects were reported. Ochiai etal. [32] did not
find any significant changes in both SBP and DBP after
4 months of treatment with 125 ml of drink containing
140 mg of CGA in normotensive males. However, in a
randomized pilot crossover trail, opposite outcomes were
reported. Twenty-three healthy participants consumed
high CGA (400 mg CGA dissolved in 200 ml of water)
drinks and water (control), with a 1week washout between
testing days. For 16h prior to the study, the participants
refrained from a high polyphenol diet. A significant SBP
and DBP reduction was observed compared to the controls
at 120min post-treatment [33]. On one hand, Ochiai etal.
did not get any positive response on blood pressure perhaps
because they used 140mg CGA, the regular doses of CGA;
on the other hand, Watanabe etal. got a positive response
with the same dose of CGA in a diet rich in CGE in fruit
and vegetable juice. Thus, dose alone does not convinc-
ingly explain the difference in the hemodynamic effects of
CGA, the influence of the type of food matrix on bioavail-
ability of CGA and other sources of CGAs in daily diet are
important too. In a more recent pilot crossover study on
healthy subjects, Revuelta-Iniesta etal. [34] also found that
the consumption of green coffee rich in CGA compared to
black coffee for 2weeks significantly reduced SBP.
In summary, the dietary consumption of chlorogenic
acid causes a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic
blood pressure; however, the size of the effects is moderate.
It is notable that most trials took place in Asia and it is not
known whether these results can be replicated in individu-
als with different ethnicity.
Effects ofCGA onendothelial function
It is well-known that the impairment of endothelial func-
tion, which develops in diseases, such as hypertension,
diabetes [35], metabolic syndrome [35, 36] and others,
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 1 Summary of animal and human studies that assessing the effects of CGA on cardiovascular health
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main result
Suzuki etal. [19] Blood pressure Male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats SHR GCE (720, 360, 180mg/kg)
and SHR control
2days GCE significantly decreased blood
pressure decreased blood pressure
in SHR dose-dependently
WKY GCE (720mg/kg) and WKY
6weeks In SHR GCE-treated group the
increase in blood pressure was
significantly inhibited compared to
the control diet group after single
oral ingestion
SHR GCE (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0% GCE
0f moderate fat diet) and control
(moderate fat diet)
WKY GCE (1.0% of moderate fat
diet) and control (moderate fat
Single Oral Administration of 50,
100, or 200mg/kg 5-CQA
25h 5-CQA decreased blood pressure
Suzuki etal. [20] Blood pressure Male SHR/Izm rats Experiment 1 Singel administration of GCE
significantly decreased SBP while
coffee had little effect on it
Single oral administration of 5ml/
kg GCE (200 or 300mg/kg
CGA) or roasted instant coffee
containing 5-CQA (300mg/kg)
and HHQ (0.03, 0.3, and 3mg/
Experiment 2
Control diet 8weeks After 8weeks the increase in SBP
was significantly inhibited in
treated group compared to the
control diet group
Dried HHQ-free coffee diet (CGA
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 1 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main result
Suzuki etal. [22] Endothelial function Male SHR and WKY rats Experiment 1 Single ingestion of CQA at
30–600mg/kg reduced blood pres-
sure in SHR
Blood pressure SHR rats received 30, 100, 300,
and 600mg/kg CQA by single
oral administration
WKY rats received 300mg/kg
CQA by single oral administra-
Consumption of diet rich in CQA
for 8weeks inhibited development
of hypertension in SHR compared
with the control diet group
Experiment 2 8weeks
SHR control diet or CQA diet
(300mg/kg per day)
In CQA -treated SHR, acetylcholine-
induced endothelium-dependent
vasodilation in the aorta signifi-
cantly improved
WKY control diet or CQA diet
(300mg/kg per day)
Suzuki etal. [23] Endothelial function 14-week-old Male SHR and WKY
Control diet Administration of HHQ + CQA
inhibited the CQA-induced
improvement in hypertension and
endothelial dysfunction in SHR
Blood pressure 0.005% HHQ diet 8weeks
0.5% CQA diet
HHQ + CQA diet
Kosuma etal. [26] Blood pressure 117 Midly hypertensive patients 180ml drink (soy soup) contain-
ing 0, 46, 93 and 185mg GCE
containing 54% CGA
4weeks GCE decreased SBP and DBP dose-
Watanabe etal. [27] Blood pressure 28 Midly hypertensive patients 125ml fruit and vegetable juice
containing 140mg CGA
12weeks CGA decreased SBP and DBP by
125ml drink free of CGA (Pla-
Yamaguchi etal. [28] Blood pressure 183 Midly hypertensive patients HHQ-free coffee containing 0, 82,
172 and 299mg CGA
4weeks CGA decreased BP dose-depend-
Ochiai etal. [29] Blood pressure 20 Normotensive males 125ml drink containing 140mg
16weeks No significant differences in BP with
control group
Endothelial function 125ml drink free of CGA (Pla-
Homosysteine decreased signifi-
Mubarak etal. [30] Blood pressure 23 Healthy adults 200ml water containing 400mg
2h SBP and DBP decreased sig-
nificantly compared to the control
Endothelial function 200ml drink free of CGA (control) No significant change on endothelial
function -related status
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 1 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main result
Revuelta-Iniesta etal. [31] Blood pressure 18 healthy volunteers Consumption of 100ml green cof-
fee bean rich in CGA for 2 weeks
In the GCE-treated group SBP
and arterial elasticity decreased
Arterial elasticity Consumption of 100ml black cof-
fee for 2weeks
One week wash out phase
Olthof etal. [39] Endothelial function 20 Healthy adults 2g CGA 7days CGA and black tea-treated groups
increased homosysteine levels
4g black tea (4.3mmol polyphe-
440mg quercetin-3-rutinoside
No significant change on homosys-
teine levels in quercetin-treated
Taguchi etal. [35] Endothelial function Diabetic mic CGA (0.03mmol/kg/day) 5days All poly phenols activated NO
Morin (0.03mmol/kg/day)
Resveratrol (0.03mmol/kg/day)
Cheong etal. [37] Endothelial function 30 Male C57BL6 mice (6–8weeks
(n = 10/group) GCE did not improve endothelial
dysfunction caused by high-fat diet
Normal diet
High-fat diet 12weeks
HFD + GCE (70% CGA)
Kanno etal. [40] Chronic ventricular remodeling
after myocardial ischemia
C57BL6 mice (7–9weeks old) MI + CGA (30mg/kg/day orally) 14days In the CGA-MI group
MI + vehicle ventricular contraction significantly
improved compared to the vehicle-
MI group
Sham + vehicle CGA attenuated myocardial fibrosis
Sham + CGA (30mg/kg/day orally)
Rodriguez de Sotillo etal. [43] Plasma and liver TG and choles-
terol levels
9-week-old male Infusion of 5mg/Kg/day CGA 3weeks Plasma cholesterol and TG levels
decreased by 44 and 58%, respec-
tively, Liver TG levels decreased
by 24%
Sprague–Dawley Infusion of vehicle
Zucker (fa/fa) rats
Blood glucose CGA improved glucose tolerance
Huang etal. [47] Serum and liver lipid levels 40 Sprague–Dawley male rats Normal control CGA decreased serum lipid levels
HFD control 12weeks
HFD + CGA (20mg/kg)
HFD + CGA (90mg/kg)
CGA (90mg/kg)
Zhang etal. [49] Plasma, liver and skeletal muscle
lipid levels
Male db/db mice 80mg/kg/d CGA by gavage 12weeks CGA decreased TG levels in plasma,
liver and skeletal muscle
80mg/kg/d PBS by gavage CGA decreased fasting plasma
Fasting plasma glucose
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 1 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main result
Li etal. [50] Serum and liver lipid and glucose
20 Male golden hamsters Peritoneal injection of 80mg/kg/d
CGA + 15% HFD
8weeks CGA decreased lipid and glucose
profile significantly
Control 80mg/kg/d PBS 15% HFD
Wan etal. [51] Plasma lipid profile Sprague–Dawley rats Normal diet 4weeks CGA significantly decreased total
cholesterol and LDL
High-cholesterol diet
High-cholesterol diet + CGA (1 or
10mg/kg/day p.o.)
Karthikesan etal. [52] Lipid profile Adult male albino Wistar rats Normal 45days THC + CGA treated group reduced
induced lipid abnormalities in
diabetic rats compared to the CGA
or THC alone
Diabetic control
Diabetic + THC (80mg/kg)
Diabetic + CGA (5mg/kg)
Diabetic + THC/CGA (80/5mg/kg)
Frank etal. [53] Lipid profile Sprague–Dawley male rats Consumption of 2g/kg/ of CGA,
caffeic acid and ferulic acid
4weeks CGA and caffeic acid treatment
groups increased cholesterol and
tocopherol levels in liver and a
tendency to do so in plasma
Mubarak etal. [54] Liver lipid Male C57BL/6 mice Normal diet control 12weeks CGA increased liver lipid content
and insulin resistance compared to
HFD group
HFD control
HFD + CGA (1g/kg)
CGA (1g/kg)
Lecoultr e etal. [86] Fatty acid oxidation Ten healthy subjects High-fructose diet (HFr) Hfr diet increased IHCLs and
decreased fasting lipid oxidation
compared to control
Insulin resistance
Caffeinated coffee with high (9%)
amounts of CGA + HFr
Decaffeinated coffee with high
amounts of (9%) CGA + HFr
Caffeinated coffee with high CGA
and Decaffeinated coffee with
regular amounts of CGA increased
fasting lipid oxidation
Decaffeinated coffee with regular
(3%) amounts of CGA + HFr
Control, diet without fructose sup-
5-CQA 5-caffeoylquinic acid, HHQ hydroxyhydroquinone, SHR spontaneously hypertensive rats, HFD high-fat diet, PBS phosphate buffered saline, THC tetrahydrocurcumin, IHCLs increase
intrahepatocellular lipids, SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP, Diastolic blood pressure; GCE, green coffee bean extract; CGA, chlorogenic acid; MI, myocardial infarction
Eur J Nutr
1 3
may also contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis.
However, while the cardiovascular protection of polyphe-
nols appears to be better understood [37], the mechanisms
of CGA on endothelial dysfunction as a major event in the
development of atherosclerosis remain unclear. The evi-
dence suggests that it may be attributed to the antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory properties of CGA. The other mech-
anism is related to the protective effects on endothelial
function through the release of vasoactive molecules such
as nitric oxide (NO) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) [38].
Suzuki etal. published two studies which demonstrated
that ingestion of CGA-rich diet (300 mg/kg per day of
CGA) for 8 weeks induced a progressive and significant
decrease in blood pressure in the SHR animals compared to
the control diet group. In addition, it was found that CGA
inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, that
in turn reduced oxidative stress and enhanced NO bioavail-
ability in the vasculature, suggestive for a positive effect
of CGA on the endothelial function [26, 39]. However,
Cheong et al. [40] examined the effects of CGA on sys-
temic oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in mice
fed with a high-fat diet for 12weeks and did not find any
dietary benefits. Three separate groups (n = 10) were tested
with a normal diet, a high-fat diet, and a high-fat diet rich
in CGA (0.5% w/w GCE rich in CGA). The CGA rich diet
did not impact on the metabolic deterioration caused by a
high-fat diet and endothelial dysfunction. As mentioned
previously, the ability of CGA to improve endothelial
function could be secondary to its anti-oxidative and anti-
inflammatory activities; however, there is preliminary evi-
dence indicating that CGA possess a special property that
can itself regulate the vascular tone [41]. In this context,
Taguchi etal. used polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid
(0.03 mmol/kg/day), morin (0.03 mmol/kg/day) and res-
veratrol (0.03mmol/kg/day) in streptozotocin-induced dia-
betic mice for 5days, to evaluate the endothelium-depend-
ent relaxation of aortic rings in response to acetylcholine
(Ach). The results showed that polyphenols activate NO
production, suggesting that they can acutely activate NO-
mediated processes through the suppression of TXA2 lev-
els, but not the NO production under Ach stimulation [41].
More recently, Kanno [42] reported the beneficial effect of
CGA on chronic ventricular remodelling after myocardial
infarction in murine myocardial ischemia models through
the suppression of macrophage infiltration.
CGA may display further various effects on endothe-
lial function in healthy subjects. Evidence suggests that
homocysteine may induce vascular endothelial dysfunc-
tion [43]. Ochiai et al. examined the effects of GCE on
homocysteine levels and blood vessels in 20 healthy males.
After 4months of daily intake of a drink containing GCA
(140mg/day) or placebo, a significant decrease in plasma
total homocysteine levels and improvement in the reactive
hyperemia ratio (RHR) (calculated as the antebrachial arte-
rial blood flow at reactive hyperemia/basic blood flow)
was observed in the CGA-treated group compared with the
placebo [32]. Contrasting results have been published by
Olthof etal. in a crossover study performed in 20 healthy
men and women; it concluded that CGA increased the
homocysteine concentration in plasma. It should be pointed
out that they analyzed the acute effects of CGA [44]. In 23
healthy men and women (aged 32–65years; 19 females),
Mubarak etal. examined the acute effects of CGA on nitric
status, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a rand-
omized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.
The participants consumed high-CGA (400 mg CGA dis-
solved in 200ml of water) drinks and water (control) with a
7day washout between testing periods. The results showed
that the mean flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the bra-
chial artery measured by ultrasonography and markers of
nitric oxide status were not influenced at120min, while a
significant blood pressure reduction relative to control was
observed [33].
CGA andlipid metabolism
Dyslipidemia can induce glycometabolic disorders linked
with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and CVD.
It is claimed that lipid and glucose metabolism can be mod-
ulated by CGA [45].
In a 2002 study, Rodriguez de Sotillo and Hadley [45]
analyzed the impacts of CGA on glucose and lipid pro-
file in obese, hyperlipidemic and insulin resistant (ƒa/ƒa)
Zucker rats. It was found that CGA promoted a significant
reduction in the postprandial peak response to glucose
changes, but did not affect sustained hypoglycaemia in
comparison to the pre-CGA treatment phase in the same
rat group. They also found that in rats fed with CGA, fast-
ing plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) levels were
significantly reduced, similar to liver triacylglycerol lev-
els. They concluded that invivo CGA was associated with
decreased various plasma and liver lipids and improved
glucose tolerance.
The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins
(LDL) is a strong risk factor in the pathogenesis of arte-
riosclerosis [46]. Evidence suggests that consumption of
coffee induces a decrease in LDL-cholesterol and malon-
dialdehyde (MDA) levels [47]. Bagdas et al. found that
in rats receiving CGA (100 mg/kg), MDA levels were
decreased in comparison to the model group [48]. Con-
sequently, Huang etal. [49] ascertained these results by
investigating the effect of 5-CQA on lipid metabolism
in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD).
Forty male rats were randomly assigned to (1) a normal
control (NC) group, (2) a HFD control group, (3) a HFD
with low-dose CGA (20mg/kg) group, and (4) a HFD
Eur J Nutr
1 3
with high-dose CGA (90 mg/kg). These doses of CGA
corresponded to approximately 3.85mg/kg (low doses of
CGA) and 15.39mg/kg (high doses of CGA) for a 70kg
man. CGA was provided orally by gavage once per day
for 12 weeks. In high-dose CGA-treated rats, hepatic
total cholesterol (TC), TG and MDA levels were signifi-
cantly lower than the HFD control group. However, Pan-
chal etal. [50] failed to observe any significant changes
in plasma TG, but TC significantly decreased in rats fed
Colombian coffee extract (CE) with a high carbohydrate,
HFD. It is noticeable that CE contain high amounts of
caffeine in addition to CGAs.
In a 2011 study, Zhang etal. [51] assessed the effect of
CGA on deranged metabolism of lipid and glucose in db/
db mice. The authors reported that CGA applies benefi-
cial effects to the levels of triglycerides in plasma, liver,
and skeletal muscle, and fasting plasma glucose through
increased upregulation of the expression of peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor-ɣ (PPAR-ɣ). This study sug-
gested that CGA ameliorates deranged lipid/glucose metab-
olism in db/db mice, indicating a possible role for CGA as
a modulator of the adipokines secretion, upregulating the
expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptor-α (PPAR-α). Li [52] also examined the effects
of CGA on the metabolism of lipid and glucose follow-
ing a high dietary fat burden in male golden hamsters and
explored the role that PPAR-α may have in these effects.
