Article

Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women

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Abstract

The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, pleasantness, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10?min before and 60?min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, pleasantness, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite.

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... A more recent Japanese study reported that coloring a soup blue was unappealing to female participants (Suzuki et al., 2017). In particular, it was shown to lead to decreased ratings of palatability and appetite when compared to a normally-colored white or yellow soup. ...
... There is a tension between those commentators/researchers, on the one hand, who want to paint blue as an appetite suppressant (Suzuki et al., 2017), and the food marketers, and Instagrammers who sense the appeal of blue foods (e.g., Hohenadel, 2016;Elgart, 2018), or at least captures visual attention effectively on the shelf While blue and green are typically chosen as the favourite colours generallyspeaking. In a food context, these two colours are much more likely to appear at the bottom of the list of preferred colours (see . ...
Book
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Eating and drinking are undoubtedly amongst life’s most multisensory experiences. Take, for instance, the enjoyment of flavor, which is one of the most important elements of such experiences, resulting from the integration of gustatory, (retronasal) olfactory, and possibly also trigeminal/oral-somatosensory cues. Nevertheless, researchers have suggested that all our senses can influence the way in which we perceive flavor, not to mention our eating and drinking experiences. For instance, the color and shape of the food, the background sonic/noise cues in our eating environments, and/or the sounds associated with mastication can all influence our perception and enjoyment of our eating and drinking experiences. Human-Food Interaction (HFI) research has been growing steadily in recent years. Research into multisensory interactions designed to create, modify, and/or enhance our food-related experiences is one of the core areas of HFI (Multisensory HFI or MHFI). The aim being to further our understanding of the principles that govern the systematic connections between the senses in the context of HFI. In this Research Topic, we called for investigations and applications of systems that create new, or enhance already existing, multisensory eating and drinking experiences (what can be considered the “hacking” of food experiences) in the context of HFI. Moreover, we were also interested in those works that focus on or are based on the principles governing the systematic connections that exist between the senses. HFI also involves the experiencing of food interactions digitally in remote locations. Therefore, we were also interested in sensing and actuation interfaces, new communication mediums, and persisting and retrieving technologies for human food interactions. Enhancing social interactions to augment the eating experience is another issue we wanted to see addressed here, what has been referred to as “digital commensality”.
... The color of food can influence consumers' appetites. For instance, white and yellow soups attract consumers, and consumers' willingness to consume blue soup was found to be significantly decreased compared their willingness to consume white and yellow soups [42]. However, the consumption of Riceberry waffles possibly provides health benefits due to the anthocyanin content of Riceberry flour [20,22,43,44]. ...
... This may be because of their dietary fiber content. The digestibility of waffles may be increased by the use of different types of starch and may be affected by the duration of glycemic response [42]. Additionally, the glycemic indexes of Riceberry waffle and wheat flour are at high. ...
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Citation: Tongkaew, P.; Purong, D.; Ngoh, S.; Phongnarisorn, B.; Aydin, E. Acute Effect of Riceberry Waffle Intake on Postprandial Glycemic Response in Healthy Subjects. Foods Abstract: Gluten-free products have been developed due to increasing consumer demand. The improvement of the sensory quality and nutritional value of these products may support functional food development and provide health benefits. The purpose of this study was to develop a gluten-free waffle formulation with Riceberry rice flour by replacing the sucrose with maltitol and palm sugar powder. Evaluations of the sensory acceptability of these products and the blood glucose levels of healthy volunteers after consuming Riceberry and wheat flour waffles were carried out. The glycemic responses of the volunteers to the Riceberry and wheat flour waffles at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min were monitored. In addition, the glycemic index of the products was calculated. The finding revealed that replacing sugar with 50% (w/w of total sugar) palm sugar powder and 50% maltitol was the most acceptable formulation that received the highest acceptability scores in terms of overall acceptability and texture. The blood glucose levels of both Riceberry waffle and wheat flour were not significantly different. The glycemic index of Riceberry waffle and wheat flour waffle were 94.73 ± 7.60 and 91.96 ± 6.93, respectively. Therefore, Riceberry waffle could be used as an alternative gluten-free product for celiac patients, but not for diabetic patients.
... A more recent Japanese study reported that coloring a soup blue was unappealing to female participants (Suzuki et al., 2017). In particular, it was shown to lead to decreased ratings of palatability and appetite when compared to a normally-colored white or yellow soup. ...
... There is a tension between those commentators/researchers, on the one hand, who want to paint blue as an appetite suppressant (Suzuki et al., 2017), and the food marketers, and Instagrammers who sense the appeal of blue foods (e.g., Hohenadel, 2016;Elgart, 2018), or at least captures visual attention effectively on the shelf While blue and green are typically chosen as the favourite colours generallyspeaking. In a food context, these two colours are much more likely to appear at the bottom of the list of preferred colours (see Spence, 2019b). ...
