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Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams?



Although it is still controversial, neuromarketing remains the most promising area of marketing. Basically, the goal of neuromarketing is to study how human brain is affected by marketing stimuli. In neuromarketing, brain activity can be monitored and measured using state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques such as the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the electroencephalography (EEG). The idea of relying on neuromarketing is largely celebrated today because of the widely acknowledged fact that consumer purchase decisions are made in the subconscious mind. The study reviews and discusses the advantages and limitations of neuromarketing techniques in trying to understand the consumer brain. The results of this study indicate that neuromarketing has the potential to provide valuable information on consumer decision making.
Research Journals (DRJ)
Journal of Economics and Finance (DRJ-JEF)
Volume 2 ~ Issue 3 (March, 2017) pp: 30-38 30 | P a g e
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or
Brain Scams?
Thabani Nyoni and
Wellington G. Bonga
Received 05 March, 2017; Accepted 15 March, 2017; Published 31 March, 2017 © The author(s)
2017. Published with open access at
Although it is still controversial, neuromarketing remains the most promising area of marketing.
Basically, the goal of neuromarketing is to study how human brain is affected by marketing stimuli. In
neuromarketing, brain activity can be monitored and measured using state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques
such as the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the electroencephalography (EEG). The idea of
relying on neuromarketing is largely celebrated today because of the widely acknowledged fact that consumer
purchase decisions are made in the subconscious mind. The study reviews and discusses the advantages and
limitations of neuromarketing techniques in trying to understand the consumer brain. The results of this study
indicate that neuromarketing has the potential to provide valuable information on consumer decision making.
Brain Scam, Brain Scan, Consumers, Customers, Electroencephalography (EEG), functional
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), Neuromarketing methods
JEL Codes: A12, B31, C91, C92, D03, D11, D12, D87, L25, L26, M31, M37.
How many times have you realized that you contradict yourself? Of course many! How many times have
you observed people saying this and that and yet they do something that is completely different? Of course
many! The thing is: human decision making is complex, in the sense that it is not easy to understand. If human
decision making was easy to understand, no businesses would fail! Our preference for certain things be they
products or services, is usually realized unconsciously. 95% of our thinking and emotion takes place beyond the
level of our awareness. Therefore, for us to understand our behavior, as consumers-those unconscious mental
processes that influence our deliberations; we need to understand the anatomy of the consumer brain. Thanks to
neuromarketing, at least we can now decode some information from the brain and use it for understanding
consumer decision making. Nyoni & Bonga (2017b) define neuromarketing as the use of neurological research
methods to better understand the thought patterns of consumers with the potential of identifying the ‘buy-
buttons’ in the consumer’s brain in order to make marketing and advertising more effective.
Today companies who want obtain reliable and meaningful feedback on, say their new product, they must
have the courage to get inside the consumer's mind. In business, the ability to know what your customer is likely
to think concerning your product or service, is something that is greatly celebrated because it gives you a rare
competitive advantage in the market. Most of the newly launched products fail dismally primarily because of the
difference between the product characteristics and customer expectations. In most cases, you hear customers
complaining about the newly launched product; saying things like: the product is not user friendly, the product
is not really serving its purpose etc. Now, let us look at this question (based on Georges et al, 2013's classical
example), for purposes of illustration: which is much easier, to sell a bone to a dog or an elephant? The fact that
you already know what the dog wants, you can go ahead with your business of selling bones. But, can you
imagine yourself selling the same bone to an elephant? Surely, your business would be destined to fail. The trick
is: you need to accurately know what your customers really want. However, it is generally understood that what
your customers really expect from your product is something that they themselves don't really know, received
conventional wisdom indicates that it is something hidden in a "black box" in their minds. This implies that, the
gap between you, as a businessman, and your business break-through is, your prowess to unlock the "black box"
and see for yourself what's inside. Well, with neuromarketing, business people can now read their customers'
minds and be able to answer most of the extremely complicated questions beyond human thoughts.
The information obtained through traditional marketing research methods may not be reliable and accurate
precisely because it is usually associated with customer's unwillingness to reveal truth among other drawbacks.
However, neuromarketing overcomes such limitations of traditional marketing by directly interrogating the
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 31 | P a g e
brain itself without requiring conscious participation; and this could apparently be a solution for the wastage of
millions if not billions of dollars spent in vain effort, repeatedly using traditional marketing methodologies in
isolation; whose inefficiency in studying consumer behaviour has been proven beyond any reasonable doubt.
This paper reveals some important aspects of the use of neuromarketing in studying consumer behavior by
presenting the methodology of neuromarketing, the advantages and limitations of each method as well as the
importance of neuromarketing for companies.
To observe changes in brain activity in the presence of packaging, advertising and other communications,
neuromarketing utilizes the state-of-the-art technology to observe which areas of the brain ‘light up’ when test
subjects are processing a stimulus (Davis, 2012). Nowadays, with the help of technology, there are various
neuroimaging ways that are currently being used in consumer brain research. However, below is an explanation
of twelve (12) commonly used methods in neuromarketing research. The neuromarketing methodologies have
been categorised into three main groups and these are: Recording metabolic activity in the brain (fMRI and
PET), Recording electric activity in the brain (EEG, TMS, MEG and SST) and Without recording brain activity
(measuring physiological responses, IAT, EDA/GSR, facial EMG, facial coding and Eye tracking).
