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Resting state and personality component (BIS/BAS) predict the brain activity (EEG and fNIRS measure) in response to emotional cues

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Abstract

Introduction The present study explored the role of resting state and personality component (BIS/BAS measure) on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues. Indeed, we supposed that lateralized resting activity (right vs. left) and approach (BAS) versus avoidance (BIS) attitude may explain the successive emotional processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) based on the stimulus valence (positive and negative emotional cues). Methods Hemodynamic (functional near‐infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures were considered. The resting and experimental brain activity were registered when subjects (N = 21) viewed emotional positive versus negative stimuli (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). LIReeg and LIRnirs (lateralized Index Response) during resting state, and LIeeg and LInirs during emotional processing were acquired. Results A set of regression analyses was applied to the multiple measures. The predictive effect of resting activity and approach/avoidance dichotomy were elucidated. Indeed, more left/right resting activity (for both LIReeg and LIRnirs) predicted the successive more brain left/right response (LIeeg and LInirs) to emotional cues. Second, significant effects were revealed as a function of valence (increased right response to negative stimuli; increased left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Third, higher BAS values explained an increased left cortical activity in resting state and in experimental condition for positive cues. In contrast, higher BIS values marked an increased right activity in resting state and in experimental condition in response to negative cues. Conclusion The significance of trait component for both resting and emotional cue processing was discussed at light of the present results.

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... This model associates dominant left relative to right frontal activation, also known as frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), with an approach motivational system and positive affect 27 . More specifically, the right prefrontal cortex is considered to be specialized for negative emotions and the left prefrontal cortex for positive emotions independent of the individual disposition and therefore represents a current affective state 28 . The EEG-affect-exercise relationship was also studied by Petruzzello and colleagues, who found that greater relative left frontal activation pre-exercise predicted increased positive affect and reduced anxiety post-exercise in those athletes engaging in high intensity exercise. ...
... Finally, recent research explored the direct relationship between the BIS/BAS trait component, FAA at rest and in response to emotional cues as a function of stimulus valence. They showed that higher BAS values explained an increase in FAA at rest and in experimental condition for positive cues, while higher BIS values marked a decrease in FAA at rest and in experimental condition in response to negative cues 28 . ...
... Lastly, those athletes with a more pronounced persistence in the pursuit of desired goals (BAS subscale Drive) were more likely to show an increase in relative left frontal cortical activation (FAA) and those athletes with a more pronounced sensitivity for punishment, nonreward and novelty (BIS) were more likely to show a decrease in FAA in response to a placebo ergogenic aid compared to those athletes who received no intervention (Fig. 4a,b). Our results are in line with the valence motivation model of FAA, suggesting that cortical hemispheric differences are a result of positive or negative valence of emotional conditions representing a current affective state 28 . A PEA can be considered a positive affective cue, because its administration induces high expectations by increasing reward probability in the form of performance enhancement. ...
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The performance enhancing (ergogenic) placebo effect is elicited by an inert treatment and caused by positive affective appraisal of effort perception. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is a neurobiological correlate of positive affect. This study investigates, whether receiving an ergogenic placebo increases FAA and whether scores on the behavioral inhibition and activation system (BIS/BAS) scales affect this increase in FAA. Nineteen competitive male cyclists (37.26 ± 9.82 years) performed two maximum effort time trials. The first served as baseline for the second intervention time trial, where athletes received a placebo ergogenic aid or no treatment. We recorded FAA using EEG throughout all time trials and assessed BIS/BAS by questionnaire. There was a significant difference in change from baseline to intervention time trial in FAA during cycling in response to the placebo ergogenic aid compared to the control group. BIS, the BAS subscale Drive and the BAS-BIS difference score significantly co-varied with the change in FAA from baseline to intervention time trial in response to the placebo ergogenic aid. Administering a placebo ergogenic aid significantly influenced FAA during maximum effort cycling. Those athletes with a more pronounced goal seeking persistence and an overall dominance of the BAS over the BIS showed a significantly greater increase in FAA in response to a placebo ergogenic aid. A more pronounced BIS, however, seems to antagonize the increase in FAA associated with the ergogenic placebo response.
... eta (4)(5)(6)(7)(8) has represented the sleeping and dreaming states, alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13) Hz) is associated with relaxation and not yet awareness, beta (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30) is related to the alert, thinking, and active state of mind, and gamma (above 30 Hz) shows the rhythms for hyper brain activity [11]. ...
... Furthermore, Bos [20] proposed that F3-F4 pairs are the most suitable for emotion recognition regarding valence and arousal level. In other words, e Fpz is the best channel for detecting valence level at an alpha band (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), and F3 and F4 channels are the best channels for detecting arousal level at a beta band (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30). In summary, the frontal lobe played an essential role in emotion classification and primarily demonstrated alpha and beta frequency bands during emotional processing. ...
... is result matched the emotion model by Ekman model [8]. Finally, 10 movie clips are determined as emotional stimuli as follows (Table 4) We also added the neutral state as a control state [30,31]. e neutral state is shown on the black screen with a crossmark in the center of the monitor. ...
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Emotion plays a crucial role in understanding each other under natural communication in daily life. Electroencephalogram (EEG), based on emotion classification, has been widely utilized in the fields of interdisciplinary studies because of emotion representation’s objectiveness. In this paper, it aimed to introduce the Korean continuous emotional database and investigate brain activity during emotional processing. Moreover, we selected emotion-related channels for verifying the generated database using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). First, we recorded EEG signals, collected from 28 subjects, to investigate the brain activity across brain areas while watching movie clips by five emotions (anger, excitement, fear, sadness, and happiness) and a neutral state. We analyzed EEG raw signals to investigate the emotion-related brain area and select suitable emotion-related channels using spectral power across frequency bands, i.e., alpha and beta bands. As a result, we select the eight-channel set, namely, AF3-AF4, F3-F4, F7-F8, and P7-P8, from statistical and brain topography analysis. We perform the classification using SVM and achieve the best accuracy of 94.27% when utilizing the selected channels set with five emotions. In conclusion, we provide a fundamental emotional database reflecting Korean feelings and the evidence of different emotions for application to broaden area.
... The measurements can be taken and applied efficiently for determining reinforcement quality and task effort (Eubanks et al., 2002;Fowles et al., 1982;Richter & Gendolla, 2009;Wright et al., 2002). Results of the research indicate that the variance in the pre-ejection period is an accurate way of determining potential behavior activation (Balconi et al., 2009(Balconi et al., , 2017Brenner et al., 2005;Carver & White, 1994). The procedures used in the current study provide the first use of biopsychological measurements and reading for implementation in quantitative analysis of behavior research. ...
... Physiological biofeedback measurements are a reliable way to collect the personal data needed to calculate a stimulus quantifier from the individual's perception of the stimulus (Balconi et al., 2009(Balconi et al., , 2017Gomez & McLaren, 1997). The abundance of behavioral knowledge gained from observing a standard unit of measure is not compatible with assumptions made in biopsychology to explain psychological function. ...
... Increases in heart rate from medical baseline both when a participant expects to receive a stimulus and receiving a stimulus have been directly associated and differentiated with various stimuli. The better the quality of stimuli, as perceived by the individual, the higher the heart rate (Balconi et al., 2017;Cooper et al., 2017;Eubanks et al., 2002;Fowles et al., 1982;Gomez & McLaren, 1997;Richter, 2012). The reason for the heart rate increase is because of the decrease in the pre-ejection period (PEP) while the left ventricle ejection time and the prothrombin time stays the same from the medical baseline (Eubanks et al., 2002;Fowles et al., 1982;Gomez & McLaren, 1997;Newlin & Levenson, 1979;Richter & Gendolla, 2009). ...
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The goal of this study was to determine if observation of a specific measure of heart-rate variability, known as the pre-ejection period, would enable reinforcing stimuli to be objectively quantified. At the time of this study, there were no effective measures of reinforcement quality as perceived by another individual. The current procedures are unorganized between schools of thought, lead to hypothesized treatment plans, inconsistencies in therapeutic treatments, and arguments of theoretical concepts that cause strife and competition among applied professionals. Each participant took a 10-point Likert Scale measuring value of a reinforcing stimulus before the introduction and after the reception of the stimulus. Participants were required to complete the “Maze Race” PC game to obtain a stimulus chosen by them across three different categories (attention, escape, and tangible) or a token in the form of $2. Recording of the pre-ejection period occurred at the time of motivation and reinforcement. The pre-ejection period and responses on the Likert scale were analyzed, and there were significant correlations of the rankings of the stimuli between the two measures (p < .001). The suggested stimulus score was also significantly correlated (.000 < p < .003) with the peak pre-ejection period. The results of the analysis of variance concluded that there was a significant difference between stimulus score variables at a .01 cutoff level. The results of the study lead to conclusions that are able to determine a difference in stimulus type and a recommendation for quantification.