Article
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Is blue food desirable or disgusting? The answer, it would seem, is both, but it really depends on the food in which the color happens to be present. It turns out that the oft-cited aversive response to blue meat may not even have been scientifically validated, despite the fact that blue food coloring is often added to discombobulate diners. In the case of drinks, however, there has been a recent growth of successful new blue product launches in everything from beer to tea, and from wine to gin, arguing that coloring food products blue is more than simply a contemporary fad. In fact, the current interest in blue food coloring builds on the color's earlier appearance in everything from blue curacao to blue-raspberry candyfloss (cotton candy), and thereafter a number of soft drinks. Over the years, the combination of blue coloring with raspberry flavoring has also appeared in everything from bubble-gum to patriotic pop rocks (popping candy in The United States). Ultimately, it is the rarity of naturally-blue foods that is likely what makes this color so special. As such, blue food coloring can both work effectively to attract the visual attention of the shopper while, at the same time, being linked to a range of different flavors (since this is one of the few color-flavor mappings that are essentially arbitrary) depending on the food format in which it happens to appear. Note also that the basic descriptor “blue” covers a wide range of hues having a range of different associations, hence eliciting different reactions (be they positive or negative). While blue was once associated with artificiality, a growing number of natural blue food colorings have come onto the market in recent years thus perhaps changing the dominant associations that many consumers may have with this most unusual of food colors.
... However, research on the effects of red/blue food coloring on the wanting and liking of food has produced heterogeneous results. In some of the studies the predicted effects occurred (e.g., increased appetite for red-colored food: e.g., Foroni et al., 2016, decreased appetite for bluecolored food; e.g., Cho et al., 2015;Suzuki et al., 2017), but not in other studies (e.g., Gifford et al., 1987;Frank et al., 1989, Chan andKane-Martinelli, 1997;Alley and Alley, 1998). ...
... When the lighting was returned to normal, the 'inappropriate' food coloring elicited appetite reduction and even nausea in some of the participants. In a recent study by Suzuki et al. (2017), blue soup decreased reported appetite and palatability compared to soup with typical colors (white, yellow). ...
Article
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Background: Research findings on the appetite-enhancing effect of the color red and the appetite-reducing effect of blue have been inconsistent. The present study used a placebo approach and investigated whether verbal suggestions can enhance color-appetite effects. Method: A total of 448 women participated in two experiments. They viewed images with differently colored sweet foods (original color, blue, red, colorless (black-and-white); experiment 1; n = 217) or sweet foods on blue, red, white, and gray backgrounds; experiment 2; n = 231). Before viewing the images, half of the participants received information about the effects of red and blue food color on appetite (color suggestion). The other half received no suggestion. For each of the experiments, the reported propensity to eat (food wanting) was compared between the conditions. Results: All colored food items were associated with a lower propensity to eat compared to the food items in the original color. The color suggestion (compared to no suggestion) additionally decreased the propensity to eat blue and black-and-white food items. Colored backgrounds did not influence food wanting. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that red and blue coloring of visual food cues did not have the predicted effects on food wanting. However, the combination of specific food colors with specific color suggestions might be useful to change the willingness to eat sweet products.
... In the experiment, a subjective index and objective index for appetite measurement were both considered. For subjective parameters, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to quantify a subject's feelings on desire to eat, hunger, prospective consumption, and fullness [28,29]. To measure the greasiness degree of the food, food greasiness was added in the VAS. ...
Article
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High-temperature weather appears in high frequency, big strength, and long duration in the summer. It is therefore important to study the effects of high-temperature weather on sleep quality and appetite. Ten healthy college students were selected as subjects. The experiment conditions were divided by the daily maximum temperature into 28 °C, 32 °C, 36 °C, and 38 °C. The objective sleep quality was measured by an intelligent sleep monitoring belt, and the subjective sleep quality was measured by a questionnaire survey. The subjective appetites were assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS), and the objective appetites were assessed by the meal weight and the meal time. For sleep quality, the objective results indicated that the sleep quality at 32 °C was the best, followed by 28 °C, while the sleep quality at 36 °C and 38 °C was the worst. Significant effects were mainly reflected in sleep duration and shallow sleep. The subjective results showed that temperature had significant effects on sleep calmness, difficulty in falling asleep, sleep satisfaction, and sleep adequateness. For appetite, the VAS results indicated that high temperatures mainly led to a reduction of appetite at lunch time. The meal weights of lunch were larger than those of supper except for 28 °C, and the meal time of lunch and supper was longer than that of breakfast. The meal time of lunch was longer than that of supper except for 36 °C. This paper can provide a study method and reference data for the sleep quality and appetite of human in high-temperature weather.
