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Small-Headed Resin Bee, Heriades rubicola, new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)


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Small-headed Resin Bee, Heriades rubicola Peréz, is formally recorded as new to Britain following its mention by Falk & Lewington (2015) and based on two specimens, one from Dorset and one from London. Morphological characters are given and illustrated, to establish its identity and to distinguish it from other British bees. Notes are provided on bionomics, the circumstances of its arrival and its status in Britain.
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16 Briantspuddle, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 7HS, United Kingdom
Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road,
London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
Small-headed Resin Bee, Heriades rubicola Pere
´z, is formally recorded as new to
Britain following its mention by Falk & Lewington (2015) and based on two
specimens, one from Dorset and one from London. Morphological characters are
given and illustrated, to establish its identity and to distinguish it from other British
bees. Notes are provided on bionomics, the circumstances of its arrival and its status
in Britain.
Knowledge of the distribution and status of British bees is timely in the context of
understanding and managing pollinator services, the conservation of bees generally
and understanding their responses to challenges such as climate change, land-use
change and pesticides (Carvell et al., 2016; Nowakowski & Pywell, 2016). The
discovery of a bee new to the British fauna is therefore of considerable interest.
Small-headed Resin Bee, Heriades (Heriades)rubicola Pere
´z, 1890 (Hymenoptera,
Megachilidae, Osmiini), is here recorded as new to Britain based on two specimens,
one from Dorset and one from London. Morphological characters are provided and
illustrated to establish its identity and to distinguish it from other north-west
European Heriades. Notes are provided on the bionomics of H.rubicola in Britain
supplemented with observations from Portugal and on the circumstances of its
arrival in Britain and its possible status as a breeding species in Britain. This is the
third paper reporting novel Hymenoptera from Greenwich Peninsula Ecology Park/
Southern Park; previously Notton, Tang, & Day (2016) and Notton (2016).
Bees were collected by hand netting, with voucher specimens deposited in the
personal collection of Ian Cross (ICPC) and the Natural History Museum, London
(NHMUK). Plant associates were identified using Stace (2010). All British Heriades
truncorum (L.) in NHMUK were checked and labelled to be sure no H. rubicola were
present and all H. rubicola were examined to be sure there were no additional British
specimens. London specimens were imaged using a Canon EOS 550D digital camera
connected to a Leica M125 stereomicroscope; images were processed with Helicon
Focus image stacking software. Nomenclature follows Ascher and Pickering (2014)
and Else, Bolton and Broad (2016).
BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017 1
* corresponding author.
Key to species of north-west European Heriades
According to Ungricht, Mu
¨ller & Dorn (2008) there are three species of Heriades
found in north-west Europe; H. truncorum,H. rubicola and H. crenulata Nylander,
the last is not reported from Britain but because of its similarity to H. rubicola and
close proximity of its distribution to Britain it seems prudent to provide a key here
including all three. The following is translated and adapted from Amiet et al. (2004),
with the addition of some distinctive new characters in the key to males: the
pubescence of sternites 1–2 and the form of the genitalia.
1 Lower margin of clypeus with two protruding medial tubercles (Plate 1, Fig. 1).
Body length 6–7 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. truncorum (Linnaeus)
Lower margin of clypeus finely crenulate, i.e. with numerous small denticles
(Plate 1, Fig. 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Inner orbits almost parallel (Plate 1, Fig. 3). Gena as wide as compound eye
(Plate 1, Fig. 5). Mesonotum about as strongly punctured as vertex. Body length
67mm .............................. H. crenulata Nylander
Inner orbits distinctly converging below (Plate 1, Fig. 4). Gena narrower than
compound eye (Plate 1, Fig. 6). Mesonotum more coarsely punctured than
vertex. 5–6 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. rubicola Pe
1 Sternites 1 and 2 with short hairs, not concealing the cuticle below, the longest
hairs about as long as the width of the hind basitarsus, and about as long as
the hairs medially on tergite 6 (Plate 1, Fig. 7). Tergite 6 with the lateral pits
shallow (Plate 1, Fig. 7). Genitalia with gonoforceps slender, weakly curved
(Plate 2, Fig. 2). 5–6 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. rubicola Pe
Sternites 1 and 2 with long dense hairs, concealing the cuticle below, the longest
hairs about 1.5 times as long as the width of the hind basitarsus, and much
longer than the hairs medially on tergite 6 (Plate 1, Fig. 8; Plate 2, Fig. 1).
