Article

Personality Strengths in Romantic relationships: Measuring Perceptions of Benefits and Costs and Their Impact on Personal and Relational Well-Being

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Abstract

Three studies using samples of people in romantic relationships were conducted to create a new individual difference measure of partner strengths in couples. The 2 perceptions of partner strengths included (1) appreciation of their use and effectiveness and (2) recognition of costs associated with their use. Factor analyses supported 2-factors and we found that greater appreciation of partner strengths predicted greater relationship satisfaction, commitment, investment, intimacy, self-expansion, and support for goal pursuit; recognizing significant costs with partner strengths was inversely related to several outcomes. Using a 1-week daily diary, we found that appreciation of partner strength use and recognition of costs associated with these strengths predicted daily relationship satisfaction and whether basic psychological needs were met within the relationship. The explanatory power of partner strength perceptions could not be explained by the actual character strengths or Big Five personality traits of partners, support for positive self-disclosures (capitalization), or gratitude for relationship partners. Finally, we found that the relational consequences of partner strength perceptions were not just "in the head" of the perceiver-influencing partner relational outcomes. This research program provides evidence for the use of a new measure of how strengths are perceived to better understand romantic couples and aspirational targets in clinical interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... A study by Kashdan et al. (2018) found that greater appreciation of a partner's strengths predicted greater relationship satisfaction, commitment, and investment. There was also greater perceived support for both promotion and prevention goals and greater sense of self-expansion or growth from interactions with one's partner. ...
... There was also greater perceived support for both promotion and prevention goals and greater sense of self-expansion or growth from interactions with one's partner. When we appreciate our partner's strengths, we are more likely to recognize and use our own strengths more often (Kashdan et al., 2018). When our romantic partners are appreciative of our strengths, we tend to experience greater satisfaction in our relationship, greater use of our strengths, and more positive interactions. ...
... When our romantic partners are appreciative of our strengths, we tend to experience greater satisfaction in our relationship, greater use of our strengths, and more positive interactions. While Kashdan et al. (2018) focused on romantic partnerships, close friendships can benefit from the appreciation of our own strengths, as well as our friend's strengths. Incorporating Character Strengths, a foundational piece of positive psychology, into our lives and our friendships is a critical aspect of our own well-being and may help us foster more meaningful connections with each other. ...
Article
Research has long shown the benefits of social connection for individual well-being. Positive Psychology offers several theories for fostering social connection and yet, throughout our lives we aren’t formally taught how to sustain connections, particularly our cherished friendships. Once you form a friendship, how do you make it last? In this paper, we examine friendship through existing literature and qualitative research leveraging exemplar methodology. Because a pursuit of well-being often includes a pursuit of friendship, we offer research-supported, real-world strategies for maintaining and strengthening friendships in adulthood.
... Said another way, this framework of character strengths, and the viewpoint that these 24 strengths are capacities that can be grown and nurtured, is finding resonance across the spectrum of humanity (Niemiec 2018;Niemiec and Pearce 2021;Peterson and Seligman 2004). One of the central findings in the character strengths literature is the importance of appreciating the character strengths in others; research has shown that dyads who recognize and appreciate the character strengths of their partner have higher relationship satisfaction, commitment to one another, and psychological needs met (Kashdan et al. 2018). Similarly, multiple studies have demonstrated that the identification of character strengths in others brings benefits across various contexts, including education (Quinlan et al. 2019), work/organizations (Ghielen et al. 2017), coaching (van Zyl et al. 2020), families (Waters 2020), disability , psychotherapy (Rashid and Seligman 2018), university (Bu and Duan 2018), and parenting (Waters and Sun 2016). ...
... A character strength beatitude is a way of being that is authentic to the person and offers them an avenue to foster goodness. The beatitude framing sets up an opportunity for appreciation of the strength in the person, and character strengths appreciation in others has revealed a number of well-being benefits (Kashdan et al. 2018). Implied in these character strengths beatitudes is an appreciation for the balanced or optimal (i.e., good and positive) use of the character strength. ...
... Enliven appreciation for others. As the character strengths beatitudes are framed in an other-oriented way, individuals have a straightforward opportunity to recognize and appreciate the character strengths of others (Kashdan et al. 2018). For example, the blessed quality of perspective ("Blessed are the wise: for they provide humanity clarity within chaos") becomes clear, especially when one identifies and reflects on a wise and supportive person in one's life. ...
Article
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A beatitude is a blessing. It is a form of appreciation that can be directed toward others or oneself. Theologically speaking, some frame the original beatitudes from The Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew as pertaining to “spiritual happiness”, and recent scholars have offered a compelling argument that they are a call to flourishing. The focus here involves the creation and description of 24 blessings, or beatitudes, using the lens of one of the foundational and most researched areas in the sciences of flourishing, well-being, and positive psychology, which is the science of character strengths. Recent research has framed the 24 universal character strengths as spiritual strengths, hence particularly aligned for secular and nonsecular contexts of spiritual blessings. Each of the 24 character strengths was created into a blessing using the structure of the original beatitudes—with an opening description of the personal quality or attribute that is blessed and a follow-up outcome or core benefit that arises from the expression of that quality. In this way, these character strength beatitudes or character strength blessings offer an opportunity to appreciate the best positive qualities of others. These blessings are framed as primarily a mechanism of appreciating the character strengths of others, resting theoretically in both the grounding path and the sanctification path, the two types of integration of character strengths and spirituality that researchers have proposed. They are discussed, secondarily, as applied to the individual, for self-understanding, insight, and growth. These two purposes are relevant to the deepening of the spiritual journey, providing support as individuals pursue meaning in life and/or the sacred as they go deeper within themselves, up and beyond themselves, and sideways and interconnected to others. Practical applications, based in science, are discussed and point to avenues by which these character strengths beatitudes might both foster the appreciating of others’ strengths and support one’s own spiritual happiness, spiritual coping, and spiritual growth.