... Conversely, in top-down processing, the emotion is controlled by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; Erk et al., 2006;Waugh et al., 2010;Dixon et al., 2017). Previous neuroimaging evidence has indicated asymmetrical activation of the DLPFC in response to emotional stimuli; stimuli with negative emotional valence, i.e., that are intrinsically aversive, preferentially activate the right DLPFC and those with positive emotional valence, i.e., that are intrinsically attractive, preferentially activate the left DLPFC (Ortony et al., 1990;Tomarken et al., 1990;Wheeler et al., 1993;Solomon and Stone, 2002;Davidson, 2003;Russell, 2003;Balconi et al., 2017). These results suggest the importance of focusing on the interaction between prefrontal functional lateralization and stimulus emotional valence. ...
... Personality is also reportedly related to emotion, leading to individual differences in emotional processing (Balconi and Mazza, 2010;Bendall et al., 2016;Balconi et al., 2017). Previous studies that investigated prefrontal activity during emotional stimulus presentation found that some participants had increased prefrontal activity in response to stimuli regardless of their emotional valence, whereas others showed an increase in a prefrontal activity dependent on stimulus emotional valence (Hoshi et al., 2011;Ozawa et al., 2014). ...
... Thus, it is assumed that personality traits related to the BIS/BAS may be among the factors responsible for the individual differences found in previous studies. Balconi et al. (2017) showed that the BIS score was positively correlated with the resting-state prefrontal activity of the right hemisphere using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography and that the BIS score was also related to the activity of the right hemisphere in response to negative stimuli. Balconi et al. (2017) also showed that the BAS score was positively correlated with the resting-state activity of the left hemisphere and was also related to the activity of the left hemisphere in response to positive stimuli. ...
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of personality traits on the impact of emotional stimuli focusing on n-back task performance and brain activity changes. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that individual differences in emotional processing can be attributed to personality traits, which is linked to the hemisphere-specific activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to emotional stimuli. Thirty right-handed healthy young male participants were recruited in this study and classified into two groups, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) group and behavioral activation system (BAS) group, based on their scores on the BIS/BAS scale. Participants saw six emotional images (two each with negative, neutral, and positive valence), which were selected from the International Affective Picture System and validated in a preliminary experiment. Then, a dual 2-back task that simultaneously employed auditory-verbal and visuospatial stimuli was conducted. Additionally, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) changes in the DLPFC was measured during the image presentation and dual 2-back task by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The task performance showed a significantly increased reaction time (RT) in the negative valence independent of personality traits. The results of Oxy-Hb changes showed a significant interaction between personality traits and emotional valence. Further, the hemisphere-subgroup analysis revealed that the right DLPFC activity was significantly higher in the negative valence than in the neutral valence in the BIS group; the right DLPFC activity was also significantly higher in the BIS group than in the BAS group in the positive valence. There was no main effect or interaction in the left DLPFC activity. These findings suggest the importance of considering personality traits when examining the impact of emotional stimuli. Further studies with large sample sizes warranted to examine the influence emotional stimuli exert on working memory performance, considering the personality traits to better understand individual differences in emotional processing.
... Based on previous evidence, to assess participants' dispositions toward the advertisements that were displayed in the present study, neural activity from PFC was recorded with the functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a solid, non-invasive tool that allows assessing the brain's neural activity by monitoring variations in the cortical hemoglobin concentration with accurate spatial and temporal resolution [40]. The fNIRS can provide accurate esteem of lateralized prefrontal activity [41,42] and has recently proven its potential also in consumer neuroscience research [43][44][45]. ...
... While the left BA 45 is largely believed to be selectively recruited by the elaboration of semantic materials, both written and spoken [61], the DLPFC is involved in emotion regulation processes and emotional reactivity [62][63][64]. In addition, as discussed before, the leftlateralization of DLPFC activity is assumed to mirror an individual's approach motivational tendencies elicited by specific stimuli irrespective of the emotional valence of the stimuli themselves [22,42,65]. Based on these premises, a possible explanation for our results is that the advertising may have forcibly directed the viewer's focus towards the emotional component of the ad, implicitly fostering extensive processing of the affective content and prompting an effort to regulate the emotional responses, while making the analysis of the semantic meaning less relevant. ...
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In pandemic times, taking advantage of COVID-19-elicited emotions in commercials has been a popular tactic employed by corporations to build successful consumer engagement and, hopefully, increase sales. The present study investigates whether COVID-19-related emotional communication affects the consumer’s emotional response and the approach/avoidance motivation toward the brand—measured as a function of brain hemodynamic changes—as well as the purchase intentions. The functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was employed to record neural correlates from the prefrontal cortex while the experimental and control groups were observing respectively COVID-19-related and unrelated advertisements (ads). The hemodynamic patterns suggest that COVID-19-related ads may promote deeper emotional elaboration, shifting consumers’ attention from the semantic meaning to the affective features and perhaps supporting a more favorable brand evaluation. Conversely, purchase intentions were only related to the pre-existing level of brand engagement. The findings suggest that leveraging the negative emotional potential of COVID-19 may not shift the explicit purchase intentions but could nonetheless boost emotional engagement, benefitting the final evaluation of the brand at an implicit level.
... It is possible that alteration in neural activities between some of the reviewed studies may reflect differences in the types or valences of emotional stimuli presented. A theme was uncovered in several reviewed studies whereby positively valanced stimuli were characterised by O2Hb increases in the left hemisphere and negatively valanced stimuli in the right hemisphere (Balconi & Vanutelli, 2016;Balconi et al., 2017;. This pattern of activity is consistent with two general theories of hemispheric asymmetry for emotion: ...
... Future research should focus more attention on the domain of emotion regulation by using representative samples and comprehensive tasks to verify the findings presented in the reviewed studies.Emotion experience. The experience of emotion was by far the most extensively researched domain of emotion processing.Many studies reported significant increases in prefrontal O2Hb concentrations during the presentation of emotionally inducing stimuli(Balconi, Vanutelli, & Grippa, 2017;Brugnera, Adorni, Compare, Zarbo, & Sakatani, 2016;Hu et al., 2019;Kreplin & Fairclough, 2013;D. Zhang, Chen, Hou, & Wu, 2019). ...
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Functional neuroimaging provides an avenue for earlier diagnosis and tailored treatment of psychological disorders characterized by emotional impairment. Near-infrared spectroscopy offers ecological advantages compared to other neuroimaging techniques and suitability of measuring regions involved in emotion functions. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the capacity of NIRS to detect activation during emotion processing and to provide recommendations for future research. Following a comprehensive literature search, we reviewed 85 journal articles which compared activation during emotional experience, regulation or perception with either a neutral condition or baseline period among healthy participants. The quantitative synthesis of outcomes was limited to thematical analysis, owing to the lack of standardisation between studies. Although most studies found increased prefrontal activity during emotional experience and regulation, the findings were more inconsistent for emotion perception. Some researchers reported increased activity during the task, some reported decreases, some no significant changes, and some reported mixed findings depending on the valence and region. We propose that variations in the cognitive task and stimuli, recruited sample, and measurement and analysis of data are the primary causes of inconsistency. Recommendations to improve consistency in future research by carefully considering the choice of population, cognitive task and analysis approach are provided.
... However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has yet surveyed the resting EEG in perimenopause women. Furthermore, although resting EEG signals have been widely used in classifying different emotional states [22][23][24], no such signals exist for this middle age group of perimenopause women. The present study findings underline the importance of the selected psychometric properties of this study. ...
... The RPV were analyzed at eye close 3 min resting state for each channel. Five selected frequency bands were Delta (0.5-4 Hz), Theta (4-8 Hz), Alpha (8-13 Hz), Beta (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), and Gamma (31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40) Table 2 The Pearson r value between the psychological score and band power at each channel temporal gyrus [51], connected by regional circuits with the amygdala, hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, the occipitobasal cortex and orbital gyrus. Additionally, the anatomical and functional organisation of the temporal lobe involves impulse inhibition functions underlying trait impulsivity [52]. ...
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Background The perimenopausal period is associated with a higher risk of various mood disorders. Similarly, although resting-state electroencephalogram (rsEEG) brain oscillatory activity has been associated with various neuropsychological disorders and behaviours, these issues have not been assessed in perimenopausal women. This study aimed to evaluate quantitative relationships between psychometric properties and rsEEG rhythms (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma powers) in perimenopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional correlational descriptive study was conducted to quantitatively analyze the correlations between rsEEG low-to-high band activities (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma powers) and psychometric properties in 14 perimenopausal women. Participants completed a psychological inventory comprising the State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), Depression Inventory (DI), Behavioural Inhibition Scale (BIS) and short-form UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale (IS) before EEG recording. Results Results showed that impulsivity was positively related to the beta power, symmetrical at most channels (frontal, temporal, central, parietal and occipital regions; p < .05); but did not related to the delta, theta, alpha and gamma powers. The brainwave low-to-high bands, delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma power were not associated with DI, SAI or BIS scores. Conclusions This study’s findings propose that significantly enhanced resting-state beta activity is a trait of impulsivity in perimenopausal women. Therefore, results have potential implications for the preclinical or clinical evaluation of these issues in perimenopausal women.