Tergite 6 with the lateral pits deep (Plate 1, Fig 8; Plate 2, Fig. 1). Genitalia with
gonoforceps stout, strongly curved or angled apically (Plate 2, Figs 3, 4) . . 2
2 Tergite 6 with the two pits broadly separated by more than a third of the tergite
width (Plate 1, Fig. 8). Apex of gonoforceps abruptly angled (Plate 2, Fig. 3).
Body length 6–7 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. crenulata Nylander
Tergite 6 with the lateral pits narrowly separated, by less than a fifth of the
tergite width (Plate 2, Fig. 1). Apex of gonoforceps evenly curved (Plate 2, Fig.
4). Body length 5–7 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. truncorum (Linnaeus)
HERIADES Spinola, 1808
Heriades (Heriades)rubicola Pere
´z, 1890
Plate 1, Figs 2, 4, 6, 7; Plate 2, Figs 2, 5–8.
The first British specimen of Heriades rubicola, found in 2006, could not be
identified using available British literature but using a key for the continental
European fauna (Amiet et al., 2004) it was keyed to H. rubicola by ICPC and this was
confirmed by George Else (pers. comm.). Based on this specimen the species was briefly
reported and included in the most recent key to British bees (Falk & Lewington, 2015)
2BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017
as an accidental introduction or vagrant. The second British specimen found in 2016
was identified by DGN using Falk & Lewington (2015) and confirmed with Amiet et al.
(2004) and by comparison with specimens of this species in the NHMUK collection,
including specimens recently determined by Andreas Mu
¨ller. Among the British fauna,
H.rubicola is hard to identify and, because of its small size and similarity to H.
truncorum, voucher specimens are recommended, preferably of the more distinctive
males. The key to north-west European Heriades above is provided to enhance existing
identification resources. In the field, fresh specimens are usually slightly smaller and
paler than H. truncorum and like that species are usually found in association with
yellow-flowered Asteraceae. The vernacular name Small-headed Resin Bee was
proposed for this species by Falk and Lewington (2015) and is recommended here.
The name Bramble Carpenter Bee (National Biodiversity Network, 2016:
NHMSYS0020936564) is not recommended because H. rubicola does not have a
preferential association with Rubus spp., as it also nests in dead wood or reed stems.
Furthermore, the name carpenter bee is more usually used for bees of the subfamily
Material examined
UK: Dorset: Briantspuddle: SY816931: 26.vii.2006: Z: at flowers of Pulicaria
dysenterica: I. Cross (ICPC); London: Greenwich Peninsula: Southern Park:
TQ400791: 6.viii.2016: Z: at flowers of Picris heiracioides: D. G. Notton
(NHMUK010264949). FRANCE: Var: Fre
´jus: 2YY: K.M. Guichard
(NHMUK010264959, NHMUK010264974). SPAIN: 20 km north of Madrid: Rio
Guadarrama: Z: K.M. Guichard (NHMUK010264977).
To date Heriades rubicola has only been found at two sites in Britain but may well
have been overlooked elsewhere because of its small size. Heriades rubicola is
widespread in southern Europe, north Africa, and Asia (Amiet et al., 2004; Mu
2016). The nearest populations to Britain appear to be in France (Mu
¨ller, 2016) and
the Channel Islands (BWARS, 2016).
The Briantspuddle site is a mature, rural, wildlife garden of about 0.1 ha. The
garden contains bramble, Rubus fruticosus agg. and, as it is situated in a river valley,
there is abundant Common Reed, Phragmites australis, within 200 m. Southern Park
is adjacent to the Greenwich Peninsula Ecology Park, situated within the former
gasworks site on Greenwich Peninsula. The latter totals 1.72 ha in size and comprises
artificial lakes, reed bed, grassland, scrub and woodland, as well as a building and
supporting access infrastructure (The Land Trust, 2014; Notton, Tang & Day, 2016).
At the time of collecting, there was an adjacent brownfield site including grassland
habitat with bramble, R. fruticosus agg., and abundant yellow flowered Asteraceae;
the last site is being built over at the time of writing.
Flight period
From the limited observations to date British females H. rubicola have been seen
flying from July to August. Elsewhere it has been recorded from June-September in
France and Switzerland (Pe
´rez, 1890; Benoist, 1929; Amiet et al., 2004). In southern
Iberia it is at least double, and probably multiple brooded, with adults being
recorded from late March to early November.
BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017 3
Nesting biology
Nesting of H. rubicola has not been observed in Britain although the Dorset female
was carrying pollen and so is assumed to have been nesting. Both bramble, Rubus
spp., and Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud, the stems of
which are known to be used for nesting outside Britain, are abundant at Southern
Park, Greenwich. In France H. rubicola has been reported nesting in Phragmites
(‘roseaux’) and Rubus (‘ronce’), with the cells separated by plant resin or gum (Pe
1890; Ferton, 1894; Benoist, 1929). More recently in the Czech Republic it has
recently been reported by Bogusch, Astapenkova
´& Heneberg (2015) nesting in
empty galls of Lipara spp. (Diptera, Chloropidae) on P. australis. In Portugal it nests
in beetle burrows in wood with the nest closure being made of resin with small
particles incorporated, probably sand, and some green particles, possibly leaf
material or plant gum (Plate 2, Figs 6–7).
Flowers visited
In Britain H. rubicola females have been seen visiting Common Fleabane, Pulicaria
dysenterica (L.) Bernh., and Hawkweed Oxtongue, Picris heiracioides (L.). This bee is
oligolectic on Asteraceae (Amiet et al., 2004) and apparently prefers to forage on
yellow-flowered species of Senecioneae and Inuleae. In Portugal and Spain early
broods visit a variety of yellow Asteraceae including Helichrysum stoechas (L.)
Moench, and late broods are frequently seen visiting Woody Fleabane, Dittrichia
viscosa (L.) Greuter (Plate 2, Fig. 8).
Heriades rubicola has not been formally published as new for Britain but was first
mentioned as British in Falk and Lewington’s (2015) field guide. Else, Bolton and
Broad (2016) list it as British but were apparently unaware of Falk and Lewington’s
mention and erroneously say it was introduced to the British list in another work
which is currently unpublished. Falk and Lewington suggest the first specimen of
H. rubicola was an accidental introduction or vagrant. However, the discovery of a
second specimen ten years later at a different locality suggests that it may have
established in Britain at low density. It is an inconspicuous bee, and could easily have
been established for some time without detection. It was not noticed in two recent
entomological surveys of Greenwich Peninsula Ecology Park: an unpublished list of
bees recorded during 2009 prepared by Thomas C. Ings, Anglia Ruskin University
(pers. comm.); and a survey report covering all insects, including bees (Colin Plant
Associates, 2015). There is no evidence to suggest how H. rubicola might have
reached Britain although it could easily have been imported with wood products or
horticultural plants with hollow stems containing nests. In time it may become
widespread in southern Britain because it appears that its pollen host and nesting
requirements can be easily met. The occurrence of this bee in Britain has been
notified to the GB Non-Native Species Secretariat however, there is no evidence
currently to suggest that it poses any threat to native bees. Heriades rubicola is not
endangered in a whole European context, it has the status ‘of Least Concern’ in
IUCN red lists categories and is not endemic to Europe (Nieto et al., 2014).
Heriades rubicola is apparently expanding its range northwards in Europe, being
reported in Czech Republic for the first time in 2007 (Bogusch et al., 2015) and
becoming increasingly common there, and also apparently expanding its range in
Austria (Planner, 2016).
4BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017
Thanks are due to The Land Trust (The Land Trust, 2016) for permission to
collect at Southern Park, The Conservation Volunteers (The Conservation
Volunteers, 2016) and loyal friends of the Park who manage the habitats for bees,
and to Theresa Howard (formerly Collections Manager for Entomology, Natural
History Museum, UK).
Amiet, F., Herrmann, M., Mu
¨ller, A. & Neumeyer, R. 2004. Apidae 4 – Anthidium,Chelostoma,
Coelioxys,Dioxys,Heriades,Lithurgus,Megachile,Osmia,Stelis.Fauna Helvetica 9: 1–273.
Ascher, J. S. & Pickering, J. 2014. Discover Life: Bee species guide and World checklist
(Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) [Online]. Available from: http://www.discoverlife.
org/ [Accessed 19/11/2016].
Benoist, R. 1929. Les Heriades de la faune franc¸ aise (Hym. Apidae). Annales de la Socie
entomologique de France 98: 131–141.
Bogusch, P., Astapenkova
´, A. & Heneberg, P. 2015. Larvae and nests of six aculeate
Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) nesting in reed galls induced by Lipara spp.
(Diptera: Chloropidae) with a review of species recorded. PloS one, 10, e0130802. http://
BWARS. 2016. Heriades rubicola Perez, 1890. BWARS Bees,Wasps & Ants Recording Society
[Online]. Available from: [Accessed 21/11/2016].
