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Performance of rice variety P 1460 in front line demonstrations under rainfed conditions in Southern Humid Region of Rajasthan

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The study was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banswara in Southern Humid Agro-climatic Zone of Rajasthan (Zone IV b) for three consecutive rainy seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the performance of basmati type rice variety "Pusa 1460" at farmers field under rainfed conditions. Front line demonstrations (FLDs) were conducted with scientific package of practices of rice technology. The Pusa 1460 variety of rice was found superior over farmers' existing practices with local landraces. Pusa 1460 with improved production technologies followed in FLDs, increased mean grain yield by 28.7% over existing farmers' practice with only Rs. 1511/ha extra expenditure on inputs. The mean extension gap (0.57 t/ha) and mean IBCR (3.94) are sufficiently high to motivate farmers for adoption of Pusa 1460 and rice production technology.
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Performance of rice variety p 1460 in front line ...... in Southern humid region of Rajasthan 121
Performance of rice variety P 1460 in front line demonstrations
under rainfed conditions in Southern humid region of Rajasthan
Teekam Singh1*, Ranjeet Singh2 and R.L. Soni2
1Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station, Gerua-781 102 (Assam)
2KVK, Banswara, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur (Rajasthan)
*e-mail: tiku_agron@yahoo.co.in
ABSTRACT
The study was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banswara in Southern Humid Agro-climatic
Zone of Rajasthan (Zone IV b) for three consecutive rainy seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2011 to evaluate
the performance of basmati type rice variety "Pusa 1460" at farmers field under rainfed conditions.
Front line demonstrations (FLDs) were conducted with scientific package of practices of rice
technology. The Pusa 1460 variety of rice was found superior over farmers' existing practices with
local landraces. Pusa 1460 with improved production technologies followed in FLDs, increased
mean grain yield by 28.7% over existing farmers' practice with only Rs. 1511/ha extra expenditure
on inputs. The mean extension gap (0.57 t/ha) and mean IBCR (3.94) are sufficiently high to motivate
farmers for adoption of Pusa 1460 and rice production technology.
Key words : Front line demonstration, extension gap, technology gap, technology index.
Ann. Agric. Res. New Series Vol. 33 (3) : 121-125 (2012)
Rice is the staple food of more than 60% of
the world's population. In India, rice occupies
about 42.6 m ha of area with total production
95.3 m t (GoI, 2012). The area under rice is
fluctuated from year to year depending upon
rainfall. The total area is 1.28 lakh ha with the
productivity of 2031 kg/ha. The main reason for
very low productivity is dependency on rains in
major rice growing in area the state. The success
of this croplargely depends upon timely sowing
and well distributed rains in growing season.
Rice production constitutes the major economic
activity of tribal farmers in low laying regions
of Southern Rajasthan where growing rice
during the Kharif season is a physio-graphic
compulsion.
The major causes of low productivity of rice
in the region includes drought, lodging, weeds,
insects, pests, diseases, prevalence of local
varieties, unavailability of quality seeds of
improved varieties in time and non-adoption of
recommended production and plant protection
technology. The local varieties such as
Kalikuamod and Kalazira have some aromatic
fragrance, therefore, non-aromatic varieties are
unable to replace these varieties. So it is
important to demonstrate the high yielding
aromatic rice varieties to increase production of
rice among the tribal farmers. Recognizing the
importance of rice, seed production programme
was taken at KVK Banswara district. KVK further
spread the rice varieties through frontline
demonstrations in the district to boost up the
production of rice.
A wide gap exists in the available techniques
and its actual application by the farmers which
reflected through poor yield in the farmers' field.
Farmers are generally practicing old age
seedlings and imbalance use of fertilizers. Thus,
there is tremendous opportunity for increasing
the production and productivity of rice by
adopting the improved production technologies.