This is the most common neuromarketing technique. It is a functional neuroimaging process that relies
on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology to measure brain activity associated with changes in blood
flow. When certain areas of the brain are ised, blood flow to that area area increases. The reason this technique
works so well is due to the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. This linkage is
possible as active nerve cells carry a great deal of oxygen than inactive brain cells. The brain's response to the
need for more oxygen in specific areas of the brain is measurable by blood flow to these areas (Davis, 2012).
Information extracted in this way, can assist marketers in ascertaining those areas in the brain which are
working at any given time.
What does it measure? When is it used?
Brand loyalty
Brand recall
Brand preference
Memory encoding
Valence of emotions
Sensory perception
Blood flow
Personal meaning (importance)
Can tell what the subject was thinking
(moment by moment)
Sensory testing celebrity endorsement
Testing new campaigns
Testing and developing advertisements
Testing new products
Identifying needs
Repositioning a brand
Predicting choices
Testing prices
Identifying the key moments of an
advertisement or video material
Testing packaging design
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Reliable and valid measure for cognitive and
affective responses (Wang et al, 2008)
Able to localize neural processing during
consumer choices and consumption
experience (Plassmann et al, 2011)
Permits interpretation of psychological
processes in the brain (Reimann et al, 2011)
Able to detect changes in chemical
composition or changes in the flow of fluids
in the brain (Wang et al, 2008), because,
normally, it follows the metabolic activity in
the brain (Perrachione & Perrachione, 2008)
High spatial resolution, allows viewing deep
brain structures in detail (Zurawicki, 2010),
as it localizes brain activity changes within a
spatial resolution of 1-10 mm of deep
structures in the brain (Plassmann et al,
Tasks have a restricted levels of complexity
(trials) (Reimann et al, 2011)
Subjects must remain still during the
procedure and avoid as much as possible head
movement (Zurawicki, 2010)
Non-scalable (O’Connel et al, 2011)
High complexity in data analysis (Plassmann
et al, 2011; Kenning et al, 2007; Savoy,
Ethical barriers raised such as invasion of
privacy (Wang et al, 2008)
Uses reverse inference from brain activation
to brain function (Reimann et al, 2011)
Low temporal resolution, as it captures
dynamic changes with a temporal resolution
of 1-10 s (Plassmann et al, 2011; Kenning et
al, 2007).
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 32 | P a g e
Available statistical software packages which
allows both preprocessing and statistical
analyses, such as BrainVoyager QX (Levy et
al, 2011; Morris et al, 2009) and Statistical
Parametric Mapping (SPM5) (Falk et al,
2009; Plassmann et al, 2008; Stoll et al,
2008; Plassmann et al, 2007), as is the later is
able to realign and correct images for motion,
perform time correction, or normalize data
into standard space or smooth data with a
Gaussian model.
Running the fMRI scanner can cost
researchers an average of $1000 per hour and
often 20-30 test subjects are being scanned.
These subjects are typically in the machine
for 30 minutes to an hour (Nobel, 2013)
This another method of neuromarketing, in which a battery of detectors surrounds the subject's head
and traces radiation pulse, without precisely identifying the location of the signal (Zurawicki, 2010).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Sensory perception
Valence of emotions
Testing advertisements
Testing new products
Testing packaging design
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Follows the metabolic activity in the brain
(Perrachione & Perrachione, 2008)
Able to detect changes in chemical composition
or changes in the flow of fluids in the brain
(Wang et al, 2008)
Reliable and valid measure for cognitive and
affective responses (Wang et al, 2008)
High spatial resolution (similar to fMRI)
(Zurawicki, 2010; Kenning et al, 2007)
Poor temporal resolution (Kenning et al, 2007)
Invasive method, application of radioactive
contrast (Kenning et al, 2007)
Ethical barriers raised such as invasion of privacy
(Wang et al, 2008)
Technical issues involve obtaining the radioactive
material and its short life (Zurawicki, 2010)
The average cost of a basic PET scan is $3000 -
$6000 (
pet_scan_paying )
This is the measurement and recording of electrical activity (brain waves) that happens directly below
the scalp, which occurs as a result of neural activity. EEG is used to tell how much of the brain is engaged at a
given point in time (Davis, 2012). In the presence of a particular stimulus, such as a piece of advertising,
neurons fire and produce a tiny electrical current, which can be amplified. The observed brain waves can be
linked to different states of stimulation such as wakefulness (beta waves), relaxation (alpha waves), calmness
(theta waves), light and deep sleep (delta waves). Thus, the electrical potential measured and compared to a
baseline level can provide a lot of information about a subject's mental state (Zurawicki, 2010).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Emotional valence
Memory encoding
Engagement or boredom
Approach or withdrawal
Testing taglines
Testing new campaigns
Testing and developing advertisements
Testing-in store experience
Testing movie trailers
Testing websites design and usability
Identifying the key moments of an
advertisement or video material
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Valid measure for cognitive information
processing (Wang et al, 2008)
Strong correlation between EEG asymmetry
and personality traits (Plassmann et al, 2011)
Relatively simpler in use when compared
with functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) (O’Connel, 2010)
Results are not only influenced by artifacts
but also by experimental settings as noted by
Wang et al (2008)
Moderate to high complexity (Plassmann et
al, 2011)
As electric conductivity may differ from
person to person, it is difficult to retrieve the
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 33 | P a g e
Relatively low equipment and analysis costs
(Kenning et al, 2007)
High temporal resolution, so researchers can
detect changes in the brain activity precisely,
connected to rapidly changing stimuli (Ohme
et al, 2011)
Relatively straight forward data analysis
(Kenning et al, 2007)
Statistical software packages available
(Plassmann et al, 2011)
Able to measure variations in the frequency
of electrical activity in the brain (Wang et al,
2008), following the population neural
activity in the brain (Perrachione &
Perrachione, 2008).