... Character strengths and virtues are essential to flourishing in romantic relationships (Fowers, 1998;Pawelski & Pawelski, 2018). In one empirical study, researchers found through a one-week daily dairy intervention, that partners who more readily recognized and celebrated the strengths of their significant others experienced greater relationship satisfaction, commitment, intimacy, and support for goals (Kashdan et al., 2017). Additionally, they found the opposite was true: when partners noted their significant other' strengths through a deficit lens (e.g., "Your sense of humor is annoying" or "Your kindness makes you weak"), this trend was negatively related. ...
... Thus, appreciating others can build towards greater appreciation overall. And, as noted earlier, Kashdan et al. (2017) found that character strengths appreciation in marriage relationships was associated with higher relationship commitment and satisfaction. ...
... This can be done in one-on-one interactions and in small groups. Kashdan, et al. (2017) Seligman (2002) Relationships ( Lavy, et al. (2014) In this research, Lavy et al., (2014) found that individuals who wrote love letters had increased positive affect and decreased positive affect the following day. Thus, asking teens to write a letter to a loved one may help to improve positive mood. ...
Article
Research has shown the benefits of religion and spirituality to an individual’s well-being. And yet, over the last several decades, the Catholic Church has seen a decline in affiliated members, especially amongst adolescents. Furthermore, this same population of adolescents has experienced exponential increases in anxiety, depression, and suicide rates, which begs the question: how must the Church respond? This paper examines this decline in religious affiliation and decrease in adolescent well-being, looking specifically towards character strengths and virtue for remedies. Finally, using the new science of positive psychology, this paper will propose that holiness is found through living the virtuous life, which ultimately leads to a life of fulfillment.
... En el ámbito interpersonal, el uso de las fortalezas del carácter ha presentado asociación positiva con satisfacción con la pareja y negativa con idealización de la pareja solamente en hombres (Lavy et al., 2014a). De igual modo, la apreciación del uso de las fortalezas del carácter de la pareja y el reconocimiento de los costos relacionados a esas fortalezas, se asociaron a relaciones románticas saludables y bienestar general (Kashdan et al., 2017). Finalmente, Lavy et al. ...
... Strengths Questionnaire PSQ (Kashdan et al., 2017) Presenta 9 ítems agrupados en dos escalas: apreciación de fortalezas del carácter y costo percibido. Su aplicación comienza solicitando a los participantes a leer una descripción de cada fortaleza y se solicita que elijan aquellas que mejor correspondan a su pareja, seguido de la elección de la fortaleza más distintiva y la descripción de una situación reciente en donde se haya usado la fortaleza. ...
... Posteriormente, se contestan los ítems mediante una escala de medición tipo Likert de siete opciones de respuestas, desde nunca a frecuentemente. Kashdan et al. (2017) reportó adecuados valores de consistencia interna medidos con el alfa de Cronbach en tres muestras en la escala de apreciación (rango de .82 a .91) y costo percibido (rango de .75 a .85), ...
Thesis
Good character is a principal area in Positive Psychology. The current thesis assesses character strengths with mixed method: quantitative though factor analysis and qualitative using content analysis. Main purpose is evaluate and analyze the character strengths factors in participants from Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay to identify whether international findings are replicated; and verify replication in each country independently. A non probabilistic intentional sample was used: 854 university students (273 Ecuadorians, 277 Peruvians and 304 Paraguayan). Participants completed Inventario de Virtudes y Fortalezas del Carácter IVyF (Cosentino & Castro Solano, 2012) and Protocolo de Cualidades Positivas (Castro Solano & Cosentino, 2013). Main results show three character strengths factors: moderation, progress and fraternity. Secondly, this three factor model is the most parsimonious and replicable despite some differences. Finally, dimensional structure has intercultural differences because each countries have specific relations. Main conclusion show three factors of character strengths and intercultural differences in dimensional structure of each country. Data has limitations: used sample could not be an average citizen of each culture and countries were considered as national culture. Future studies should research intracultural differences in character strengths, identify causes of intercultural differences in each population and analyze character strengths in others Latin-American countries.
... Despite its benefits, much of the research and theoretical literature focuses more on the factors harming marriage than on what causes it to succeed (Fincham & Beach, 2010;Maisel & Gable, 2009;Skerrett & Fergus, 2015). In recent years, however, there has been a shift in this trend, with the publication of more and more studies concentrating on the positive elements of romantic relationships (Boiman-Meshita & Littman-Ovadia, 2020; Kashdan et al. 2018;Lavy et al. 2014;Maisel & Gable, 2009). ...
... Since its initial use, this three-component model has been replicated in numerous other samples (Duan & Bu, 2017;McGrath et al. 2017). Using these three higher-order factors instead of the 24 specific strengths, which has become more and more accepted in recent years (Cheng et al. 2020;Kashdan et al. 2018;Li et al. 2017), allows to cut down the number of statistical analyses, thus reducing the risk of errors. Consequently, these three factors were also used in the present study. ...
... Despite theoretical connections between the strengths factors and marital quality, only little empirical support has been provided. An exception is the study by Kashdan et al. (2018), which examined participants' perceptions of the benefits and costs of their romantic partner's strengths, and their associations with the quality of the relationship. In this study, participants' strengths factors were treated as covariates, and it found that both appreciation and perceived cost of a partner's strengths are correlated with several relationship outcomes, beyond the partner's strengths factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies examined the association between character strengths—positive traits that comprise a good personality—and satisfaction with different aspects of life. However, few studies explored the connection between character strengths and marital satisfaction. The present study, conducted on a sample of 177 married couples, aims to examine this connection. Given the findings of previous studies, showing that both spouses’ personality traits contribute to relationship quality, we expect to find a connection between the spouses’ strengths and their marital quality. Using actor-partner interdependence model analyses, we examined the effects of three strengths factors (caring, self-control, and inquisitiveness) of both the individual and the partner on marital quality, evaluated by indices measuring marital satisfaction, intimacy, and burnout. Our findings revealed that the individual’s three strengths factors were related to all of his or her marital quality indices (actor effects). Moreover, women’s caring, inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with men’s marital quality, and men’s inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with women’s marital quality (partner effects). Our findings join the efforts of previous studies to understand the association between character strengths and the various elements of mental well-being, especially romantic relationships.