... In these cases, it is what is signified by the colour, rather than the colour itself, that may be doing the work. In those cases where background colour has no such specific meaning (e.g., in the case of plateware colour), people's flavour expectations, their flavour perception, and even their food behaviours may be affected because of the associations that exist between particular colours and specific product attributes (e.g., blue with salty as well as with cold/refreshing; pinkish-red with sweetness; red with spicy and hot, but also with danger, etc.; Ho, Van Doorn, Kawabe, Watanabe, & Spence, 2014;Suzuki et al., 2017; see also Zellner & Durlach, 2002, 2003. 19 These associations (or crossmodal correspondences) are primed by the background colour and end-up anchoring, or biasing, the ratings that an individual subsequently makes. ...
Article
Colour affects many aspects of our lives. One area of particular interest in recent years has been the role of colour cues in the perception of food and drink. While the majority of this research has tended to focus on the impact of changing the colour of the product itself, there is now a growing body of scientifically-credible research (building on earlier anecdotal claims) that the colour of the background against which food and drink is served affects both people's perception of it, and also their serving and consumption behaviour as well. In this review, the empirical evidence on this topic is summarized and the various mechanisms that have been put forward to account for such results outlined. Gaining a better understanding of when, and why, background colour impacts our food preferences, perception, and ultimately our behaviour, is likely to be important to chefs, food bloggers, restaurateurs, packaging designers, and those working on encouraging various special needs populations to consume more (or less).
... To investigate this effect, Suzuki and colleagues (2017) asked people to consume hot potato soup served white, yellow, or blue. Participants not only found the non-blue soup more palatable, but also more warming to the body (Suzuki et al. 2017). ...
Book
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Brand touchpoints are used to reinforce the basic premise of branding, which is to distinguish brands from their competitors and remain memorable, ultimately keeping customers resolute in their allegiance. Information related through brand touchpoints increases brand familiarity, contributes to a brand’s value, improves attitudes towards a brand, and in general is essential to maintain an ongoing relationship with consumers. Given the role of brand touchpoints, a look at contemporary issues is warranted. Brand Touchpoints is a collection of chapters by academics, practitioners and designers on the current evolution of brand communication. The book looks at existing issues in the marketplace and ways to influence the branding process. First, the changing role of brand touchpoints is reviewed in terms of the move from physical assets such as stores, trucks, and outdoor billboards to digital applications. A foundational sense of how consumers develop inferences surrounding brand touchpoints is then explored. Following this, prescriptive models for building brands to enhance the effectiveness of brand touchpoints are proposed. Then the ability of tangible touchpoints such as product design, packaging, and other tangible aspects of the brand to inform macro branding is reviewed. A case is made for more research on multisensory aspects of a brand. Chapters in the final section of the book explore brand touchpoints as it influences microtrends of prosocial consumers, children and ardent sports fans. To conclude, novel linkages in brand literature that sets up an agenda for future research as it relates to consumer culture is discussed.
... In these cases, it is what is signified by the colour, rather than the colour itself, that may be doing the work. In those cases where background colour has no such specific meaning (e.g., in the case of plateware colour), people's flavour expectations, their flavour perception, and even their food behaviours may be affected because of the associations that exist between particular colours and specific product attributes (e.g., blue with salty as well as with cold/refreshing; pinkish-red with sweetness; red with spicy and hot, but also with danger, etc.; Ho, Van Doorn, Kawabe, Watanabe, & Spence, 2014;Suzuki et al., 2017; see also Zellner & Durlach, 2002, 2003. 19 These associations (or crossmodal correspondences) are primed by the background colour and end-up anchoring, or biasing, the ratings that an individual subsequently makes. ...
Article
Colour is perhaps the single most important element as far as the design of multisensory product packaging is concerned. It plays a key role in capturing the attention of the shopper in-store. A distinctive colour, or colour scheme, can also act as a valuable brand attribute (think here only of the signature colour schemes of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate). In many categories, though, colour is used to convey information to the consumer about a product’s sensory properties (e.g., taste or flavour, say), or else to prime other more abstract brand attributes (such as, for example, premium, natural, or healthy). However, packaging colour can also affect the customer’s product experience as well: Indeed, a growing body of empirical research now shows that packaging colour affects everything from the expected and perceived taste and flavour of food and beverage products through to the fragrance of home and personal care items. Packaging colour, then, plays a dominant role at several stages of the product experience.