Carvell, C., Isaac, N., Jitlal, M., Peyton, J., Powney, G., Roy, D., Vanbergen, A., O’Connor,
R., Jones, C., Kunin, B., Breeze, T., Garratt, M., Potts, S., Harvey, M., Ansine, J.,
Comont, R., Lee, P., Edwards, M., Roberts, S., Morris, R., Musgrove, A., Brereton, T.,
Hawes, C. & Roy, H. 2016. Defra project WC1101: Design and Testing of a National
Pollinator and Pollination Monitoring Framework: Final Report: A report to the Department
for Environment,Food and Rural Affairs (Defra),Scottish Government and Welsh
Government, Wallingford, UK, Natural Environment Research Council (Centre for
Ecology and Hydrology), p. iii+62.
Colin Plant Associates. 2015. Greenwich Ecology Park assessment of potential effects of shading
on invertebrate ecology. Report number BS/2962/15, Colin Plant Associates, Bishops
Stortford / Ramboll Environ, London, 47 pp.
Else, G. R., Bolton, B. & Broad, G. R. 2016. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera –
aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: 1–188.
Falk, S. & Lewington, R. 2015. Field guide to the bees of Great Britain and Ireland. British
Wildlife Field Guides, London, Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 432 pp.
Ferton, C. 1894. Seconde note sur les moeurs de quelques Hyme
`res du genre Osmia Panzer
principalement de la Provence. Actes de la Socie
´enne de Bordeaux 47: 203–214. http://
¨ller, A. 2016. Subgenus Heriades.Palaearctic Osmiine Bees [Online]. Available from: http:// [Accessed 20/11/2016].
National Biodiversity Network. 2016. Heriades rubicola Pe
´rez, 1890 [Bramble Carpenter Bee]
[Online]. Available from: [Accessed 6/11/2016].
Nieto, A., Roberts, S.P.M., Kemp, J., Rasmont, P., Kuhlmann, M., Garcı
´a Criado, M.,
Biesmeijer, J. C., Bogusch, P., Dathe, H. H., De La Ru´ a, P., De Meulemeester, T., Dehon,
M., Dewulf, A., Ortiz-Sa
´nchez, F.J., Lhomme, P., Pauly, A., Potts, S.G., Praz, C.,
Quaranta, M., Radchenko, V.G., Scheuchl, E., Smit, J., Straka, J., Terzo, M., Tomozii, B.,
Window, J. & Michez, D. 2014. European Red List of Bees. Luxembourg: Publications
Office of the European Union, European Commission, International Union for
Conservation of Nature, Rosseels Printing, p. x+84. DOI: 10.2779/77003.
Notton, D. G., Tang, C. Q. & Day, A. R. 2016. Viper’s Bugloss Mason Bee, Hoplitis (Hoplitis)
adunca, new to Britain (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Megachilinae, Osmiini). British
Journal of Entomology and Natural History 29: 134–143.
BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017 5
Notton, D. G. Grass-Carrying Wasp, Isodontia mexicana (De Saussure), genus and species new
to Britain (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History
29: 241–245.
Nowakowski, M. & Pywell, R.F. 2016. Habitat Creation and Management for Pollinators.
Wallingford, UK, Natural Environment Research Council (Centre for Ecology and
Hydrology), Wildlife Farming Company, p. ii+86.
files/Habitat Management and Creation For Pollinators.pdf.
´rez, J. M. 1890. Catalogue des mellife
`res du Sud-Ouest. Actes de la Socie
´enne de
Bordeaux 44: 133–197.
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¨rten: Diversita
¨t und Fo
¨glichkeiten. Masterarbeit, Universita
¨r Bodenkultur, Wien. DOI: 10.13140/
Stace, C. A. 2010. New flora of the British Isles. 3rd ed., Cambridge, Cambridge University
Press, p. xxxii, 1232.
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good [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 12/6/2016].
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Warrington / The Conservation Volunteers, London, 41pp.
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Ungricht, S., Mu
¨ller, A. & Dorn, S. 2008. A taxonomic catalogue of the Palaearctic bees of the
tribe Osmiini (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae). Zootaxa 1865; 1–253. http://
Submergence tolerance of Cionus scrophulariae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on
Water Figwort at Kew Bridge, London. – For six years I have been aware of a large
stand of Water Figwort Scrophularia auriculata growing at Kew Bridge, London
which supports a large resident population of the weevil Cionus scrophulariae (L.)