... The emotions of individuals, therefore, represent overlapping experiences that are cognitively interpreted in order to identify the responses and neurophysiological changes in the valence and arousal dimensions organized based on different eliciting factors, as different contexts and stimuli, autobiographical memories, and semantic representation or behavioral responses (Russell, 2003;Balconi and Vanutelli, 2016;Balconi et al., 2017). ...
... All values were residuals derived from the effects of mother's age, child's age, and number of children. those inducing fear or anxiety, therefore, individuals with high BIS show attentional bias towards negative events [52]. The babbling sounds used in this study were rated as more unpleasant and urgent than laughter, and showed a similar tendency in COP behavior as those that occur when listening to cries. ...
Article
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Infants communicate their emotions to caregivers mainly through vocalizations. Research has shown that maternal oxytocin levels relate to adaptive parenting; however, little empirical research exists regarding the effects of endogenous oxytocin levels on maternal responses to infant vocalizations. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between mothers' salivary oxytocin levels, subjective feelings, and behavioral response to infants' emotional vocalizations. Additionally, we examined the relationship between psychological traits and maternal behavioral responses to infant vocalizations. In this study, 39 mothers were asked to stand on a balance board while listening to infant vocalization stimuli, to measure movements of their center of pressure, an index of approach-avoidance behavior. Sixty infant vocalizations (laughter, crying, and neutral) were presented for 6 s each. Afterwards, participants were asked to rate their subjective responses to each stimulus (not aroused – aroused, displeased – pleased, not urgent – urgent, and healthy – sick).Maternal oxytocin levels were negatively correlated with anterior movement of the center of pressure in response to infants’ crying and babbling vocalizations, though no relationship was found between maternal approach-avoidance behavior toward infant laughter and oxytocin levels. This study indicated that maternal approach behavior toward infant vocalizations varies as a function of maternal endogenous oxytocin and the type of infant vocalization.
... the precise test images selected, as we set out to systematically manipulate the presence/absence of IM cues whereas Hughes and Rutherford did not. Cross-study differences in the proportion of scenes that motivated approach or avoidance responses (which could impact laterality effects; e.g., see Balconi et al., 2017;Harmon-Jones and Gable, 2018), and/or in sample characteristics (e.g., sex distribution, alexithymic traits, and rates of SPS) may also have contributed to mixed findings. It is also possible, however, that this paradigm simply does not assess hemispheric asymmetries in scene perception reliably. ...
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Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings (DIF and DDF) and an externally oriented thinking (EOT) style. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate links between alexithymia and the evaluation of emotional scenes. We also investigated whether viewers’ evaluations of emotional scenes were better predicted by specific alexithymic traits or by individual differences in sensory processing sensitivity (SPS). Participants (N = 106) completed measures of alexithymia and SPS along with a task requiring speeded judgments of the pleasantness of 120 moderately arousing scenes. We did not replicate laterality effects previously described with the scene perception task. Compared to those with weak alexithymic traits, individuals with moderate-to-strong alexithymic traits were less likely to classify positively valenced scenes as pleasant and were less likely to classify scenes with (vs. without) implied motion (IM) in a way that was consistent with normative scene valence ratings. In addition, regression analyses confirmed that reporting strong EOT and a tendency to be easily overwhelmed by busy sensory environments negatively predicted classification accuracy for positive scenes, and that both DDF and EOT negatively predicted classification accuracy for scenes depicting IM. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for stimulus characteristics and individual differences in specific traits associated with alexithymia and SPS when investigating the processing of emotional stimuli. Learning more about the links between these individual difference variables may have significant clinical implications, given that alexithymia is an important, transdiagnostic risk factor for a wide range of psychopathologies.
... In light of this evidence, in the present study, in order to investigate the brain correlates underlying the observation of different positive and negative types of gestures (affective, social, and informative), the neural responses of encoders and decoders were recorded through the use of fNIRS in hyperscanning, that is a very effective neuroimaging technique for the recording of individuals' neural activity underlying emotional or social processes (Balconi & Cortesi, 2016;Balconi, Vanutelli, & Grippa, 2017;Crivelli et al., 2018) under natural or maximally ecological conditions (Balconi & Molteni, 2016;, providing information on interbrain tuning and "resonance" and implicit coupling mechanisms (Balconi, Gatti, & Vanutelli, 2018;Vanutelli et al., 2016). ...
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Introduction Gestures characterize individuals' nonverbal communicative exchanges, taking on different functions. Several types of research in the neuroscientific field have been interested in the investigation of the neural correlates underlying the observation and implementation of different gestures categories. In particular, different studies have focused on the neural correlates underlying gestures observation, emphasizing the presence of mirroring mechanisms in specific brain areas, which appear to be involved in gesture observation and planning mechanisms. Materials and methods Specifically, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms, through the use of functional Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), underlying the observation of affective, social, and informative gestures with positive and negative valence in individuals' dyads composed by encoder and decoder. The variations of oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin concentrations of both individuals were collected simultaneously through the use of hyperscanning paradigm, allowing the recording of brain responsiveness and interbrain connectivity. Results The results showed a different brain activation and an increase of interbrain connectivity according to the type of gestures observed, with a significant increase of O2Hb brain responsiveness and interbrain connectivity and a decrease of HHb brain responsiveness for affective gestures in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and for social gestures in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Furthermore, concerning the valence of the observed gestures, an increase of O2Hb brain activity and interbrain connectivity was observed in the left DLPFC for positive affective gestures compared to negative ones. Conclusion In conclusion, the present study showed different brain responses underlying the observation of different types of positive and negative gestures. Moreover, interbrain connectivity calculation allowed us to underline the presence of mirroring mechanisms involved in gesture‐specific frontal regions during gestures observation and action planning.
... Nevertheless, Carver and Harmon-Jones 10 showed the association of left hemisphere with negative emotion anger and thus proposed to eliminate the differentiation of positive and negative valence from the affective model. Subsequently, a larger number of studies concentrated on EEG frontal asymmetry through the induction of emotional/motivational states or tasks to understand the neural mechanisms associated with the evoked approach/withdrawal behavior [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] and other specific tasks 19 . This has led to ample literature which examined alterations in frontal EEG asymmetry in clinical and healthy populations [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] . ...
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The role of resting frontal alpha-asymmetry in explaining neural-mechanisms of affect and approach/withdrawal behavior is still debatable. The present study explores the ability of the quasi-stable resting EEG asymmetry information and the associated neurovascular synchronization/desynchronization in bringing more insight into the understanding of neural-mechanisms of affect and approach/withdrawal behavior. For this purpose, a novel frontal alpha-asymmetry based on microstates, that assess quasi-stable EEG scalp topography information, is proposed and compared against standard frontal-asymmetry. Both proposed and standard frontal alpha-asymmetries were estimated from thirty-nine healthy volunteers resting-EEG simultaneously acquired with resting-fMRI. Further, neurovascular mechanisms of these asymmetry measures were estimated through EEG-informed fMRI. Subsequently, the Hemodynamic Lateralization Index (HLI) of the neural-underpinnings of both asymmetry measures was assessed. Finally, the robust correlation of both asymmetry-measures and their HLI’s with PANAS, BIS/BAS was carried out. The standard resting frontal-asymmetry and its HLI yielded no significant correlation with any psychological-measures. However, the microstate resting frontal-asymmetry correlated significantly with negative affect and its neural underpinning’s HLI significantly correlated with Positive/Negative affect and BIS/BAS measures. Finally, alpha-BOLD desynchronization was observed in neural-underpinning whose HLI correlated significantly with negative affect and BIS. Hence, the proposed resting microstate-frontal asymmetry better assesses the neural-mechanisms of affect, approach/withdrawal behavior.
... It also suggests that local synchronization in the upper alpha rhythm in PFC may contribute a sign of recovery after prolonged cessation from heroin. The EEG-fNIRS bimodality can be advantageous for brain state-dependent electrotherapy 72 , as well as predict responses to emotional cues 73 and behavior performance 74 in OUD rehabilitation. This computational approach is based on the assumption that homeostasis of the brain microenvironment is maintained through blood vessels, neurons, and astrocytes by the excitation-inhibition balance in the microcircuits. ...
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Chronic and recurrent opiate use injuries brain tissue and cause serious pathophysiological changes in hemodynamic and subsequent inflammatory responses. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in drug addiction. However, the mechanism underlying systems-level neuroadaptations in PFC during abstinence has not been fully characterized. The objective of our study was to determine what neural oscillatory activity contributes to the chronic effect of opiate exposure and whether the activity could be coupled to neurovascular information in the PFC. We employed resting-state functional connectivity to explore alterations in 8 patients with heroin dependency who stayed abstinent (>3 months; HD) compared with 11 control subjects. A non-invasive neuroimaging strategy was applied to combine electrophysiological signals through electroencephalography (EEG) with hemodynamic signals through functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The electrophysiological signals indicate neural synchrony and the oscillatory activity, and the hemodynamic signals indicate blood oxygenation in small vessels in the PFC. A supervised machine learning method was used to obtain associations between EEG and fNIRS modalities to improve precision and localization. HD patients demonstrated desynchronized lower alpha rhythms and decreased connectivity in PFC networks. Asymmetric excitability and cerebrovascular injury were also observed. This pilot study suggests that cerebrovascular injury in PFC may result from chronic opiate intake.