A range of rice production technologies have
been generated by agricultural universities and
research stations, but the productivity of rice is
still low due to poor transfer of technologies from
the research farms to the farmers' fields. Very
little new knowledge percolates to the farmers'
Teekam Singh, Ranjeet Singh and R.l. Soni122
field, hence a vast gap has been observed
between knowledge production and knowledge
utilization. Front Line Demonstrations (FLD) on
rice including recently released early maturing,
aromatic, high yielding, fine seeded, disease
resistant varieties with INM, IWM and IPM on
farmers' field may be helpful. Pusa 1460 is Basmati
type aromatic semi-dwarf rice variety which is
resistant against bacterial leaf blight and having
strong aroma, less chalky grain and fine seeds.
It has flowering duration 103 days so it can be
taken under rainfed conditions in low lying areas.
Hence, KVK has conducted FLDs on rice under
rainfed condition in Banswara district of
Rajasthan during three consecutive Kharif
seasons of 2009 to 2011 with the aim: (i) to
evaluate the performance of high yielding
aromatic rice variety with recommended package
of practices and (ii) to correct and analyse
feedback information for further improvement
in research and extension programme.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in Banswara
district of Southern Humid Region of Rajasthan
by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra to popularize the
rice variety "Pusa 1460" with improved
production techniques. The constraints in
production were identified through participatory
approach, farmers meetings, training
programmes and field diagnostic visits during
crop growth period. Low yield of rice was
conceived due to lack of suitable variety of rice,
imbalance use of fertilizers, old age seedling,
drought, infestation of weeds and improper crop
geometry. Based on the farmers problems
identified, conducted 125 front line demon-
strations under rainfed farming situations during
Kharif season of 2009 to 2011 at farmers' field.
Soil samples were collected and analysed for
major plant nutrients. The soils of the region are
generally light black to red loam in texture, low
in available N & P and medium in available K.
The area under each demonstration was 0.4 ha.
The crop received rainfall 616 mm, 536 mm and
974 mm during crop growth period in 2009, 2010
and 2011, respectively. To manage assessed
problems, improved Basmati type "Pusa 1460"
variety seed of rice and zinc sulphate were
provided to the farmers as critical inputs and
scientific recommended technologies were
followed as intervention during the course of
front line demonstration programme. The
nursery raising was done during onset of
monsoon in the last week of June and first week
of July of each year. The rice seedlings of 25-30
days old were transplanted in the fields during
last week of July and beginning of August every
year. The demonstrations on farmers' fields were
regularly monitored by the scientists of Krishi
Vigyan Kendra from nursery raising to
harvesting. In case of local check (control plots),
existing farmers' practices were followed by the
farmers. Well before conducting the
demonstrations, a training programme was
organized for the selected farmers of the
respective villages each year to impart the
technological knowledge of rice production
techniques. All other steps like site selection,
layout of demonstrations, farmers' participation
etc. were followed as suggested by Choudhary
(1999). The grain yield of demonstrations as well
as farmers' practice (local check) were recorded
and analysed according to different parameters
suggested by Yadav et al. (2004). The details of
these parameters are as:
1. Extension Gap = Demonstration yield (D1) -
Farmers' practice yield (F1)
2. Technology Gap = Potential yield (P1) -
Demonstration yield (D1)
3. Technology Index =
Potential yield (P1) - Demostration yield (D1)
Potential yield (P1)
4. Additional Return = Demonstration return (Dr) -
Farmers' practice return (Fr)
5. Effective Gain = Additional return (Ar) -
Additional cost (Ac)
6. Increment B:C ratio =
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Rainfall pattern and initial crop stand
Nursery raising of crop was satisfactory
except in 2010 following good pre-monsoon
x 100
Additional return (Ar)
Additional cost (Ac)
Performance of rice variety p 1460 in front line ...... in Southern humid region of Rajasthan 123
shower (30.9 and 37.5 mm in 2009 and 2011,
respectively) ensuring better seedling growth
and timely transplantation in the field. The total
rainfall received during the growing seasons was
616, 535 and 974 mm in 2009, 2010 and 2011,
respectively. Only kharif season of 2011 had
normal rainfall (over 850 mm). However its
distribution pattern was erratic across the
cropping season (June-November) in all three
years. The maximum rain 77 to 89% occurred
during July to August every year (Fig. 1).