... These two refractions suggest that character strengths function as psychological connective tissues, engaging who-we-are with what-we-do so as to produce fulfilments. Findings showing associations between character strengths and engagement in jobs Bakker et al., 2019), classrooms Peterson, 2008, 2009;Wagner and Ruch, 2015), and relationships (Veldorale-Brogan et al., 2010;Guo et al., 2015;Kashdan et al., 2017) support this insight. ...
... And Waters and colleagues have found that strengths-based parenting has a positive effect on child academic achievement, stress coping, and life satisfaction (Waters, 2015a,b;Waters et al., 2019). Kashdan et al. (2017) studied a community sample of couples living together in a romantic relationship for at least 6 months and found that relationships were stronger along a number of dimensions when partners recognized and appreciated character strengths in one another. And, the role of character strengths in child rearing is further highlighted by findings that parental well-being is associated with improved child outcomes (e.g., Dumas and Wekerle, 1995;Leung and Slep, 2006) and that character strengths are positively associated with well-being. ...
Article
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A model on the role of character strengths in individual, collective, and species success is proffered. It is derived from viewing character strengths from a species perspective as opposed to one of individual differences/personality psychology. The history of the VIA initiative on character science is overviewed, and results to date are summarized in terms of promoting well-being, helping to accomplish aspirational intentions, and allowing the greater good of the collective to grow. “The character strengths response” is described as the response capacities that character strengths may enable for helping us fulfill the human promise of surviving, thriving, and successfully creating a next-generation so that individuals and the collective flourish while also living in harmonious balance with other species. An argument is presented that there is an urgent need for advancing population-wide psychological maturity to be better prepared to navigate the difficult decisions that accompany growing technological powers, and that the character strengths response warrants special attention of research funding to accomplish this imperative.
... These findings have important implications and suggest several directions for future research. First, these studies join a growing body of literature that highlights the benefits of gratitude (Algoe et al., 2010;Hill & Allemand, 2011;Kashdan et al., 2018). In particular, contemporary theory (Algoe et al., 2008;McCullough et al., 2001) and research (A. ...
... Indeed, practitioners have already begun to incorporate gratitude into several therapeutic techniques (Kerr et al., 2015;Seligman et al., 2005). Although the benefits of these interventions may be due to numerous factors, such as increased relationship connection (Algoe et al., 2010;Kashdan et al., 2018), they may be at least partially due to increased SCS and sexual satisfaction. ...
Article
Maintaining sexual satisfaction is a critical, yet challenging, aspect of most romantic relationships. Although prior research has established that sexual communal strength (SCS)—i.e., the extent to which people are motivated to be responsive to their partner’s sexual needs—benefits romantic relationships, research has yet to identify factors that promote SCS. We predicted that gratitude would increase SCS because gratitude motivates partners to maintain close relationships. These predictions were supported in three studies with cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods. Specifically, experiencing and receiving expressions of gratitude were associated with greater SCS. These studies are the first to investigate the benefits of gratitude in the sexual domain and identify factors that promote SCS. Together, these results have important implications for relationship and sexual satisfaction in romantic relationships.
... The overuse of some of the 24 character strengths has been given more attention than others as reflected in studies on leadership (Antonakis, House, & Simonton, 2017), humor (Bitterly, Brooks, & Schweitzer, 2017), and creativity (Clark & James, 1999), in particular. Research on couples who perceive their partner is overusing their character strengths is associated with negative variables such as relationship dissatisfaction (Kashdan et al., 2018). ...
... Research has pointed to the benefits of strengths-spotting, for example in the education setting, positive student outcomes that were explained by teachers' strengths-spotting of students included classroom engagement, needs satisfaction, and positive affect (Quinlan, Vella-Brodrick, Gray, & Swain, 2018). In addition, couples who spotted the strengths of their partner (and expressed appreciation for those strengths) had greater relationship satisfaction, needs satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and relationship commitment (Kashdan et al., 2018). Indeed, placing attention on others through strengths-spotting is not only a staple of balanced work in the practice of character strengths, it is often the first step in helping clients get comfortable with the language of character strengths and learning strengths fluency (Niemiec, 2018). ...
Article
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The science of well-being has catalyzed a tremendous amount of research with no area more robust in application and impact than the science of character strengths. As the empirical links between character strengths and positive outcomes rapidly grow, the research around strength imbalances and the use of strengths with problems and conflicts is nascent. The use of character strengths in understanding and handling life suffering as well as emerging from it, is particularly aligned within second wave positive psychology. Areas of particular promise include strengths overuse and strengths underuse, alongside its companion of strengths optimal use. The latter is viewed as the golden mean of character strengths which refers to the expression of the right combination of strengths, to the right degree, and in the right situation. This paper discusses these constructs, maps out each across 24 universal character strengths, and deliberates on reasons for overuse and underuse. Practical strategies for counselors to support clients in the pursuit of optimal strengths use and the management of overuse and underuse are outlined. These include thoughts on wise interventions, the tempering effect, the towing effect, direct questioning, mindfulness, strengths-spotting, the use of a leading strengths model (aware-explore-apply), and eliciting feedback from others.
... In addition, the positive-activity model states that BPNS is considered as one of four mediating variables linking positive activities such as SU with wellbeing [29]. Consistent with this, empirical studies have found that SU correlates positively with BPNS [30][31][32]. Given that SU, BPNS, and work engagement are closely related, therefore, we hypothesized that BPNS may partly mediate the relationship between SU and work engagement. ...