... Aron [42] suggest that the PFC presents a hemispheric lateralization in which the right hemisphere inhibits improper emotions or actions, whereas the left hemisphere concentrates on generative processes. These results are in the same line of those exposed in the avoidance (BIS) vs. approach (BAS) resting state and personality component theory [43]. They explain how high levels of BAS explain high levels of cortical activity in the right hemisphere while in the resting state and in experimental conditions with positive stimuli. ...
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Industry 4.0 leaders solve problems all of the time. Successful problem-solving behavioral pattern choice determines organizational and personal success, therefore a proper understanding of the problem-solving-related neurological dynamics is sure to help increase business performance. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to discover relevant neurological characteristics of problem-solving behavioral patterns, and second, to conduct a characterization of two problem-solving behavioral patterns with the aid of deep-learning architectures. This is done by combining electroencephalographic non-invasive sensors that capture process owners’ brain activity signals and a deep-learning soft sensor that performs an accurate characterization of such signals with an accuracy rate of over 99% in the presented case-study dataset. As a result, the deep-learning characterization of lean management (LM) problem-solving behavioral patterns is expected to help Industry 4.0 leaders in their choice of adequate manufacturing systems and their related problem-solving methods in their future pursuit of strategic organizational goals.
... In the natural (mask less) conditions, positive emotions (happiness, neutrality, positive surprise) were recognized more accurately than negative emotions such as fear, sadness or disgust. This positive/negative valence distinction is based on the dichotomy on approach/avoidance attitude to emotions supported by previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological literature (Davidson, 1995;Balconi et al., 2017). Overall, masking heavily affected emotion comprehension with a 31% decay FIGURE 2 | Mean scores of recognizability (along with SE values) attributed by participants (N = 214) to the various facial expressions regardless of masking condition. ...
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Background The need to wear surgical masks in everyday life has drawn the attention of psychologists to the negative effects of face covering on social processing. A recent but not homogeneous literature has highlighted large costs in the ability to recognize emotions.Methods Here it was investigated how mask covering impaired the recognition of facial mimicry in a large group of 220 undergraduate students. Sex differences in emotion recognition were also analyzed in two subgroups of 94 age-matched participants. Subjects were presented with 112 pictures displaying the faces of eight actors (4 women and 4 men) wearing or not wearing real facemasks, and expressing seven emotional states (neutrality, surprise, happiness, sadness, disgust, anger and fear). The task consisted in categorizing facial expressions while indicating the emotion recognizability with a 3-point Likert scale. Scores underwent repeated measures ANOVAs.ResultsOverall, face masking reduced emotion recognition by 31%. All emotions were affected by mask covering except for anger. Face covering was most detrimental to sadness and disgust, both relying on mouth and nose expressiveness. Women showed a better performance for subtle expressions such as surprise and sadness, both in masked and natural conditions, and men for fear recognition (in natural but especially masked conditions).Conclusion Anger display was unaffected by masking, also because corrugated forehead and frowning eyebrows were clearly exposed. Overall, facial masking seems to polarize non-verbal communication toward the happiness/anger dimension, while minimizing emotions that stimulate an empathic response in the observer.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the production of a vast amount of COVID-19-themed brand commercials, in an attempt to exploit the salience of the topic to reach more effectively the consumers. However, the literature has produced conflicting findings of the effectiveness of negative emotional contents in advertisings. The present study aims at exploring the effect of COVID-19-related contents on the hemodynamic brain correlates of the consumer approach or avoidance motivation. Twenty Italian participants were randomly assigned to two different groups that watched COVID-19-related or non-COVID-19-related commercials. The hemodynamic response [oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin modulations] within the left and right prefrontal cortices (PFC) was monitored with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) while brand commercials were presented, as the prefrontal lateralization was shown to be indicative of the attitude toward the brand and of the approach-avoidance motivation. First, the findings showed that the COVID-19-related contents were able to prompt emotional processing within the PFC to a higher extent compared to contents non-related to COVID-19. Moreover, the single-channel analysis revealed increased O2Hb activity of the left dorsolateral PFC compared to the left pars triangularis Broca’s area in the group of participants that watched the COVID-19-related commercials, suggesting that the commercials may have driven participants to dedicate more attention toward the processing of the emotional components compared to the semantic meaning conveyed by the ad. To conclude, despite expressing unpleasant emotions, commercials referring to the highly emotional pandemic experience may benefit the advertising efficacy, increasing the capability to reach customers.
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Neurovascular coupling is a key physiological mechanism that occurs in the healthy human brain, and understanding this process has implications for understanding the aging and neuropsychiatric populations. Combined electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a promising, noninvasive tool for probing neurovascular interactions in humans. However, the utility of this approach critically depends on the methodological quality used for multimodal integration. Despite a growing number of combined EEG–fNIRS applications reported in recent years, the methodological rigor of past studies remains unclear, limiting the accurate interpretation of reported findings and hindering the translational application of this multimodal approach. To fill this knowledge gap, we critically evaluated various methodological aspects of previous combined EEG–fNIRS studies performed in healthy individuals. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO on June 28, 2021. Studies involving concurrent EEG and fNIRS measurements in awake and healthy individuals were selected. After screening and eligibility assessment, 96 studies were included in the methodological evaluation. Specifically, we critically reviewed various aspects of participant sampling, experimental design, signal acquisition, data preprocessing, outcome selection, data analysis, and results presentation reported in these studies. Altogether, we identified several notable strengths and limitations of the existing EEG–fNIRS literature. In light of these limitations and the features of combined EEG–fNIRS, recommendations are made to improve and standardize research practices to facilitate the use of combined EEG–fNIRS when studying healthy neurovascular coupling processes and alterations in neurovascular coupling among various populations.
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As a relatively new field of neurology and computer science, brain computer interface (BCI) has many established and burgeoning applications across scientific disciplines. Many neural monitoring technologies have been developed for BCI studies. Combining multiple monitoring technologies provides a new approach that synthesizes the advantages and overcomes the limitations of each technology. This article presents a systematic review on the applications, limitations, and future directions for the hybridization of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) into one synchronous multimodality. This review investigated research questions on design and usability of hybrid EEG-fNIRS studies. In this article, 765 papers were included in the initial search and 128 papers were selected through the PRISMA protocol. The review results show the possibility of improving the performance of hybrid EEG-fNIRS by optimizing the feature extraction algorithms and physical designing as well as expending more possible applications in information processing related fields.
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Objective In this study, the influence of pretask resting neural mechanisms on situational awareness (SA)-task is studied. Background Pretask electroencephalography (EEG) information and Stroop effect are known to influence task engagement independently. However, neural mechanisms of pretask resting absolute alpha (PRAA) and pretask resting alpha frontal asymmetry (PRAFA) in influencing SA-task which is undergoing Stroop effect is still not understood. Method The study involved pretask resting EEG measurements from 18 healthy individuals followed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition during SA-task. To understand the effect of pretask alpha information and Stroop effect on SA, a robust correlation between mean reaction time, SA Index, PRAA, and PRAFA were assessed. Furthermore, neural underpinnings of PRAA, PRAFA in SA-task, and functional connectivity were analyzed through the EEG-informed fMRI approach. Results Significant robust correlation of reaction time was observed with SA Index (Pearson: r = .50, pcorr = .05) and PRAFA (Pearson: r = .63; pcorr = .01), respectively. Similarly, SA Index significantly correlated with PRAFA (Pearson: r = .56, pcorr = .01; Spearman: r = .61, pcorr = .007), and PRAA (Pearson: r = .59, pcorr = .005; Spearman: r = .59, pcorr = .002). Neural underpinnings of SA-task revealed regions involved in visual-processing and higher-order cognition. PRAA was primarily underpinned at frontal-temporal areas and functionally connected to SA-task regions pertaining to the emotional regulation. PRAFA has correlated with limbic and parietal regions, which are involved in integration of visual, emotion, and memory information of SA-task. Conclusion The results suggest a strong association of reaction time with SA-task and PRAFA and strongly support the hypothesis that PRAFA, PRAA, and associated neural mechanisms significantly influence the outcome of SA-task. Application It is beneficial to study the effect of pretask resting information on SA-task to improve SA.