Allows comparisons between left and right
hemispheres (Plassmann et al, 2011),
measuring approach-related tendencies (left
hemisphere dominance- positive emotional
responses) or withdrawal-related tendencies
(right hemisphere dominance negative
emotional responses) (Ohme et al, 2011)
exact location for each recorded signal
(Zurawicki, 2010; Kenning et al, 2007)
Low spatial resolution, it records only
activity data from superficial layers of the
cortex (Zurawicki, 2010)
Can identify only if the emotion is positive or
negative (O’Connel et al, 2011)
Non-scalable (O’Connel et al, 2011)
EEG testing requires a minimum of 36
participants to receive usable data.
Conducting full study using EEG, companies
can expect to spend an average of $25000, if
they use 36 participants. The cost will go up
with the number of participants (Smith, 2015)
This is a neuromarketing technique that uses magnetic induction in order to modulate the activity of
certain brain areas that are located 1-2 centimeters inside, without reaching the neocortex. TMS follows the
population neural activity in the brain (Perrachione & Perrachione, 2008). TMS is able to highlight causal
inferences by analysing the subject in front of a marketing stimuli while certain brain areas are disabled,
stimulated, or normal (Zurawicki, 2010).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Changes in behavior
Testing packaging design
Testing new products
Testing advertisements
Testing other marketing stimuli
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Its effects are assessed indirectly through
behavioral responses such as accuracy or
reaction time (Perrachione & Perrachione
Studies causality of specific brain regions for
certain mental processes (Plassmann et al,
Also allows studying changes in behavior or
physiological responses after manipulation of
brain activity (Plassmann et al, 2011)
Ethical barriers also raised
The average cost of a TMS scan ranges
between $6000 - $12000 ( )
MEG is an electrical technique used in neuromarketing research, it is almost similar to EEG. However,
contrary to EEG, magnetometers (detectors) in a helmet are placed on the subject's head to measure magnetic
potentials in order to record brain activity at the scalp level (Zurawicki, 2010). Neural processes associated with
a particular brand-choice stimulus can be separated into different stages through the observation of MEG
responses (Braeutigan et al, 2001). Brain activity as a function of electrochemical signals between neurons
creates a magnetic field that can be amplified and mapped by MEG (Morin, 2011).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Testing packaging design
Testing new products
Testing advertisements
Sensory testing
Identifying needs
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 34 | P a g e
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Reliable and valid measure for cognitive and
affective responses (Wang et al, 2008)
Able to detect changes in chemical
composition or changes in the flow of fluids
in the brain (Wang et al, 2008)
Good temporal resolution (Ariely et al, 2010;
Kenning et al, 2007)
Relatively complex data analysis (Kenning et
al, 2007)
Non-scalable (O’Connel et al, 2011)
Experiments need a room free of earth’s
magnetic field (Zurawicki, 2010)
Limited spatial resolution, although better
than EEG (Ariely et al, 2010; Kenning et al,
Ethical barriers raised such as invasion of
privacy (Wang et al, 2008)
This is a particular usage of EEG technology that uses a sinusoidal, flickering stimulus delivered at the
visual periphery. Once the stimulus response is recorded, data is computed to measure short latencies. The
primary use of SST has been to examine normal brain function in association to visual vigilance, working
memory, long term memory and emotional processes (Tagliazucchi, 2014).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Video materials effectiveness
Emotional valence
Long term memory encoding
Processed visual and olfactory input
Testing prints and images
Testing movie trailers
Testing brand communication
Testing advertisements
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Ability to tolerate high levels of noise or
inference due to such things as head
movements, muscle tension, blinks and eye
movements (Silberstein, 1995; Gray et al,
Also able to work with data based on a single
trial per individual (Silberstein et al, 1990)
High temporal resolution, SST is able to
continuously track rapid changes in brain
activity over an extended period of time
(Silberstein, 1995)
Has got low spatial resolution
A standard SST study requires a minimum of
36 subjects for accurate results. Companies
can expect to spend an average of $25000 for
this size of study. The cost will increase with
the number of participants (Smith, 2011)
This is a neuromarketing technique in which the researcher monitors the subject's biological reactions
to stimuli such as heart rate, blood pressure, facial muscle contractions and skin conductivity among other
physiological responses.