September 2009 and June 2010 received the lowest
rainfall while in 2011, October and November
rainfall did not recieve that resulted in prolonged
drought during flowering and grain filling stage
of paddy and yield was lowest in 2011.
Since second fortnight of July, water started
accumulating in the field and slowly increased
in depth and remains 3 to 5 cm in low lying field
throughout the end of August in all three years.
In this way initial crop growth got momentum
with adequate water availability encouraging
elongation in plant height and tillering of
seedlings. While in October and November of
year 2009 and 2010 crop received good rainfall
which resulted higher grain yield than kharif
2011. Boonjung and Fukai (1996) also reported
that the effect of water stress on rice yield was
most severe when drought occurred during
panicle development and anthesis resulting low
yield due to less number of spikelets per panicle
and filled grains.
Grain yield
Grain yield of rice was higher under
demonstrations as compared to existing farmers'
practice. The increase in grain yield under
demonstrations was 14.9 to 43.2% (Table 1) over
existing farmers' practice. On an average 28.7%
yield advantage was recorded under front line
demonstrations carried out with improved seed
and scientific package of practice as compared
to farmers' traditional way of rice cultivation.
Gap analysis
An extension gap of 0.26 to 0.95 t/ha in
yield was found between demonstrated
technology and farmers' practices during
different years. Average extension gap was 0.57
t/ha. The extension gap was lowest (0.26 t/ha)
during 2011 which was due to prolonged drought
at the time of grain fillings while the highest
extension gap (0.95 t/ha) was during 2009 which
may be due to well distribution of rainfall in
which Pusa 1460 performed better and gave
maximum yield (3.15 t/ha). Over all such gap
might be attributed due to improved seed of Pusa
1460 and adoption of improved production
technology in the demonstrations which resulted
in higher grain yield than the existing farmers'
practices. Wide technology gaps were observed
during all the years. The mean technology gap
of total 125 front line demonstrations was found
2.5 t/ha which is 50% of potential yield. The wide
Fig. 1. Rainfall distribution pattern across the months of growing season from 2009 to 2011
Teekam Singh, Ranjeet Singh and R.l. Soni124
Season/
Year
No. of
demonstrations.
Potential yield
(t/ha)
Demonstration
yield (t/ha)
Farmers'
practice Yield
(t/ha)
Increase over
Farmers'
practices (%)
Extension gap
(t/ha)
Technology
gap (t/ha)
Technology
index (%)
Kharif
2009
50 5.0 3.15 2.20 43.2 0.95 1.85 37.0
Kharif
2010
50 5.0 2.35 1.85 27.0 0.50 2.65 53.0
Kharif
2011
25 5.0 2.01 1.75 14.9 0.26 2.99 60.0
Average 42 5.0 2.50 1.87 28.4 0.57 2.50 50.0
Seaso n/
Year
Cost of
cash input
Additional cost
in dem ons.
(Rs./ ha)
Sale price
(MSP) o f grain
(Rs./ ha)
To tal R eturns
(Rs/ha)
Additional cost
in demons.
(Rs./ha)
Effective
gain
(Rs./ ha)
Increm ental
B:C ratio
(IBCR )
Demons.
(Rs./ ha)
Farmers'
practice
(Rs./ha)
Demons.
(Rs./ha)
Farmers'
practice
(Rs./ha)
Kharif
2009
3,731 2,300 1,431 980 30,870 21,560 9,310 7,,879 6.50
Kharif
2010
3,731 2,300 1,431 1,030 24,205 19,055 5,150 3,719 3.60
Kharif
2011
4,619 2,950 1,669 1,110 22,311 19,425 2,886 1,217 1.73
Average 4,027 2,516 1,511 1,040 25,795 20,013 5,782 4,272 3.94
Table 1. Grain yield and gap analysis of paddy under front line demonstrations at farmers' field
Table 2. Economic analysis of front line demonstrations on paddy var. P 1460 at farmers' field
Performance of rice variety p 1460 in front line ...... in Southern humid region of Rajasthan 125
REFERENCES
differences in technology gap during different
years might be due to rainfall distribution.