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Recent research in social neuroscience has shown how prosocial behavior can increase perceived self-efficacy, perception of cognitive abilitites and social interactions. The present research explored the effect of prosocial behavior, that is giving a gift during an interpersonal exchange, measuring the hyperscanning among two brains. The experiment aimed to analyze the behavioral performance and the brain-to-brain prefrontal neural activity of 16 dyads during a joint action consisting in a cooperative game, which took place in a laboratory setting controlled by an experimenter, to play before and after a gift exchange. Two different types of gift exchange were compared: experiential and material. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was applied to record brain activity. Inter-brain connectivity was calculated before and after the gift exchange. In behavioral data, a behavioral performance increase was observed after gift exchange, with accuracy improvement and response times decrease. Regarding intra-brain analyses, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin was detected, especially in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in both donor and receiver; and in the dorsal part of the premotor cortex (DPMC) in the donor. Moreover, as regards the gift type, greater activation in the DPLFC emerged in both the donor and the receiver after receiving an experiential gift. Finally, the results of the inter-brain connectivity analysis showed that after gift exchange, the donor and receiver brain activity was more synchronized in the DPMC and Frontal Eye Fields (FEF) areas. The present study provides a contribution to the identification of inter-brain functional connectivity when prosocial behaviors are played out.
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Prefrontal cortex provides both inhibitory and excitatory input to distributed neural circuits required to support performance in diverse tasks. Neurological patients with prefrontal damage are impaired in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information during behavioral tasks requiring performance over a delay. The observed enhancements of primary auditory and somatosensory cortical responses to task-irrelevant distractors suggest that prefrontal damage disrupts inhibitory modulation of inputs to primary sensory cortex, perhaps through abnormalities in a prefrontal-thalamic sensory gating system. Failure to suppress irrelevant sensory information results in increased neural noise, contributing to the deficits in decision making routinely observed in these patients. In addition to a critical role in inhibitory control of sensory flow to primary cortical regions, and tertiary prefrontal cortex also exerts excitatory input to activity in multiple sub-regions of secondary association cortex. Unilateral prefrontal damage results in multi-modal decreases in neural activity in posterior association cortex in the hemisphere ipsilateral to damage. This excitatory modulation is necessary to sustain neural activity during working memory. Thus, prefrontal cortex is able to sculpt behavior through parallel inhibitory and excitatory regulation of neural activity in distributed neural networks.
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Keywords: Building on Gray's constructs (e.g., 1982, 1990), Carver and White (1994) developed measurement scales for the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). Carver and White's scales focus primarily on the affective self-regulatory functions of the BIS and BAS constructs. In this study 426 participants filled out the Italian version of the scales. Structural generalizability was assessed splitting the sample in two sub-samples of 213 each, and performing simultaneous confirmatory factor analysis. Factor loadings, error components, reliability, and factor variances-covariances were found to be invariant across groups. Associations of the BIS/BAS scales with other constructs (Big Five, Impulsivity, Attentional Control, and Action Orientation) were also investigated. Interesting associations were found among the BIS/BAS scales and other constructs pertaining to self-regulation. Discriminant validity between the BIS and Neuroticism is discussed. The multiple regulatory functions assessed by the BAS scales are also addressed. The scales can be used as research tools in a wide array of topics concerning motivational and emotional processes.
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The present study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs. negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs. negative stimuli (IAPS). LIR (Lateralized Index Response) during resting state, LI (Lateralized Index) during emotional processing and SAM (Self-Assessment Manikin) rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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Youth with conduct disorder (CD) not only inflict serious physical and psychological harm on others, but are also at greatly increased risk of sustaining injuries, developing depression or substance abuse, and engaging in criminal behaviors. The underlying neurobiological basis of CD remains unclear. The present study investigated whether participants with CD have altered hemodynamic activity under resting-state conditions. Eighteen medication-naïve boys with CD and 18 age- and sex- matched typically developing (TD) controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in the resting state. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was measured and compared between the CD and TD groups. Compared with the TD participants, the CD participants showed lower ALFF in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampus, right lingual gyrus, left cuneus and right insula. Higher ALFF was observed in the right fusiform gyrus and right thalamus in the CD participants compared to the TD group. Youth with CD displayed widespread functional abnormalities in emotion-related and visual cortical regions in the resting state. These results suggest that deficits in the intrinsic activity of resting state networks may contribute to the etiology of CD.
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According to the valence asymmetry hypothesis, the left/right asymmetry of prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity is correlated with specific emotional responses to mental stress and personality traits. Here, we evaluated the relation between emotional state and asymmetry in PFC activity at rest by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We measured spontaneous oscillation of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentrations in the bilateral PFC at rest in normal adults employing two-channel NIRS. In order to analyze left/right asymmetry of PFC activity at rest, we calculated the laterality index at rest (LIR) (see text). We investigated the correlation between the LIR and anxiety levels evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test. We found that the right PFC was more active at rest than the left PFC, corresponding to a higher anxiety level measured by the STAI; that is, subjects with right-dominant activity at rest showed higher STAI scores, while those with left-dominant oxy-Hb changes at rest showed lower STAI scores. Aging had no significant effect on the relation. The present results obtained by NIRS are consistent with the valence asymmetry hypothesis. We emphasize NIRS may be a useful tool for objective assessment of anxiety levels.
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Harm avoidance (HA) and novelty seeking (NS) are temperament dimensions defined by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), respectively, reflecting a heritable bias for intense response to aversive stimuli or for excitement in response to novel stimuli. High HA is regarded as a risk factor for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. In contrast, higher NS is linked to increased risk for substance abuse and pathological gambling disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that patients with these disorders show abnormality in the power of slow oscillations of resting-state brain activity. It is particularly interesting that previous studies have demonstrated that resting state activities in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) are associated with HA or NS scores, although the relation between the power of resting state slow oscillations and these temperament dimensions remains poorly elucidated. This preliminary study investigated the biological bases of these temperament traits by particularly addressing the resting state low-frequency fluctuations in MPFC. Regional hemodynamic changes in channels covering MPFC during 5-min resting states were measured from 22 healthy participants using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). These data were used for correlation analyses. Results show that the power of slow oscillations during resting state around the dorsal part of MPFC is negatively correlated with the HA score. In contrast, NS was positively correlated with the power of resting state slow oscillations around the ventral part of MPFC. These results suggest that the powers of slow oscillation at rest in dorsal or ventral MPFC, respectively, reflect the degrees of HA and NS. This exploratory study therefore uncovers novel neural bases of HA and NS. We discuss a neural mechanism underlying aversion-related and reward-related processing based on results obtained from this study.
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Despite having relatively poor spatial and temporal resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has several methodological advantages compared with other non-invasive measurements of neural activation. For instance, the unique characteristics of NIRS give it potential as a tool for investigating the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in emotion processing. However, there are several obstacles in the application of NIRS to emotion research. In this mini-review, we discuss the findings of studies that used NIRS to assess the effects of PFC activation on emotion. Specifically, we address the methodological challenges of NIRS measurement with respect to the field of emotion research, and consider potential strategies for mitigating these problems. In addition, we show that two fields of research, investigating (i) biological predisposition influencing PFC responses to emotional stimuli and (ii) neural mechanisms underlying the bi-directional interaction between emotion and action, have much to gain from the use of NIRS. With the present article, we aim to lay the foundation for the application of NIRS to the above-mentioned fields of emotion research.
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In this study we analyze whether facial expression recognition is marked by specific event-related potential (ERP) correlates and whether conscious and unconscious elaboration of emotional facial stimuli are qualitatively different processes. ERPs elicited by supraliminal and subliminal (10ms) stimuli were recorded when subjects were viewing emotional facial expressions of four emotions or neutral stimuli. Two ERP effects (N2 and P3) were analyzed in terms of their peak amplitude and latency variations. An emotional specificity was observed for the negative deflection N2, whereas P3 was not affected by the content of the stimulus (emotional or neutral). Unaware information processing proved to be quite similar to aware processing in terms of peak morphology but not of latency. A major result of this research was that unconscious stimulation produced a more delayed peak variation than conscious stimulation did. Also, a more posterior distribution of the ERP was found for N2 as a function of emotional content of the stimulus. On the contrary, cortical lateralization (right/left) was not correlated to conscious/unconscious stimulation. The functional significance of our results is underlined in terms of subliminal effect and emotion recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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J. A. Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low in BIS sensitivity. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low in BAS sensitivity. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states - called core affect - influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.
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We assessed whether resting anterior asymmetry would discriminate individual differences in repressive-defensive coping styles. In 2 sessions, resting electroencephalogram was recorded from female adults during 8 60-s baselines. Subjects were classified as repressors or nonrepressors on the basis of scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In midfrontal and lateral frontal sites, repressors demonstrated relative left hemisphere activation when compared with other groups. The MC, but not the STAI or the BDI, contributed unique variance to frontal asymmetry. Relative left frontal activation may be linked to a self-enhancing regulatory style that promotes lowered risk for psychopathology.