... Our results also extend previous research to the educational workplace, suggesting SU plays a crucial role in BPNS in different contexts. Moreover, our findings reinforce those of previous studies showing that BPNS correlates positively with work engagement [29][30][31]. Therefore, our study argues that policy-making must focus on meeting teachers' BPNS by motivating them to incorporate their strengths professionally. ...
Article
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Work engagement is a core indicator that reflects the quality of teachers’ occupational lives and the development of students, but few studies have explored the connection between strengths use and work engagement of teachers and the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This paper aimed to investigate how the relation of strengths use with work engagement is affected by a teacher’s satisfaction of basic psychological needs. For this purpose, 648 teachers in China completed questionnaires. The results revealed that strengths use exhibited a positive correlation with work engagement and needs satisfaction. Furthermore, autonomy, competence, and relatedness satisfaction mediated the effect of strengths use on work engagement for teachers. The results suggest that autonomy, competence, and relatedness satisfaction serve as factors that mediate the effect of strengths use on work engagement. The significance and limitations of the study are discussed.
... The perceived recognition of signature strengths by others: That is, this hypothesis would suggest that enactment contributes to SWB primarily because significant others become aware of one's signature strengths, which could, for example, create a stronger sense of relationship between self and others. For instance, Kashdan et al. (2018) found that appreciation of partners' strengths predicted relationship satisfaction. c. ...
... c. The perceived valuing of signature strengths by one's school or workplace: Based on the study by Kashdan et al. (2018), it was hypothesized that recognition of one's strengths by others would not be enough to explain the relationship between signature strengths and SWB. It may also be the case that one must experience one's signature strengths as valuable, particularly in contexts where personal efficacy is important. ...
Article
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The study of character strengths stems from positive psychology’s quest to understand positive personality traits that foster positive functioning and flourishing. Signature strengths are character strengths that are considered particularly relevant to the identity of the individual. These have been related to subjective well-being (SWB) in both cross-sectional and intervention studies. However, contributors to this relationship remain unclear. The present study examined the following possible explanations for the relationship between signature strengths and SWB: the perceived ability to use signature strengths, recognition of signature strengths by others, and valuing of signature strengths by one’s school, workplace, and country. Also, existing approaches to identifying signature strengths do not accurately reflect the construct as it was originally conceived. To address these issues, this study used the Signature Strengths Survey (McGrath in Technical report: the VIA assessment suite for adults: development and initial evaluation, rev ed. VIA Institute on Character, Cincinnati, 2019), which was developed to address inadequacies in current measurement methods, allowing the respondent to set the number of signature strengths. In a sample of 2875 adults recruited online, results revealed that signature strengths being perceived as valued and recognized by others, rather than identification with and enactment of particular strengths, best predicted SWB. Results merit replication, but suggest that focus on signature strengths valued by others in one’s environment can be particularly contributory to SWB.
... Students can practice strength spotting as they read the weekly Torah portion, helping them engage more deeply with the text. Appreciating and recognizing strengths amongst staff, coworkers, and students can lead to increased relationship satisfaction (Kashdan, 2017), and relationships are the driving force of positive education and Jewish identity. ...
Article
Jewish education has been a core value to the Jewish people throughout history and is essential to carry on Jewish tradition and values. Jewish education influences Jewish identity, engagement, and continuity. A decline in enrollment in non-Orthodox Jewish educational programs poses a real threat to the future of the Jewish community. Many young adults decide to stop participating in Jewish educational experiences after the Bar/Bat Mitzvah experience at age 13 since students often fail to find meaning, positivity, and relevance in their Jewish educational experiences, which can influence their future engagement in Jewish life. Positive psychology and positive education can serve as a pathway to propel Jewish education, enabling students to find new meaning in Jewish values and tradition. Positive education infuses academics with a focus on character strengths and well-being and can lead to academic and personal flourishing. While many secular schools have embraced positive education, the vast majority of Jewish schools have yet to adopt this growing field. A positive Jewish education framework for implementation and recommendations for interventions can strengthen the future of Jewish education and help schools and students thrive in the 21st century.
... They also indicate signature strengths, overuse, underuse and optimal-use of character strengths that identifies whether or not strength-use is balanced (Freidlin, Littman-Ovadia, & Niemiec, 2017), which can serve as a starting point for coaching discussions. Furthermore, they are available for 360°assessments, whereby partners can identify individual's perceived strengths (Kashdan et al., 2018), which can be compared to the self-assessed character strengths. Also, the new assessment can identify weaknesses and measures of virtues, not only strengths (McGrath, 2017b). ...
Chapter
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Strengths approaches have grow in popularity over the past decade, with a profileration of writing, models and questionnaires used for strengths assessment and in coaching. These questionnaires include including VIA, Strengthscope and StrengthsFinder and Strengths Profile. The questionnaires have become a popular intervention for consultants, HR professionals and executive coaches for adding both personal development and coaching, to assisting with recruitment and selection. We will briefly review in the first section of this chapter three popular questionnaires, considering their development and constructs. In the second section we will explore positive psychology coaching as an intervention using questionnaires and strengths cards, before reviewing the research evidence and opportunities for future research.