What does it measure? When is it used?
Emotional engagement during processes
Identifying in
store reactions
Testing websites design
Testing advertisements
Identifying consumer behavior in its natural
Testing movie trailers
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Can provide information on the subject’s
emotional reaction to the stimuli (Zurawicki,
Data acquisition toolbox available
(Plassmann et al, 2011)
Inferences of emotional engagement or
Physiological responses lag behind brain
activity by several seconds, being hard to
determine emotional states (O’Connel et al,
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 35 | P a g e
arousal during choice processes (Plassmann
et al, 2011)
Can identify a large variety of emotions,
unlike other techniques such as EEG
(O’Connel et al, 2011)
This a neuromarketing research method which is used in measuring individual behavior and
experience. Implicit measures might be less biased by deliberate attempts to conceal the attitude and that they
might even reflect attitudes of which the respondent is not aware (Houwer & Bruycker, 2007).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Reaction time
Underlying attitudes or evaluation
Brand positioning
Category segmentation
Salient packaging features
Celebrity endorsement – choosing the right
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Allows identifying hierarchies of products
Draws a more holistic picture of individual
behavior and experience
Results apparently depend on the availability
of the subject to collaborate, as he or she
needs to focus on the task.
Electrodermal activity (EDA) is the variation of the electrical properties of the skin in response to
sweat secretion. It is characterised by the superposition of single distinct skin conductance responses (SCRs).
The idea behind EDA is that skin resistance varies with the state of sweat glands in the skin and, because
sweating is controlled y the central nervous system, researchers are able to get an indication of psychological
and physiological arousal (Benedeck & Kaembach, 2010).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Changes in skin conductance
Activity of sweat glands
Phasic activity
Event-related sympathetic activity
Predicting market performance
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
It is quite simple for researchers to obtain
information (Hilderbrand, 2016)
Less invasive than other methods
More reliable results (Hilderbrand, 2016)
Allows researchers to predict attention and
memory (Hilderbrand, 2016)
While it can be used as a component to
understand emotional responses through the
arousal of the consumer, EDA does not solely
give full dimension into emotional
understanding (Benedek & Kaembach, 2010).
Has no way of ensuring emotional
engagement (Benedek & Kaembach, 2010)
External factors such as temperature and
humidity can affect EDA measurements
which can lead to inconsistent results
(Benedek & Kaembach, 2010)
There is a 1-3 second delay in results, and
this time varies with the participant, which
can lead to more inconsistencies in the results
(Benedek & Kaembach, 2010)
The cost of research varies, however, an
average Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) tester
can be purchased for around $500 (Shimmer
Sensing, 2016)
Facial EMG measures and evaluates the physiological properties of facial muscles (Ohme et al, 2011),
testing voluntary and involuntary facial muscle movements that reflect conscious and unconscious expressions
of emotions (Dinberg et al, 2000; Cacioppo et al, 1986), because each emotion has a particular configuration of
facial actions. Facial EMG is usually recorded on both sides of the face (the so-called bipolar manner), using
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 36 | P a g e
small surface electrodes that record activity from certain muscles playing a major role in the expression of
elementary emotions.
What does it measure? When is it used?
Social communication
Emotional expressions
Emotional valence
Testing video materials
Testing consumer reactions to advertising
Testing brand recall
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Ability to test both conscious (voluntary) and
unconscientiously (involuntary) facial muscle
Available software to remove artifacts
Ability to identify the mood state (positive or
Ability to measure facial muscle activity even
to weekly emotional stimuli
Ability to detect the valence of the motion
depicted – positive or negative (Bolls et al,
Emotional experiences under natural
circumstances often consist of a mixture of
elementary emotions which, in addition, may
rapidly change so that EMG response
patterns may thus be a function of such
undermined or dynamic emotional states (van
Boxtel, 2010)
Low-frequency artifacts such as motion
potentials, eye movements, eye blinks,
activity of neighboring muscles, respiration,
swallowing, fatigue, speech or mental effort
may infer the signals if the signal is not
This is a neuromarketing method in which the researcher uses a video camera to identify and measure
micro-expressions that code non-conscious reactions, based on the activity of the facial muscles. Despite the fact
that they are subjective in deciding when an action has occurred or when it meets the minimum requirements for
coding, facial expressions are random, they give real time data.
What does it measure? When is it used?
Non-conscious reactions
23 action units
43 facial muscles
6 core emotions (anger, dislike, fear surprise,
envy, sadness, - that can either be social or
Testing advertisements
Testing movie trailers
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Provides real time data
Facial expressions are spontaneous
There is subjectivity in deciding when an
action has occurred or when it meets the
minimum requirements for coding
This another neuromarketing technique that allows researchers to record and study the movement of an
individual's eye as they view stimuli. It is normally used as the subject (s) watches TV commercials, reads and
views advertisements, observes product packaging and interacts with a web page (Davis, 2012).