They concluded that PPAR-α played the role of a facilitator
in clearing lipid from the liver and enhancing the sensitiv-
ity of insulin.
Current evidence suggested that the cholesterol-lower-
ing effects of CGA in SD rats are most likely mediated by
increasing fatty acid utilization in the liver via the upregu-
lation of PPAR-α mRNA [53].
Karthikesan et al. [54] evaluated the effects of tet-
rahydrocurcumin (THC) (80mg/kg bw) and CGA (5mg/
kg bw) alone and in combination, on lipid metabolism
in experimental type-2 diabetic rats. After 45 days, the
combination of THC and CGA could potently ameliorate
lipid abnormalities compared to CGA or THC alone. On
the other hand, Frank [55] reported caffeic acid (CA) and
CGA increased cholesterol concentrations in the liver and
showed a tendency to do so in plasma in SD rats. Mubarak
[56] found that CGA supplementation in a high-fat diet is
associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation, and conse-
quently hepatic lipid accumulation in diet-induced obese
mice. The distinct outcomes were likely to be due to dif-
ferent doses or diet, methods of CGA administration or
study protocols. Finally, in the only human study to date
Lecoultre etal. reported the positive effects of caffeinated
coffee with high (9%) and decaffeinated coffee with regular
(3%) amounts of CGA on glucose and lipid metabolism in
healthy men [57].
Diabetes mellitus andCGA
Glucose metabolism
Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that
involves impaired metabolism of glucose and fat [58].
Studies have shown contrary associations between the
consumption of coffee and lower risk of T2DM [5962].
Caffeine exerts but is not fully responsible for its benefi-
cial effects on glucose metabolism; some other components
including CGAs play a key role in this respect [6365]. For
example, it is reported that for those who drink 3–4 cups of
decaffeinated coffee containing high contents of CGA, the
risk of T2DM is reduced by 30% [66]. There were 17 stud-
ies that examined the association between CGAs consump-
tion and Diabetes mellitus (Table 2). 12 were on animal
models and five on humans.
Hypoglycemic effect CGA is defined as a pioneer insulin
sensitizer, strengthening insulin functions such as the thera-
peutic action of metformin [67]. CGA carries antidiabetic
potential at a single acute dose (5mg/kg body weight) in
streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats [6870].
Evidence suggests that glycaemia fell after the utiliza-
tion of 50 mg/kg of CGA derivatives in rats [71], whilst
Bassoli et al. reported 70 mg/kg of CGA is sufficient for
the same results. They found a significant reduction in the
plasma glucose peak and proposed the beneficial effects of
CGA on reducing glycaemic index of food through alle-
viating the intestinal absorption of glucose in rats [72]. It
should be pointed out that Herling etal. used CGA driva-
tives, and it is unknown at this time whether this difference
in intervention would affect the results.
The immediate effects of CGA on glucose tolerance
were examined in overweight men following an oral glu-
cose tolerance test (OGTT). It was found that treatment
with CGA improved insulin responses and early fasting
plasma glucose in comparison to placebo [73]. Ahrens
et al. found that if supplement contains of CGA is con-
sumed regularly, it is able to lower the glycaemic impact
of food and chronically lower background blood glucose
levels of T2DM [74]. Invitro evidence demonstrated that
CGA increases cell insulin secretion [75]. Johnston etal.
found the same effect in humans [19].
Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity Insulin resist-
ance is a main obstacle in diabetes treatment and plays a
pivotal role in the pathogenesis and clinical course of sev-
eral important diseases. For the first time, Ong et al. [76]
demonstrated the efficacy of CGA on glucose uptake in
skeletal muscle of db/db mice through the stimulating activ-
ity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The same
authors [77] also found that CGA enhanced glucose metab-
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 2 Summary of animal and human studies that assessing the effects of CGA on Diabetes mellitus
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Rodriguez de Sotillo etal. [41] Plasma insulin 9-week-old male Sprague–Dawley
Zucker (fa/fa) rats, obese and
type 2 diabetic
Control 3weeks In the CGA-treated group, plasma
insulin and blood glucose
improved significantly
CGA-treated rats (CGA injected
intravenously every day for
3weeks at 5mg/kg bw)
Karthikesan etal. [65] Potential antihyperglycemic effect Male albino Normal 45days In the THC/CGA group glyco-
sylated haemoglobin significantly
decreased and the levels of plasma
insulin, C-peptide, haemoglobin
and glycogen decreased signifi-
Wistar rats Diabetic control
Diabetic + THC (80mg/kg)
Diabetic + CGA (5mg/kg)
Diabetic + THC/ CGA (80/5) mg/
Karthikesan etal. [66] Protective effect of CGA and THC
against oxidative stress induced
type 2 diabetes
Adult Wistar rats Normal 45days Combination of THC and CGA nor-
malized all biochemical parameters
induced by diabetes
Diabetic control
Diabetic + THC (80mg/kg)
Diabetic + CGA (5mg/kg)
Diabetic + THC/ CGA (80/5) mg/
Pari etal. [67] Plasma glucose and insulin 6-week-old male albino Wistar rats Normal 45days Combination of THC and CGA nor-
malized insulin and glucose levels
induced by diabetes
Diabetic control
Diabetic + THC (80mg/kg orally)
Diabetic + CGA (5mg/kg orally)
Diabetic + THC/ CGA (80/5) mg/
kg orally
Bassoli etal. [69] Blood glucose Male albino
Wistar rats
Blood glucose test: Intravenous
injection of 70mg kg/bw CGA,
control (buffer without CGA)
60min No significant reduction in blood
glucose levels after intravenous
injection of CGA
Glucose tolerance Glucose tolerance test: Oral admin-
istration of 3.5mg kg/ CGA,
control (water)
90min CGA made a significant reduction
on plasma glucose peak at 10 and
Jung etal. [75] Plasma insulin and glucose 15 Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice ControL 5weeks Caffeic acid decreased blood glucose
and increased insulin levels sig-
nificantly compared to the control
Caffeic Acid
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 2 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Ma etal. [76] FBS 6-week-old male C57BL/6 Regular or HFD diet with twice
intraperitoneal injection of
100mg/kg CGA or DMSO (car-
rier solution) as control per week
15weeks CGA decreased FBS compared
HFD-fed control (134 ± 28mg/dl
vs. 204 ± 43mg/dl)
Glucose tolerance Obese mice
Insulin tolerance CGA maintained glucose sensitivity
and improved diet-induced hyper-
Body weight Obese mice received intraperi-
toneal injection of 100mg/kg
CGA, twice weekly or DMSO
6weeks CGA blocked the progress of diet
induced obesity significantly but
did not affect body weight in obese
Cheong etal. [37] Glucose intolerance 30 Male C57BL6 mice (6–8 weeks
(n = 10/group) No significant differences between
groups regarding glucose Intoler-
ance and insulin resistance
Normal diet (ND)
Insulin resistance High-fat diet (HFD) 12weeks GCE did not improve HFD-induced
Obesity improvement HFD + GCE (70% CGA)
Tunnicliffe etal. [77] Blood glucose Male Sprague–Dawley rats Standard diet with or without CGA
180min CGA decreased blood glucose
Plasma insulin No significant changes in plasma
insulin and GLP-1
GLP-1 CGA blunted plasma GIP response
up to 180min postprandially
Van Dijk etal. [70] Blood glucose 15 Overweight men 270ml water containing In the CGA and trigonelline treated
group early glucose and insulin
responses decreased during glu-
cose tolerance test
Blood insulin 12g decaffeinated coffee
1g chlorogenic acid
500mg trigonelline 2h
Placebo (1g mannitol)
Johnston etal. [73] Plasma glucose Nine healthy adults 400mL water containing 25g
glucose (control)
In the caffeinated coffee group
glucose and Insulin concentrations
tended to be increase after 30min
compared the other groups
Plasma insulin 400mL water containing 25g
glucose + caffeinated coffee
(2.5mmol CGA/L)
GLP-1 400mL water containing 25g
glucose + decaffeinated coffee
(2.5mmol CGA/L)
3h Glucose and insulin decreased in
decaffeinated coffee group after
30min GIP decreased in treated
GLP-1 increased 0–120min post-
prandially in decaffeinated coffee
group compared with the control
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 2 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Olthof etal. [78] GIP 15 Overweight men 270ml water containing No significant differences in GLP-
and GIP-secretion pattern with
GLP-1 12g decaffeinated coffee
1g chlorogenic acid 2h
500mg trigonelline
Placebo (1g mannitol)
Shin etal. [81] Retinal vascular leakage in the
diabetic retinopathy
Male Sprague–Dawley rats Control 14days CGA treatment effectively preserved
the vascular leakage
STZ + CGA(10mg/kg)
STZ + CGA (20mg/kg)
Herling etal. [82] Blood glucose Male Wistar rats 10, 30 and 50mg/kg/h S 4048
5h In the treated group blood glucose
decreased dose dependently with a
corresponding increase in hepatic
Glucose-6-phosphatase activity Control
Simon etal. [83] Blood glucose Male adult Wistar rats 50mg/kg/h S 3483 intravenously 8.5h In the S 3483 treated rats Glc-6-Pase
activity increased significantly
Glucose-6-phosphatase activity Control Blood glucose concentrations
decrease during the first 90min of
Lecoultre etal. [86]Hepatic insulin sensitivity Ten healthy subjects High-fructose diet HFr significantly increased HGP by
16 ± 3%
Hepatic glucose production Caffeinated coffee (9% CGA) + HFr 14days
Decaffeinated coffee (9%
CGA) + HFr
In all three coffee treated groups
HGP decreased significantly
Decaffeinated coffee (3%
CGA) + HFr
Control, diet without fructose sup-
HFr high-fructose diet, HGP hepatic glucose production, HFD high-fat diet, FBS Fasting Blood Glucose, GIP Plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1,
THC Tetrahydrocurcumin, STZ streptozotocin
Eur J Nutr
1 3
olism deficits and dyslipidaemia in Leprdb/dbmice primar-
ily by activating AMPK. Numerous beneficial impressions
of CGA on glucose metabolism have been considered in
previous studies with the probability of modified systemic
glucose control [78]. One of the primary mechanisms for
inverse associations between CGA and T2DM is inhibi-
tion of the glucose-6-phosphate system and subsequently
delayed glucose absorption in the intestine [71, 79, 80].
Moreover, CGA diminishes blood glucose levels by directly
inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity with
relevant effects of hepatic gluconeogenesis [81].
CGA has been viewed as having a positive effects on
glucose metabolism regulation [45, 82, 83], glucose tol-
erance, and insulin resistance in Zucker (ƒa/ƒa) rats, thus
indicating a possible role for CGA as a compound of inter-
est for reducing the risk of developing T2DM [45, 82, 84].
Ma etal. [82] studied the effect of CGA on insulin resist-
ance in C57BL/6 mice. They intraperitoneally admin-
istered mices with 100 mg/kg CGA for 21 weeks. CGA
maintained glucose sensitivity and improved diet-induced
hyperinsulinemia in compared with control group. In a ran-
domized crossover study separated by a three-day washout
period, Tunnicliffe and colleagues [85] found no effects on
glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in rats fed with
CGA, while plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic pep-
tide (GIP) response was decelerated. They concluded that
CGA treatment could have beneficial impacts on blood
glucose response, with adjustments observed in GIP lev-
els. The findings of Cheong etal. also suggest that mice fed
with green coffee bean extract rich in CGA did not have a
better glucose tolerance and insulin resistance than that of
the controls [38].
Johnston [19] reported that the consumption of cof-
fee rich in CGA stimulates the secretion of GLP-1, which
is known to augment insulin secretion after oral glucose
consumption in healthy volunteers. Olthof etal. [86] also
reported that the acute ingestion of CGA did not affect
GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT in overweight
CGA andobesity
Obesity, as one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular
disease, has become a worldwide serious health concern
[87]. Due to high expenditure for medicinal weight loss
interventions, the public opinion is gradually switching
to nutraceuticals (functional foods) as alternatives and
one of the most controversial weight-loss supplements
is GCE. The evidence suggested that the consumption of
coffee is inversely associated with weight gain [88]. This
beneficial effect has been attributed to caffeine and CGA
[20, 89]. The results from two prospective cohort stud-
ies showed that caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were
both independently associated with body weight loss,
which is suggestive of a positive effect of non-caffeine
compounds of coffee on weight reduction [88, 90].
The interaction between CGA and body weight, body
mass index (BMI) and percent body fat is ambiguous.
Recently, Narita etal. reported that CGA and its metabo-
lite, CA, may decrease caloric input via inhibiting amyl-
ase in vitro [91]. As mentioned previously, CGA dem-
onstrates a significant improvement in glucose tolerance
that might be a consequence of reduction in BMI and its
effects on body weight [84]. The respective glucose dep-
rivation might be indicative of the decline in BMI and
fat content [45, 92]. Flanagan et al. revealed the other
putative mechanism to be related to the effects on adi-
pocyte metabolism that—via enhanced lipolytic activity
in the adipocyte tissue—may explain weight reduction
[93]. There were 11 studies that examined the association
between CGAs consumption and obesity (Table 3). Six
were on animal models and five on humans.
In animals, CGA has been reported to influence body
weight, probably by inhibiting hepatic triglyceride accu-
mulation [94]. In keeping with the previously discussed
findings of Huang et al. [49], CGA can suppress body
weight gain but did not show any changes in food intake.
Similar results were also observed in other studies [52,
54]. In 2009, Tanaka etal. revealed the lipolytic activity
of GCE in SD rats. To this end, 4-week-old SD rats were
orally treated with GCE (diet containing 1% GCE) rich in
caffeine (10%) and CGA (27%) for 4weeks. In the GCE-
treated rats, the activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidative
enzymes significantly increased compared to the control
group, while fatty acid synthetic enzymes decreased sig-
nificantly [95]. However, the lipolytic activity observed
in Tanaka’s study could be attributed to caffeine. Other
studies demonstrated that caffeine may reduce obesity
by stimulating catecholamine (important regulators of
lipolysis) secretion [96]. Current evidence corroborates
the beneficial effects of CGA on body weight in diet-
induced obese rats through modulating PPARα [49].
Other investigators also concluded that non-caffeine com-
pounds in coffee may be responsible for its anti-obesity
activity. Song etal. [97] reported that decaffeinated GCE
significantly reduces visceral fat-pad accumulation in
the mouse model of obesity, possibly due to attenuating
genes involved in adipogenesis and inflammation in the
white adipose tissue. Furthermore, Cho etal. observed a
similar response to body weight in high-fat diet-induced
obese mice; they suggested that CGA mediates its anti-
obesity effect through the adjustment of obesity-related
hormones and adipokine levels and by upregulating fatty
acid oxidation in the liver and downregulating fatty acid
and cholesterol biosynthesis [98].
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 3 Summary of animal and human studies that assessing the effects of CGA on obesity
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Shimoda etal.
Body weight Male ddy mice Mice consumed a standard diet containing GCE reduced visceral fat content and body-
Visceral fats GCE (0.5% or 1%)
Caffeine (0.05% and 0.1%) 14days CGA and Caffeine showed a tendency to reduc-
tion of visceral fat and body weight
CGA (0.15% and 0.3%)
Placebo (orlistat)
Tanaka etal. [95] Body weight Male, 4-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats Control diet GCE-rich diet decreased significantly body-
weight gain and white adipose tissue weight
compared to control
Food intake GCE–rich diet (27% CGA and 10.0%caffeine)
Adipose tissue weight 4weeks No significant differences in food intake
between two groups
Song etal. [97] Body weight 48 male C57BL/6Nmice (n = 8/g roup) Body weight gain decreased dose-dependently
in GCE groups and CQA-treated group
Food intake Normal control group (chow diet)
Blood glucose HFD control group In all treated groups plasma lipids, glucose, and
insulin levels improved, instead of 0.1% GCE
Blood insulin HFD containing, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.9%decaffein-
ated GCE
Lipid profile HFD containing 0.15% CQA No significant differences in food intake
between all groups
Cho etal. [98] Body weight 32 male 4-week-old ICR mice (n = 8/group) Both treatment groups significantlydecreased,
body weight, visceral fat mass, plasma leptin
and insulin levels and improved plasma lipid
compared to the HFD control group
Food intake Normal
Plasma lipid HFD control
Plasma leptin HFD-caffeic acid (0.2g/kg diet) 8weeks CGA-treated group increased plasma adiponec-
tin level compared to HFD control group
Plasma adiponectin HFD -chlorogenic acid (0.2g/kg diet)
Huang etal. [47] Body weight 40 male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 10/group) 5-CQA suppressed increases of bodyweight
induced by HFD, visceral fat-pad weight and
serum lipid levels dose-dependently
Visceral fats Normal control group (chow diet)
Lipid profile HFD control group 12weeks
HFD with low-dose 5-CQA (20mg/ kg)
HFD with high-dose 5-CQA (90mg/ kg)
Dellalibera etal.