... Appreciation is one of the main functions of character strengths and involves expressions to other people of how important or of value they are for their strengths expression -it is a valuing of who they are at their core (Niemiec, 2019b). Research has found that couples who recognize and appreciate the character strengths of their partner have higher relationship satisfaction, needs satisfaction, and relationship commitment (Kashdan et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Little attention has been given to the integral relationship between character strengths and spirituality (the search for or communing with the sacred to derive meaning and purpose). The science of character strengths has surged in recent years with hundreds of studies, yet with minimal attention to spirituality or the literature therein. At the same time, the science of spirituality has steadily unfolded over the last few decades and has offered only occasional attention to select strengths of character (e.g., humility, love, forgiveness) or the universal typology of the VIA Classification of character strengths and virtues. In this exploration, we argue that there is a robust synergy of these sciences and practices revealing that spirituality is vitally concerned with promoting character strengths. At the same time, character strengths can enhance and deepen spiritual practices, rituals, and experiences. We elaborate on how character strengths and spirituality come together in the context of the psycho-spiritual journey toward wholeness. By wholeness, we are referring to a way of being in the world, which involves a life-affirming view of oneself and the world, a capacity to see and approach life with breadth and depth and the ability to organize the life journey into a cohesive whole. We further discuss six levels by which spirituality can be integrated within the VIA Classification, including a meta-perspective in which wholeness represents a meta-strength or superordinate virtue. We frame two pathways of integration: the grounding path, in which character strengths offer tangibility and thereby deepen and enhance spirituality, and the sanctification path, in which spirituality elevates character strengths. Finally, we turn to research-based practices and examine how character strengths might facilitate and contribute to spiritual practices and, conversely, how spirituality might enhance character strength practices. Such multifaceted integration offers insight and wisdom to both areas of study and opens up new directions for psychospiritual research and practices to deepen and broaden our understanding of what it means to be human.
... Appreciation expressed toward one's partner has been associated with stronger relationships, higher marital satisfaction, and greater willingness to share concerns in the relationship (Algoe et al. 2010;. The recognition and appreciation of character strengths of one's partner is connected with higher commitment in relationships, higher relationship satisfaction, higher sexual satisfaction, and greater reporting of basic psychological needs being met (Kashdan et al. 2017). A spouse might say to their partner how much they value them for their curiosity in asking so many interesting questions at a dinner with friends and how they appreciate their partner's strength of fairness in including everyone in the conversation. ...
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Life is a collection of moments, some light and pleasant, some dark and unpleasant, some neutral. Character strengths contribute to the full range of human experiences, influencing and creating positive opportunities while also helping us to endure the mundane and embrace and navigate the struggles. Some researchers have argued that thriving, which casts a wider net on the human experience than constructs such as flourishing or resilience, constitutes strong well-being and performance at times of both adversity and opportunity (Brown et al. 2017). With this and the many findings in the science of character in mind, six character strengths functions are theorized and then applied across time orientations, making the case for the integral role of character strengths in these matters of thriving. Three opportunity functions are offered, including priming in which character strengths prompt and prepare for strengths awareness and use; mindfulness in which character strengths serve in synergy with mindful awareness of the present reality; and appreciation in which character strengths use expresses value for what has occurred. The three adversity functions include: buffering – character strengths use prevents problems; reappraisal – character strengths explain or reinterpret problems; and resilience – character strengths support the bounce-back from life setbacks. Several applications of these six functions for vocational and educational settings are explored.
... Some studies have found well-being to have an adaptive and contributory effect on positive youth outcomes (Park, 2004). This body of work has assisted in comprehending the relationships between youth well-being and personality strengths (Kashdan et al., 2018), positive youth development (Leman et al., 2017), and life satisfaction (Mohamed, D'Silva, Samah, Shafril, & Dahalan, 2018). ...
Article
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Youth well-being has become a phenomenon of interest to community youth workers. Despite the potential of youth well-being to promote positive youth outcome and strengthen community settings, the practice remains unfamiliar to many. Thus, this study used multidimensional constructs to measure youth well-being in Malaysia. The aims of this study were to (1) construct and validate a multidimensional measure of the Youth Well-Being Scale (YWS) and (2) scrutinize the psychometric and measurement properties of the YWS in Malaysian youths. A quantitative study was conducted to validate the 97-item YWS with a sample of 500 Malaysian youths. The YWS demonstrated adequate psychometric properties for 10 YWS dimensions in the exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the multidimensional constructs fit the YWS data. Participants confirmed that the validity and reliability of youth well-being take place at the intersection of personal, relational, and collective strengths. Going forward, the analysis of results offers a big picture of community ideals, needs, strength, as well as potential actions that could enhance personal, relational, and collective well-being of youth in Malaysia.
... In spite of abundant knowledge about preventing marital conflicts, understanding how to help couples have lasting and satisfying marriages, is still in the primary stages [2]. Researchers have assessed perceptions of benefits and costs of romantic relationships [3] and psychopathology involved in these relationships [4]. Almost all marriages and other couple relationships begin with high satisfaction [5]. ...
Article
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Introduction: Nowadays, marital satisfaction is not easily achieved. Therefore, helping couples have lasting and satisfying marriages is essential. Objectives: This research examined the effectiveness of the integrated model of self-regulation-attachment couple therapy on the dimensions of marital satisfaction of insecure couples. Materials and Methods: The research was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design and control group. The research sample was selected from the couples referring to the counseling centers of Khorramabad City, Iran. The couples that at least one of them had an insecure attachment style based on the Adult Attachment Inventory were selected using the purposive sampling method. Then the couples were randomly assigned to the experimental (11 couples) and control (11 couples) groups. Before performing the couple therapy program, the ENRICH questionnaire was administered to all couples as the pretest. Then the couples of the experimental group participated in a therapeutic program during the 8 weekly sessions, but the control group remained on the waiting list. After the completion of the therapeutic sessions, the couples of the two groups completed this questionnaire once again as the posttest. Finally, the obtained data of the two groups were analyzed by ANCOVA and MANCOVA. Results: The results of ANCOVA indicated that self-regulation-attachment couple therapy was an effective treatment in increasing marital satisfaction. The results of MANCOVA also showed that this therapeutic program increased marital satisfaction based on the sexual relationship, marriage and children, and spiritual beliefs subscales. Conclusion: Integrated model of self-regulation-attachment couple therapy could be an effective treatment for promoting the marital satisfaction of insecure couples.