What does it measure? When is it used?
Visual fixation
Pupil dilation
Eye movement patterns
Spatial resolution
Testing prints and images design
Testing how the consumer filters information
Testing advertisements and video materials
Testing product placement
Testing shelf layout
Testing in-store reactions
Testing packaging design – the visibility of
brand and product name
Testing websites and user-interface
effectiveness – usability research
Determining hierarchy of perceptions of
stimulus material (specifying which elements
are perceived first, last or not perceived at all)
What are its advantages? What are its limitations?
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 37 | P a g e
Ability to detect spatial attention
(Perrachione & Perrachione, 2008)
Changes in pupil dilation and blink rate speed
provide accurate information on involvement
in processing images and on the degree of
excitement (Zurawicki, 2010)
Portable in kits that can be carried to any
location (O’Connel et al, 2011)
Not reliable (Wang et al, 2008)
Results actually depend on participants’ eye
conditions (Wang et al, 2008)
The cost of eye tracking solutions depends on
the degree of monitoring. For example, some
machines focus on different movements in
the eyes, and some focus on head movement.
Fees can range from $5000 for basic readings
up to $65000 for more in-depth research
(Arrington Research, 2016)
To improve competitiveness and profitability, businesses can use neuromarketing results in the following
Branding products
Testing products before being launched
Increasing brand preference
Improvement of TV commercials
Improvement of customer retention
Maximizing the effect of advertising
Improving brand loyalty
Improving product design or packaging
Creation of more enticing and convincing promotional materials or products
Development of more useful and pleasant products
Development of user friendly products
New market entry
Effective customer segmentation
Enhancing customer perception of campaigns
Enhancing the ability of the customer to recall an advertisement, product or promotion
Improving the emotional appeal of the product, to fully engage the customer
Improving both general and promotional pricing strategies
Enhancing knowledge on strategically placing products e.g on shelves in the shop
Understanding the visual attention of different groups of customers e.g smokers and non-smokers
Improving customer satisfaction
Better understanding the overall consumer decision making processes
Shaping the organization's overall marketing strategy
However, Airely & Berns (2010) note that the use of neuromarketing by profit making organisations (rather
than academic and non-profit making organisations) can be a reason for discussion on ethical issues such as:
Lack of regulations
Possibility of reading consumers' minds
Privacy of information about preferences
Possibility of using collected data to discriminate against individuals or larger groups of consumers
Which influences and manipulations in preferences are more or less ethical?
Generalization of research data that was obtained from a small group to a bigger population
Abnormal findings
Customer's perception on using neuromarketing research by profit making organisations
Possibility of lack of interest of consumer welfare
The emergence of neuromarketing should not be taken as the birth of the “magic spot” era, a situation
where marketers will be simply targeting this so-called “magic spot” in the brain of the consumer.
Neuromarketing should be understood as another way of analyzing the consumer brain. Neuromarketing is
actually complementary to traditional marketing techniques. Therefore, neuromarketing cannot be taken as a
replacement of traditional marketing techniques. Neuromarketing is gaining more credibility and adoption as
each day passes on, therefore, neuromarketing companies are encouraged to stick to professionalism and also
take note of some ethical issues associated with neuromarketing. In this study, it is envisaged that marketers,
researchers and other relevant users will compare and contrast the above neuromarketing methodologies and be
in a position to choose the most suitable method in their own circumstances.
Neuromarketing Methodologies: More Brain Scans or Brain Scams? 38 | P a g e
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... Additionally, it has excellent spatial accuracy (estimated 1-10 mm 3 in deep structure of the brain) and acceptable temporal resolution (estimated 1-3 s) [70]. Alongside that, it uses 3D technology to record and analyze the brain's signals and display them on the monitor [35], which is helping the researchers and scientists to measure brains' reaction, such as emotional and cognitive processes, toward advertising [60,[71][72][73][74][75][76], wherein fMRI is used to know the influence of advertising on buying decisions [76,77]. Articles have been analyzed one-byone, and the authors found that the fMRI tool was used in ten articles (approximately 17% of total articles). ...
... EEG is a non-invasive tool using electrodes on the scalp to record the frequency of the active neurons in the brain directly [78]. Additionally, EEG can record the activation regions in the brain in milliseconds due to the high temporal resolution, but on the opposite, has a poor spatial resolution that enables to record the cortical brain activity (approximately 1 cm3 brain structure) [70,74,[79][80][81]. According to literature, EEG has five frequency bands such as delta (0-4 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15), beta (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31), and gamma (larger than 32 Hz) [46]. ...