Body weight 50 overweightvolunteers Control group (placebo)+low calorie diet 8 weeks Significant reduction in body weight intreat-
ment group compared to control
BMI Treated group (CGA supplement) )+lowcalo-
rie diet
Muscle Mass/Fat Mass ratio increasedsignifi-
cantly in CGA- treated group
Muscle mass/fat mass
Bakuradze etal.
Body weight 33 Healthyvolunteers Consumption of 750ml coffee rich in green
orroast bean constituents (CGA 580 mg/l)
for 8weeks wash out phase
12 weeks Body weight, body fat decreasedsignificantly
Body composition
Eur J Nutr
1 3
On the other hand, some studies [40, 50, 56] failed to
observe any significant effect of CGAs and GCE on body
weight in a diet-induced animal model of obesity.
A limited number of human studies with CGA have been
reported so far. Thom reported that following 12 weeks
of rich-CGA coffee intake (200mg/day) in 30 overweight
subjects, the mean body weight significantly decreased
compared to the placebo (5.4 vs. 1.7 Kg) [20]. Favour-
able effects of CGA on body weight in healthy overweight
adults have also been observed in another study with a sim-
ilar design, where GCE rich in CGA significantly decreased
weight (by 5kg) compared with placebo (2.45kg) [99].
Bakuradze et al. also found that the intake of high-
antioxidant coffee enriched with both green or roast bean
constituents (CGA, 580 mg/l) significantly reduces body
weight along with a significant decrease in oxidative dam-
age [100]. In a meta-analysis performed including three tri-
als, Onakpoya noted that an average weight reduction was
reasonable (2.5kg) and that the outcomes were encourag-
ing [25]. In contrast to this data, Watanabe etal. showed in
a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial performed
in mildly hypertension subjects that CGA did not modify
the BMI but significantly decreased blood pressure, sug-
gesting that CGA may be an effective and safe therapy
for patients with mild hypertension [30]. In another rand-
omized intervention performed in 30 healthy volunteers,
it was found that CGA-rich coffee (CGA: 4.5mmol/L) did
not modify body weight [101]; however, it should be noted
that the study period was too short (4weeks) in comparison
to other previous studies. Vinson etal. observed a dramatic
weight loss compared with previous investigations, i.e. 8kg
or more than 10% of the body weight. It should be noted
that the article was retracted in October 2014, because the
US-based sponsors could not confirm the validity of the
study which was performed in India [92]. Finally, in a ran-
domized pilot crossover study involving 20 healthy subjects
who consumed green coffee rich in CGA or black coffee
for 2weeks, coffee rich in CGA had a significant effect on
BMI and abdominal fat [34].
These encouraging results from animal and human stud-
ies could help explain the epidemiological evidence that
long-term consumption of decaffeinated coffee is effective
in lowering body weight, albeit as yet limited and incom-
plete. For example, no studies of the influence of CGAs
intake on thermogenesis, thermic effect of food, appetite
and satiety have been conducted.
Cancers andCGA
Early in-vitro observations suggest that cellular damage
caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to the
incidence of a number of diseases, including coronary
heart disease, diabetes and cancers [102, 103]. CGA, as an
GCE green coffee bean extract, CGA chlorogenic acid, HFD high-fat diet, CQA 5-caffeoylquinic acid
Table 3 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Kotyczka etal.
Body weight 33 Healthyvolunteers Consumption of 600 ml light roast coffee
richin CGA (4.5 mmol/L) for 4 weeks
12 weeks No significant changes in body weight andan-
tioxidant status following consumptionof
CGA-rich coffee
Antioxidant status Consumption of 600 ml dark roast coffee
(0.05mmol/L) for 4 weeks
4 weeks wash out phase
Anthropometry 18 Healthyvolunteers Consumption of 100 ml green coffee rich
inCGA for 2 weeks
5 weeks In CGA-treated group body weight, BMIde-
creased significantly
Body composition Consumption of 100 ml black coffee for
Waist circumference and abdominal fatde-
creased significantly in both groups
One week wash out phase
Thom [14] Body weight 30 Overweightvolunteers (n = 15/group) 12 weeks Body weight decreased significantly intreatment
group compared to the control
5 cups coffee rich in CGA (200 mg/day)
5 cups normal coffee
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 4 Summary of animal and human studies that assessing the effects of CGA on cancers
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Mori etal. [112] Incidence of total large intestinal
98 Syrian golden hamsters MAM-asetate (by injection 20mg/
bw) + normal diet
Both incidence of total large intestinal
tumours and adenocarcinomas signifi-
cantly decreased in CGA-treated group
Incidence of large intestinal adenocar-
MAM-asetate + CGA-rich diet 24weeks The numbers of hyperplastic liver cell
foci in MAM-asetate rich in CGA
group significantly decreased com-
pared with the MAM acetate group
CGA-rich diet (%25)
Numbers of hyperplastic liver cell foci No treatment
Matsunag etal. [114] Carcinogen-induced large bowel
150 Male F344 rats AOM (by injection 15mg/bw) + nor-
mal diet
CGA showed a chemopreventive ability
against colon carcinogenesis in rats
CGA-rich diet (250ppm for 5weeks)
AOM + CGA-rich diet 32weeks
CGA-rich diet (250ppm for 32weeks)
No treatment (control)
Tanaka etal. [115] Incidences of tongue neoplasms 118 Male 4-week-old F344 rats 4-NQO (20 p.p.m. dissolved at water
for 5weeks)
32weeks The incidences of tongue neoplasms and
preneoplastic lesions (hyperplasia and
dysplasia) significantly reduced in all
phenolic-treated groups by 32 weeks
4-NQO + CA (500 p.p.m for 7weeks)
4-NQO + EA (400 p.p.m for 7weeks)
Preneoplastic lesions (hyperplasia and
4-NQO + CGA (250 p.p.m for
CA, EA, CGA and FA inhibited the
tongue carcinogenesis induced by
4-NQO + FA (500 p.p.m for 7weeks)
CA (500 p.p.m for 7weeks)
EA (400 p.p.m for 7weeks)
CGA (250 p.p.m for 7weeks)
FA (500 p.p.m for 7weeks)
No treatment
Eur J Nutr
1 3
MAM methylazoxymethanol, CA caffeic acid, EA ellagic acid, CGA chlorogenic acid, FA ferulic acid, 4-NQO 4-nitroquinoline-l-ojdde, FAA N-2-fluorenylacetamide, MNU N-methyl-N-nitrosou-
rea, NMP N-methylpyridinium, ARE antioxidantresponse element
Table 4 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Tanaka etal. [116] The numbers of hyperplastic liver
cell foci and the incidence of colon
Experiment 1: Male and female
Syrian golden hamsters
MAM acetate alone (control) The numbers of hyperplastic liver
cell foci and the incidence of colon
tumours were significantly lower in
CGA-treated group than control
Experiment 2: Female ACI/N rats MAM + CGA-rich diet (0.025%) for
The incidence of altered hepatocellular Experiment 3: male ACI/N rats FAA alone (control) The incidence of altered hepatocellular
foci in reserpin-treated group was
significantly lower than control
The number of hepatocellular foci Experiment 4: rats FAA + reserpine (weekly injections of
1µg/g bw) for 10weeks
Incidences of liver tumours and hepa-
tocellular foci
FAA alone (control) 24weeks
FAA + polyprenoic acid (40mg/kg bw,
3 times/week) for 13weeks
The number of hepatocellular foci in
treatment group was significantly
smaller than control
Aminopyrine (0.01%of diet) and
sodium nitrite (0.01% of diet)
Aminopyrine and sodium nitrite + cof-
fee solution as a drinking water
Incidences of liver tumours and hepa-
tocellular in treatment group were
significantly lower than control
Shimizu etal. [118] Incidences of adenomatous hyperpla-
78 Male 5-week-old F344 rats MNU alone (control) 36weeks The incidences of adenomatous hyper-
plasia in second treatment group was
significantly lower than control
MNU + CGA (500ppm in diet for
Incidences of glandular stomach
MNU + CGA (4250ppm in diet for
The incidences of glandular stomach
carcinoma in third treatment group
was significantly lower than control
CGA (500ppm for 36weeks)
No treatment
Boettler etal. [119] ARE-dependent transcription 27 healthy volenteers 2weeks wash out phase 12weeks Both treatment group modulated ARE-
dependent transcription
Consumption of 500ml coffee rich in
CGA (4.5mmol/L) for 4weeks
2weeks wash out phase
Consumption of 500ml coffee rich in
NMP for 4weeks
Volz etal. [120] Transcription of Nrf2/ARE Pathway 29 healthy volunteers 4weeks wash out phase 12weeks CGA-rich coffee increased Nrf2 tran-
scription significantly
Consumption of 750ml green and
roasted coffee rich in CGA for
4weeks wash out phase However, pattern of genes showed sub-
stantial variations interindividually
Eur J Nutr
1 3
effective electrophilic trapping agent, has beneficial effects
against diseases whose pathogenesis involves increased
oxidative stress and oxidative damage [102, 104].
CGA shows vigorous action on lipid peroxidation [105],
for instance 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine is configured via
this inhibitor [106]. In this respect, Hoelzl et al. reported
the consumption of coffee containing high levels of CGA
decreasing 8-isoprostaglandin F2α and 3-nitrotyrosine by
15.3 and 16.1%, respectively, thus offering a protective
effect of CGA against the damage mediated by free radicals
[107]. Aforementioned results were confirmed by another
experiment in which the prevention of oxidative DNA
damage caused by two types of coffee was compared. The
maximum protection was seen after intervention in CGA-
rich coffee compared with N-methylpyridinium-rich coffee
[108]. Several phenolic compounds are known to possess
an effective inhibitory action on polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons mutagenesis and carcinogenesis [109, 110]. Mori
etal. tested the effects of dietary CGA on methylazoxym-
ethanol (MAM) acetate-induced colon carcinogenesis in
Syrian golden hamsters. They reported that the number of
hyperplastic liver cell foci were significantly smaller in the
intervention group than in the controls; this suggests that
CGA might inhibit MAM acetate-induced carcinogenesis
Similarly, Morishita etal. were able to show an inverted
CGA effect on configuration of azoxymethane (AOM)-
induced aberrant crypt foci (AFC) in the rat colon [112].
These results were confirmed by another experiment which
suggested that CGA has chemopreventive capability against
colon carcinogenesis in rats [113]. Tanaka etal. reported
that CGA inhibits 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced oral
carcinogenesis in rats [114] and hepatocarcinogenesis in
hamsters [115]. Huang etal. demonstrated that the inhibi-
tory effect of CGA on tumour promotion in the mouse
skin was less effective than curcumin [116]. CGA mark-
edly suppressed N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced glandu-
lar stomach carcinogenesis in male F344 rats, suggesting
chemopreventive effects of CGA on rat glandular stom-
ach carcinogenesis and implying a promising factor for
human stomach cancer prevention [117]. One important
mechanism for protecting cells and tissues from carcino-
genesis and carcinogenic metabolites is the activation of
the Nrf2/ARE pathway [118]. The same group reported
the beneficial effects of coffee rich in chlorogenic acid on
DNA integrity in another study [119] (Table 4). A more
recent pilot human intervention study found that following
14-weeks of high-CGA coffee intake in 29 healthy subjects,
Nrf2 transcription significantly increased peripheral blood
lymphocytes [120]. Although the current animal data on
CGAs are promising, beneficial effects of CGAs on human
cancer have not been studied extensively. The relationship
between CGAs consumption and cancer was investigated in
11 studies (Table4) including sevenanimal models and four
CGA andbrain health
There were 13 studies that examined the association
between CGAs consumption and brain health (Table 5).
Ten were on animal models and three on humans.
Behavioural effects ofCGA
While considerable invitro evidence verifies the effects of
CGA on brain health, several pre-clinical studies also sup-
port this hypothesis. Han etal. [121] assessed the ability of
a diet rich in CGA to counteract the age-related deteriora-
tion in senescence-accelerated-prone mice (SAMP). At the
age of 3 months, they performed the Morris water maze
(MWM) test for evaluating learning and memory in mice
who received CGA in drinking water (6.7mg/kg/day) for
1 month. The CGA-treated mice exhibited a reduction in
escape latency time compared to the control.
Converging results comes from animal models of cog-
nitive impairment which make use of CGA-enriched diets.