... The honesty-humility domain of the HEXACO, in particular, models an individual's willingness to exploit others for personal gain and does so alongside five other interpersonally relevant domains of personality: emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. These qualities are consequential to the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of romantic relationships (Brunell et al., 2010;Holden, Zeigler-Hill, Pham, & Shackelford, 2014;Kashdan et al., 2018;Wurst et al., 2017), and may afford situational advantages within a romantic relationship (see De Vries, Tybur, Pollet, & van Vugt, 2016;Lukaszewski, Gurven, von Rueden, & Schmitt, 2017). For instance, honest individuals (i.e., those who score higher on honesty-humility) are more likely to cooperate in the absence of punishment (Hilbig, Zettler, & Heydasch, 2012; also see Zhao & Smillie, 2015), are less likely to defect in prisoner dilemma games when the risk of defection has been lowered and the benefits of defecting are more tempting (Zettler, Hilbig, & Heydasch, 2013), use fewer cost-inflicting mate retention strategies (Holden et al., 2014), and are less likely to have committed romantic or sexual infidelity (Hilbig, Moshagen, & Zettler, 2015). ...
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... Intervention discussed in peer-reviewed works Veldorale-Brogan et al. (2010) Turn Your Strengths Other-Oriented Direct one signature strength outward in a relationship to bring benefit to that person. Intervention extrapolated from an observational study Kashdan et al. (2018) Character Strengths Appreciation List three of one's partner's character strengths, an example for each, and convey appreciation to them -why they are valued for their strengths use. Intervention extrapolated from a theoretical concept Rempel et al. (2007) Character Strengths Genogram As one creates a standard family genogram, add three character strengths that describe each entry; look for patterns and discuss with family members. ...
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What does it mean to be “strengths-based” or to be a “strengths-based practitioner?” These are diffuse areas that are generic and ill-defined. Part of the confusion arises from the customary default of practitioners and leaders across many cultures to label anything positive or complimentary as “strengths-based,” whether that be an approach, a theoretical orientation, an intervention, or a company. Additional muddle is created by many researchers and practitioners not making distinctions between very different categories of “strength” in human beings – strengths of character, of talent/ability, of interest/passion, of skill/competency, to name a few. To add clarity and unification across professions, we offer seven characteristics and a comprehensive definition for a character strengths-based practitioner. We center on the type of strength referred to as character strengths and explore six guiding principles for understanding character strengths (e.g., character is plural; character is being and doing) and their practical corollaries. Reflecting this foundation and based on character strengths research, our longstanding work with strengths, discussions with practitioners across the globe, and a practitioner survey asking about strength practices (N = 113), we point out several character strengths practices or approaches we describe as soaring (e.g., explore and encourage signature strengths; practice strengths-spotting), emerging (e.g., the integration of mindfulness and character strengths), or ripe with potential (e.g., phasic strengths; the tempering effect; the towing effect). We use the same framework for describing general research domains. Some areas of research in character strengths are soaring with more than 25 studies (e.g., workplace/organizations), some are emerging with a handful of studies (e.g., health/medicine), and others are ripe with potential that have none or few studies yet opportunity looms large for integrating character science (e.g., peace/conflict studies). Using this framework, we seek to advance the exchange and collaboration between researcher and practitioner, as well as to advance the science and practice of character strengths.
... The sample size was determined by funding constraints, and data were not analyzed before determining the sample size. This sample size is similar to several recently published dyadic daily diary studies (e.g., Auger, Menzies-Toman, & Lydon, 2017;Haak, Keller, & DeWall, 2017;Kashdan et al., 2018;Kindt, Vansteenkiste, Cano, & Goubert, 2017). ...
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... For mastery, they will engage in an exercise prompting them to remember a past success experience and to share it with another group member to increase participants' self-efficacy [28]. After the mastery exercise, participants will engage in a strength spotting exercise to enhance affiliation [29]. Participants will take turns in sharing the strengths they have spotted in their colleague based on previously shared success stories to demonstrate how even brief positive interactions can increase the feeling of belonging and positive affect [30]. ...
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... Thus, this research introduces the possibility that LLs may be a predictor of relational satisfaction, adding it to an emerging list that in-satisfaction include (a) viewing one's partner's personality strengths as having significant costs (Kashdan et al., 2018), (b) incongruence of motives for being involved in the relationship (Hagemeyer et al., 2013), (c) hypermasculinity (Karakis & Levant, 2012;Lentz, 2017), and (d) inconsistent interpersonal behavior (Sadikaj et al., 2015), dominant behavior (Sadikaj, Moskowitz, & Zuroff, 2017), shyness (Luster et al., 2013), and depression (Li & Johnson, 2018) in one's partner. ...
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... Expressing gratitude is a large contributor to the maintenance of close intimate bonds (Algoe, 2012;Kashdan et al., 2017), suggesting that it may reflect similar age-related processes that enhance well-being. Phenomena did not make explicit hypotheses about whether gratitude-well-being associations differ by age. ...
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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In addition to widely used endorsement methods, one way to get at people's thoughts is to have them verbalize while engaged in a task or situation. The articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm is a think-aloud approach to cognitive assessment that has several advantages: an unstructured production response format, on-line rather than retrospective assessment, situational specificity and control, and flexibility of situation and cognitions. The authors review experiments that have examined articulated thoughts in clinically relevant contexts. ATSS does have certain limitations and further research into its psychometric properties is needed, but it seems promising as a versatile and adaptable method of cognitive assessment, especially when little is known of the cognitive terrain of interest.
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Being able to carefully perceive and distinguish the rich complexity in emotional experiences is a key component of psychological interventions. We review research in clinical, social, and health psychology that offers insights into the adaptive value of putting feelings into words with a high degree of complexity (i.e., emotion differentiation or emotional granularity). According to recent research, upon experiencing intense distress, individuals who experience their emotions with more granularity are less likely to resort to maladaptive self-regulatory strategies such as binge drinking, aggression, and self-injurious behavior; show less neural reactivity to rejection; and experience less severe anxiety and depressive disorders. These findings shed light on how negative emotions and stressful experiences can be transformed by people’s emotion-differentiation skill. Besides basic research suggesting that emotion differentiation is an important developmental process, evidence suggests that interventions designed to improve emotion differentiation can both reduce psychological problems and increase various strands of well-being.