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Despite the advancement in neuroimaging tools, studies about using neuroimaging tools to study the impact of advertising on brain regions and processes are scant and remain unclear in academic literature. In this article, we have followed a literature review methodology and a bibliometric analysis to select empirical and review papers that employed neuroimaging tools in advertising campaigns and to understand the global research trends in the neuromarketing domain. We extracted and analyzed sixty-three articles from the Web of Science database to answer our study questions. We found four common neuroimaging techniques employed in advertising research. We also found that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex play a vital role in decision-making processes. The OFC is linked to positive valence, and the lateral OFC and left dorsal anterior insula related in negative valence. In addition, the thalamus and primary visual area associated with the bottom-up attention system, whereas the top-down attention system connected to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, and primary visual areas. For memory, the hippocampus is responsible for generating and processing memories. We hope that this study provides valuable insights about the main brain regions and processes of interest for advertising.
... Simple head model[9] Fig. 12. Realistic head model[24] ...
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This article is focused on the overview of functionality of the neurons and investigation of the current research and algorithms used for brain source localization. The human brain is made up of active neurons and continuously generates electrical impulses on scalp surface. The neurons transmit the message through the dendrites called pyramidal cells. The active parts of the brain are addressed and measured by various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) etc. These techniques help to diagnose pathological, physiological, mental and functional abnormalities of the brain. EEG is a high temporal resolution and a low spatial resolution technique which yields the non-invasively potential difference measurements between pair of electrodes over the scalp. It is used in understanding behavior of brain which is further used to analyze various brain disorders. EEG brain source localization has remained an active area of research in neurophysiology since last couple of decades and still being investigated in terms of its processing time, resolution, localization error, free energy, integrated techniques and algorithms applied. In this paper, several approaches of forward problem, inverse problem and Bayesian framework have been explored to address the uncertainties and issues of localization of the neural activities incurring in the brain.
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Son yıllarda dijitalleşmenin de artan etkisiyle birlikte, sürekli olarak evrilen tüketici davranışlarına ilişkin önemli içgörüler elde etmenin önemli bir yolu, pazarlama araştırmalarında multidisipliner yöntemleri daha sık kullanmaktan geçmektedir. Nörobilim’in de bir parçası olarak düşünülebilecek olan nöropazarlama araştırmaları yöntemleri sayesinde, tüketici davranışlarına ilişkin önemli ipuçları sağlayan biyometrik ve nörometrik bulgular elde edilebilmektedir. Nöropazarlama üzerine kavramsal ve teorik içerikler sunan, bilimsel bir kaynak niteliğindeki bu kitap ile özellikle ulusal çapta henüz emekleme aşamasında olan nöropazarlama literatürüne ve araştırmacılarına katkı sağlanması hedeflenmiştir. Bu hedef doğrultusunda; etik, tüketici karar süreçleri, duygular ve beyin, renkler, müzik, marka, alışveriş, sosyal medya, paylaşım ekonomisi, kâr amaçsız örgütler ve kamu politikaları gibi başlıklar ile nöropazarlama araştırmalarının ilişkisi, alanında uzman akademisyenler tarafından ele alınmıştır. Keyifli okumalar. Dr. Talha BAYIR Dr. Gökhan AKEL
İnternet ve bilişim teknolojileri ile modern üretim, dağıtım, iletişim ve pazarlama faaliyetlerinin her geçen gün yeni güncellemeler ve uygulamalarla gelişme gösterdiği bugünün pazar yapısında, markaların pazara girme ve diğer rakip markalarla rekabet edebilme gücünü sürdürebilir hale getirmesi stratejik açıdan önem kazanmaktadır. Tüketiciyle iletişimde doğru kanalların ve etkin yöntemlerinin kullanılması, markalama sürecinde alınacak stratejik kararların tüketicide uyandıracağı tepkilerin net biçimde belirlenmesi, marka elemanlarının tüketici tarafından algılanış biçimi bu stratejik önemi doğrudan etkileyen başlıca faktörlerdendir. Tüketiciler hergün doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak farklı markalardan binlerce tanıtım ve reklama maruz kalmaktadır Ancak ne var ki markaların iletişim çabalarından çok azı tüketicilerin dikkati çekmekte ve satın alma karar sürecini etkileyebilmektedir. Tüketici davranışlarını araştıran çalışmalarda çeşitli yönleriyle aydınlatılmaya çalışılan “tüketici kara kutusu”na farklı açılardan ışık tutabilmenin önemli bir adımı da; teknolojik imkanlar doğrultusunda, çeşitli marka uyaranlarının tüketici zihninde yarattığı etkileri gözlemlemek üzerinedir. Karar verme sürecinde karşılaşılan uyaranların zihinde nasıl algılandığı, sınıflandırıldığı, yorumlandığı ve karara varıldığını belirleyebilmek için beyin görüntüleme cihazlarından destek alınarak uygulanan pazarlama araştırmalarının ve markalama stratejilerinin başarısını değerlendirmek, modern pazarlama anlayışının en çok önem verilen konularından biri haline gelmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Nöropazarlama uygulamalarını markalama süreci açısından gözden geçirmek, markalaşmanın önemini, marka elemanlarının ve markalamaya ilişkin stratejik kararların nöropazarlama teknikleri kullanılarak nasıl geliştirilebildiğine ilişkin güncel stratejilere ışık tutmaktır. Bu araştırmadan elde edilecek bulguların ve çıkarımların gelecekte Nörpazarlama uygulamalarının markalama sürecindeki öneminin teorik ve pratik uygulamalarına katkıda bulunması beklenmektedir.