Kown et al. [21] reported the neuroprotective effects of
CGA on scopolamine-induced learning and memory
impairments in mice and Jang etal. [122] found that instant
decaffeinated coffee rich in CGA protects animals from
learning and memory impairments caused by scopolamine
via cholinergic and antioxidative mechanisms. As shown in
previous studies, nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is necessary
for normal learning and memory processes [123] and Tu
et al. reported that CGA improves the kinic acid-induced
memory impairments in mice through the protection of
nNOS positive neurons in the hippocampus [123]. Bouayed
etal. examined the anxiolytic effect of CGA in mouse mod-
els of anxiety using the light/dark test, the elevated plus
maze and the free exploratory test. They concluded that
CGA (20 mg/kg) induced a decrease in anxiety-related
behaviour, with results similar in the diazepam (1mg/kg)-
treated mice [124]. It is noticeable that except for Jang’s
study all studies used CGA directly (Table 5). Lapchak
etal. assessed the effects of CGA on behavioural impair-
ment linked with embolic strokes in a rabbit small clot
embolic stroke model (RSCEM). Rabbits received 50mg/
kg CGA 5min, 1 and 3h following embolic strokes. Com-
pared to control animals, CGA-treated rabbits exhibited a
significant increase in behavioural function at 5 and 60min
post-embolization. In addition, a synergistic effect of the
combination of thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator
(tPA) with CGA was shown just 3h following embolization
Although CGA has various physiological effects, its
actions on the central nervous system remain controversial
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 5 Summary of animal and human studies that assessing the effects of CGA on brain health
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Han etal. [121] Neuroprotective effects of CGA on
spatial learning and memory
20 Male SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice SAMP8 mice control group 4weeks 3,5-di-O-CQA improved spatial
learning and memory on SAMP8
3,5-di-O-CQA-treated SAMP8 mice
orally received CGA (6.7mg/kg /
day) in drinking weter
Age matched SAMR1 mice normal
aging control
Kwon etal. [122] Neuroprotective effects of CGA on
scopolamine-induced learning and
memory impairments
Male 4-week-old ICR mice 1h before Y-maze, passive
avoidance and MWM test mice
4days In the 6 and 9mg/kg CGA-treated
groups the impairment of short-
term memory and escape latencies
in the Y-maze test significantly
0mg/kg CGA in distilled water Consumption of 9mg/kg CGA in the
passive avoidance test significantly
reversed cognitive impairments
3mg/kg CGA in distilled water
6mg/kg CGA in distilled water
9mg/kg CGA in distilled water
Jang etal. [123] Scopolamine-induced memory
Rat 1h before Y-maze, passive
avoidance and MWM test mice
13days Instant decaffeinated coffee rich
in CGA prevented Scopolamine-
induced memory impairment in rats
Orally administration of120 or
240mg/kg instant decaffein-
ated coffee rich in CGA in 1ml
distilled water for 6 days in the
MWM test, 5 days in the Y-maze
and 2 days in the passive avoid-
Tu etal. [124] Kainic acid-induced memory
Mice Two daily intragastric administra-
tions of 1ml CGA or saline
35days CGA-treated group had milder
memory impairments compared to
control group
Bouayed etal. [125] Anxiolytic effect of chlorogenic
Male 9-week-old Swiss albino mice
30min before each test mice
20 mg/kg CGA decreased anxiety-
related behaviours
2, 10, 20, 40mg/kg CGA or 1mg/
kg diazepam in saline for light/
dark choice test
20mg/kg CGA 0r 1mg/kg diaz-
epam in saline for free exploratory
20mg/kg CGA 0r 1mg/kg diaze-
pam or 5mg/kg flumazenil + CGA
or diazepam + flumazenil for
elevated plus maze test
1mg/kg Diazepam in saline
Control (saline)
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 5 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Lapchak etal. [127] Behavioural deficits associated with
embolic strokes
RSCEM rabbit Intravenous injection of 50mg/kg
CGA at 5min, 1h or 3h post-
3h CGA injected at 5min post-emboli-
zation increased behavioural func-
tion significantly
Injection of 3.3mg/kg tPA at 1h or
3h post-embolization
CGA injected at 1h post-emboliza-
tion increased the P 50 value
50mg/kg CGA + 3.3mg/kg tPA 3h
CGA + tPA injected at 3h post-
embolization increased behavioural
Stefanello etal. [136] Brain disorders (impaired memory
and anxiety) promoted by diabetes
Male wistar rats (n = 10/group) 29days CGA improved memory and
decreased anxiety promoted by
diabetes mellitus
Control (water)
5mg/kg CGA
15mg/kg caffeine
0.5g/kg coffee
Diabetic rats (water)
Diabetic rats + 5mg/kg CGA
Diabetic rats + 15mg/kg caffeine
Diabetic rats + 0.5g/kg coffee
Ho etal. [137] Brain energy metabolism dysfunc-
tion promoted by high-fat diet
Female C57B6SJL mice (n = 10/group) 20weeks CGA-rich supplement improved brain
mitochondrial energy metabolism
dysfunction promoted by high-fat
CGA-rich supplement (40–45%)
Normal diet
Normal diet +
CGA-rich supplement
Shen etal. [140] Brain protection from oxidative
Rat Intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/
kg/day of CGA or saline
24days CGA attenuated induced oxidative
Oxidative damage induced by injec-
tion of 20mg/kg methotrexate
Lee etal. [141] Brain damage and edema promoted
by cerebral ischemia
Sprague–Dawley rats Sham group 2h CGA reduced infarct volume and sen-
sory-motor functional deficits at 0h
and 2h after middle cerebral artery
occlusion dose-dependently
Vehicle-treated group
Intraperitoneal injection of 3, 10,
and 30mg/kg CGA-treated group
CGA reduced brain water content and
Evans blue extravasation
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Table 5 (continued)
Reference Relevant outcome Type of subjects (animal/human) Treatments Duration Main results
Reyes-Izquierdo etal. [133] Blood levels of BDNF 25 Healthy volunteers Whole coffee fruit concentrate
2h Consumption of green coffee caffeine
Powder and grape seed extract
powder increased levels of plasma
BDNF by 31%, whereas whole
coffee fruit concentrate powder
increased it by 143%
Green coffee caffeine powder
Green coffee bean extract powder
Grape seed extract powder (100mg)
Placebo (silica oxide)
Cropley etal. [134] Mood and cognition 39 healthy older volunteers High CGA (521mg and 11mg caf-
feine) Decaf
2h Decaffeinated coffee high in chlo-
rogenic acid also to a lesser extent
improved some mood and behav-
ioural measures in compared with
the regular decaffeinated coffee
Regular CGA (224mg and 5mg
caffeine) Decaf
Caffeinated coffee (224mg CGA
and 167mg caffeine)
Placebo (0mg CGA and 0mg
One week wash out phase
Camfield etal. [135] Mood and cognition 60 Healthy older adults 540mg CGA administered as a
300ml normal hot coffee drink
2h Decaffeinated green blend coffee
improved sustained attention, deci-
sion time and alertness relative to
6 g Decaffeinated green blend
coffee administered as a 300ml
normal hot coffee drink
Both treatments group improved
symptoms of headache
6g Maltodextrin placebo admin-
istered as a 300ml normal hot
coffee drink
3,5-di-O-CQA 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, SAMP senescence-accelerated-prone mice, MWM Morris water maze, RSCEM rabbit small clot embolic stroke model, tPA thrombolytic tissue
plasminogen activator, P 50 value or the amount of microclots that produce neurologic dysfunction in 50% of a group of animals, HFD high-fat diet, BDNF blood levels of brain-derived neuro-
trophic factor
Eur J Nutr
1 3
[125, 126]. Ohnishi et al. reported that CGA increased the
activity of spontaneous locomotor activity in mice [127].
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as a member of
the nerve growth factor-related family, is involved in devel-
opment and function of the central nervous system [128,
129]. It is known that diabetes mellitus linked to brain mod-
ifications may contribute to cognitive impairment [130]. In
this context, Ho etal. found that dietary supplementation
with decaffeinated green coffee enhanced the dysfunction
of brain energy metabolism in a HFD mouse model [131].
Recently, Stefanello etal. have also reported the beneficial
effects of CGA on brain disorders promoted by diabetes.
After 29 days of intake of a diet containing either CGA
(5mg/kg), caffeine (15mg/kg), coffee (0.5mg/kg) or pla-
cebo, a significant decrease in anxiety and improvement
in memory was observed in induced diabetic rats receiv-
ing CGA-rich diet compared with the other groups [130].
In a recent pilot study, Reyes-Izquierdo etal. examined the
effects of polyphenol-rich natural products on plasma lev-
els of BDNF in healthy subjects. Volunteers were randomly
divided into five groups (n = 5 per group) and received a
100 mg dose of one of the following food supplements:
whole coffee fruit concentrate powder (WCFC), green cof-
fee caffeine powder, GCE powder, green seed extract pow-
der, or placebo (silica oxide). The collected data revealed
that among the substances tested, WCFC significantly
increased plasma BDNF by about 143%. Since WCFC
has a CGA content, it was thought that it might have trig-
gered the increase in BDNF blood levels. Consequently, in
a follow-up study, five participants received CGA (50mg),
WCFC (100 mg) or placebo. CGA did not increase the
plasma level of BDNF significantly. Further clinical experi-
ments in a larger population are needed to acknowledge the
outcomes of this pilot study [132].
Cropley examined the immediate effects of decaffein-
ated coffee enriched with CGA (521mg) and decaffeinated
coffee with regular CGA content (224mg) on brain func-
tion in 39 healthy older volunteers. Compared to the regu-
lar decaffeinated coffee group, the CGA-rich coffee group,
exhibited decreased headaches and mental fatigue and
increased alertness [133]. Most recently, Camfield et al.
conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial with 60
healthy participants aged over 50years, who consumed 6g
of decaffeinated green coffee blend or 540mg pure.
CGA or placebo and completed cognitive and mood tests
at baseline, 40min and 120min post dosing. Cognitive and
mood functions were assessed by the Rapid Visual Infor-
mation Processing (RVIP), the Jensen box decision/reaction
time test, serial subtraction and N-Back working memory
test. The symptoms of headache significantly improved in
both groups at 120min compared to the placebo. In addi-
tion, a decrease in jitteriness was observed in both groups
at 40min after application compared to placebo. In terms
of cognitive function, CGA did not induce any significant
improvements. In contrast, decaffeinated green coffee blend
significantly improved sustained attention, reaction time
performance and alertness compared with the placebo.
These observations suggest that CGA, the major compound
of green blend coffee, could be a principle but not the only
compound responsible for positive cognitive and mood
effects [134].
Neuroprotective effects
Various evidences suggest that oxidative damage and neu-
ronal dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of neuro-
degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkin-
son’s disease and mental disorders [130]. CGA is known
for its antioxidant activities which are linked to free radi-
cal scavenging quality [11]. It has been shown that CGA
and their metabolites are present in brain tissue [131].
Kwon et al. investigated the effects of CGA on scopola-
mine-induced amnesia in mice. The results showed that
CGA significantly modified the impairment of short-term
memory in the Y-maze test, reversed cognitive impair-
ments and increased latency time in the target quadrant
in a dose-related fashion [21]. Shen et al. [135] reported
that CGA (100 mg/kg/day) decreased the oxidative dam-
age in rat brain cerebellum exposed to the methotrexate
(20mg/kg). They found that CGA pre-treatment attenuated
lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1β and tumour necro-
sis factor alpha (TNF-α) release in the substantia nigra,
thereby pointing to the neuroprotective effects of CGA on
pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated neurodegenerative
Lee etal. [136] intraperitoneally administered rats with
3, 10, and 30mg/kg CGA, immediately and 2h after mid-
dle cerebral artery occlusion. In CGA-treated rats, reduced
infarct volume, sensory-motor functional impairments,
brain water content and Evans blue extravasation were
noted compared to the control group. CGA also improved
lipid peroxidation as well as matrix metalloproteinase
expression and activity. The evidence for its neuroprotec-
tive properties is also supported by results of invitro exper-
iments [137139].
While numerous studies have been conducted to deter-
mine the effects of coffee on the human nervous system
and cognition with the main focus on caffeine, few clini-
cal studies have been dedicated to CGA (the most abundant
coffee polyphenol) specifically; however, the outcomes are
promising albeit as yet inconclusive. The majority of stud-
ies have investigated the acute effects of CGAs and two
recent human studies were performed in elder population.
Further researches should evaluate the neuroprotective
effects of CGAs over extended periods of exposure and in
different age population groups.
Eur J Nutr
1 3
Other health effects
19 animal studies investigated the other health benefits
of CGAs.
Effects ofCGA oninflammation andpain
Despite various biological activities of CGA being
associated with an antioxidant action, it is also able
to change physiological and/or pathological condi-
tions through anti-inflammatory mechanisms [17]. The
inflammatory reaction is orchestrated and influenced by
a large range of cytokines and chemokines and reduction
of these markers should decrease the degree of overall
inflammation [140].
The beneficial effects of CGA on inflammation were
observed in animal studies [17, 140, 141]. This finding
is in agreement with the results of invitro experiments
which showed that CGA is able to strongly inhibit the
production of TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by periph-
eral blood mononuclear cells [142]. Chauhan etal. [141]
reported the antiarthritic activity of CGA (40mg/kg) in
male Wistar rats through elevation of IL-10 and IL-4
and suppression of IL-2, IL-12.
Oedema is considered one of the main signs of an
acute inflammation. Dos Santos etal. [17] observed that
CGA inhibited oedema formation and pain following the
inflammatory reaction in carrageenan-induced inflam-
mation and formalin-induced pain models. A favourable
effect of CGA on inflammatory pain has also been found
in another animal study, where GCE extract displayed a
considerable anti-inflammatory action by alleviating paw
oedema and formalin-induced pain [140]. These results
imply that a CGA-rich fraction from medicinal plants
demonstrates anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities
in animal pain models [143145].
CGA also appear to have beneficial effects on neuro-
pathic pain. Bagdas et al. [146] reported the beneficial
effects of acute (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and chronic
(100 mg/kg for 14 days) intraperitoneal administration
of CGA in neuropathic pain. Similarly, a more recent
study investigated the effects of intrathecally adminis-
tered CGA on mechanical, thermal and cold hyperalge-
sia in an animal neuropathic pain model. It was found
that CGA ameliorates mechanical and cold hyperalge-
sia, suggesting that CGA may represent a novel treat-
ment approach for neuropathic pain [147]. Very recently,
Qu etal. [148] proposed that the use of CGA may exert
analgesic action by modulating acid-sensing ion chan-
nels (ASICS) in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.
CGA andhepatic health
Several studies have shown the beneficial impacts of coffee
on liver disease. However, the results are controversial and
the mechanism underlying this effect is yet to be clarified
[149, 150]. As mentioned previously, CGA has both anti-
oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; it therefore seems
conceivable that the positive effects observed after decaf-
feinated coffee ingestion might be due to CGA.
Hepatic injury may result from many different causes,
including viral hepatitis, iron overload, obesity, and exces-
sive alcohol consumption. CGA has been shown to be
effective against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)—liver injury
in an invitro assay [151]. Wang etal. [152] reported anti-
hepatitis-B virus activity of coffee rich in CGA in vitro
and in animal models. Furthermore, CGA inhibited iron-
induced lipid peroxidation by forming a chelate with iron
The hepatoprotective impacts of CGA were investigated
in animal models with normal and pathological liver injury.
Kapil et al. [154] analyzed the effects of CGA extracted
from the leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba (a tree with
medicinal value for various disorders) on the liver against
oxidative injury by CCL4. CGA (100mg/kg bw/day) was
administered intraperitoneally in mice for 8days. The mice
exhibited significant reversal in lipid peroxidation and gen-
erated cellular antioxidant defence modification. These
results revealed that the hepatoprotective activity of CGA
might be caused by its antioxidative action. Xu etal. [155]
administered intraperitoneal CGA to C57BL/6J mice (liver
injury due to lipopolysaccharide) at a dose of 50 mg/kg/
day. In treated mice, the expression of TNF-α was mark-
edly inhibited, suggesting a positive effect of CGA on
acute liver injury through its anti-inflammatory action. The
results of two recent studies by Xu etal. [156] and Koriem
etal. [157] also support the protective role of CGA in ani-
mal models of liver injury through its antioxidant capac-
ity. In contrast, Akashi et al. [158] investigated the effi-
cacy of a diet enriched with coffee-derived compounds for
counteracting (LPS)/D-GalN-induced acute liver injury in
rats and did not find any beneficial effects of a CGA-rich
diet. One possible explanation might be the differences in
experimental methods, especially the use of different toxic
Finally, Yun et al. examined the effects of CGA on
hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. In CGA-
treated rats, the levels of serum TNF-α, inducible nitric
oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein was sig-
nificantly reduced and hepatic histology was improved,
suggesting a positive effect of CGA on I/R-induced liver
injury. This effect is probably associated with an inflam-
matory response inhibition and antioxidant defence sys-
tems modification [159]. The findings of Shi et al. [160]
Eur J Nutr
1 3
also suggest an improving effect of CGA on CCL4-induced
liver fibrosis in rats.
Despite promising findings in many animal studies, it is
unclear whether CGA could be an effective agent for liver
disease in humans.
CGA andgastrointestinal health
Some animal studies have revealed the effects of CGAs
on gastrointestinal health through its anti-inflammatory
properties. For instance, in an experimental model of
colitis when rats were given orally 2 mg/kg CGA for
4 days, the appearance of diarrhoea was greatly attenu-
ated. The authors suggested this to be a result of a reduc-
tion in pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-KappaB
activation [161]. Similar results were achieved by Shin
etal. [162] when studying the effects of CGA on dextran
sulfate sodium-induced (DSS) colitis in mice. Twenty
female C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups
(n = 5/group): group1, normal mice; group2, DSS-
induced mice; group 3, the DSS-induced mice receiving
1 Mm CGA orally for 15 days; group 4, DSS-induced
mice receiving 1 Mm caffeic acid orally for 15 days.
Intestinal inflammatory impairment was induced by 3%
DSS for 8days. In the CGA-treated group, diarrhoea, fae-
cal blood, DSS-induced body weight loss and shortening
of colon were significantly attenuated compared to the
other groups [162].
An intact intestinal barrier plays an important role in
gut-related disease. Ruan et al. [163] recently evaluated
the effects of CGA on intestinal barrier function in weaned
rats challenged with LPS. They found that dietary supple-
mentation with CGA could mitigate the intestinal mucosal
inflammation through decreasing intestinal permeability
Fig. 2 Putative mechanisms of action of CGA and their effects on
physiological systems and on health. HMGR 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-
glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, PPAR-α peroxisome proliferator–
activated receptor-α, CPT carnitine palmitoyl transferase, AMPK
AMP‐activated protein kinase, GIP glucose-dependent insulinotropic
peptide, G-6-Pase glucose-6-phosphatase, ROS reactive oxygen spe-
Eur J Nutr
1 3
and increasing intestinal expression of tight junction
Only a few animal studies have so far specifically
addressed the gastrointestinal protective effect of CGA and
it has yet to be determined in humans.