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Though interest in the emotion of gratitude has historically focused on its role in social exchange, new evidence suggests a different and more important role for gratitude in social life. The find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude posits that the positive emotion of gratitude serves the evolutionary function of strengthening a relationship with a responsive interaction partner (Algoe, Haidt, & Gable, 2008). The current article identifies prior, economic models of gratitude, elaborates on unique features of the find-remind-and-bind theory, reviews the accumulating evidence for gratitude in social life in light of this novel perspective, and discusses how the find-remind-and-bind theory is relevant to methodology and hypothesis testing. In sum, within the context of reciprocally-altruistic relationships, gratitude signals communal relationship norms and may be an evolved mechanism to fuel upward spirals of mutually responsive behaviors between recipient and benefactor. In this way, gratitude is important for forming and maintaining the most important relationships of our lives, those with the people we interact with every day.
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Psychological need constructs have received increased attention within self-determination theory research. Unfortunately, the most widely used need-satisfaction measure, the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS; Gagné in Motiv Emot 27:199–223, 2003), has been found to be problematic (Johnston and Finney in Contemp Educ Psychol 35:280–296, 2010). In the current study, we formally describe an alternate measure, the Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs (BMPN). We explore the factor structure of student responses to both the BPNS and the BMPN, followed by an empirical comparison of the BPNS to the BMPN as predictors of relevant outcomes. For both scales, we tested a model specifying three latent need factors (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and two latent method factors (satisfaction and dissatisfaction). By specifying and comparing a series of nested confirmatory factor analytic models, we examine the theoretical structure of the need satisfaction variables and produce evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the posited constructs. The results of our examination suggest that the three need variables should not be combined into one general need factor and may have separate satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Our model comparisons also suggest the BMPN may be an improved instrument for SDT researchers.
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Good things happen. In fact, positive events occur more often than negative events. In this chapter, we review research showing that people often turn to others to share their good news, a process called capitalization. These studies show that both the act of telling others about good events and the response of the person with whom the event was shared have personal and interpersonal consequences. We outline a theoretical foundation and propose a model of capitalization processes that includes mechanisms linking the act of telling others and their response to personal and interpersonal outcomes. This research has shown that when the close other responds in an active and constructive manner (and not in a passive or destructive manner), both the discloser and the relationship between the discloser and the responder profit. Personal benefits linked to capitalization processes include increased positive emotions, subjective well-being, and self-esteem, and decreased loneliness. Relationship benefits associated with capitalization processes include satisfaction, intimacy, commitment, trust, liking, closeness, and stability. We also review evidence for mechanisms involved in capitalization processes. Throughout this chapter, we discuss capitalization processes in the larger context of how people “cope” during good times and the value of having supportive partners in this process. Although research has consistently emphasized coping with negative events, our work suggests that positive events similarly provide both opportunities and challenges.
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We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.
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One of the great virtues of structural equation models is that they permit the quantification of causal and noncausal sources of statistical relationship. The present article discusses efficient matrix methods of computation for effect decomposition and extends these methods to models with unstandardized variables and to nonrecursive models. An appendix includes a computer program, written in APL, which implements the techniques described in the article.
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This paper presents a new short‐form scale for use by clinical workers and researchers in measuring the degree or magnitude of a problem in the sexual component of a dyadic relationship, as seen by the respondent. The scale was designed for use in repeated administrations at periodic intervals in order that therapists might continually monitor and evaluate their clients' response to treatment. Internal consistency and test‐retest reliability were found to be in excess of .90, and the scale has a discriminant validity coefficient of .76.
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Hedonic adaptation refers to the process by which individuals return to baseline levels of happiness following a change in life circumstances. Dominant models of subjective well-being (SWB) suggest that people can adapt to almost any life event and that happiness levels fluctuate around a biologically determined set point that rarely changes. Recent evidence from large-scale panel studies challenges aspects of this conclusion. Although inborn factors certainly matter and some adaptation does occur, events such as divorce, death of a spouse, unemployment, and disability are associated with lasting changes in SWB. These recent studies also show that there are considerable individual differences in the extent to which people adapt. Thus, happiness levels do change, and adaptation is not inevitable.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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The interventions described in this chapter represent the products of a new approach to empirically building marital therapy interventions. The chapter addresses why there is a need for a new marital therapy, discusses the characteristics of "dysfunctional" and "functional" marriages, provides a basic description of sound marital house theory, and details the goals and processes of the intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined relations between characteristics of personal goal strivings (e.g., importance, past attainment, effort) and components of subjective well-being (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction). 40 undergraduates generated lists of their personal strivings and rated each striving on a series of dimensions. Ss also recorded their moods and thoughts by use of an experience-sampling method on 84 occasions over a 3-wk period. Positive affect was found to be most strongly related to striving value and past fulfillment, whereas negative affect was associated with low probability of future success, striving ambivalence, and between-striving conflict. Striving importance and instrumentality (low conflict) were the strongest predictors of life satisfaction. Possible explanations for the connections between striving fulfillment and positive affect and between striving conflict and negative affect are discussed. It is concluded that the concept of personal striving is a useful heuristic device for understanding individual differences in subjective well-being. The concept is proposed as an alternative to the traditional trait approach to personality. (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article presents the basis for, and the research on, emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT), now recognized as one of the most researched and most effective approaches to changing distressed marital relationships. Drawing on attachment theory and the research on interactional patterns in distressed relationships, we describe the theoretical context of EFT. We then outline the nature of the clinical interventions used in EFT and the steps hypothesized to be crucial to couple change. The central role of accessing and working with emotional issues in the relationship context is highlighted. Following this presentation, we review both the outcome and process research on EFT and present meta-anarytic data from randomized clinical trials to substantiate the clinical impact of EFT on couple adjustment. Finally, the empirical and clinical challenges facing EFT are summarized.