(Curtis, 2011). I have often wondered how C. scrophulariae responds to the year
round, twice monthly Spring tide flooding of the Thames bank. Regular observations
reveal that adult beetles can be found on the figwort in mid winter, mainly hidden
among the dried florets of tall intact stems that are above the highest level of
flooding. On 4.iv.2016 I made the key observation on a new clump of figwort,
situated low down on the footings of the west side of the bridge. Arriving soon after
the tide had receded, with fronds saturated and slumped over, I found three mating
pairs of C. scrophulariae – strong evidence that adult beetles can survive temporary
submergence. In view of the timing it is highly likely that the initiation of mating
occurred before the period of submergence. – CLIVE R. CURTIS, 3 Cressage House,
Walnut Tree Road, Brentford, Middlesex TW8 0LA.
Curtis, C. R. 2011. Overwintering of Cionus scrophulariae (Col. Curculionidae) in London.
British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 24: 225–226.
6BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017
BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017
1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8
PLATE 1. Fig. 1.
Heriades truncorum
,Zclypeus, with white line added to show shape of margin
(NHMUK010264951). Fig. 2.
H. rubicola
,Zclypeus, with white line added to show shape of margin
(NHMUK010264949). Fig. 3.
H. crenulata
,Zface (NHMUK010264975); Fig. 4.
H. rubicola
(NHMUK010264949). Fig. 5.
H. crenulata
,Zhead, lateral (NHMUK010264976); Fig. 6.
H. rubicola
lateral (NHMUK010264977). Fig. 7.
H. rubicola
,Ymetasoma, ventral, sternites 1, 2 and 6 (NHMUK010264974).
Fig. 8.
H. crenulata
,Ymetasoma, ventral, sternites 1, 2 and 6 (NHMUK010264973). Scale bars 1 mm.
BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 30: 2017
PLATE 2. Fig. 1.
Heriades truncorum
,Ymetasoma, ventral, sternites 1, 2 and 6 (NHMUK010264972). Fig. 2.
H. rubicola
,Ygenitalia (NHMUK010264959). Fig. 3.
H. crenulata
,Ygenitalia (NHMUK010264960). Fig. 4.
H. truncorum
,Ygenitalia (NHMUK010264962). Fig. 5.
H. rubicola
,Zdorsal habitus (NHMUK010264949). Fig. 6.
H. rubicola
,Zcapping nest with a mixture of resin and small stones, Portugal. Fig. 7.
H. rubicola
, nest capping
of resin and small stones, Portugal. Fig. 8.
H. rubicola
,Yvisiting flowers of
Dittrichia viscosa
near Lagos in
the Algarve, Portugal. Scale bars 1 mm, Fig. 1, 3–5; 0.5 mm, Fig. 2. Photo credits: DGN (NHMUK), Figs 1–5; IC,
Figs 6–8.
3 4
... Several bees are increasing their ranges along with their preferred pollen and nectar sources, i.e. Megachile pilicrus Morawitz, 1877 with expanding Centaurea stoebe and Heriades rubicola Pérez, 1890 with non-native American goldenrods (Solidago spp.), which form large patches on the margins of wet meadows and reed beds (see Bogusch et al. 2017Bogusch et al. , 2018Cross and Notton 2017). ...
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A comprehensive guide to the bees of Great Britain, Ireland and the Channel Islands covering all 275 species on the British list in 2015. The book can be purchased from most of the larger natural history book suppliers. 432 pp. Bloomsbury British Wildlife Field Guides. ISBN: 978-1-910389-02-7 (hardback), ISBN: 978-1-910389-03-4 (paperback).
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Viper’s Bugloss Mason Bee, Hoplitis adunca (Panzer), is recorded as new to Britain. Morphological characters are given, and illustrated, to establish its identity and to distinguish it from other British bees. DNA sequencing was used to independently confirm the identification. This species is established at one location in London. Notes are provided on bionomics, the circumstances of its arrival and its status in Britain.