CGA is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent
and one of the main phenolic phytochemicals contained
in green coffee beans, which makes up 7–9% of coffee by
weight [164]. CGA is of special interest due to its wide
spectrum of potential health benefits, including anti-dia-
betic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacte-
rial effects [98, 155, 160, 165167]. On the other hand, it is
well established that ROS are involved in the pathogenesis
of most of these disorders. CGA possesses special proper-
ties, being able to battle oxidative stress by scavenging free
radicals, acting as a metal chelator, reducing lipid peroxida-
tion and inhibiting NAD(P)H oxidase activity [11]. The dif-
ferent pathways and their potential interaction in the gen-
eration of diseases are illustrated in Fig.2.
It should be noted, however, that the assumed positive
effects of exogenous antioxidants such as CGA on health
may be able to counteract the health promoting effects, e.g.
of exercise through inhibition of the endogenous antioxi-
dant defence capacity [168]; therefore, the differential rules
under which CGA supplementation can be beneficial to
health still need to be explored.
Inflammation has been closely linked to oxidative
stress. Reactive oxygen is increasingly observed as a
main upstream agent in the signalling cascade involved in
inflammatory responses [169]. The inflammatory reaction
has been proposed to be interceded through the action of
inflammatory cytokines. For instance, TNF-α as a pivotal
pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the initiation of the
inflammatory responses. In addition, TNF-α is responsible
for the induction of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1
and IL-6 [170]. Furthermore, it is believed that pro-inflam-
matory cytokines are involved in the pathology of chronic
diseases, such as diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular dis-
ease, to name but a few.
The literature has shown that CGA exerts its anti-inflam-
matory effects by inhibiting the production of some media-
tors such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β [101]. In accordance
with accumulating evidence for the anti-inflammatory
activities of CGA, Xu etal. [155] reported the hepatopro-
tective effects of CGA and Dos Santos etal. reported the
antinociceptive impacts of CGA by inhibiting the expres-
sion of inflammatory mediators particularly, TNF-α.
The biological properties of CGA in addition to its
antioxidant effects have lately been the focus of attention
of many studies. It has been viewed as having positive
effects on glucose and lipid metabolism regulation by
inhibiting the activity of α-glucosidase, altering GIP con-
centrations [19], activating the AMPK [76], upregulating
the expression of hepatic PPAR-α [51], and inhibiting the
β-hydroxy-β-methyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase
[171]. It is consequently postulated that CGA is able to
exert pivotal roles on glucose and lipid metabolism dis-
orders, e.g. diabetes, CVD, obesity, cancer, and hepatic
This data allows the depiction of some preliminary
pathways by which GCE and its main constituent, CGA,
act on different organ systems and clinical entities (s.
Fig.2). However, while many of these pathways have been
explored in single experiments (in vitro, in vivo in ani-
mals and humans, and clinically), a comprehensive and
comparative approach that compares the action of CGA
in different organ systems at the same time, and balances
its different actions is still lacking. It is therefore currently
unknown where—if at all—CGA will find a prime clini-
cal role in future treatments using such functional foods. It
is also likely that the proposed pathways are activated in a
concerted manner; however, the true cascade of physiologi-
cal effects induced by CGA consumption still needs to be
explored. Finally, comparisons of CGA with other “health
foods” (e.g. green tea extract) will need to explore its rela-
tive efficacy in therapy and prevention. To our knowledge,
this is the first review article that has systematically studied
the effects of CGAs on health.
Despite promising data on CGA, further gaps in knowl-
edge remain to be filled. For example, the side effects
(adverse events) of both short and long-term consumption
of CGA have not yet been investigated thoroughly. Only
a few interventional researches have explored exposure to
CGAs, in human whereas most data derive from animal
studies. Therefore, more research is needed to reach a deci-
sive approach for end-users (consumers and food indus-
tries) to eliminate these ambiguities.
The wide range of potential health benefits of CGA,
including its anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflam-
matory and anti-obesity impacts, may provide a non-
pharmacological and non-invasive approach for treatment
or prevention of some chronic diseases. In this study, the
effects of CGAs on different aspects of health by reviewing
the related literatures have been discussed.
Acknowledgements Funding for this review was provided by the
Department of Internal Medicine VI: Psychosomatic Medicine and
Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest On behalf of all authors, the corresponding au-
thor states that there is no conflict of interest.
Eur J Nutr
1 3
1. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB
(2008) The effects of l-theanine, caffeine and their combination
on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol 77(2):113–122
2. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB (2005)
Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual con-
sumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharma-
cology (Berl) 179(4):813–825
3. Rees K, Allen D, Lader M (1999) The influences of age and
caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive function. Psychophar-
macology (Berl) 145(2):181–188
4. Zhang L-Y, Cosma G, Gardner H, Vallyathan V, Castranova V
(2003) Effect of chlorogenic acid on hydroxyl radical. Mol Cell
Biochem 247(1–2):205–210
5. Nardini M, Cirillo E, Natella F, Scaccini C (2002) Absorption
of phenolic acids in humans after coffee consumption. J Agric
Food Chem 50(20):5735–5741
6. Clifford MN (2000) Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates–
nature, occurrence, dietary burden, absorption and metabolism.
J Sci Food Agric 80(7):1033–1043
7. Perrone D, Donangelo R, Donangelo CM, Farah A (2010) Mod-
eling weight loss and chlorogenic acids content in coffee during
roasting. J Agric Food Chem 58 (23):12238–12243
8. Lafay S G-IA, Manach C, Morand C, Besson C, Scalbert A.
(2006) Chlorogenic acid is absorbed in its intact form in the
stomach of rats. J Nutr 136 (5):1192–1197
9. Konishi YKS (2004) Transepithelial transport of chlorogenic
acid, caffeic acid, and their colonic metabolites in intestinal
caco-2 cell monolayers. J Agric Food Chem 52 (9):2518–2526
10. Monteiro M, Farah A, Perrone D, Trugo LC, Donangelo C
(2007) Chlorogenic acid compounds from coffee are dif-
ferentially absorbed and metabolized in humans. J Nutr 137
11. Clifford MN (1999) Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates–
nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric
12. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L (2004)
Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr
13. Renouf M, Guy PA, Marmet C, Fraering AL, Longet K, Moulin
J, Enslen M, Barron D, Dionisi F, Cavin C (2010) Measurement
of caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents in plasma after coffee
consumption: small intestine and colon are key sites for coffee
metabolism. Mol Nutr Food Res 54 (6):760–766
14. Clifford MN WJ (1976) The measurement of feruloylquinic
acids and caffeoylquinic acids in coffee beans. Development
of the technique and its preliminary application to green coffee
beans. J Sci Food Agric 27(1):73–84
15. Perrone D, Farah A, Donangelo CM, de Paulis T, Martin PR
(2008) Comprehensive analysis of major and minor chlorogenic
acids and lactones in economically relevant Brazilian coffee
cultivars. Food Chem 106:859–867
16. Iziar A, Ludwig LS, B Caemmerer, LW Kroh, MP De Peñ, C
Cid (2012) Extraction of coffee antioxidants: Impact of brewing
time and method. Food Res Int 48 (1):57–64
17. Dos Santos MD, Almeida MC, Lopes NP, De Souza GEP
(2006) Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-
pyretic activities of the natural polyphenol chlorogenic acid.
Biol Pharm Bull 29(11):2236
18. Tsuchiya T, Suzuki O, Igarashi K (1996) Protective effects of
chlorogenic acid on paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60:765–801
19. Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM (2003) Coffee acutely
modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose
tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and
caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr 78(4):728–733
20. Thom E (2007) The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched cof-
fee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect
on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese
people. J Int Med Res 35(6):900–908
21. Kwon S-H, Lee H-K, Kim J-A, Hong S-I, Kim H-C, Jo T-H,
Park Y-I, Lee C-K, Kim Y-B, Lee S-Y (2010) Neuroprotective
effects of chlorogenic acid on scopolamine-induced amnesia
via anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-oxidative activities in
mice. Eur J Pharmacol 649(1):210–217
22. Lapchak PA (2007) The phenylpropanoid micronutrient chlo-
rogenic acid improves clinical rating scores in rabbits follow-
ing multiple infarct ischemic strokes: synergism with tissue
plasminogen activator. Exp Neurol 205(2):407–413
23. Suzuki A, Kagawa D, Ochiai R, Tokimitsu I, Saito I (2002)
Green coffee bean extract and its metabolites have a hypoten-
sive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertens Res
24. Suzuki A, Fujii A, Yamamoto N, Yamamoto M, Ohminami
H, Kameyama A, Shibuya Y, Nishizawa Y, Tokimitsu I, Saito
I (2006) Improvement of hypertension and vascular dysfunc-
tion by hydroxyhydroquinone-free coffee in a genetic model
of hypertension. FEBS Lett 580 (9):2317–2322
25. Onakpoya I, Terry R, Ernst E (2010) The use of green coffee
extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and
meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Gastroenterol Res
Pract 2011
26. Suzuki A, Fujii A, Jokura H, Tokimitsu I, Hase T, Saito I
(2008) Hydroxyhydroquinone interferes with the chlorogenic
acid-induced restoration of endothelial function in spontane-
ously hypertensive rats. Am J hypertens 21(1):23–27
27. Kanegae MP, da Fonseca LM, Brunetti IL, de Oliveira Silva
S, Ximenes VF (2007) The reactivity of ortho-methoxy-
substituted catechol radicals with sulfhydryl groups: contri-
bution for the comprehension of the mechanism of inhibi-
tion of NADPH oxidase by apocynin. Biochem Pharmacol
28. Sato Y, Itagaki S, Kurokawa T, Ogura J, Kobayashi M, Hirano
T, Sugawara M, Iseki K (2011) Invitro and invivo antioxidant
properties of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. Int J Pharm
29. Kozuma K, Tsuchiya S, Kohori J, Hase T, Tokimitsu I (2005)
Antihypertensive effect of green coffee bean extract on mildly
hypertensive subjects. Hypertens Res 28(9):711–718
30. Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y, Kusaura T, Okawa W, Kajihara
Y, Saito I (2006) The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety
of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential
hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens 28(5):439–449
31. Yamaguchi T, Chikama A, Mori K, Watanabe T, Shioya Y, Kat-
suragi Y, Tokimitsu I (2008) Hydroxyhydroquinone-free coffee:
a double-blind, randomized controlled dose–response study of
blood pressure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18 (6):408–414
32. Ochiai R, Jokura H, Suzuki A, Tokimitsu I, Ohishi M, Komai
N, Rakugi H, Ogihara T (2004) Green coffee bean extract
improves human vasoreactivity. Hypertens Res 27(10):731–737
33. Mubarak A, Bondonno CP, Liu AH, Considine MJ, Rich L,
Mas E, Croft KD, Hodgson JM (2012) Acute effects of chloro-
genic acid on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, and blood
pressure in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial. J Agric Food
Chem 60(36):9130–9136
34. Revuelta-Iniesta R, Al-Dujaili E (2014) Consumption of green
coffee reduces blood pressure and body composition by influ-
encing 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in healthy individuals: a
pilot crossover study using green and black coffee. BioMed Res
Int 2014:482704. doi:10.1155/2014/482704
Eur J Nutr
1 3
35. Cai H, Harrison DG (2000) Endothelial dysfunction in car-
diovascular diseases: the role of oxidant stress. Circ Res
36. Dentali F, Squizzato A, Ageno W (2009) The metabolic syn-
drome as a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis. In:
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. vol5. p451
37. Baur JA, Sinclair DA (2006) Therapeutic potential of resvera-
trol: the invivo evidence. Nat Rev Drug Discov 5 (6):493–506
38. Taguchi K, Hida M, Matsumoto T, Ikeuchi-Takahashi Y, Onishi
H, Kobayashi T (2014) Effect of short-term polyphenol treatment
on endothelial dysfunction and thromboxane A2 levels in strepto-
zotocin-induced diabetic mice. Biol Pharm Bull 37:1056–1061
39. Suzuki A, Yamamoto N, Jokura H, Yamamoto M, Fujii A,
Tokimitsu I, Saito I (2006) Chlorogenic acid attenuates hyper-
tension and improves endothelial function in spontaneously
hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 24(6):1065–1073
40. Cheong JLK, Croft K, Henry P, Matthews V, Hodgson J, Ward
N (2014) Green coffee polyphenols do not attenuate features of
the metabolic syndrome and improve endothelial function in
mice fed a high fat diet. Arch Biochem Biophys 559:46–52
41. Taguchi K, Hida M, Matsumoto T, Ikeuchi-Takahashi Y, Oni-
shi H, Kobayashi T (2014) Effect of short-term polyphenol
treatment on endothelial dysfunction and thromboxane A2 lev-
els in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Biol Pharm Bull
42. Kanno Y, Watanabe R, Zempo H, Ogawa M, Suzuki J-i, Isobe
M (2012) Chlorogenic Acid attenuates ventricular remodeling
after myocardial infarction in mice. Int Heart J 54(3):176–180
43. McDowell IF, Lang D (2000) Homocysteine and endothe-
lial dysfunction: a link with cardiovascular disease. J Nutr
44. Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Zock PL, Katan MB (2001) Con-
sumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or
of black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations
in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 73(3):532–538
45. Rodriguez de Sotillo DV, Hadley M (2002) Chlorogenic acid
modifies plasma and liver concentrations of: cholesterol, tria-
cylglycerol, and minerals in (fa/fa) Zucker rats. J Nutr Biochem
46. Goldstein JL, Ho Y, Basu SK, Brown MS (1979) Binding site
on macrophages that mediates uptake and degradation of acety-
lated low density lipoprotein, producing massive cholesterol
deposition. Proc Natl Acad Sci 76(1):333–337
47. Yukawa G, Mune M, Otani H, Tone Y, Liang X-M, Iwahashi H,
Sakamoto W (2004) Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative
susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels
in humans. BioChemistry 69(1):70–74
48. Bagdas D, Cam Etoz B, Inan Ozturkoglu S, Cinkilic N, Ozyigit
MO, Gul Z, Isbil Buyukcoskun N, Ozluk K, Gurun MS
(2014) Effects of systemic chlorogenic acid on random-pat-
tern dorsal skin flap survival in diabetic rats. Biol Pharm Bull
49. Huang K, Liang Xc, Zhong Yl, He Wy, Wang Z (2014)
5-Caffeoylquinic acid decreases diet-induced obesity in rats by
modulating PPARα and LXRα transcription. J Sci Food Agric
50. Panchal SK, Poudyal H, Waanders J, Brown L (2012) Coffee
extract attenuates changes in cardiovascular and hepatic struc-
ture and function without decreasing obesity in high-carbohy-
drate, high-fat diet-fed male rats. J Nutr 142(4):690–697
51. Zhang L, Chang C, Liu Y, Chen Z (2011) Effect of chlorogenic
acid on disordered glucose and lipid metabolism in db/db mice
and its mechanism. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 33 (3):281–286
52. Li S-Y, Chang C-Q, Ma F-Y, Yu C-L (2009) Modulating
effects of chlorogenic acid on lipids and glucose metabolism
and expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptor-α in golden hamsters fed on high fat diet. Biomed
Environ Sci 22(2):122–129
53. Wan CW, Wong CNY, Pin WK, Wong MHY, Kwok CY, Chan
RYK, Yu PHF, Chan SW (2013) Chlorogenic acid exhibits
cholesterol lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties by
up-regulating the gene expression of PPAR-α in hypercholester-
olemic rats induced with a high-cholesterol diet. Phytother Res
54. Karthikesan K, Pari L, Menon V (2010) Antihyperlipidemic effect
of chlorogenic acid and tetrahydrocurcumin in rats subjected to
diabetogenic agents. Chem Biol Interact 188 (3):643–650
55. Frank J, Kamal-Eldin A, Razdan A, Lundh T, Vessby B
(2003) The dietary hydroxycinnamate caffeic acid and its con-
jugate chlorogenic acid increase vitamin E and cholesterol
concentrations in Sprague–Dawley rats. J Agric Food Chem
56. Mubarak A, Hodgson JM, Considine MJ, Croft KD, Matthews
VB (2013) Supplementation of a high-fat diet with chlorogenic
acid is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accu-
mulation in mice. J Agric Food Chem 61(18):4371–4378
57. Lecoultre V, Carrel G, Egli L, Binnert C, Boss A, MacMillan
EL, Kreis R, Boesch C, Darimont C, Tappy L (2014) Coffee
consumption attenuates short-term fructose-induced liver insu-
lin resistance in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 99(2):268–275
58. Kamtchouing P, Kahpui S, Dzeufiet P-DD, Tedong L, Ason-
galem E, Dimo T (2006) Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/
methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba
and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced dia-
betic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 104(3):306–309
59. Lin WY, Xaiver Pi-Sunyer F, Chen CC, Davidson LE, Liu CS,
Li TC, Wu MF, Li CI, Chen W, Lin CC (2011) Coffee con-
sumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes in Chi-
nese. Eur J Clin Invest 41(6):659–666
60. Pereira MA, Parker ED, Folsom AR (2006) Coffee consump-
tion and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospec-
tive study of 28,812 postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med
61. Van Dam RM, Feskens EJ (2002) Coffee consumption and risk
of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Lancet 360(9344):1477–1478
62. van Dam RM (2008) Coffee consumption and risk of type 2
diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Appl Physiol Nutr
Metab 33(6):1269–1283
63. Battram DS, Arthur R, Weekes A, Graham TE (2006) The glu-
cose intolerance induced by caffeinated coffee ingestion is less
pronounced than that due to alkaloid caffeine in men. J Nutr
64. Battram D, Graham T, Dela F (2007) Caffeine’s impairment of
insulin-mediated glucose disposal cannot be solely attributed to
adrenaline in humans. J Physiol 583(3):1069–1077
65. Thong FS, Derave W, Kiens B, Graham TE, Ursø B, Wojtasze-
wski JF, Hansen BF, Richter EA (2002) Caffeine-induced
impairment of insulin action but not insulin signaling in human
skeletal muscle is reduced by exercise. Diabetes 51(3):583–590
66. Huxley R, Lee CMY, Barzi F, Timmermeister L, Czernichow S,
Perkovic V, Grobbee DE, Batty D, Woodward M (2009) Coffee,
decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption in relation to incident
type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analy-
sis. Arch Intern Med 169(22):2053–2063
67. McCarty MF (2005) A chlorogenic acid-induced increase in
GLP-1 production may mediate the impact of heavy coffee con-
sumption on diabetes risk. Med Hypotheses 64(4):848–853
68. Karthikesan K, Pari L, Menon VP (2010) Combined treatment
of tetrahydrocurcumin and chlorogenic acid exerts potential
antihyperglycemic effect on streptozotocin-nicotinamide-
induced diabetic rats. Gen Physiol Biophys 29(1):23–30
Eur J Nutr
1 3
69. Karthikesan K, Pari L, Menon VP (2010) Protective effect of
tetrahydrocurcumin and chlorogenic acid against streptozo-
tocin–nicotinamide generated oxidative stress induced diabetes.