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PAIR, acronym for Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships, was developed as a tool for educators, researchers and therapists. PAIR provides systematic information on five types of intimacy: emotional, social, sexual, intellectual and recreational. Individuals, married or unmarried, describe their relationship in terms of how they currently perceive it (perceived) and how they would like it to be (expected). PAIR can be used with couples in marital therapy and enrichment groups.
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The Kansas Marital Satisfaction (KMS) Scale is found to correlate substantially with both Spanier's (1976) Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and Norton's (1983) Quality Marriage Index (QMI), but not to correlate significantly more than those two scales with a variety of other satisfaction items designed to assess the discriminant validity of the KMS scale. Other characteristics of the KMS scale are similar to those reported in previous research and compare favorably with those of the DAS and the QMI, even though the latter scales contain more items than the KMS scale. It is concluded that the KMS scale may serve as a useful brief measure of marital satisfaction in future research with married couples.
Article
Data collected from both members of a dyad provide abundant opportunities as well as data analytic challenges. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) was developed as a conceptual framework for collecting and analyzing dyadic data, primarily by stressing the importance of considering the interdependence that exists between dyad members. The goal of this paper is to detail how the APIM can be implemented in dyadic research, and how its effects can be estimated using hierarchical linear modeling, including PROC MIXED in SAS and HLM (version 5.04; Raudenbush, Bryk, Cheong, & Congdon, 2001). The paper describes the APIM and illustrates how the data set must be structured to use the data analytic methods proposed. It also presents the syntax needed to estimate the model, indicates how several types of interactions can be tested, and describes how the output can be interpreted.
Good things happen. In fact, positive events occur more often than negative events. In this chapter, we review research showing that people often turn to others to share their good news, a process called capitalization. These studies show that both the act of telling others about good events and the response of the person with whom the event was shared have personal and interpersonal consequences. We outline a theoretical foundation and propose a model of capitalization processes that includes mechanisms linking the act of telling others and their response to personal and interpersonal outcomes. This research has shown that when the close other responds in an active and constructive manner (and not in a passive or destructive manner), both the discloser and the relationship between the discloser and the responder profit. Personal benefits linked to capitalization processes include increased positive emotions, subjective well-being, and self-esteem, and decreased loneliness. Relationship benefits associated with capitalization processes include satisfaction, intimacy, commitment, trust, liking, closeness, and stability. We also review evidence for mechanisms involved in capitalization processes. Throughout this chapter, we discuss capitalization processes in the larger context of how people “cope” during good times and the value of having supportive partners in this process. Although research has consistently emphasized coping with negative events, our work suggests that positive events similarly provide both opportunities and challenges.
Article
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes-forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness-can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.
Article
Despite a burgeoning literature that documents numerous positive implications of forgiveness, scholars know very little about the potential negative implications of forgiveness. In particular, the tendency to express forgiveness may lead offenders to feel free to offend again by removing unwanted consequences for their behavior (e.g., anger, criticism, rejection, loneliness) that would otherwise discourage reoffending. Consistent with this possibility, the current longitudinal study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between spouses' reports of their tendencies to express forgiveness to their partners and those partners' reports of psychological and physical aggression. Specifically, although spouses who reported being relatively more forgiving experienced psychological and physical aggression that remained stable over the first 4 years of marriage, spouses who reported being relatively less forgiving experienced declines in both forms of aggression over time. These findings join just a few others in demonstrating that forgiveness is not a panacea.
Article
This research was conducted to examine the hypothesis that expressing gratitude to a relationship partner enhances one's perception of the relationship's communal strength. In Study 1 (N = 137), a cross-sectional survey, expressing gratitude to a relationship partner was positively associated with the expresser's perception of the communal strength of the relationship. In Study 2 (N = 218), expressing gratitude predicted increases in the expresser's perceptions of the communal strength of the relationship across time. In Study 3 (N = 75), participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition, in which they expressed gratitude to a friend, or to one of three control conditions, in which they thought grateful thoughts about a friend, thought about daily activities, or had positive interactions with a friend. At the end of the study, perceived communal strength was higher among participants in the expression-of-gratitude condition than among those in all three control conditions. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings and suggest directions for future research.
Article
Goldberg (1992) developed a robust set of 100 adjective markers for the Big-Five factor structure found in phenotypic personality description. Because and even briefer marker set might be advantageous under certain assessment conditions, the performance of these 100 markers in 12 data sets was scrutinized, leading to the selection of an optimally robust subset of only 40 adjectives. This "Mini-Marker" subset demonstrated unusually impressive features for an abbreviated inventory, consisting of five scales that show, in comparison to the original scales, less use of difficult items, lower interscale correlations, and somewhat higher mean inter-item correlations; alpha reliabilities are somewhat lower. A format for administering this briefer inventory is appended.
Article
Using a step-wise multiple regression analysis, this study examined the role, in nondistressed marriages, of such sexual variables as frequency of sexual activity, number of orgasms, sexual desire, and sexual excitability in the prediction of female sexual satisfaction as compared to the role of such personality and relationship variables as sexual assertiveness, sexual attitudes (erotophobia-erotophilia), and relationship closeness. The findings suggest that individual and relationship variables (sexual assertiveness, erotophilia, and relationship closeness) aid in the prediction of female sexual satisfaction over and above what can be learned from knowing about the frequency of sexual activity, the number of orgasms a woman has, her level of sexual excitability, and how much she desired the sexual activity. Findings, methodological advances in the use of sex diaries, and limitations of the study are explored.
Article
Attachment research has traditionally focused on individual differences in global patterns of attachment to important others. The current research instead focuses primarily on within-person variability in attachments across relational partners. It was predicted that within-person variability would be substantial, even among primary attachment figures of mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. The prediction was supported in three studies. Furthermore, in line with self-determination theory, multilevel modeling and regression analyses showed that, at the relationship level, individuals' experience of fulfillment of the basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness positively predicted overall attachment security, model of self, and model of other. Relations of both attachment and need satisfaction to well-being were also explored.