Chapter
In this article I discuss a hypothesis, known as the somatic marker hypothesis, which I believe is relevant to the understanding of processes of human reasoning and decision making. The ventromedial sector of the prefrontal cortices is critical to the operations postulated here, but the hypothesis does not necessarily apply to prefrontal cortex as a whole and should not be seen as an attempt to unify frontal lobe functions under a single mechanism. The key idea in the hypothesis is that 'marker' signals influence the processes of response to stimuli, at multiple levels of operation, some of which occur overtly (consciously, 'in mind') and some of which occur covertly (non-consciously, in a non-minded manner). The marker signals arise in bioregulatory processes, including those which express themselves in emotions and feelings, but are not necessarily confined to those alone. This is the reason why the markers are termed somatic: they relate to body-state structure and regulation even when they do not arise in the body proper but rather in the brain's representation of the body. Examples of the covert action of 'marker' signals are the undeliberated inhibition of a response learned previously; the introduction of a bias in the selection of an aversive or appetitive mode of behaviour, or in the otherwise deliberate evaluation of varied option-outcome scenarios. Examples of overt action include the conscious 'qualifying' of certain option-outcome scenarios as dangerous or advantageous. The hypothesis rejects attempts to limit human reasoning and decision making to mechanisms relying, in an exclusive and unrelated manner, on either conditioning alone or cognition alone.
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An automated coordinate-based system to retrieve brain labels from the 1988 Talairach Atlas, called the Talairach Daemon (TD), was previously introduced [Lancaster et al., 1997]. In the present study, the TD system and its 3-D database of labels for the 1988 Talairach atlas were tested for labeling of functional activation foci. TD system labels were compared with author-designated labels of activation coordinates from over 250 published functional brain-mapping studies and with manual atlas-derived labels from an expert group using a subset of these activation coordinates. Automated labeling by the TD system compared well with authors' labels, with a 70% or greater label match averaged over all locations. Author-label matching improved to greater than 90% within a search range of +/-5 mm for most sites. An adaptive grey matter (GM) range-search utility was evaluated using individual activations from the M1 mouth region (30 subjects, 52 sites). It provided an 87% label match to Brodmann area labels (BA 4 & BA 6) within a search range of +/-5 mm. Using the adaptive GM range search, the TD system's overall match with authors' labels (90%) was better than that of the expert group (80%). When used in concert with authors' deeper knowledge of an experiment, the TD system provides consistent and comprehensive labels for brain activation foci. Additional suggested applications of the TD system include interactive labeling, anatomical grouping of activation foci, lesion-deficit analysis, and neuroanatomy education. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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In two experiments a tachistoscopic paradigm was used to examine hemispheric differences in facial affect perception among anxious and nonanxious men without depression. In Experiment 1, hemispheric processing of Ekman and Friesen's (1978) happy, angry, and neutral emotional faces was tachistoscopically examined, with reaction time as the dependent variable. The following results were obtained: (1) a right-hemisphere (LVF) advantage for the perception of facial affect, consistent with previous reports of the right hemisphere's relative specialization for facial affect perception and (2) slower reaction time to facial affect stimuli for anxious men, regardless of valence and visual field. Similar procedures were used in Experiment 2, but with accuracy rather than reaction time as the dependent measure. Analyses yielded a three-way interaction, with anxious men identifying angry affects in the left versus right visual field more accurately, whereas nonanxious men demonstrated symmetry for the processing of angry affects. Implications for hemispheric asymmetry (i.e., relative right posterior activation) among anxious individuals without depression are discussed.
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Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications.
Chapter
The territory that psychologists explore is still largely uncharted; so to find Eysenck’s model for personality in the middle of this terra incognita is rather like stumbling across St. Pancras Station in the heart of the African jungle. Faced with this apparition, one’s first question is, not “does it work?”, but “what’s it for?” This, indeed, is the right question to ask. Eysenck’s model bestrides the field of personality like a colossus. There have been other attempts to describe personality, notably Cattell’s and Guilford’s, and other attempts to explain it, above all, Pavlov’s and Teplov’s: but no one has tried to achieve both these aims on the same scale as Eysenck. In consequence, it is extremely difficult to see the Eysenckian edifice in perspective: there are too few other buildings with which to compare it, only the surrounding trackless jungle. It is by asking “what’s it for?” that we can best provide this perspective. In answer to this question, Fig. 8.1 dis plays what I take to be the general structure of Eysenck’s theory of extra version-introversion (E-I) and neuroticism (N).
Conference Paper
The brain circuitry underlying emotion includes several territories of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and related structures. In general, the PFC represents emotion in the absence of immediately present incentives and thus plays a crucial role in the anticipation of the future affective consequences of action, as well as in the persistence of emotion following the offset of an elicitor. The functions of the other structures in this circuit are also considered. Individual differences in this circuitry are reviewed with an emphasis on asymmetry within the PFC and activation of the amygdala as 2 key components of affective style. These individual differences are related to both behavioral and biological variables associated with affective style and emotion regulation. Plasticity in this circuitry and its implications for transforming emotion and cultivating positive affect and resilience are considered.
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Due to its fast temporal evolution and its representation and integration among complex and widespread neural networks, the emotion perception process should preferably be examined by means of multimethodological approach. Indeed the indubitable vantage of acquiring both the autonomic (arousal-related) and the central (cortical-related) activities stands in the possibility to better elucidate the reciprocal interplay of the two compartments. In the present study EEG (frequency band analysis), systemic SCR and heart rate (HR) were all recorded simultaneously with hemodynamic (NIRS, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy) measurements as potential biological markers of emotions, related to both central and peripheral systems. These multiple measures were then related to the self-report correlates, that is the subjective appraisal in term of valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low) by using SAM rating. Twenty subjects were submitted to emotional cues processing (IAPS) when fNIRS, frequency bands (alpha, beta, delta, theta), SCR and HR were recorded. As shown by O2Hb increasing within the right hemisphere, the contribution of prefrontal cortex was elucidated, by pointing out a relevant lateralization effect (more right-PFC activity) induced by the specific valence (negative) of the emotional patterns. Secondly, EEG activity (mainly low-frequency theta and delta bands) was intrinsically associated with the cortical hemodynamic responsiveness to the negative emotional patterns, within the right side. Finally SCR increased mainly in response to negative patterns, and the autonomic behavior was related to explicit (SAM) and cortical (NIRS; EEG) activity. The intrinsic relationships between these three different levels are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Variability in both frontal and parietal spontaneous EEG activity, using α and β band power and θ/β and δ/β ratios, was explored in a sample of 96 healthy volunteers as a potential correlate of individual differences in spontaneous emotion regulation (SER). Following a baseline EEG recording, participants were asked to continuously rate their discomfort while looking at affective pictures, as well as for a period of time after exposure. Greater spontaneous β band power in parietal locations, lower frontal and parietal δ/β ratios, and lower parietal θ/β ratio were associated with lower ratings of discomfort after the offset of unpleasant pictures. Moreover, lower parietal δ/β ratio was also related to less time needed to recover from discomfort after exposure to aversive pictures, while only a greater frontal and parietal α band power appeared to be associated with faster recovery from discomfort induced by normative-neutral pictures. However, parietal δ/β ratio was the only predictor of both minimum discomfort ratings and time needed to downregulate following exposure to unpleasant pictures, and frontal α band power the only spontaneous EEG index that predicted variability in spontaneous downregulation after the exposure to normative-neutral pictures. Results are discussed focusing on the utility of diverse spontaneous EEG measures in several cortical regions when capturing trait-like individual differences in emotion regulation capabilities and processes.
Article
Several studies have reported differences in long-range temporal correlations of EEG oscillations between depressed and nondepressed individuals. The question remains unsolved whether these differences are also linked to negative emotion regulation strategies that configure a depressive style. In this study we applied detrended fluctuation analysis to the amplitude envelope of broad band and narrow band (theta and alpha) spontaneous EEG oscillations of a sample (N = 56) of young nondepressed adults to whom several emotion regulation and depression questionnaires were administered. Linear positive correlations between the scaling exponents of both broad band and theta band oscillations and negative emotion regulation strategies and depression scores were found. These results suggest that previously found differences between depressed and nondepressed individuals may exist before depression manifests, as differences could be linked to a negative emotion regulation style that in some cases could lead to the development of a depressive disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The aim of this study was to predict mental stress levels of aged people at rest from two-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We used the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for the mental stress index. We previously constructed a machine learning algorithm to predict mental stress level using two-channel NIRS data from the PFC in 19 subjects aged 20–24 years at rest (Sato et al., Adv Exp Med Biol 765:251–256, 2013). In the present study, we attempted the same prediction for aged subjects aged 61–79 years (10 women; 7 men). The mental stress index was again STAI. After subjects answered the STAI questionnaire, the NIRS device measured oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes during a 3-min resting state. The algorithm was formulated within a Bayesian machine learning framework and implemented by Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Leave-one-subject-out cross-validation was performed. Average prediction error between the actual and predicted STAI values was 5.27. Prediction errors of 12 subjects were lower than 5.0. Since the STAI score ranged from 20 to 80, the algorithm appeared functional for aged subjects also.