... It should be noted that the color red (when not associated with a brand, or any other meaning) has been shown to reduce the intake of those foods that are considered unhealthy (Bruno et al., 2013;Genschow et al., 2012;Reutner et al., 2015); and it has been suggested that serving food from blue trays may reduce consumers' food intake compared to trays of other colors (at least in Depression-era North America, Crumpacker, 2006). Note, also, how blue foods are rare in nature, so people might have worries about the safety of blue food (Suzuki et al., 2017) and prefer them less (Lee, Lee, Lee, & Song, 2013). Therefore, one should perhaps be cautious about using red or blue as plateware colors for general populations (see Spence, submitted, for a review). ...
Article
Two experiments were designed to investigate the effect of plate color and plate size on taste expectations, subjective ratings of, and willingness‐to‐pay for, Asian noodles and Italian pastas. Chinese participants viewed photographs of these foods served on plates of different colors and sizes, rated their liking, familiarity, taste expectations for the foods, and indicated how much they would be willing to pay for them. The foods were presented against the backdrop of store‐bought or computer‐edited colored plates. Presenting the food on white plates resulted in the highest familiarity scores. Interestingly, the participants were willing to pay approximately 16% more for the same quantity of Asian noodles when served on smaller (rather than larger) plates. Different patterns of results were observed with two types of Italian pasta that the Chinese participants were less familiar with, suggesting a moderating role of the familiarity people have with the foods. Practical applications The present study provides novel findings concerning the influence of plateware on Asian noodles, a commonly eaten food in many Asian countries. The findings suggest a fundamental difference between the role of plateware in the subjective ratings of, and taste expectations concerning, regularly consumed familiar and unfamiliar foods as in the present study and the snack food in previous studies. These findings are therefore relevant to those researchers and practitioners interested in how the receptacle, as an important contextual factor, influences consumers' perception and consumption of foods. These findings also have direct implications for those serving food in restaurants.
... In terms of peer-reviewed empirical research on the consequences for consumption of colouring food blue, we need to turn to Suzuki, Kimura, Kido, Inoue, Moritani, and Nagai (2017). These researchers assessed the impact on consumption of colouring a commerciallyproduced white potage soup blue or yellow by the addition of food dyes (see Figure 1). ...
Article
During the latter half of the last century, a number of cultural commentators confidently asserted that blue food and drink products would never succeed in the marketplace. How, then, to explain the recent rise of blue drinks in our stores and images of blue foods online? Blue foods are certainly rare in nature, rarer, at least, than foods of other colours. Perhaps as a result, this hue tends to be associated with notions of unnatural and artificial food colouring. That said, ‘natural’ blue food and drink items are becoming an increasingly common sight in the grocery aisles and online due, in part, to this colour's ability to capture our attention in-amongst the other more common food colours. This article highlights those situations/contexts in which blue is/isn't an acceptable food colour, and how attitudes have changed over the decades, in part, due to the emergence of a number of naturally-sourced colouring agents. Ultimately, I consider the question of what, if anything, is stopping us from purchasing/making/consuming more blue food and drink products, and whether or not the current popularity of this colour will last. This review also addresses the question of why it is that blue foods are so rarely seen in chef-prepared meals.
... ∆E * value of 2.8 has been reported as the colour difference threshold for untrained panellists and consumers [15], thus suggesting that processing at 116 ºC is the optimal temperature for borsch and treatment at 131 ºC is the least suitable temperature for pea soup, according to the colour changes after sterilization. It has been also shown that food colour modulates consumers' motivation to eat [27], therefore, significant colour deviations can have a negative effect on consumer habits and food acceptability. ...
... At the same time, the colour of plateware and of food have both been shown to influence the rated heat/temperature that people associate with thermally or chemaesthetically hot stimuli (e.g., Suzuki et al., 2017). For instance, Guéguen and Jacob (2012) had 120 French participants taste coffee from blue, green, red, and yellow cups and indicate which coffee was warmest in terms of its temperature. ...
Article
The last few years have seen an explosive growth of research interest in the crossmodal correspondences, the sometimes surprising associations that people experience between stimuli, attributes, or perceptual dimensions, such as between auditory pitch and visual size, or elevation. To date, the majority of this research has tended to focus on audiovisual correspondences. However, a variety of crossmodal correspondences have also been demonstrated with tactile stimuli, involving everything from felt shape to texture, and from weight through to temperature. In this review, I take a closer look at temperature-based correspondences. The empirical research not only supports the existence of robust crossmodal correspondences between temperature and colour (as captured by everyday phrases such as ‘red hot’) but also between temperature and auditory pitch. Importantly, such correspondences have (on occasion) been shown to influence everything from our thermal comfort in coloured environments through to our response to the thermal and chemical warmth associated with stimulation of the chemical senses, as when eating, drinking, and sniffing olfactory stimuli. Temperature-based correspondences are considered in terms of the four main classes of correspondence that have been identified to date, namely statistical, structural, semantic, and affective. The hope is that gaining a better understanding of temperature-based crossmodal correspondences may one day also potentially help in the design of more intuitive sensory-substitution devices, and support the delivery of immersive virtual and augmented reality experiences.