Similarly the technology index for all the
demonstrations during different years was in
accordance with technology gap. Higher
technology index reflected the inadequate proves
of technology for transferring to farmers and
insufficient extensions services for transfer of
technology.
Economic analysis
Seed and fertilizers were considered as
critical cash inputs for the demonstrations as well
as farmers' practices. On an average, an
additional investment of Rs. 1511/ha was made
under demonstrations. Economic returns as a
function of grain yield and minimum support
price (MSP) as sale price varied during different
years. Maximum returns were obtained during
the year 2009 followed by 2010 due to higher
grain yield. The higher additional returns and
effective gain obtained under demonstrations
could be due to improved variety Pusa 1460 and
adoption of scientific production techniques like
timely transplanting and application of fertilizers.
The highest incremental benefit: cost ratio (6.50)
and effective gain (Rs. 7879/ha) were observed
during 2009 which is due to higher additional
return and low additional cost (Table 2). Sarda
and Khurana (1993), Singh et.al (2009) and
Nirmala and Muthuraman (2009) also found that
adoption of scientific techniques by farmers in
rice production results higher economic returns.
CONCLUSION
Improved Basmati type variety "Pusa 1460"
of paddy and production technologies followed
in demonstrations, on an average increased the
grain yield by 28.7% over existing farmers'
practice. The increment in yield cost only Rs.
1511/ha. This amount is so less that even small
and marginal farmers can afford it. The mean
extension gap (0.57 t/ha) and IBCR (3.94) are
sufficiently high to motivate the farmers for
adoption of Pusa 1460.
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Rice technology vis a vis inbred rice in Uttar
Pradesh. Ind. Rese. J.f Ext. Edu. 9(2): 22-25.
Yadav, D.B., Kamboj, B.K. and Garg, R.B. 2004.
Increasing the productivity and profitability
of sunflower through frontline
demonstrations in irrigated agro-ecosystem
of eastern Haryana. Hayrana J. Agron.
20(1&2): 33-35.
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Upland rice can be subject to drought at any time during growth, and responses of various growth processes to water stress may depend on the timing of drought in relation to crop growth stages. In two experiments, rice plants at three or four growth stages were subjected to drought periods of 23–35 days to examine the response of shoot dry matter (SDM) production and associated processes to water stress. Young plants, 33 days old at the commencement of stress, maintained high leaf water potential during the stress period because of the low demand for water. Radiation-use efficiency (i.e. SDM production per unit intercepted radiation) of the young plants in the drought treatment was similar to that in the irrigated control, but SDM production was reduced by 71% because of 68% reduction in radiation interception. The young plants extracted water more slowly than older plants immediately after stress was imposed, whereas the total water extraction during the stress period was not significantly different from that of the older plants. The young plants produced less SDM than the older plants (90 versus 300 g m−2), and hence had lower water-use efficiency (i.e. SDM production per unit water used 1.4 versus 4.2 g kg−1). During early growth stages, root length growth was very sensitive to soil water deficit. When stress developed in the older plants with the canopy intercepting greater than about 60% of full solar radiation, reduction in SDM production was mostly due to reduced radiation-use efficiency (1.2 versus 2.3 g MJ−1). The plants extracted water more rapidly and from deeper soils, and leaf water potential decreased rapidly with the large demand for transpiration water. The results therefore show that rice responds to drought in a manner depending on the stage of canopy development.
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Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Economic Survey
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GoI, 2012. Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Economic Survey 2011-12 A17-18.
Adoption gap and its modal class is in recommended rice technology
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  • D B Yadav
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