Neuromarketing has brought a revolution in the field of marketing. The adoption of Neuromarketing has resulted in better understanding of consumer behaviour. The thrust for increasing business and branding through brains has a great impact to marketing. Neuromarketing, being an interdisciplinary research area has emerged as a solution for achieving better understanding of consumer behaviour. For sustainable future and increased business, neuromarketing techniques need sincere attention. Although it is an active research area and there are many solutions for achieving efficiency, existing approaches ignore the integrated framework for understanding neurometric data. The real challenge is to maintain a satisfactory performance level without raising costs. The current study provides a wide-ranging study of literature. The literature highlights that there is very less research being carried out using an integrated framework. An optimal framework that simultaneously handles performance and maintains low cost is required as foremost thing for advertisers. In the present research work, efforts will be made to propose towards cost efficient framework for understanding advertisers’ perspective.
With the change and development of technology, the techniques used in marketing research have also changed. Quantitative and qualitative research techniques have been applied to traditional marketing research. Although these techniques are applied, the purchasing decision process of the consumer is not fully understood. The decision-making processes of consumers are more clearly understood thanks to the neuromarketing approach that arises as a result of the collaboration of marketing with neuroscience and the research methods applied as a requirement of this understanding. In this chapter, research methods used in the field of neuromarketing will be examined, examples of applications will be given, and suggestions will be made to academicians and practitioners.
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The prospective health care consumers are increasingly using the Internet websites for communication with potential health care service providers and decision-making regarding choice of the travel destination for receiving particular health care services. Therefore, it is important for health care providers to present themselves and their services efficiently online in order to attract foreign patients and thus facilitate medical tourism. The objective of this study is to evaluate the website content of Latvian health care providers who offer services to medical tourists in order to evaluate their status-quo and identify opportunities to improve website design. Authors used the framework by Huerta et al. (2016) as a basis to develop a modified framework suited for medical tourism-related website evaluation. 21 active websites associated with a medical tourism and provision of health care services to foreign patients were identified and selec-ted for analysis. Each website was evaluated using a 10-factor assessment on 4 dimensions that include website accessibility, content, marketing, technology on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. Results: Scores of 21 website evaluation ranged from 54 to 91 point across all 4 dimensions with 80 and above points being considered as excellent result. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that the main improvements should be related to accessibility dimension and enabling text resizing function for improving experience for patients with poor sight, information dimension in terms of developing a separate main level section with information exclusively for foreign patients, and marketing dimension to improve search engine optimization (SEO) for medical tourism related keywords .
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The idea that consumers are rational decision makers, who carefully consider options when making a decision about a certain phenomenon, will soon phase out! Believe it or not. In a bid to better understand the consumer, a myriad of economists still waste their precious time on “not-so-deep” modifications and elaborations of mainstream economic models, some of which are barely “shallow”. Economists who solely rely on linear models because they are more palatable are simply myopic, naturally or by default. The journey to better consumer understanding is not an easy walk. There is ample evidence to prove that consumer decision making is complex rather than simple as portrayed by orthodox economic models. Businesses need to fully understand the consumer decision making processes for them to thrive in the current competitive business environment which is now a global village. Existing “purely” economic models have proven insufficient in explaining human behavior, precisely because they do not explore the subconscious brain and yet the subconscious brain has been shown to be very instrumental in decision making processes. It is high time, economists, marketers and researchers explore, at least deeper, the human brain itself, to uncover the true forces behind consumer purchasing dynamics. This paper looks at the human brain from a neuromarketing perspective, to shade more light on our quest to better understand the consumer brain. The paper begins by explaining and then refuting the highly celebrated and esteemed rational choice theory, after which the human brain is explored. The paper, among other recommendations, encourages modern day researchers to combine their traditional consumer research methods with neurological research methods if neuromarketing is anything to go by, in light of ever increasing global competition.
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Businesses to attain their goal to survive, always strive to better through continuously keeping up with trends and continuously improving processes. Understanding the consumer is becoming more difficult now due to the increase in customer numbers, products, competitors and shorter reaction time. Since the consumer is at the centre of the market, it is actually impossible to launch a successful product without properly understanding the consumer. Traditional marketing techniques do not analyze 99.99% of the human's brain, being the subconscious part; which is where decision making occurs. This is the reason why, according to Lindstrom (2008), 80% of new product launches fail within a few months. However, it is better, as noted by Onay (2016); for marketing researchers to have a clear understanding of the abstractions held in the customer's mind. Most successful companies today are using neuromarketing primarily because of the competitive advantage this methodology offers. This study uncovers the neurological aspects of market research which have been largely neglected in traditional marketing research. The study concludes with a discussion on the professional challenges and ethical issues in neuromarketing and recommendations on the way forward.