... Hunger is probably affected both by sensory and cognitive factors, described by Bellisle and Blundell (2013). The colour and the temperature of served food is also important, as reported by Suzuki et al. (2017). In their research, soups with an addition of white, yellow and blue die were analysed. ...
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This study analysed the diversity of subjectively perceived satiety level induced by the consumption of isocaloric portions of tomato cream soup, prepared with starch additions such as potatoes, pearl barley, pasta and white rice, in the context of differences in weight, viscosity and density of individual tomato cream soups.The study assumed that diversity of physical parameters of soups, determined by the type of the starch addition, affects the feeling of satiety after consumption. Determination of the satiety level after consumption of an isocaloric portion of soup was carried out among 186 persons. For each of the examined soups, weight, viscosity and density of the isocaloric portion was determined. The level of subjectively perceived satiety after consumption of an isocaloric portion of soup was determined using the unstructured visual analogue scale, VAS. The weight of the isocaloric portion was determined by weighing, viscosity was determined using the Brookfield DV-III model viscometer, with the “Rheocalc” software, density was determined using the pycnometer. The highest satiety potential, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC = (VAS, t)), was found for tomato soup with potato AUC, and the lowest – tomato soup with pasta. The soup with potatoes demonstrated the highest weight, the highest viscosity and the lowest density of an isocaloric portion. The comparison of the parameter values for multiple regression equations, determining the relation between AUC values and the examined physical properties of soups, demonstrated that soups of high weight, significant viscosity and low density of the isocaloric portion show a high ability to induce the feeling of satiety.
... The uncommon blue color brings the sensation of artificial food and is not satiable. Studies by Suzuki et al. (2017) proved this effect. The authors observed the tasters' behavior when eating identical soups, with different colors: yellow, white, and blue. ...
Article
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The aim of this paper was to develop broccoli soups enriched in Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., or Tetraselmis sp., at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.0% (w/v), and to assess the effect of microalgae incorporation on their quality and acceptance. Incorporation of freeze-dried microalgae biomass into the broccoli soup resulted in lower L* values, especially after incorporation of Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. Microalgae incorporation also led to an increased content of polyphenols and to a higher antioxidant capacity. Microalgae-containing soups showed a higher amount of bioaccessible polyphenols, calculated after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion (ranging between 32.9 ± 1.1 and 45.6 ± 0.5 mg/100 mL). The acceptability index of soups formulated using lower microalgae concentrations was over 70% suggesting that the soups would be well accepted. Indeed, the purchase intention of the soups containing microalgae at 0.5% (w/v)ranged between 3.4 and 4.1 (assessed using a 5-point hedonic scale).
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This study aimed to determine whether ambient light colors affect consumers' willingness to eat, sensory perceptions and hedonic impressions of foods. Sliced apples and red bell peppers were presented under five different colors of light: white, yellow, green, blue and red, respectively. Participants were asked to observe the presented food under these colored lights, to rate their willingness to eat and liking of food appearance. After tasting, participants were asked to rate intensities of flavor and crispness and rate overall impression of the food. When the food samples were presented under white or yellow light rather than blue light, participants not only wanted to eat more, but also liked the foods more. Participants were especially more willing to eat apples under yellow light than under white light commonly experienced in daily life. Flavor intensity of apples was found to be lower under blue light than under yellow, white or red light; this trend was not observed in flavor intensity of bell peppers. Crispness intensities were not different among the five light-color conditions. In conclusion, our findings support and extend the notion that light colors modulate consumers' willingness to eat and their hedonic impressions of foods, especially apples and bell peppers.