Article
The capability model of frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry suggests that brain activity during emotional challenge will be a more powerful indicator of predispositions toward psychopathology than activity observed at rest. EEG data were assessed during a resting baseline and a facial emotion task, wherein individuals with (n = 143) and without (n = 163) lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) made approach (angry and happy) and withdrawal (afraid and sad) facial expressions. EEG asymmetry during emotional challenge was a more powerful indicator of MDD status than resting asymmetry for average, Cz, and linked mastoid references, results in support of the capability model. However, current-source-density (CSD) transformed asymmetry was indicative of lifetime MDD status under resting and task-elicited conditions. Findings suggest that CSD-transformed data may be more robust indicators of trait frontal EEG asymmetry.
Article
The ability to recognize and adequately interpret emotional states in others plays a fundamental role in regulating social interaction. Body language presents an essential element of nonverbal communication which is often perceived prior to mimic expression. However, the neural networks that underlie the processing of emotionally expressive body movement and body posture are poorly understood. 33 healthy subjects have been investigated using the optically based imaging method functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the performance of a newly developed emotion discrimination paradigm consisting of faceless avatars expressing fearful, angry, sad, happy or neutral gait patterns. Participants were instructed to judge (a) the presented emotional state (emotion task) and (b) the observed walking speed of the respective avatar (speed task). We measured increases in cortical oxygenated haemoglobin (O2HB) in response to visual stimulation during emotion discrimination. These O2HB concentration changes were enhanced for negative emotions in contrast to neutral gait sequences in right occipito-temporal and left temporal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Moreover, fearful and angry bodies elicited higher activation increases during the emotion task compared to the speed task. Haemodynamic responses were correlated with a number of behavioural measures, whereby a positive relationship between emotion regulation strategy preference and O2HB concentration increases after sad walks was mediated by the ability to accurately categorize sad walks. Our results support the idea of a distributed brain network involved in the recognition of bodily emotion expression that comprises visual association areas as well as body/movement perception specific cortical regions that are also sensitive to emotion. This network is activated less when the emotion is not intentionally processed (i.e. during the speed task). Furthermore, activity of this perceptive network is, mediated by the ability to correctly recognize emotions, indirectly connected to active emotion regulation processes. We conclude that a full understanding of emotion perception and its neural substrate requires the investigation of dynamic representations and means of expression other than the face.
Article
Resting anterior brain electrical activity, self-report measures of Behavioral Approach and Inhibition System (BAS and BIS) strength, and general levels of positive and negative affect (PA and NA) were collected from 46 unselected undergraduates on two separate occasions Electroencephalogram (EEG) measures of prefrontal asymmetry and the self-report measures showed excellent internal consistency reliability and adequate test-retest stability Aggregate measures across the two assessments were computed for all indices Subjects with greater relative left prefrontal activation reported higher levels of BAS strength, whereas those with greater relative right prefrontal activation reported higher levels of BIS strength Prefrontal EEG asymmetry accounted for more than 25% of the variance in the self-report measure of relative BAS-BIS strength Prefrontal EEG, however, was not significantly correlated with PA or NA, or the relative strength of PA versus NA Posterior asymmetry was unrelated to the self-report measures
Article
A diversity of methods have been used to study cerebral asymmetries associated with emotion. Many different conceptual schemes have also been invoked to guide research on this topic. The purpose of this article is to survey the critical methodological and conceptual issues in this area of research. Research in this area must acknowledge the multi-componential nature of emotion. Asymmetries associated with the perception of emotional information and the posing of emotional expressions are not necessarily the same as those that accompany the actual production of emotion. Asymmetries vary along the rostral/caudal plane both in their magnitude and direction, as well as in their functional significance. Research in this area must explicitly take this variable into account. Different measures of asymmetry do not reflect the same underlying process and so cannot be used interchangeably. In particular, behavioural measures which lack extensive localising validation, must be used with caution. Finally, the nature of the causal connection between alterations in asymmetric activation and emotion is not a simple one and extant data indicate that an asymmetric shift is not sufficient for the production of emotion. This fact has serious implications for the types of experimental designs that must be used to adequately test for relations between cerebral asymmetry and emotion. The article concludes with a discussion of some of the major outstanding questions that will occupy a central position in the future research agenda in this area.
Article
Neurobiological research with animals strongly suggests that the brain systems which mediate emotion overlap with those that mediate cognition to such a degree that it is difficult, if not impossible, to maintain any clear distinction between them. Possible reasons for this overlap are discussed; and a model of brain systems that simultaneously subserve emotion and cognition is presented. The model postulates the existence of three fundamental systems of this kind in the mammalian brain: a behavioural approach system, a fight/flight system, and a behavioural inhibition system. The neuropsychology of each of these systems is briefly presented.
Article
A number of studies have shown that shyness and sociability may be two independent personality traits that are distinguishable across a variety of measures and cultures. Utilizing recent frontal activation-emotion models as a theoretical framework, this study examined the pattern of resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in undergraduates who self-reported high and low shyness and sociability. Analyses revealed that shyness was associated with greater relative I right frontal EEG activity whereas sociability was associated with greater relative left frontal EEG activity. Also, different combinations of shyness and sociability were distinguishable on the basis of resting frontal EEG power: Although high-shy/high-social and high-shy/low-social subjects both exhibited greater relative right frontal EEG activity they; differed significantly on EEG power in the left, but not right, frontal lead High-shy/high-social subjects exhibited significantly less EEG power (i.e., more activity) in the left frontal lend compared with the high-shy/low-social subjects. These findings suggest that in distinguishing individual differences in personality and personality subtypes, it is important to consider not only frontal EEG asymmetry measures, belt also the pattern of absolute EEG power in each frontal hemisphere.
Article
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a novel technology for low-cost noninvasive brain imaging suitable for use in virtually all subject and patient populations. Numerous studies of brain functional connectivity using fMRI, and recently NIRS, suggest new tools for the assessment of cognitive functions during task performance and the resting state (RS). We analyzed functional connectivity and its possible hemispheric asymmetry measuring coherence of optical signals at low frequencies (0.01-0.1Hz) in the prefrontal cortex in 13 right-handed (RH) and 2 left-handed (LH) healthy subjects at rest (4-8min) using a continuous-wave NIRS instrument CW5 (TechEn, Milford, MA). Two optical probes were placed bilaterally over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) using anatomical landmarks of the 10-20 system. As a result, 28 optical channels (14 for each hemisphere) were recorded for changes in oxygenated (HbO) and de-oxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin. Global physiological signals (respiratory and cardiac) were removed using Principal and Independent Component Analyses. Inter-channel coherences for HbO and HbR signals were calculated using Morlet wavelets along with correlation coefficients. Connectivity matrices showed specific patterns of connectivity which was higher within each anatomical region (IFG and MFG) and between hemispheres (e.g., left IFG<->right IFG) than between IFG and MFG in the same hemisphere. Laterality indexes were calculated as t-values for the 'left>right' comparisons of intrinsic connectivity within each regional group of channels in each subject. Regardless of handedness, the group average laterality indexes were negative thus revealing significantly higher connectivity in the right hemisphere in the majority of RH subjects and in both LH subjects. The analysis of Granger Causality between hemispheres has also shown a greater flow of information from the right to the left hemisphere which may point to an important role of the right hemisphere in the resting state. These data encourage further exploration of the NIRS connectivity and its application for the analysis of hemispheric relationships within the functional architecture of the brain.
Article
ERPs (event-related potentials) correlates are largely used in cognitive psychology and specifically for analysis of semantic information processing. Previous research has underlined a strong correlation between a negative-ongoing wave (N400), more frontally distributed, and semantic linguistic or extra-linguistic anomalies. With reference to the extra-linguistic domain, our experiment analyzed ERP variation in a semantic task of comprehension of emotional facial expressions. The experiment explored the effect of expectancy violation when subjects observed congruous or incongruous emotional facial patterns. Four prototypical (anger, sadness, happiness and surprise) and four morphed faces were presented. Moreover, two distinct cognitive tasks (an implicit vs an explicit elaboration) were analyzed in order to evaluate the influence of spontaneous decoding in N400-like effects. An automatic, high-order cognitive process was found, elicited by a negative ERP variation similar to the linguistic N400 effect, which allows us to explain the congruous/incongruous decoding in semantic extra-linguistic comprehension.