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Modern marketers seek new research paradigms to explore preconscious, nonverbal stages of consumer behavior, often turning to brain science because some mental processes, particularly those underlying conscious awareness, may be better understood by analyzing neurophysiological reactions. A new discipline, consumer neuroscience, thus examines the brain and its functioning in a marketing context. This article demonstrates how consumer neuroscience can contribute to existing marketing knowledge, with a focus on two methods: electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking. In interactive environments, it is ideal to administer brain wave analyses in parallel with observations of eye movements. Such an integration can enrich understanding of what emotional reactions consumers experience when they see an advertisement. This study identifies a causal relationship between marketing communication and emotions on an analytical level, such that it reveals which emotional reaction is triggered by each ad element. In other words, it captures what people feel when they look at something. The EEG-eye-tracking integrative approach offers various opportunities to interactive advertising researchers.
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This study tested the validity of using facial electromyography (EMG) as a physiological measure of the valence of radio listeners' emotional responses to advertisements and explored the effects of message valence and listener arousal on attention and memory. A within-subjects experiment was conducted in which participants listened to ten 60-second radio advertisements that had been coded in a pretest as having either a positive or negative emotional tone. Facial EMG, heart rate, and skin conductance data were collected during exposure to the advertisements. Following exposure, participants completed free recall and recogniton memory tests. Results demonstrated the validity of using facial EMG to assess the valence of emotional response to media messages. Heart rate data suggest that negative messages receive more attention than positive ones. Furthermore, how arousing a message is appears to be a better predictor of memory than message valence.
Conference Paper
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In this presentation, I will give a concise overview of several important methodological aspects of recording facial EMG signals as an index of affective states. In addition, several strengths and weaknesses of this technique during practical applications will be emphasized.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the methodology of several brain imaging techniques and in particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and its potential implications for market research. The aim is to enable the reader both to understand this emerging methodology and to conduct independent research in the area. Design/methodology/approach A short introduction on current neuroimaging methods used in behavioral neuroscience is provided by means of a literature review. The ensuing discussion focuses on fMRI as the currently most popular neuroimaging technique. Having described the fMRI methodology, an outline of the analysis of functional neuroimaging data follows, after which there is a discussion of some key research issues. Findings Although in its infancy, fMRI seems to be a useful and promising tool for market researchers. Initial studies in the field reveal that fMRI is able to shed light on subconscious processes such as affective aspects of consumer behavior. Practical implications Because brand positioning, advertising strategies and even pricing strategies are often based on constructs such as emotions, neuropsychological findings and methods should have important implications for practitioners in the field of brand management and advertising. Nonetheless, far more basic research is needed before fMRI can be adopted for marketing practice. Originality/value This paper is one of the first in the marketing literature to provide a methodological overview of fMRI and discuss the potential implications for marketing research.
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The precise role of the cortex in human anxiety is not well characterised. Previous imaging research among healthy controls has reported alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the prefrontal and temporal cortices during periods of anxious anticipation; however, the temporal dynamics of this activity has yet to be examined in detail. The present study examined cortical Steady State Probe Topography (SSPT) changes associated with anticipatory anxiety (AA), allowing examination of the temporal continuity and the excitatory or inhibitory nature of AA activations. We recorded Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) at 64 scalp locations, skin conductance, and self reported anxiety among 26 right-handed males while relaxed and during the anticipation of an electric shock. Relative to the baseline condition, the AA condition was associated with significantly higher levels of self-reported anxiety and increased phasic skin conductance levels. Across the seven second imaging window, AA was associated with increased SSVEP latency within medial anterior frontal, left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral temporal regions. In contrast, increased SSVEP amplitude and decreased SSVEP latency were observed within occipital regions. The observed SSVEP latency increases within frontal and temporal cortical regions are suggestive of increased localised inhibitory processes within regions reciprocally connected to subcortical limbic structures. Occipital SSVEP latency decreases are suggestive of increased excitatory activity. SSVEP amplitude increases within occipital regions may be associated with an attentional shift from external to internal environment. The current findings provide further support for the involvement of frontal, anterior temporal, and occipital cortical regions during anticipatory anxiety, and suggest that both excitatory and inhibitory processes are associated with AA alterations.
Over the last 10 years advances in the new field of neuromarketing have yielded a host of findings which defy common stereotypes about consumer behavior. Reason and emotions do not necessarily appear as opposing forces. Rather, they complement one another. Hence, it reveals that consumers utilize mental accounting processes different from those assumed in marketers' logical inferences when it comes to time, problems with rating and choosing, and in post-purchase evaluation. People are often guided by illusions not only when they perceive the outside world but also when planning their actions - and consumer behavior is no exception. Strengthening the control over their own desires and the ability to navigate the maze of data are crucial skills consumers can gain to benefit themselves, marketers and the public. Understanding the mind of the consumer is the hardest task faced by business researchers. This book presents the first analytical perspective on the brain - and biometric studies which open a new frontier in market research.