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To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days. On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 4.5 h postprandial period under exactly the same conditions. 55 healthy men (age 25.6+/-0.6 y, BMI 22.6+/-0.3 kg¿m2). VAS were used to record hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, desire to eat something fatty, salty, sweet or savoury, and palatability of the meals. Subsequently an ad libitum lunch was served and energy intake was recorded. Reproducibility was assessed by the coefficient of repeatability (CR) of fasting, mean 4.5 h and peak/nadir values. CRs (range 20-61 mm) were larger for fasting and peak/nadir values compared with mean 4.5 h values. No parameter seemed to be improved by diet standardization. Using a paired design and a study power of 0.8, a difference of 10 mm on fasting and 5 mm on mean 4.5 h ratings can be detected with 18 subjects. When using desires to eat specific types of food or an unpaired design, more subjects are needed due to considerable variation. The best correlations of validity were found between 4.5 h mean VAS of the appetite parameters and subsequent energy intake (r=+/-0.50-0.53, P<0.001). VAS scores are reliable for appetite research and do not seem to be influenced by prior diet standardization. However, consideration should be given to the specific parameters being measured, their sensitivity and study power. International Journal of Obesity (2000)24, 38-48
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This study's aim was to investigate a consumer's reactions to foods that are naturally atypically colored. Blue potatoes were used, and we characterized consumers who chose either familiar, yellow potatoes, or unfamiliar, blue potatoes. Volunteers (n=235) were asked to rate their perceptions after tasting blue or yellow potato salad by using an 8-point Likert scale. Second, they were asked to choose between yellow and blue potatoes and argue their choice. Subgroups were classified into yellow potato choosers (64.7% of participants) and blue potato choosers (28.1% of participants) and each evaluated yellow potato salad quite equally, but yellow potato choosers rated blue potato salad lower than blue potato choosers. Blue potato choosers tended to be more neophilic and middle-aged compared to yellow potato choosers. Yellow potato choosers were traditional consumers who chose yellow potatoes because of their taste and familiarity. Blue potato choosers tended to be more hedonistic and variety-seeking as their willingness to try new things and appearance of food seemed to be important factors behind their choice of atypically colored blue potatoes.
Article
This research investigates the role that food color plays in conferring identity, meaning and liking to those foods and beverages that assume many flavor varieties. In a taste test experiment manipulating food color and label information, 389 undergraduates at a public university (53% male and 47% female; 79% between 18 and 21 years of age) were assigned the task of evaluating a successful brand of powdered fruit drink. Results from this study indicate that food color affects the consumer’s ability to correctly identify flavor, to form distinct flavor profiles and preferences, and dominates other flavor information sources, including labeling and taste. Strategic alternatives for the effective deployment of food color for promotional purposes at the point of purchase are recommended.
Article
Colour is the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting people's expectations regarding the likely taste and flavour of food and drink. To date, a large body of laboratory research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the colour of food and beverage items can exert a sometimes dramatic impact on the expectations, and hence on the subsequent experiences, of consumers (or participants in the lab). However, should the colour not match the taste, then the result may well be a negatively valenced disconfirmation of expectation. Food colours can have rather different meanings and hence give rise to differing expectations, in different age groups, not to mention in different cultures. Genetic differences, such as in a person's taster status, can also modulate the psychological impact of food colour on flavour perception. By gaining a better understanding of the sensory and hedonic expectations elicited by food colour in different groups of individuals, researchers are coming to understand more about why it is that what we see modulates the multisensory perception of flavour, as well as our appetitive and avoidance-related food behaviours.
Article
G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
Article
Glass color may influence the evaluation of food and beverages as has been reported in a previous study where participants rated a cold beverage presented in a blue glass to be more thirst-quenching than the same beverage poured into a green, yellow, or red glass. Our experiment sought to test whether container color also can affect the perceived temperature of a warm beverage. One hundred and twenty undergraduates were given warm coffee served in cups of different colors (blue, green, yellow, and red) and were asked to indicate which beverage was the warmest. Statistically significant differences among colors were found. The red cup was evaluated as containing the warmest beverage (38.3%), followed by the yellow (28.3%), the green (20.0%), and the blue (13.3%) cups. Conventional associations between warm versus cool colors are used to explain these results. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 39, 79–81, 2014
Article
Food products are often encountered under colored lighting, particularly in restaurants and retail stores. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether the color of ambient lighting can affect consumers' motivation for consumption. This study aimed to determine whether color (Experiment 1) and illuminance level (Experiment 2) of lighting can influence consumers' liking of appearance and their willingness to eat bell peppers. For red, green, and yellow bell peppers, yellow and blue lighting conditions consistently increased participants' liking of appearance the most and the least, respectively. Participants' willingness to consume bell peppers increased the most under yellow lighting and the least under blue lighting. In addition, a dark condition (i.e., low level of lighting illuminance) decreased liking of appearance and willingness to eat the bell peppers compared to a bright condition (i.e., high level of lighting illuminance). Our findings demonstrate that lighting color and illuminance level can influence consumers' hedonic impression and likelihood to consume bell peppers. Furthermore, the influences of color and illuminance level of lighting appear to be dependent on the surface color of bell peppers.