J Funct Foods 2(2):134–142
70. Pari L, Karthikesan K, Menon VP (2010) Comparative and
combined effect of chlorogenic acid and tetrahydrocurcumin on
antioxidant disparities in chemical induced experimental diabe-
tes. Mol Cell Biochem 341(1–2):109–117
71. Herling AW, Schwab D, Burger H-J, Maas J, Hammerl R,
Schmidt D, Strohschein S, Hemmerle H, Schubert G, Petry S
(2002) Prolonged blood glucose reduction in mrp-2 deficient
rats (GY/TR-) by the glucose-6-phosphate translocase inhibi-
tor S 3025. Biochim Biophys Acta (BBA)-Gen Subj 1569
72. Bassoli BK, Cassolla P, Borba-Murad GR, Constantin J, Sal-
gueiro-Pagadigorria CL, Bazotte RB, da Silva RSdS, de Souza
HM (2008) Chlorogenic acid reduces the plasma glucose peak
in the oral glucose tolerance test: effects on hepatic glucose
release and glycaemia. Cell Biochem Funct 26(3):320–328
73. Van Dijk AE, Olthof MR, Meeuse JC, Seebus E, Heine RJ, Van
Dam RM (2009) Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the
major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on
glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 32 (6):1023–1025
74. Ahrens MJ, Thompson DL (2013) Effect of Emulin on blood
glucose in type 2 diabetics. J Med Food 16(3):211–215
75. Tousch D, Lajoix A-D, Hosy E, Azay-Milhau J, Ferrare K,
Jahannault C, Cros G, Petit P (2008) Chicoric acid, a new com-
pound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake. Bio-
chem Biophys Res Commun 377(1):131–135
76. Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BKH (2012) Chlorogenic acid stimulates
glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a
contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes. PloS
one 7(3):e32718
77. Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BKH (2013) Anti-diabetic and anti-lipi-
demic effects of chlorogenic acid are mediated by ampk activa-
tion. Biochem Pharmacol 85(9):1341–1351
78. Shin JY, Sohn J, Park KH (2013) Chlorogenic acid decreases
retinal vascular hyperpermeability in diabetic rat model. J
Korean Med Sci 28(4):608–613
79. Herling AW, Burger H-J, Schubert G, Hemmerle H, Schaefer
H-L, Kramer W (1999) Alterations of carbohydrate and lipid
intermediary metabolism during inhibition of glucose-6-phos-
phatase in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 386(1):75–82
80. Simon C, Herling AW, Preibisch G, Burger H-J (2000) Upregu-
lation of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase gene expression in rats
treated with an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate translocase.
Arch Biochem Biophys 373(2):418–428
81. van Dijk TH, van der Sluijs FH, Wiegman CH, Baller JF, Gus-
tafson LA, Burger H-J, Herling AW, Kuipers F, Meijer AJ,
Reijngoud D-J (2001) Acute inhibition of hepatic glucose-
6-phosphatase Does not affect gluconeogenesis but directs glu-
coneogenic flux toward glycogen in fasted rats A PHARMA-
DERIVATIVE S4048. J Biol Chem 276(28):25727–25735
82. Ma Y GM, Liu D (2015) Chlorogenic Acid Improves High Fat
Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice.
Pharm Res 32(4):1200–1209
83. Jung UJ, Lee M-K, Park YB, Jeon S-M, Choi M-S (2006) Anti-
hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of caffeic acid in db/
db mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 318(2):476–483
84. Rodriguez de Sotillo DV, Hadley M, Sotillo JE (2006) Insulin
receptor exon 11+/– is expressed in Zucker (fa/fa) rats, and
chlorogenic acid modifies their plasma insulin and liver protein
and DNA. J Nutr Biochem 17(1):63–71
85. Tunnicliffe JM, Eller LK, Reimer RA, Hittel DS, Shearer J
(2011) Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial
glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
response in rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 36(5):650–659
86. Olthof MR, van Dijk AE, Deacon CF, Heine RJ, van Dam RM
(2011) Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major cof-
fee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on incretin
hormones. Nutr Metab (Lond) 8 (10)
87. Ogden CL, Yanovski SZ, Carroll MD, Flegal KM (2007) The
epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology 132(6):2087–2102
88. Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Rajpathak S, Willett WC,
Manson JE, Hu FB (2006) Changes in caffeine intake and
long-term weight change in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr
89. Tunnicliffe JM, Shearer J (2008) Coffee, glucose homeostasis,
and insulin resistance: physiological mechanisms and media-
tors. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33(6):1290–1300
90. Greenberg J, Axen K, Schnoll R, Boozer C (2005) Coffee, tea
and diabetes: the role of weight loss and caffeine. Int J Obes
91. Narita Y, Inouye K (2009) Kinetic analysis and mechanism on
the inhibition of chlorogenic acid and its components against
porcine pancreas α-amylase isozymes I and II. J Agric Food
Chem 57(19):9218–9225
92. Vinson JA, Burnham BR, Nagendran MV (2012) Randomized,
double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study
to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract
in overweight subjects. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obe-
sity: targets and therapy 5:21
93. Flanagan J, Bily A, Rolland Y, Roller M (2014) Lipolytic activ-
ity of Svetol®, a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract. Phyto-
ther Res 28(6):946–948
94. Shimoda H, Seki E, Aitani M (2006) Inhibitory effect of green
coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in
mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 6(1):9
95. Tanaka K, Nishizono S, Tamaru S, Kondo M, Shimoda H, Tan-
aka J, Okada T (2009) Anti-obesity and hypotriglyceridemic
properties of coffee bean extract in SD rats. Food Sci Technol
Res 15(2):147
96. Kobayashi-Hattori K, Mogi A, Matsumoto Y, Takita T
(2005) Effect of caffeine on the body fat and lipid metabo-
lism of rats fed on a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem
97. Song SJ, Choi S, Park T (2014) Decaffeinated green coffee bean
extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance
in mice. Evid-Based Complement Alternat Med 2014:718379.
98. Cho A-S, Jeon S-M, Kim M-J, Yeo J, Seo K-I, Choi M-S, Lee
M-K (2010) Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and
improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice.
Food Chem Toxicol 48(3):937–943
99. Dellalibera O, Lemaire B, Lafay S (2006) Le Svetol®, un extrait
de café vert décaféiné, induit une perte de poids et augmente
le ratio masse maigre sur masse grasse chez des volontaires en
surcharge pondérale. Phytotherapie 4 (4):194–197
100. Bakuradze T, Boehm N, Janzowski C, Lang R, Hofmann T,
Stockis JP, Albert FW, Stiebitz H, Bytof G, Lantz I (2011) Anti-
oxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione
status and contributes to weight control: results from an inter-
vention study. Mol Nutr Food Res 55 (5):793–797
101. Kotyczka C, Boettler U, Lang R, Stiebitz H, Bytof G, Lantz I,
Hofmann T, Marko D, Somoza V (2011) Dark roast coffee is
more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight,
and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione con-
centrations in healthy volunteers. Mol Nutr Food Res 55
102. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M,
Telser J (2007) Free radicals and antioxidants in normal
Eur J Nutr
1 3
physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell
Biol 39(1):44–84
103. Hussain SP, Hofseth LJ, Harris CC (2003) Radical causes of
cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 3(4):276–285
104. Newmark HL (1985) A hypothesis for dietary components as
blocking agents of chemical carcinogenesis: plant phenolics and
pyrrole pigments.
105. Mori H, Tanaka T, Sugie S, Yoshimi N, Kawamori T, Hirose Y,
Ohnishi M (1997) Chemoprevention by naturally occurring and
synthetic agents in oral, liver, and large bowel carcinogenesis. J
Cell Biochem 67(S27):35–41
106. Kasai H, Fukada S, Yamaizumi Z, Sugie S, Mori H (2000)
Action of chlorogenic acid in vegetables and fruits as an inhibi-
tor of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation invitro and in a rat
carcinogenesis model. Food Chem Toxicol 38(5):467–471
107. Hoelzl C, Knasmüller S, Wagner KH, Elbling L, Huber W,
Kager N, Ferk F, Ehrlich V, Nersesyan A, Neubauer O (2010)
Instant coffee with high chlorogenic acid levels protects humans
against oxidative damage of macromolecules. Mol Nutr Food
Res 54 (12):1722–1733
108. Bakuradze T, Baum M, Eisenbrand G, Janzowski C (2011)
4.2 Coffee and coffee compounds are effective antioxidants
in human cells and in vivo. In: Risk Assess Phytochem Food
Novel Approach, pp 364–368
109. Newmark H (1987) Plant phenolics as inhibitors of muta-
tional and precarcinogenic events. Can J Physiol Pharmacol
110. Stich HF, Rosin MP (1984) Naturally occurring phenolics as
antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic agents. In: Nutritional and
toxicological aspects of food safety. Springer, Berlin, pp1–29
111. Mori H, Tanaka T, Shima H, Kuniyasu T, Takahashi M (1986)
Inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on methylazoxymethanol
acetate-induced carcinogenesis in large intestine and liver of
hamsters. Cancer Lett 30(1):49–54
112. Morishita Y, Yoshimi N, Kawabata K, Matsunaga K, Sugie S,
Tanaka T, Mori H (1997) Regressive effects of various chemo-
preventive agents on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci
in the rat colon. Cancer Sci 88(9):815–820
113. Matsunaga K, Katayama M, Sakata K, Kuno T, Yoshida K, Yam-
ada Y, Hirose Y, Yoshimi N, Mori H (2002) Inhibitory effects of
chlorogenic acid on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis
in male F344 rats. Asian pac J cancer prev 3 (2):163–166
114. Tanaka T, Kojima T, Kawamori T, Wang A, Suzui M, Oka-
moto K, Mori H (1993) Inhibition of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-
induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring
plant phenolics caffeic, ellagic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids.
Carcinogenesis 14(7):1321–1325
115. Tanaka T, Nishikawa A, Shima H, Sugie S, Shinoda T, Yoshimi
N, Iwata H, Mori H (1990) Inhibitory effects of chlorogenic
acid, reserpine, polyprenoic acid (E-5166), or coffee on hepa-
tocarcinogenesis in rats and hamsters. In: Antimutagenesis and
anticarcinogenesis mechanisms II. Springer, Berlin, pp429–440
116. Huang M-T, Smart RC, Wong C-Q, Conney AH (1988) Inhibi-
tory effect of curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and fer-
ulic acid on tumor promotion in mouse skin by 12-O-tetrade-
canoylphorbol-13-acetate. Cancer Res 48(21):5941–5946
117. Shimizu M, Yoshimi N, Yamada Y, Matsunaga K, Kawabata
K, Hara A, Moriwaki H, Mori H (1999) Suppressive effects
of chlorogenic acid on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced glan-
dular stomach carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. J Toxicol Sci
118. Boettler U, Volz N, Pahlke G, Teller N, Kotyczka C, Somoza
V, Stiebitz H, Bytof G, Lantz I, Lang R (2011) Coffees rich in
chlorogenic acid or N-methylpyridinium induce chemopreven-
tive phase II-enzymes via the Nrf2/ARE pathway invitro and
invivo. Mol Nutr Food Res 55 (5):798–802
119. Bakuradze T, Lang R, Hofmann T, Eisenbrand G, Schipp D,
Galan J, Richling E (2014) Consumption of a dark roast coffee
decreases the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks: a rand-
omized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 54(1):149–56. doi:10.1007/
120. Volz N, Boettler U, Winkler S, Teller N, Schwarz C, Bakuradze
T, Eisenbrand G, Haupt L, Griffiths LR, Stiebitz H (2012)
Effect of coffee combining green coffee bean constituents with
typical roasting products on the Nrf2/ARE pathway invitro and
invivo. J Agric Food Chem 60(38):9631–9641
121. Han J, Miyamae Y, Shigemori H, Isoda H (2010) Neuroprotec-
tive effect of 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid on SH-SY5Y cells and
senescence-accelerated-prone mice 8 through the up-regulation
of phosphoglycerate kinase-1. Neuroscience 169(3):1039–1045
122. Jang YJ, Kim J, Shim J, Kim C-Y, Jang J-H, Lee KW, Lee HJ
(2013) Decaffeinated coffee prevents scopolamine-induced
memory impairment in rats. Behav Brain Res 245:113–119
123. Tu Q, Tang X, Hu Z (2005) Chlorogenic acid protection of neu-
ronal nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons in the hippocampus
of mice with impaired learning and memory.
124. Bouayed J, Rammal H, Dicko A, Younos C, Soulimani R
(2007) Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol from Prunus domestica
(Mirabelle), with coupled anxiolytic and antioxidant effects. J
Neurol Sci 262(1):77–84
125. Czok G, Lang K (1961) On the stimulating effect of chlorogenic
acid. Arzneimittelforschung 11:448
126. Hach B, Heim F (1971) Comparative studieson the central stim-
ulating effects of caffeie and chlorogenic acid in white mice.
Arzneimittelforschung 2:23–25
127. Ohnishi R, Ito H, Iguchi A, Shinomiya K, Kamei C, Hatano T,
Yoshida T (2006) Effects of chlorogenic acid and its metabo-
lites on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. Biosci Biotech-
nol Biochem 70(10):2560
128. Tessarollo L (1998) Pleiotropic functions of neurotrophins in
development. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 9 (2):125–137
129. Yamamoto M, Sobue G, Yamamoto K, Mitsuma T (1996)
Expression of mRNAs for neurotrophic factors (NGF, BDNF,
NT-3, and GDNF) and their receptors (p75 NGFR, TrkA, TrkB,
and TrkC) in the adult human peripheral nervous system and
nonneural tissues. Neurochem Res 21(8):929–938
130. Behl C, Moosmann B (2002) Antioxidant neuroprotection in
Alzheimer’s disease as preventive and therapeutic approach.