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In the context of global urbanization, urban biodiversity is becoming increasingly important for conservation and research. Cities can provide well suited environments for bees because of the urban habitat mosaic and favorable climatic conditions. The goal of this research is to identify bee species in show gardens and parks of Vienna and to analyze factors enhancing bee diversity. At three sites in Vienna, “Pötzleinsdorfer Schlosspark”, “Blumengärten Hirschstetten”, and “Garten der Vielfalt” in Essling, wildbees were recorded throughout one season. Also quantitative flowering, diversity of flowering plants, site types and nesting structures were recorded. Guided interviews were conducted with persons responsible for the area management about their awareness of conservation issues and the measures implemented on the site to enhance bee diversity. Altogether 142 bee species were found in this survey. The “Garten der Vielfalt” is a bee hotspot which contains 90 bee species on less than 1 ha area. In total a high percentage of cavity nesting (32%) and oligolectic species (25%) was found. The percentage of parasitic bees was low (12%). Heriades rubicola was found in Vienna for the first time. Factors that enhance bee diversity are the diversity of flowering plants, high quantitative flowering, and diverse nesting structures. Results show that the site types that attract bees best are extensively managed meadows, flowering strips, ruderal areas, and beds of herbs and vegetables. The interviews show that the awareness about conservation issues influences the supply of natural structures to enhance wildbees. To improve the enhancement of wildbees in show gardens and parks in Vienna increased acceptance of ruderal and not-managed areas and the use of native plants are recommended.
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Background: The checklist of British and Irish aculeate Hymenoptera (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) is revised. Species distribution is summarised for all species at the level of country (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Isle of Man). New information: The 601 native species represent an increase of 25 on the 1978 checklist, comprising mostly new discoveries. This increase is nearly balanced by the 23 species now presumed to be extinct in Britain and Ireland.
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The wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them possess a potential to be used as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 ≥1 year old galls induced by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. collected on 34 sites in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Central Europe. We examined 1 389 nests (4 513 individuals) of nine species parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoids. We describe the nests of the seven most dominant species, and provide the description of larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium), all of them but H. pectoralis preferring robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (P. lethifer and T. attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). Importantly, the larvae of T. fenestratus showed different features than those suggested by its previously published descriptions. We also collected another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, and allowed them to hatch. From this set of galls, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid parasitoids and one hymenopteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus . The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of the most widespread central European aculeate hymenopteran reed gall specialists.
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This taxonomic catalogue covers all family-, genus- and species-group names of the Palaearctic bees of the tribe Osmiini as published by the end of 2006. As the taxonomy of the Palaearctic Osmiini is currently in a poor state, the primary goal of this catalogue is to provide a complete coverage of the widely dispersed and often not easily accessible taxonomic literature, thus laying the basis for further taxonomic work. We therefore refrain from proposing new synonyms, new names, new ranks or new combinations, and the taxa accepted here are based on a literature survey, generally adopting the most recent published opinion. The generic and subgeneric system proposed by Michener (2000) serves as a general backbone for this catalogue. We list six available family-group names, 93 available genus-group names and 935 available species-group names that currently split up into the valid names of two subtribes, 13 genera, 43 non-nominotypical subgenera, 604 species and 76 non-nominotypical subspecies. Starting with Linnaeus (1758), a total of 99 mainly European taxonomists contributed to the available species-group names by the end of 2006. Taxon accounts provide the reference to the original description, the name-bearing type(s), distribution, and literature sources for species identification. Apart from the extant taxa the catalogue also treats the extinct representatives of the osmiine bees following the tribal classification of Engel (2005).
This identification guide to the vascular flora of Britain and Ireland is drawn up from actual plant material and covers all natives, naturalized plants, crop plants and recurrent casuals: 2990 species and 197 extra subspecies are treated fully, with 559 hybrids and marginal species mentioned more briefly. The information, for each family or similar taxon, is presented in the form of an introductory summary of characteristics generally followed by a dichotomous key to genera; for each genus or similar taxon, a brief summary is followed by a dichotomous key to species and then by individual descriptions of the keyed species. These descriptions include other species not mentioned in the keys, as well as hybrids and subspecies. They also give information on status, habitat, distribution and frequency of occurrence or rarity, and indicate endemic or extinct plants. Within the book are interspersed 150 pages of illustrations and photographs of difficult groups. There is a glossary of terms used and an index combining common and Linnean names. -J.W.Cooper
Apidae 4 – Anthidium
  • F Amiet
  • M Herrmann
  • A Muïler
  • R Neumeyer
Amiet, F., Herrmann, M., Muïler, A. & Neumeyer, R. 2004. Apidae 4 – Anthidium, Chelostoma, Coelioxys, Dioxys, Heriades, Lithurgus, Megachile, Osmia, Stelis. Fauna Helvetica 9: 1–273.
Discover Life: Bee species guide and World checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila
  • J S Ascher
  • J Pickering
Ascher, J. S. & Pickering, J. 2014. Discover Life: Bee species guide and World checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) [Online]. Available from: http://www.discoverlife. org/ [Accessed 19/11/2016].