Article
From a classical point of view, gastric motility acts to clear the stomach between meals, whereas postprandial motility acts to provide a reservoir for food, mixing and grinding the food and to assure a controlled flow of food to the intestines. To summarise findings that support the role of gastric motility as a central mediator of hunger, satiation and satiety. A literature review using the search terms 'satiety', 'satiation' and 'food intake' was combined with specific terms corresponding to the sequence of events during and after food intake. During food intake, when gastric emptying of especially solids is limited, gastric distension and gastric accommodation play an important function in the regulation of satiation. After food intake, when the stomach gradually empties, the role of gastric distension in the determination of appetite decreases and the focus will shift to gastric emptying and intestinal exposure of the nutrients. Finally, we have discussed the role of the empty stomach and the migrating motor complex in the regulation of hunger signals. Our findings indicate that gastric motility is a key mediator of hunger, satiation and satiety. More specifically, gastric accommodation and gastric emptying play important roles in the regulation of gastric (dis)tension and intestinal exposure of nutrients and hence control satiation and satiety. Correlations between gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and body weight indicate that gastric motility can also play a role in the long-term regulation of body weight.
Article
To investigate the antihypertensive fractions of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and their underlying mechanisms in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In vivo study, Eucommia ulmoides lignans (EuL) and Eucommia ulmoides iridoids (EuI) were administrated to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and SHRs, and their blood pressures were measured. Plasma level of nitric oxide (NO) was measured by colorimetric method, and renin activity (RA) and plasma concentration of angiotensin II (Ang II) were measured by radioimmunoassay. In vitro study, rat mesenteric artery was treated with EuL and the vessel relaxation responses were determined. EuL could lower blood pressures of both SD rats and SHR dose-dependently by either intravenous (i.v.) or intragastric (i.g.) administration, but EuI failed to affect blood pressure in the two kinds of rats. Meanwhile, no synergistic effect was observed with the combination of EuL and EuI. The plasma level of NO in SHR treated with EuL 300 mg/kg twice a day was markedly increased. Both plasma RA and Ang II level were decreased with long-term oral treatment of EuL 150 and 300 mg/kg twice a day. In perfusion experiment, EuL relaxed mesenteric artery quickly and dose-dependently and the effect on the artery with and without endothelium was the same. EuL may be the effective fraction to lowering blood pressure and its antihypertensive effect is probably associated with regulating NO and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and directly relaxing artery.
Article
Studies have shown that colour can influence the evaluation of food and beverages. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of colour on the perceived thirst-quenching quality of beverages. Forty undergraduate students (20 males and 20 females) have tested the same beverage presented in glasses of different colours (Blue, Green, Yellow, Red). The subjects were instructed to test each of the glasses according to a random order. Afterwards, they had to indicate the most thirst-quenching glass. Results show a significant difference between the four colours where the blue glass was evaluated as the most thirst-quenching beverage.
Article
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of color temperature of lighting sources on the heart rate variability. Eight male students volunteered as subjects. The heart rate variability during task and rest sessions were estimated under nine different lighting environments consisting of three levels of color temperature (3000 degrees K, 5000 degrees K and 6700 degrees K) and three levels of illuminance (1001x, 3001x and 9001x). The lighting condition caused no effect on the mean heart rate. On the other hand, the power spectrum of heart rate was significantly influenced by the lighting conditions. The respiratory sinus arrhythmia component and Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia component of the power spectrum increased under higher color temperature conditions. Judging from the consistency of heart rate level, the balance between the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems remained at a constant level irrespective of lighting quality and intensity. Therefore, both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous functions were concluded to be enhanced under higher color temperature conditions. The light with higher color temperature was considered to activate the autonomic nervous function more than the light of lower color temperature. The effect of color temperature was much remarkable in the rest session comparing with the task session. This fact was discussed from the viewpoint of color temperature effect in environmental lighting.
Article
From birth, nature teaches us to make judgements on our environment based in large measure on color. As such, it plays a key role in food choice by influencing taste thresholds, sweetness perception, food preference, pleasantness, and acceptability. Its role is elusive and difficult to quantify, however, which at times has placed color in a secondary role to the other sensory characteristics, a position not entirely consistent with the facts. Color, in a quantitative sense, has been shown to be able to replace sugar and still maintain sweetness perception in flavored foods. It interferes with judgments of flavor intensity and identification and in so doing has been shown to dramatically influence the pleasantness and acceptability of foods. Studies in the literature have used cross-sectional population panels to study these effects, but a recent investigation of color-sensory interactions in beverages has compared the response of a college age group with the response of a panel consisting of a more mature population. Interestingly, the older group showed significant differences from the college age group in their response to the effects of color on several sensory parameters as well as showing a direct correlation between beverage consumption and color. Color is often taken for granted, but this position must be reevaluated in view of such studies and the need to create more appealing foods for different segments of our society.