Free Radical Biol Med 33(2):182–191
131. de Paulis T, Schmidt DE, Bruchey AK, Kirby MT, McDon-
ald MP, Commers P, Lovinger DM, Martin PR (2002) Dicin-
namoylquinides in roasted coffee inhibit the human adenosine
transporter. Eur J Pharmacol 442(3):215–223
132. Reyes-Izquierdo T, Nemzer B, Shu C, Huynh L, Argumedo R,
Keller R, Pietrzkowski Z (2013) Modulatory effect of coffee
fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic fac-
tor in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 110(03):420–425
133. Cropley V, Croft R, Silber B, Neale C, Scholey A, Stough C,
Schmitt J (2012) Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids
improve mood and cognition after acute administration in
healthy elderly? A pilot study. Psychopharmacology (Berl)
134. Camfield DA, Silber BY, Scholey AB, Nolidin K, Goh A,
Stough C (2013) A randomised placebo-controlled trial to dif-
ferentiate the acute cognitive and mood effects of chlorogenic
acid from decaffeinated coffee. PloS One 8(12):e82897
135. Shen W, Qi R, Zhang J, Wang Z, Wang H, Hu C, Zhao Y,
Bie M, Wang Y, Fu Y (2012) Chlorogenic acid inhibits LPS-
induced microglial activation and improves survival of dopa-
minergic neurons. Brain Res Bull 88(5):487–494
136. Lee K, Lee J-S, Jang H-J, Kim S-M, Chang MS, Park SH,
Kim KS, Bae J, Park J-W, Lee B (2012) Chlorogenic acid
Eur J Nutr
1 3
ameliorates brain damage and edema by inhibiting matrix
metalloproteinase-2 and 9 in a rat model of focal cerebral
ischemia. Eur J Pharmacol 689(1):89–95
137. Cho ES, Jang YJ, Hwang MK, Kang NJ, Lee KW, Lee HJ
(2009) Attenuation of oxidative neuronal cell death by coffee
phenolic phytochemicals. Mutat Res 661(1):18–24
138. Jin U-H, Lee J-Y, Kang S-K, Kim J-K, Park W-H, Kim
J-G, Moon S-K, Kim C-H (2005) A phenolic compound,
5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), is a new type and
strong matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor: Isolation and
identification from methanol extract of Euonymus alatus. Life
Sci 77(22):2760–2769
139. Li Y, Shi W, Li Y, Zhou Y, Hu X, Song C, Ma H, Wang C, Li
Y (2008) Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid against
apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by methylmercury. Environ
Toxicol Pharmacol 26(1):13–21
140. Moreira MEdC, Pereira RGFA, Dias DF, Gontijo VS, Vilela
FC, de Moraes GdOI, Giusti-Paiva A, dos Santos MH (2013)
Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of roasted and
green Coffea arabica L. J Funct Foods 5(1):466–474
141. Chauhan PS, Satti NK, Sharma P, Sharma VK, Suri KA, Bani
S (2012) Differential effects of chlorogenic acid on various
immunological parameters relevant to rheumatoid arthritis.
Phytother Res 26(8):1156–1165
142. Krakauer T (2002) The polyphenol chlorogenic acid inhibits
staphylococcal exotoxin-induced inflammatory cytokines and
chemokines. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 24(1):113–119
143. Yonathan M, Asres K, Assefa A, Bucar F (2006) Invivo anti-
inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Cheilanthes
farinosa. J Ethnopharmacol 108(3):462–470
144. Marrassini C, Acevedo C, Miño J, Ferraro G, Gorzalczany S
(2010) Evaluation of antinociceptive, antinflammatory activi-
ties and phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Urtica urens
L. Phytother Res 24(12):1807–1812
145. Gorzalczany S, Marrassini C, Miño J, Acevedo C, Ferraro
G (2011) Antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract and
isolated compounds of Urtica circularis. J Ethnopharmacol
146. Bagdas D, Cinkilic N, Ozboluk HY, Ozyigit MO, Gurun MS
(2013) Antihyperalgesic activity of chlorogenic acid in experi-
mental neuropathic pain. J Nat Med 67(4):698–704
147. Hara K, Haranishi Y, Kataoka K, Takahashi Y, Terada T,
Nakamura M, Sata T (2013) Chlorogenic acid administered
intrathecally alleviates mechanical and cold hyperalgesia in
a rat neuropathic pain model. Eur J Pharmacol. doi:10.1016/j.
148. Qu Z-W, Liu T-T, Qiu C-Y, Li J-D, Hu W-P (2014) Inhibition of
acid-sensing ion channels by chlorogenic acid in rat dorsal root
ganglion neurons. Neurosci Lett 567:35–39
149. Honjo S, Kono S, Coleman MP, Shinchi K, Sakurai Y, Todoroki
I, Umeda T, Wakabayashi K, Imanishi K, Nishikawa H (2001)
Coffee consumption and serum aminotransferases in middle-
aged Japanese men. J Clin Epidemiol 54(8):823–829
150. La Vecchia C (2005) Coffee, liver enzymes, cirrhosis and liver
cancer. J Hepatol 42(4):444–446
151. Basnet P, Matsushige K, Hase K, Kadota S, Namba T (1996)
Four di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives from propolis. Potent
hepatoprotective activity in experimental liver injury models.
Biol Pharm Bull 19 (11):1479–1484
152. Wang G-F, Shi L-P, Ren Y-D, Liu Q-F, Liu H-F, Zhang R-J,
Li Z, Zhu F-H, He P-L, Tang W (2009) Anti-hepatitis B virus
activity of chlorogenic acid, quinic acid and caffeic acid invivo
and invitro. Antiviral Res 83(2):186–190
153. MATSUI Y, SHIBATA H (1998) Iron chelation by chloro-
genic acid as a natural antioxidant. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem
154. Kapil A, Koul I, Suri O (1995) Antihepatotoxic effects of chlo-
rogenic acid from Anthocephalus cadamba. Phytother Res
155. Xu Y, Chen J, Yu X, Tao W, Jiang F, Yin Z, Liu C (2010)
Protective effects of chlorogenic acid on acute hepatotox-
icity induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. Inflamm Res
156. Xu D, Hu L, Xia X, Song J, Li L, Song E, Song Y (2014)
Tetrachlorobenzoquinone induces acute liver injury, up-reg-
ulates HO-1 and NQO1 expression in mice model: the pro-
tective role of chlorogenic acid. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol
157. Koriem KM, Soliman RE (2014) Chlorogenic and caftaric acids
in liver toxicity and oxidative stress induced by methampheta-
mine. J Toxicol. doi:10.1155/2014/583494
158. Akashi I, Kagami K, Hirano T, Oka K (2009) Protective effects
of coffee-derived compounds on lipopolysaccharide/d-galac-
tosamine induced acute liver injury in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol
159. Yun N, Kang J-W, Lee S-M (2012) Protective effects of chlo-
rogenic acid against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver:
molecular evidence of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
properties. J Nutr Biochem 23(10):1249–1255
160. Shi H, Dong L, Bai Y, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Zhang L (2009) Chlo-
rogenic acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis
in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 623(1):119–124
161. Di Paola R, Esposito E, Mazzon E, Caminiti R, Toso RD,
Pressi G, Cozzocrea S (2010) 3, 5-Dicaffeoyl-4-malonylquinic
acid reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in a experi-
mental model of inflammatory bowel disease. Free Radic Res
162. Shin HS, Satsu H, Bae MJ, Zhao Z, Ogiwara H, Totsuka M,
Shimizu M (2015) Anti-inflammatory effect of chlorogenic
acid on the IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells and the dextran sul-
phate sodium-induced colitis symptoms in C57BL/6 mice. Food
Chem 168:167–175. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.100
163. Ruan Z, Liu S, Zhou Y, Mi S, Liu G, Wu X, Yao K, Assaad
H, Deng Z, Hou Y (2014) Chlorogenic acid decreases intestinal
permeability and increases expression of intestinal tight junc-
tion proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.
164. George SE, Ramalakshmi K, Mohan Rao LJ (2008) A per-
ception on health benefits of coffee. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
165. Kim C, Yu HG, Sohn J (2010) The anti-angiogenic effect of
chlorogenic acid on choroidal neovascularization. Korean J
Ophthalmol 24(3):163–168
166. Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, Manson JE, Leitz-
mann MF, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB (2004) Coffee consumption and
risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 140(1):1–8
167. SOTILLO DR, Hadley M, WOLF-HALL C (1998) Potato peel
extract a nonmutagenic antioxidant with potential antimicrobial
activity. Journal of food science 63(5):907–910
168. Ristow M (2014) Unraveling the truth about antioxidants:
mitohormesis explains ROS-induced health benefits. Nat Med
169. Surh Y-J, Kundu JK, Na H-K, Lee J-S (2005) Redox-sensitive
transcription factors as prime targets for chemoprevention with
anti-inflammatory and antioxidative phytochemicals. J Nutr
135(12):2993S–3001 S
170. Thomson AW, Lotze MT (2003) The Cytokine Handbook, Two-
Volume Set. Gulf Professional Publishing, USA
171. Gebhardt R (1998) Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in pri-
mary cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke (Cynara scolymus
L.) extracts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 286(3):1122–1128
... The multiple benefits of chlorogenic acid on human health are also well known. Including its antidiabetic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects, it may provide a non-pharmacological and non-invasive approach to the treatment or prevention of some chronic diseases [70]. ...
... It also provides photoprotective action and helps in the treatment of sun-stressed skin by sensitive anti-inflammatory activity [76]. Regarding the defatted seed extracts obtained after fermentation, due to the high content of chlorogenic acid, its application in the food and nutraceutical industries may be interesting as a dietary supplement, as well as in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry as an active ingredient in drugs and cosmetics [70]. Finally, the sweet cherry defatted seed extracts obtained after both fermentation and distillation may have potential applications in the cosmetic industry as a potential active ingredient due to the high antioxidant properties attributed to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic and vanillic acids. ...
Full-text available
The integrated valorization of food chain waste is one of the most promising alternatives in the transition to a sustainable bioeconomy. Thus, an efficient solid-phase matrix dispersion extraction method, using experimental factorial design and response surface methodology, has been developed and optimized for the recovery of polyphenols from defatted cherry seeds obtained after cherry liquor manufacture and subsequent fatty acid extraction, evaluating the effect of each processing step on the composition and phenolic content of sweet cherry residues. The phenolic extracts before fermentation showed the highest content of total polyphenols (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) (3 ± 1 mg QE·g−1 and 1.37 ± 0.08 mg GAE·g−1, respectively), while the highest antioxidant capacity was obtained in the defatted seed extracts after both fermentation and distillation. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF) was used to determine the phenolic profile. Dihydroxybenzoic acid, neochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and quercetin were the main phenolics found, showing differences in concentration between the stages of liquor production. The results underline the prospective of cherry by-products for obtaining phenol-rich bioactive extracts for possible use in different industrial sectors, offering a feasible solution for the cascade valorization of cherry agri-food waste.
... Coffee contains many polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acid (CGA) which is known to have antioxidant abilities. [29] A study using rat cardiomyocytes showed that CGA was not cytotoxic and could stabilized cardiomyocyte membranes. [30] Green tea is rich in polyphenols (30% dry weight), including flavanols, flavandiols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. ...
... Specifically, CGA is derived from the condensation of trans-cinnamic acid and quinic acid. A wide variety of natural CGA isomers exist [11], among which the most studied are 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5caffeoylquinic acid [12]. 5-caffeoylquinic acid, mainly found in tea, in green coffee beans (76-84% of total CGA) and other plant sources, is the most abundant isomer in the human diet ( Figure 1). ...
Full-text available
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenol found mainly in coffee and tea, exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects at the gastrointestinal level. However, although CGA is known to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), its effects on the CNS are still unknown. Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming cells in the CNS, are the main target in demyelinating neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic roles of CGA in M03-13, an immortalized human OL cell line. We found that CGA reduces intracellular superoxide ions, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) /dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) protein levels. The stimulation of M03-13 cells with TNFα activates the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-kB) pathway, leading to an increase in superoxide ion, NOXs/DUOX2 and phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase (pERK) levels. In addition, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation induces caspase 8 activation and the cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). All these TNFα-induced effects are reversed by CGA. Furthermore, CGA induces a blockade of proliferation, driving cells to differentiation, resulting in increased mRNA levels of myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP), which are major markers of mature OLs. Overall, these data suggest that dietary supplementation with this polyphenol could play an important beneficial role in autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases such as MS.
... It was reported that in addition to an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, chlorogenic acid plays an important role in the lipid and glucose metabolism regulation. Furthermore, it is considered to have a beneficial effect in several disorders such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, hepatic steatosis and cardiovascular disease [13]. Table III. ...
... It is an important dietary polyphenol abundant in coffee beans & exhibits anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective & cardioprotective effects. It plays a vital role in regulating the glucose & lipids metabolism thus treats related disorders such as obesity, diabetes & cardiovascular diseases [53][54][55]. Quercetin (2) binds with target forming two conventional & one aromatic H-bond. It is a flavonol present in many fruits & vegetable in the glycoside form [56]. Its anticancer potential is supported by previous studies conducted on phenolic compounds of Moringa oleifera showing good affinity with BAX (pro-apoptotic) proteins [55]. ...
Full-text available
Most of the breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive recurring with a steady rate of up to 20 years dysregulating the normal cell cycle. Dinaciclib is still in clinical trials and considered as a research drug against such cancers targeting CDK2. The major goal of this study was to identify the potential inhibitors of CDK-2 present in Moringa oleifera for treating hormonal receptor positive breast cancers. For this purpose, in silico techniques; molecular docking, MM-GBSA and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to screen Moringa oleifera compounds and their anticancer potential was determined against CDK-2 protein targets. Among 36 compounds of Moringa oleifera reported in literature, chlorogenic acid (1), quercetin (2), ellagic acid (3), niazirin (4), and kaempferol (5) showed good affinity with the target. The interaction of the compounds was visualized using PYMOL software. The profiles of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and toxicity were determined using SWISS and ProTox II webservers. The MTT assay was performed in-vitro using MCF-7 cancer cell lines to validate the anticancer potential of Moringa oleifera leaf extract. MTT assay results revealed no significant change in proliferation of Mcf-7 cells following 24 h treatment with fraction A (petroleum ether). However, significant antiproliferative effect was observed at 200 µg/mL dose of fraction B (ethyl acetate) and cell viability was reduced to 40%. In conclusion, the data suggested that all the compounds with highest negative docking score than the reference could be the potential candidates for cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2) inhibition while ellagic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin being the most stable and potent inhibitors to treat estrogen receptor positive breast cancer targeting CDK-2. Moreover, the data suggested that further investigation is required to determine the optimum dose for significant antiproliferative effects using in-vivo models to validate our findings of in-silico analysis.
... For example, dietary supplementation with 800 mg/kg Chlorogenic acid (the abundant phenolic compound found in GC in the present study) could improve the growth performance of weaned rabbits by enhancing intestinal structural integrity, improving the intestinal epithelium functions, and modulating the composition and diversity of gut microbiota . In fact, this phenolic compound has a wide range of potential health benefits, including its anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects (Tajik et al., 2017). Moreover, chlorogenic, caffeine, and feluric present in coffee showed inhibitory effects against wide ranges of pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Martínez-Tomé et al., 2011;Murai and Matsuda, 2023) . ...