Article
This experiment assessed the components of Baddeley's working memory system impaired by anxiety during performance of the Corsi Blocks Test. The Corsi task was performed concurrently with different secondary tasks (i.e., articulatory suppression; counting backwards; spatial tapping; simple tapping). Results showed Corsi performance depended mainly on the central executive and visuospatial sketchpad components of working memory. Adverse effects of trait anxiety on the Corsi task were observed on the central executive but not on the phonological loop or the visuospatial sketchpad. These effects were not mediated by state anxiety. The findings indicate for the first time that trait anxiety impairs central executive functioning on a nonverbal task, and that anxiety does not impair functioning of the “slave” systems (i.e., phonological loop; visuospatial sketchpad). Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
presented an overview of recent research on anterior [cortical function] asymmetries associated with emotion and individual differences in emotional reactivity, psychopathologic states, dispositional mood, and temperament sketch the major elements of the theoretical model that motivates the research to be presented / the methods that are common to our studies and the unique methodologic requirements of this research are then described / research on anterior asymmetries associated with the phasic arousal of emotion are presented, followed by a summary of our findings on the relations between individual differences in baseline asymmetry and affective reactivity (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The 23 contributions in "Brain Asymmetry" provide a comprehensive survey of modern research on laterality and brain asymmetry, showcasing new approaches and novel domains in which knowledge of the asymmetrical functioning of the brain is a key issue for the complete understanding of the phenomenon. Of particular note is the inclusion of material on laterality, learning, attention, and emotion and their relation to subcortical and peripheral structures and processes. In addition, the clinical relevance of brain asymmetry for neuropsychological and psychopathological practice is surveyed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Evidence is reviewed to suggest that parietotemporal regions of the right hemisphere not only are specialized for the processing of emotional information but also play a critical role in the experience of emotion. In particular, it is argued that these regions of the right hemisphere constitute a system involved in modulating autonomic and behavioral arousal in emotional states. This system is characterized by a set of cognitive and attentional qualities that make it uniquely suited to respond to environmental events in an adaptive fashion. The current proposal is an elaboration of a model of emotion and brain organization (W. Heller, 1990) that incorporates several aspects of emotional function: (1) perception and production of emotional information, (2) mood and emotional experience, and (3) autonomic arousal. In the context of this model, it is suggested that the right-hemisphere system operates in conjunction with a system localized to the frontal lobes that is involved in modulating the emotional valence of experience. The interaction of these 2 systems is hypothesized to be conditioned by individual differences and developmental tendencies that contribute to the production of a unique and stable pattern of personality traits and emotional characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Argues that a good deal of integration is taking place within personality psychology today, prompted in part by researchers taking fresh looks at ideas that have been around for some time. The author illustrates this assertion by describing several examples of re-emergent ideas. One re-emergent idea which finds applications in many areas of personality and social psychology is the notion that human beings have distinct approach and avoidance systems. Another set of ideas that is re-emerging is psychoanalytic theory, a phenomenon that is attributable in part to an enhanced realization of this theory's roots in evolutionary theory. A 3rd re-emergent theme (again with many applications) is that personality is social. Fresh looks at these various ideas provide active research areas, but also provide new lenses to use in viewing other research areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The current zeitgeist strongly emphasizes genetic and biochemical approaches to psychopathology over psychological and psychobiological approaches. It is argued that a psychobiological model, involving a theory of motivation derived from the animal learning literature, offers an attractive theoretical bridge between neurochemical influences and the phenotypic features of psychiatric disorders. This model involves separate but interactive appetitive and aversive motivational systems that control behavioral activation (appetitive) and inhibition (aversive). Ways in which these motivational constructs can be relevant to psychopathology are discussed for anxiety, psychopathy, childhood disorders, depression, mania, drug abuse, and schizophrenia. Because of this general application, motivational constructs offer an attractive theoretical framework for understanding psychopathology. Application of the motivational theory to psychophysiology suggested that heart rate may be significantly influenced by appetitive motivation. A series of studies have shown that heart rate during performance of a continuous motor task does respond to appetitive motivation in the form of performance-contingent monetary incentives, but does not respond to aversive stimulation in the form of failure feedback. Nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations have not responded to appetitive motivation in this paradigm, but this failure could possibly be due to ceiling effects. Nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations do respond to aversive stimulation in other contexts. These findings suggest that under the right circumstances appetitive motivation can be assessed via heart rate and aversive motivation via skin conductance.
Article
Individuals differ dramatically in the quality and intensity of their response to affectively evocative stimuli. On the basis of prior theory and research, we hypothesized that these individual differences are related to variation in activation of the left and right frontal brain regions. We recorded baseline brain electrical activity from subjects on two occasions 3 weeks apart. Immediately following the second recording, subjects were exposed to brief positive and negative emotional film clips. For subjects whose frontal asymmetry was stable across the 3-week period, greater left frontal activation was associated with reports of more intense positive affect in response to the positive films, whereas greater right frontal activation was associated with more intense reports of negative affect in response to the negative film clips. The methodological and theoretical implications of these data are discussed.
Article
Gray's two-factor learning theory postulates a behavioral activation system (BAS), a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), and a nonspecific arousal system receiving excitatory inputs from both the BAS and the BIS. The BAS initiates behavior in response to conditioned stimuli for reward (approach) or for relieving nonpunishment (active avoidance). The BIS, which is viewed as an anxiety system, inhibits behavior in response to cues for punishment (passive avoidance) or frustrative nonreward (extinction), and its activity is decreased by the anti-anxiety drugs (alcohol, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers). Thus, the BIS is an arousal system which inhibits rather than energizes behavior.A review of the literature suggests that heart rate (HR) is strongly associated with activity of the BAS. This interpretation subsumes the previous findings of cardiac-somatic coupling, incentive effects on HR, and increased HR in connection with active coping in the face of threat. Electrodermal activity (EDA), on the other hand, increases when there is an activation of the BIS. A consideration of these differing effects on HR and EDA permits a specification of conditions in which these two measures will or will not show directional fractionation.With this theoretical model it is possible to relate the clinical features of psychopathy to the psychophysiological data with the single assumption that primary psychopaths have a deficient BIS. As a result, they show normal approach, active avoidance, and HR, but they suffer from poor passive avoidance and extinction with reduced EDA in response to threatening stimuli.
Article
Four-month-old infants were screened (N = 433) for temperamental patterns thought to predict behavioral inhibition, including motor reactivity and the expression of negative affect. Those selected (N = 153) were assessed at multiple age points across the first 4 years of life for behavioral signs of inhibition as well as psychophysiological markers of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry. Four-month temperament was modestly predictive of behavioral inhibition over the first 2 years of life and of behavioral reticence at age 4. Those infants who remained continuously inhibited displayed right frontal EEG asymmetry as early as 9 months of age while those who changed from inhibited to noninhibited did not. Change in behavioral inhibition was related to experience of nonparental care. A second group of infants, selected at 4 months of age for patterns of behavior thought to predict temperamental exuberance, displayed a high degree of continuity over time in these behaviors.
Article
According to a recent hypothesis, the prefrontal cortex has been proposed as the site of emotional memory integration, because it is sensitive to the recognition of emotional contents. In the present research, we explored the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in memory recognition processes for positive versus negative emotional stimuli when old (target) and new (distractor, either semantically related or unrelated to the target) stimuli were presented. The role of the DLPFC was analysed using an rTMS (repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation) paradigm that induced increased cortical activation of the left DLPFC. The subjects were required to perform a task that consisted of two experimental phases (i.e., an encoding and a recognition phase) in which the targets and the distractors were presented and recognition performance was measured. rTMS stimulation was provided over the left DLPFC during the recognition phase. We found that the rTMS stimulation affected the memory recognition of positive emotional material. Moreover, related and unrelated distractors were discarded better when they were positively valenced, and a more significant effect (i.e., increased performance) was produced in response to related distractors. This result suggests that the activation of the left DLPFC favours the memory recognition of positive emotional information, and that such activation is able to induce a more appropriate selective process to distinguish target from distractor stimuli in the presence of more complex processes (related distractors). The valence model of emotional cue processing may explain this increased performance by demonstrating the distinct role of the left hemisphere in the retrieval of positive emotional information.
Article
We examine the effect of individual psychological differences on network structures, proposing several hypotheses about how individual differences might predispose actors to structure their social environment by seeking network closure or by sustaining structural holes. We introduce a new triad census method to examine personal networks of strong and weak ties. For 125 egocentric networks we correlated the triad census results with several extensively researched psychological instruments. The triad census reduced to three principal components, describing central aspects of strength-of-weak-ties and structural holes theories. Psychological predispositions explained a significant proportion of the variance in each of these components. Our results suggest that people who see themselves vulnerable to external forces tend to inhabit closed networks of weak connections. On the other hand, people who seek to keep their strong tie partners apart, and thereby bridge structural holes, tend to be individualists, to believe that they control the events in their lives, and to have higher levels of neuroticism. Finally, people with strong network closure and “weak” structural holes (as with the “strength of weak ties”) tend to categorize themselves and others in terms of group memberships. They also tend to be more extraverted and less individualistic.
Article
Simultaneous measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography were performed during 15-min resting periods in nine healthy adult brains. The peak frequencies of the frontal and occipital rhythms varied with the time course like the hemoglobin oxygenation state. Changes in the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin in the frontal region by more than 50% of the maximum resting variation range were accompanied by changes in peak frequency at the electrode position between two optodes. The results suggest that spontaneous neuronal activity is responsible for fluctuations in the hemoglobin oxygenation state in the resting state.