Article
A variety of types of artificial illumination has recently become available, differing in the quality of illumination and range of color temperature. In our previous studies we found that in subjects with normal color vision the nocturnal fall in core temperature and the increase of urinary melatonin excretion were suppressed by bright blue or green light, but not by bright red or dim lights. The aim of our present study was to examine from the view point of chronobiology whether the lights of different color temperature often used in everyday life may affect core temperature and urinary melatonin secretion differently. Experiments were carried out on five subjects with normal color vision. They were exposed for 5 hr (from 21:00 h to 2:00 h) to two kinds of bright (1000 lx) light of different color temperature (6500 K, 3000 K) with dim (50 lx) light as a control; after exposure they slept in darkness. Our main results were as follows: The light with a high color temperature of 6500 K more strongly suppressed the nocturnal fall of the core temperature and the nocturnal increase of melatonin secretion than the light with a low color temperature of 3000 K. This difference was particularly evident for core temperature during the sleep period following experimental illumination.
Article
Ischemic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the leading ocular diseases that cause blindness. The etiology of these diseases is due in part to the reduction of blood flow in the retina and/or choroid. Crocin analogs isolated from Crocus sativus L. were found to significantly increase the blood flow in the retina and choroid and to facilitate retinal function recovery. Increased blood flow due to vasodilation presumably improves oxygenation and nutrient supply of retinal structures. These results indicated that crocin analogs could be used to treat ischemic retinopathy and/or age-related macular degeneration. It was noted that disaccharide analogs of crocin, such as crocin-1 and crocin-2, were less potent than monosaccharide analogs of crocin, such as crocin-3 and crocin-4, constituting an interesting structure-activity relationship.
Article
Using a developmental systems perspective, this review focuses on how genetic predispositions interact with aspects of the eating environment to produce phenotypic food preferences. Predispositions include the unlearned, reflexive reactions to basic tastes: the preference for sweet and salty tastes, and the rejection of sour and bitter tastes. Other predispositions are (a) the neophobic reaction to new foods and (b) the ability to learn food preferences based on associations with the contexts and consequences of eating various foods. Whether genetic predispositions are manifested in food preferences that foster healthy diets depends on the eating environment, including food availability and child-feeding practices of the adults. Unfortunately, in the United States today, the ready availability of energy-dense foods, high in sugar, fat, and salt, provides an eating environment that fosters food preferences inconsistent with dietary guidelines, which can promote excess weight gain and obesity.
Article
Unexplained dyspeptic symptoms are associated with changes in gastric sensorimotor function and several psychopathologic dimensions, including anxiety. It is unclear whether this reflects common predisposition or a causal relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate whether experimentally induced anxiety would alter gastric sensorimotor function in health. Fourteen subjects underwent a gastric barostat study to assess gastric sensitivity and accommodation. Eighteen subjects underwent a 10-minute satiety drinking test (30 mL/min) with registration of epigastric symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at 2-minute intervals. Emotional context was modulated for 10 minutes at the start of each experiment by combined projection of validated facial expressions and an audiotape recalling a neutral or an anxious autobiographical experience. Anxiety levels were assessed using a VAS and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). VAS and STAI scores confirmed efficacy of anxiety induction. During the anxiety condition, gastric compliance was significantly decreased (57 +/- 5 vs 40 +/- 5 mL/mm Hg; P < .01). Intraballoon pressures inducing discomfort during gastric distention were not altered, but the corresponding volume (630 +/- 47 vs 489 +/- 39 mL; P < .005) was significantly lower. Meal-induced relaxation was inhibited during the anxiety condition and this persisted for the 60-minute measurement (157 +/- 29 vs 100 +/- 24 mL; P < .05). During the satiety drinking test, the anxiety condition was associated with significantly higher scores for satiety, fullness, and bloating. Experimentally induced anxiety alters gastric sensorimotor function, suggesting that psychological factors may play a causal role in the pathogenesis of some dyspeptic symptoms and mechanisms.
Article
We asked subjects to sniff a bottle containing distilled water and to say whether they felt a cooling or warming sensation in the nasal cavity. Odorless food coloring was added to three of these bottles so as to obtain one yellow, one green, one red and one colorless solution. Subjects were presented with each bottle four times under free viewing conditions or while blindfolded, and each nostril was tested separately. Although no thermal stimulus was present, subjects reported thermal sensations, but only under free viewing conditions. The nature of these sensations depended on the color of the solution, with green inducing cooling and red warming sensations. It also depended on which nostril was tested, with warming sensations evidenced only when the left nostril was tested, and cooling sensations only when the right nostril was tested. It is the first time color has been reported to induce nasal thermal sensations in the absence of thermal stimuli. These results are therefore entirely new. Furthermore, they suggest that thermosensory processing and judgment may depend on lateralized processes in the human brain.