Full-text available
The dose-response analysis was used to investigate the effects of green coffee (GC) on growth performance, feed utilization, carcass traits, and health status of newly weaned rabbits. A total of 60 clinically healthy growing rabbits (5-weeks old) reared during summer season were divided randomly into three experimental groups, 20 rabbits each, and received 0, 2, and 4 g GC /kg diet, (GC0, GC2, and GC4), respectively. Growth performance (live body weight, LBW and average daily gain, ADG) and feed utilization (feed conversion ratio, FCR) as well as the dressing percentage and the relative weight of liver were improved significantly in the GC-treated groups compared to the control group. The dose-response regression analysis showed that the optimal doses were 2.75 and 3g GC/kg diet for ADG and FCR, respectively. Moreover, GC treatments significantly decreased both of rectum temperature and respiration rate compared to GC0, with an optimal dose being at 2.5g GC /kg diet. Erythrocytes and leukocyte counts improved significantly in the GC-treated groups compared to the GC0 group. Blood protein and its fractions, liver and kidney functions, and lipid profile were quadratically improved by GC supplementation. The optimal dose was 3g GC/kg diet for total protein and its fractions, ALT, and TG, while it was 2.5 and 2.75 g GC/kg diets for creatinine and TC, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione activities were significantly higher, while the levels of malondialdehyde were significantly lower in the GC-treated groups than the GC0 group. A level of 2.5g GC/kg diet was the optimal dose required for improving immunoglobulin A and G. improved in blood serum of GC treated groups compared to the control. Economically, dietary addition of GC enhanced the economic efficiency of the supplemented diets, thereby improving the profitability of the fattening process. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of GC at level of 2.5-3g/kg diet could be effectively used to enhance the growth indices, redox status, immune function, and economic efficiency of rabbits fattened during the summer season.
... The scavenging abilities of DPPH and ABTS free radicals increased as the pressure and retention time increased. CGAs are the main phenolic compounds in coffee beverages [30]. Compared with the other bioactive compounds investigated, CGA may exert a more significant impact on the antioxidant capacity of coffee. ...
Full-text available
Although cold brew coffee is becoming increasingly popular among consumers, the long coffee extraction time is not conducive to the further development of the market. This study explored the feasibility of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) to shorten the time required for preparing cold brew coffee. The effects of pressure and holding time on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of UHP-assisted cold brew coffee were also determined. The extraction yield; total dissolved solid, total phenol, and melanoid content; antioxidant capacity; and trigonelline and chlorogenic acid contents of UHP-assisted cold brew coffee increased as the pressure increased. The extraction yield and the total dissolved solid, total phenol, total sugar, and chlorogenic acid and trigonelline contents were higher when the holding time was longer. The HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis demonstrated that the furan, aldehyde, and pyrazine contents in coffee increased as the pressure and holding time increased. The pressure did not significantly impact the concentrations of volatile components of esters and ketones in coffee samples. However, the increase in holding time significantly increased the ester and ketone contents. The sensory evaluation results revealed that as pressure rose, the intensities of nutty, fruity, floral, caramel, and sourness flavors increased, whereas bitterness and sweetness decreased. Longer holding time increased nutty, caramel, sour, bitter, sweet, and aftertaste flavors. Principal component analysis (PCA) results indicated that holding time is a more crucial factor affecting the physiochemical indices and flavor characteristics of coffee. UHP can shorten the preparation time of cold brew coffee. Pressure and holding time significantly affected the physiochemical indices and volatile components of UHP-assisted cold brew coffee. UHP-assisted cold brew coffee had lower bitterness, higher sweetness, and a softer taste than conventional cold brew coffee.
Full-text available
The use of biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs) holds a great potential to effectively reduce nitrogen losses from agroecosystems and conforms with the current move toward ecological-intensified agriculture. Knowledge of the activity of BNIs to soil nitrifiers is limited and is generally based on a single Nitrosomonas europaea bioassay. We determined the in vitro activity of multiple plant-derived compounds as BNIs such as (i) root-derived compounds [sakuranetin, methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionate (MHPP), and zeanone]; (ii) other phytochemicals (caffeic, quinic, chlorogenic, and shikimic acids); and (iii) analogs of statins (simvastatin), triazoles (1-butyl-4-propyl-triazole, 1,4-dibutyltriazole), and zeanone (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on distinct soil-derived ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) ( Nitrosospira multiformis and Nitrosomonas europaea ), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) ( Candidatus Nitrosotalea sinensis and Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus franklandianus), and a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB) ( Nitrobacter sp.). Our results indicate that AOA were more sensitive than AOB to BNIs. Sensitivity within the AOA group was BNI dependent, unlike AOB, for which N. multiformis was consistently more sensitive than N. europaea . Several compounds were inhibitory to Nitrobacter sp. with MHPP and caffeic acid being more potent against NOB compared to the ammonia-oxidizing strains, an observation with potential implications for soil quality and productivity. Overall, zeanone was the most potent ΒNI against ammonia oxidizers, while caffeic acid was the most potent BNI against Nitrobacter sp. We provide pioneering evidence for the activity range of multiple BNIs on soil nitrifiers, stress the need for revisiting the biological screening systems currently used for BNI determination, and advocate for a more thorough monitoring of the impact of BNI candidates on a range of target and non-target microorganisms. IMPORTANCE Synthetic nitrification inhibitors are routinely used with nitrogen fertilizers to reduce nitrogen losses from agroecosystems, despite having drawbacks like poor efficiency, cost, and entry into the food chain. Plant-derived BNIs constitute a more environmentally conducive alternative. Knowledge on the activity of BNIs to soil nitrifiers is largely based on bioassays with a single Nitrosomonas europaea strain which does not constitute a dominant member of the community of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) in soil. We determined the activity of several plant-derived molecules reported as having activity, including the recently discovered maize-isolated BNI, zeanone, and its natural analog, 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, on a range of ecologically relevant AOM and one nitrite-oxidizing bacterial culture, expanding our knowledge on the intrinsic inhibition potential of BNIs toward AOM and highlighting the necessity for a deeper understanding of the effect of BNIs on the overall soil microbiome integrity before their further use in agricultural settings.
Full-text available
Benign Prostate Cancer (BPC), a prevalent condition predominantly affecting elderly males, manifests with voiding difficulties and urinary retention. A library of compounds from Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek was used in this study. We aimed to explore its potential anti-cancer effects by computationally assessing its inhibitory activity on the androgen receptor (AR). For in-silico drug assessment, we employed Maestro 12.8, part of the Schr€ odinger Suite, to identify the most promising candidates acting as androgen receptor antagonists in the treatment of BPC. Subsequently, 59 fenugreek compounds were retrieved from the PubChem database and subjected to molecular docking against the active site of the target protein, 1E3G. 100-nanosecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to assess the stability and compactness of the AR-ligand complexes. Notably, the AR-kaempferol complex exhibited the least fluctuation within the AR active site throughout the simulation trajectory, followed by chlorogenic acid and the reference ligand, hydroxyflutamide. The MM/GBSA values revealed the compounds' maximum free binding energy (−103.3 ± 6, −87.4 ± 23, −68.5 DG bind) for chlorogenic acid, kaempferol, and hydroxyflutamide, respectively. These findings suggest their potential as promising leads for drug development. Further lead optimization and comprehensive studies on the top-ranked ligands identified in this investigation are warranted to advance their potential as therapeutic agents for BPC treatment.
Full-text available
Purpose: Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the most abundant component in coffee, has exhibited many biological activities. The objective of this study is to assess preventive and therapeutic effects of CGA on obesity and obesity-related liver steatosis and insulin resistance. Methods: Two sets of experiments were conducted. In set 1, 6-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks with twice intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of CGA (100 mg/kg) or DMSO (carrier solution) per week. In set 2, obese mice (average 50 g) were treated by CGA (100 mg/kg, IP, twice weekly) or DMSO for 6 weeks. Body weight, body composition and food intake were monitored. Blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels were measured at end of the study. Hepatic lipid accumulation and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Additionally, genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation were analyzed by real time PCR. Results: CGA significantly blocked the development of diet-induced obesity but did not affect body weight in obese mice. CGA treatment curbed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Quantitative PCR analysis shows that CGA treatment suppressed hepatic expression of Pparγ, Cd36, Fabp4, and Mgat1 gene. CGA treatment also attenuated inflammation in the liver and white adipose tissue accompanied by a decrease in mRNA levels of macrophage marker genes including F4/80, Cd68, Cd11b, Cd11c, and Tnfα, Mcp-1 and Ccr2 encoding inflammatory proteins. Conclusion: Our study provides direct evidence in support of CGA as a potent compound in preventing diet-induced obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Our results suggest that drinking coffee is beneficial in maintaining metabolic homeostasis when on a high fat diet.
Full-text available
Methamphetamine intoxication can cause acute hepatic failure. Chlorogenic and caftaric acids are the major dietary polyphenols present in various foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of chlorogenic and caftaric acids in liver toxicity and oxidative stress induced by methamphetamine in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1, which was control group, was injected (i.p) with saline (1 mL/kg) twice a day over seven-day period. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were injected (i.p) with methamphetamine (10 mg/kg) twice a day over seven-day period, where groups 3 and 4 were injected (i.p) with 60 mg/kg chlorogenic acid and 40 mg/kg caftaric acid, respectively, one day before methamphetamine injections. Methamphetamine increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. Also, malondialdehyde in serum, liver, and brain and plasma and liver nitric oxide levels were increased while methamphetamine induced a significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, brain serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, blood and liver superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels. Chlorogenic and caftaric acids prior to methamphetamine injections restored all the above parameters to normal values. In conclusion, chlorogenic and caftaric acids before methamphetamine injections prevented liver toxicity and oxidative stress where chlorogenic acid was more effective.
Full-text available
Dietary polyphenols may have a protective role against the development of CVD. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of green coffee (GC), rich in chlorogenic acid, and black coffee (BC) on cardiovascular markers. A randomised pilot crossover study was performed on healthy subjects who consumed both coffees for 2 weeks. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and arterial elasticity after each intervention and collected urine samples to monitor antioxidant capacity. Free cortisol and cortisone levels were obtained from urine and analysed by specific ELISA methods. Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.018) and arterial elasticity (P = 0.001) were significantly reduced after GC. BMI (P = 0.04 for BC; P = 0.01 for GC) and abdominal fat (P = 0.01 for BC; P = 0.009 for GC) were also significantly reduced with no changes in energy intake. Urinary free cortisol was significantly reduced from 125.6 ± 85.9 nmol/day to 76.0 ± 54.9 nmol/day following GC and increased to 132.1 ± 89.1 nmol/day after BC. Urinary free cortisone increased by 18% following BC and 9% following GC (nonsignificant). Cortisol/cortisone ratio (indicating 11β-HSD1 activity) was reduced after GC (from 3.5 ± 1.9 to 1.7 ± 1.04, P = 0.002). This suggests that GC can play a role in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Further research including hypertensive and overweight individuals will now be justified to clarify whether GC could have a therapeutic role in CVD.
Objectives: The protective effects of coffee-derived compounds on lipopolysaccharide/ D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) induced acute liver injury in rats were investigated. Methods: Wistar rats were orally administered saline (control) or one of the test compounds (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, nicotinic acid or eight pyrazinoic acids) at a dose of 100 mg/kg, respectively. This was followed by intraperitoneal injection with LPS (100 μg/kg)/D-GalN (250 mg/kg) 1 h after administration of the test compounds. Blood samples were collected up to 12 h after LPS/D-GalN injection, followed by determination of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels. Key findings: Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly increased after LPS/D-GalN-treatment, but were suppressed by pretreatment with caffeine (n = 5), nicotinic acid, non-substituted pyrazinoic acid or 5-methylpyrazinoic acid (n = 6, respectively) 12 h after LPS/D-GalN-treatment (P < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, the animals pretreated with these test compounds showed significantly higher survival rates (83-100%) compared with the control (23%). Only pretreatment with caffeine significantly suppressed the LPS/D-GalN induced elevation of plasma TNF-α levels 1 and 2 h after LPS/D-GalN-treatment (P < 0.01, respectively). Pretreatment with caffeine, nicotinic acid or non-substituted pyrazinoic acid activated the LPS/D-GalN induced elevation of plasma IL-10 levels at 1 and 2 h, although there were no statistically significant differences in IL-10 levels between control and nicotinic acid or non-substituted pyrazinoic acid treated rats. Conclusions: The results suggest that caffeine, nicotinic acid, non-substituted pyrazinoic acid and 5-methylpyrazinoic acid can protect against LPS/D-GalN induced acute liver injury, which may be mediated by the reduction of TNF-α production and/or increasing IL-10 production.
This paper summarises the occurrence in foods and beverages of the cinnamic acids, their associated conjugates and transformation products. Quantitative data are lacking for some commodities known to contain them, but it is clear that for many people coffee will be the major source. The daily dietary intake of total cinnamates may vary substantially from almost zero to perhaps close to 1 g. The data relating to their absorption and metabolism are presented along with a consideration of their possible in vivo effects. Data for true bioavailability are incomplete: in particular it is not clear whether availability differs markedly with the form of the conjugate, and whether as a consequence some dietary sources may be superior to others. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.
The fourth edition of The Cytokine Handbook provides an encyclopedic coverage of the molecules that induce and regulate immune responses. Now expanded to two volumes, co-edited by Michael T Lotze, and written by over 120 international experts, the scope of the book has been broadened to include a major emphasis on the clinical applications of cytokines. The early chapters discuss individual cytokines, chemokines and receptors. Additional chapters discuss the clinical implications and applications of cytokines, including cytokine gene transfer, antisense therapy and assay systems. This book is essential for researchers and clinicians interested in cytokines, including anyone working in cancer biology, transplantation, infectious diseases, autoimmunity or bioinformatics.
Background: Clinical practice and modern pharmacology have confirmed that chlorogenic acid can ameliorate learning and memory impairments. Objective: To observe the effects of chlorogenic acid on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons in the mouse hippocampus, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of chlorogenic acid on learning and memory. Design, time and setting: The present randomized, controlled, neural cell morphological observation was performed at the Institute of Neurobiology, Central South University between January and May 2005. Materials: Forty-eight female, healthy, adult, Kunming mice were included in this study. Learning and memory impairment was induced with an injection of 0.5 μ L kainic acid (0.4 mg/mL) into the hippocampus. Methods: The mice were randomized into three groups (n = 16): model, control, and chlorogenic acid-treated. At 2 days following learning and memory impairment induction, intragastric administration of physiological saline or chlorogenic acid was performed in the model and chlorogenic acid-treated groups, respectively. The control mice were administered 0.5 μ L physiological saline into the hippocampus, and 2 days later, they received an intragastric administration of physiological saline. Each mouse received two intragastric administrations (1 mL solution once) per day, for a total of 35 days. Main outcome measures: Detection of changes in hippocampal and cerebral cortical nNOS neurons by immunohistochemistry; determination of spatial learning and memory utilizing the Y-maze device. Results: At day 7 and 35 after intervention, there was no significant difference in the number of nNOS-positive neurons in the cerebral cortex between the model, chlorogenic acid, and control groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, the number of nNOS-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1-4 region was significantly less in the model group (P < 0.05). However, the control group was not different from the chlorogenic acid-treated group (P > 0.05). At day 7 following intervention, the number of correct responses in the Y-maze test was greater in the chlorogenic acid-treated group than in the model group. Conclusion: Chlorogenic acid protects kainic acid-induced injury to nNOS-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1-4 regions, thereby ameliorating learning and memory impairment.
(95% CI, 0.26 to 0.82; P 0.007 for trend), respectively. The corresponding multivariate relative risks in women were 1.00, 1.16, 0.99, 0.70, and 0.71 (CI, 0.56 to 0.89; P < 0.001 for trend), respectively. For decaffeinated coffee, the multivariate relative risks comparing persons who drank 4 cups or more per day with nondrinkers were 0.74 (CI, 0.48 to 1.12) for men and 0.85 (CI, 0.61 to 1.17) for women. Total caffeine intake from coffee and other sources was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk for diabetes in both men and women. Conclusions: These data suggest that long-term coffee consumption is associated with a statistically significantly lower risk for type 2 diabetes.
Background Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are widely distributed in plant material, including foods and beverages. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the most studied CGA, but the mechanism of its hypolipidaemic effect remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of 5-CQA on lipid metabolism in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD).Results5-CQA suppressed HFD-induced increases in body weight and visceral fat-pad weight, serum lipid levels, and serum and hepatic free fatty acids in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that 5-CQA altered the mRNA expression of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) and target genes involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake, β-oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, hepatic tissue sections from HFD-fed rats showed many empty vacuoles, suggesting that liver cells were filled with more fat droplets. However, 5-CQA significantly ameliorated this effect.Conclusion5-CQA may improve lipid metabolism disorders by altering the expression of PPARα and LXRα, which are involved in multiple intracellular signalling pathways. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry